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Sample records for basin 631-g volume

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE) D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (631-G), Aiken, SC, August 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (D-Area OSB) Operable Unit (OU) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). No Action is the selected remedy for shallow soil, surface water and sediment, because no constituents of concern (COCs) were identified for them in the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA). The selected remedy for D-Area OSB groundwater is Alternative GW-2: Natural Attenuation/Groundwater Mixing Zone (GWMZ) with Institutional Controls

  2. DFT STUDIES OF HYDRATED CARBOHYDRATES: DFT MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS AT THE B3LYP/6-31+G* LEVEL OF THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several mono- and disaccharides have been studied by performing constant energy molecular dynamics at the B3LYP/6-31+G* + COSMO (solvation) level of theory, alpha-maltose is of particular interest as the variation in glycosidic dihedral angles is dependent upon the starting hydroxyl conformation. T...

  3. Constant energy DFT molecular dynamics simulations of solvated carbohydrates at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disaccharide, alpha/beta-maltose, has been studied using constant energy ab initio molecular dynamics at the B3LYP/6-31+G* COSMO (solvent) level of theory. Maltose is of particular interest as the variation in glycosidic dihedral angles is dependent upon the starting hydroxyl conformation. Tha...

  4. Molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and CN effective bond charges in a series of simple nitrile compounds: HF/6-31+G(d,p) molecular orbital study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudev, Todor; Bobadova-Parvanova, Petia; Pencheva, Daniela; Galabov, Boris

    1997-12-01

    The structural and vibrational spectroscopic parameters of a series of simple nitrile compounds were evaluated by HF/6-31+G(d,p) ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The series includes HCN, FCN, CICN, CH 2FCN, CH 2CICN, CH 3CN, CF 3CN, CCl 3CN, HOCN, HSCN and NH 2CN. The theoretical infrared intensities were transformed into quantities associated with the charge distribution and dynamics in the molecules following the formalism of the effective bond charge method. Satisfactory linear relations were found between the effective bond charges and bond lengths, as well as between the bond charges and the molecular electrostatic potential at the nitrogen atom.

  5. K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-19

    This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin.

  6. K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin

  7. Lava flooding of ancient planetary crusts: geometry, thickness, and volumes of flooded lunar impact basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of lava volumes on planetary surfaces provide important data on the lava flooding history and thermal evolution of a planet. Lack of information concerning the configuration of the topography prior to volcanic flooding requires the use of a variety of techniques to estimate lava thicknesses and volumes. A technique is described and developed which provides volume estimates by artificially flooding unflooded lunar topography characteristic of certain geological environments, and tracking the area covered, lava thicknesses, and lava volumes. Comparisons of map patterns of incompletely buried topography in these artificially flooded areas are then made to lava-flooded topography on the Moon in order to estimate the actual lava volumes. This technique is applied to two areas related to lunar impact basins; the relatively unflooded Orientale basin, and the Archimedes-Apennine Bench region of the Imbrium basin. (Auth.)

  8. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, Trinity River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 creststage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  10. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  11. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 2. Palo Duro Location B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This three-volume document narrows to two sites for continued investigations for potential nuclear waste repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Volume 1 narrows a site previously identified in Deaf Smith County, Texas; Volume 2 narrows a site previously identified in Swisher County, Texas; and Volume 3 contains responses to comments received regarding the drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 (BMI/ONWI-531). These volumes discuss the methodology and logic used as well as the results that narrowed these sites. Each of the 10 site performance criteria was divided into descriptors related to site performance characteristics. Each descriptor was evaluated by a systematic logic to determine if it could be used as a discriminator. Then more- and less-preferred areas for groups of discriminators were defined and composite maps were prepared and evaluated to identify the sites

  12. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 1. Palo Duro Location A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This three-volume document narrows to two sites for continued investigations for potential nuclear waste repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Volume 1 narrows a site previously identified in Deaf Smith County, Texas; Volume 2 narrows a site previously identified in Swisher County, Texas; and Volume 3 contains responses to comments received regarding the drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 (BMI/ONWI-531). These volumes discuss the methodology and logic used as well as the results that narrowed these sites. Each of the 10 site performance criteria was divided into descriptors related to site performance characteristics. Each descriptor was evaluated by a systematic logic to determine if it could be used as a discriminator. Then more- and less-preferred areas for groups of discriminators were defined and composite maps were prepared and evaluated to identify the sites

  13. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 47 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  14. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  15. Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, J.E.; Cannon, S.H.; Santi, P.M.; deWolfe, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently burned basins frequently produce debris flows in response to moderate-to-severe rainfall. Post-fire hazard assessments of debris flows are most useful when they predict the volume of material that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of empirically-based models that predict potential volumes of wildfire-related debris flows in different regions and geologic settings. The models were developed using data from 53 recently burned basins in Colorado, Utah and California. The volumes of debris flows in these basins were determined by either measuring the volume of material eroded from the channels, or by estimating the amount of material removed from debris retention basins. For each basin, independent variables thought to affect the volume of the debris flow were determined. These variables include measures of basin morphology, basin areas burned at different severities, soil material properties, rock type, and rainfall amounts and intensities for storms triggering debris flows. Using these data, multiple regression analyses were used to create separate predictive models for volumes of debris flows generated by burned basins in six separate regions or settings, including the western U.S., southern California, the Rocky Mountain region, and basins underlain by sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks. An evaluation of these models indicated that the best model (the Western U.S. model) explains 83% of the variability in the volumes of the debris flows, and includes variables that describe the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30%, the basin area burned at moderate and high severity, and total storm rainfall. This model was independently validated by comparing volumes of debris flows reported in the literature, to volumes estimated using the model. Eighty-seven percent of the reported volumes were within two residual standard errors of the volumes predicted using the model. This model is an improvement over previous models in

  16. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 58 gaging stations; stage only at 2 gaging stations; stage and contents at 14 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 5 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, 1 crest-stage, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  17. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 61 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging station; stage and contents at 11 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic datacollection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  18. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  19. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-04

    Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal → uraninite → metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume

  20. Interpretation of a 3D Seismic-Reflection Volume in the Basin and Range, Hawthorne, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, J. N.; Kell, A. M.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Oldow, J. S.; Sabin, A.; Lazaro, M.

    2009-12-01

    A collaborative effort by the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at the University of Nevada, Reno, and Optim Inc. of Reno has interpreted a 3d seismic data set recorded by the U.S. Navy Geothermal Programs Office (GPO) at the Hawthorne Army Depot, Nevada. The 3d survey incorporated about 20 NNW-striking lines covering an area of approximately 3 by 10 km. The survey covered an alluvial area below the eastern flank of the Wassuk Range. In the reflection volume the most prominent events are interpreted to be the base of Quaternary alluvium, the Quaternary Wassuk Range-front normal fault zone, and sequences of intercalated Tertiary volcanic flows and sediments. Such a data set is rare in the Basin and Range. Our interpretation reveals structural and stratigraphic details that form a basis for rapid development of the geothermal-energy resources underlying the Depot. We interpret a map of the time-elevation of the Wassuk Range fault and its associated splays and basin-ward step faults. The range-front fault is the deepest, and its isochron map provides essentially a map of "economic basement" under the prospect area. There are three faults that are the most readily picked through vertical sections. The fault reflections show an uncertainty in the time-depth that we can interpret for them of 50 to 200 ms, due to the over-migrated appearance of the processing contractor’s prestack time-migrated data set. Proper assessment of velocities for mitigating the migration artifacts through prestack depth migration is not possible from this data set alone, as the offsets are not long enough for sufficiently deep velocity tomography. The three faults we interpreted appear as gradients in potential-field maps. In addition, the southern boundary of a major Tertiary graben may be seen within the volume as the northward termination of the strong reflections from older Tertiary volcanics. Using a transparent volume view across the survey gives a view of the volcanics in full

  1. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume I. Dalhart Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and highly variable prcipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  2. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 3. Responses to comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document responds to comments received by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the draft report entitled Identification of Sites Within the Palo Duro Basin: Volume I - Palo Duro Location A (in Deaf Smith County) and Volume II - Palo Duro Location B (in Swisher County), BMI/ONWI-531, February 1984. The purpose of the report was to review existing geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic data for previously identified potentially acceptable sites consisting of approximately 200 square miles in Swisher County and 400 square miles in Deaf Smith County in the Texas Panhandle and to narrow them to preferred smaller sites for possible further study for a nuclear waste repository. The smaller sites thus identified within the two counties would then be more comparable in size to those in salt deposits in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Utah

  3. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 32 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 43 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 14 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  4. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 78 gaging stations; stage only at 7 gaging stations; stage and contents at 28 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 48 partial-record stations comprised of 19 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, and 17 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  5. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 38 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 8 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  6. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 6 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  7. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 2. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 21 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 32 gaging stations; and data for 73 partial-record stations comprised of 43 flood-hydrograph, 9 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 1. Palo Duro Location A. [Contains glossary, Deaf Smith site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-01

    This three-volume document narrows to two sites for continued investigations for potential nuclear waste repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Volume 1 narrows a site previously identified in Deaf Smith County, Texas; Volume 2 narrows a site previously identified in Swisher County, Texas; and Volume 3 contains responses to comments received regarding the drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 (BMI/ONWI-531). These volumes discuss the methodology and logic used as well as the results that narrowed these sites. Each of the 10 site performance criteria was divided into descriptors related to site performance characteristics. Each descriptor was evaluated by a systematic logic to determine if it could be used as a discriminator. Then more- and less-preferred areas for groups of discriminators were defined and composite maps were prepared and evaluated to identify the sites.

  9. Techniques for simulating flood hydrographs and estimating flood volumes for ungaged basins in east and west Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    A dimensionless hydrograph developed for a variety of basin conditions in Georgia was tested for its applicability to streams in East and West Tennessee by comparing it to a similar dimensionless hydrograph developed for streams in East and West Tennessee. Hydrographs of observed discharge at 83 streams in East Tennessee and 38 in West Tennessee were used in the study. Statistical analyses were performed by comparing simulated (or computed) hydrographs, derived by application of the Georgia dimensionless hydrograph, and dimensionless hydrographs developed from Tennessee data, with the observed hydrographs at 50 and 75% of their peak-flow widths. Results of the tests indicate that the Georgia dimensionless hydrography is virtually the same as the one developed for streams in East Tennessee, but that it is different from the dimensionless hydrograph developed for streams in West Tennessee. Because of the extensive testing of the Georgia dimensionless hydrograph, it was determined to be applicable for East Tennessee, whereas the dimensionless hydrograph developed from data on streams in West Tennessee was determined to be applicable in West Tennessee. As part of the dimensionless hydrograph development, an average lagtime in hours for each study basin, and the volume in inches of flood runoff for each flood event were computed. By use of multiple-regression analysis, equations were developed that relate basin lagtime to drainage area size, basin length, and percent impervious area. Similarly, flood volumes were related to drainage area size, peak discharge, and basin lagtime. These equations, along with the appropriate dimensionless hydrograph, can be used to estimate a typical (average) flood hydrograph and volume for recurrence-intervals up to 100 years at any ungaged site draining less than 50 sq mi in East and West Tennessee. (USGS)

  10. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed

  11. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  12. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Facilities, Volume 1, Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) is currently stored within two water filled pools, 105-KE Basin (KE Basin) and 105-KW Basin (KW Basin), at the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) is responsible to DOE for operation of these fuel storage pools and for the 2100 metric tons of SNF materials that they contain. The SNF Project mission includes safe removal and transportation of all SNF from these storage basins to a new storage facility in the 200 East Area. To accomplish this mission, the SNF Project modifies the existing KE Basin and KW Basin facilities and constructs two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), which drains and dries the SNF; and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building (CSB), which stores the SNF. The purpose of this document is to describe the design basis feed compositions for materials stored or processed by SNF Project facilities and activities. This document is not intended to replace the Hanford Spent Fuel Inventory Baseline (WHC 1994b), but only to supplement it by providing more detail on the chemical and radiological inventories in the fuel (this volume) and sludge. A variety of feed definitions is required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of these new facilities. Six separate feed types have been identified for development of new storage or processing facilities. The approach for using each feed during design evaluations is to calculate the proposed facility flowsheet assuming each feed. The process flowsheet would then provide a basis for material compositions and quantities which are used in follow-on calculations

  13. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers (volume I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents studies to be done in wastes basin of CIPC in order to verify the contamination possibility of Rio das Antas basin, by infiltration in subsoil, of liquid wastes proceeding from mineral and industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas to be done up to February/82. (author)

  14. Precipitation Frequency for Ohio River Basin, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Ohio River Basin and Surrounding states is based on precipitation data collected between...

  15. Volume of Impact Melt Generated by the Formation of the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Noah E.

    2011-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest, deepest, and oldest identified basin on the Moon and as such contains surfaces that are unique due to their age, composition, and depth of origin in the lunar crust [1-5] (Figure 1). SPA has been a target of intense interest as an area for robotic sample return in order to determine the age of the basin and the composition and origin of its interior [6-8]. In response to this interest there have been several efforts to estimate the likely provenance of regolith material within central SPA [9-12]. These model estimates suggest that, despite the formation of basins and craters following SPA, the regolith within SPA is dominated by locally derived material. An assumption of these models has been that the locally derived material is primarily SPA impact-melt as opposed to local basement material (e.g. unmelted lower crust). However, the definitive identification of SPA derived impact melt on the basin floor, either by remote sensing [5, 13] or via photogeology [2, 14] is extremely difficult due to the number of subsequent impacts and volcanic activity [4].

  16. H-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and Fourth quarters 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoconcentration/isocactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  17. F-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and fourth quarters 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  18. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with Module 3, Section C, of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989, effective November 2, 1992. The monitoring well network is composed of 87 FSB wells screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning in the first quarter of 1993, the standard for comparison became the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS) specified in the approved F-Area Seepage Basins Part B permit. Currently and historically, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the FASB during the second half of 1993, notably aluminum, iodine-129, and zinc. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} wells. However, several Aquifer Unit 2A wells also contain elevated levels of constituents. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  20. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  1. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions

  2. Evaluation of upland disposal of Oakland Harbor, California, sediment; Volume I: Turning basin sediments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.R.; Tatem, H.E.; Simmers, J.W.; Skogerboe, J.G.; Folsom, B.L.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes testing and evaluation performed by the Environmental Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station on sediment from the turning basin of Oakland Inner Harbor, Oakland, CA. Test protocols from the Corps' Management Strategy for Disposal of Dredged Material were used in the present evaluation to determine the potential for migration of contaminants into effluent, surface runoff, leachates, plants, and animals at an upland disposal site. Two sediments from the turning basin of Oakland Inner Harbor were tested: a composite sample of cores taken from the surface to 38-ft depth (upper sediment) and a composite sample of cores taken from 38- to 45-ft depth (lower sediment). In addition, two potential disposal site soils were tested: Twitchell Island and 7th Street disposal site. Sediment characterization indicated that the Oakland upper sediment contained higher concentrations of most contaminants than the lower sediment. Metal concentrations in the Oakland lower sediment were in the range of values found at the Twitchell Island disposal site. The Oakland upper sediment contained levels of cadmium and arsenic similar to those in Twitchell Island levee soils, but higher levels of zinc, nickel, lead, and copper.... Contaminant migration, Sediment testing, Contaminated sediments, Upland disposal, Dredged material.

  3. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 14. Birds of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report characterizes the bird life found in 100 counties of the four states peripheral to Lake Michigan. It discusses major habitats (the Lake Michigan shoreline, inland lakes, rivers and streams, marshes, fields and open spaces, and woodlots) and associates specific birds with habitats according to preferences for space and food. It also discusses the special attributes of state parks and lakeshores, refuges and sanctuaries, and other special areas which are attractive to avifauna. Patterns of historical occurrence and abundance, and the influence of pesticides and pollution, disease, and hunting pressure are explored to place present occurrence in a modern perspective. Migration patterns are discussed to explain increases and decreases which occur in nonresident avifauna of the Basin. The distribution and habits of birds that occur regularly in the Basin are described in an annotated list; a more complete list is presented in a table which encapsulates data for rapid and convenient reference. Separate sections deal with extinct, extirpated, and introduced species, and with endangered, threatened, and declining species.

  4. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report -- third and fourth quarters 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During the second half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Beginning first quarter 1993, the HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix 3D-A of the cited permit, became the standard for comparison. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constitutents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc) during the second half of 1993. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit 2A. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps include in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1993. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  5. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  6. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 2. Trinity River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 47 gaging stations; stage only at 2 gaging stations; stage and contents at 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 35 gaging stations; and data for 3 partial-record stations comprised of 2 flood-hydrograph and 1 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  7. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 2. Trinity River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 49 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 24 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 34 gaging stations; and data for 3 partial-record stations comprised of 2 flood-hydrograph and 1 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    Environmental baseline data for the Snake River Plain known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) are evaluated for geothermal development. The objective is to achieve a sound data base prior to geothermal development. These KGRAs are: Vulcan Hot Springs, Crane Creek, Castle Creek, Bruneau, Mountain Home, Raft River, Island Park, and Yellowstone. Air quality, meteorology, hydrology, water quality, soils, land use, geology, subsidence, seismicity, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, demography, socioeconomics, and heritage resources are analyzed. This program includes a summary of environmental concerns related to geothermal development in each of the KGRAs, an annotated bibliography of reference materials (Volume II), detailed reports on the various program elements for each of the KGRAs, a program plan identifying future research needs, and a comprehensive data file.

  9. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  10. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  11. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume II. Water availability in the San Juan Structural Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains Two parts: Part One is an analysis of an issue paper prepared by the office of the New Mexico State Engineer on water availability for uranium production. Part Two is the issue paper itself. The State Engineer's report raises the issue of a scarce water supply in the San Juan Structural Basin acting as a constraint on the growth of the uranium mining and milling industry in New Mexico. The water issue in the structural basin is becoming an acute policy issue because of the uranium industry's importance to and rapid growth within the structural basin. Its growth places heavy demands on the region's scarce water supply. The impact of mine dewatering on water supply is of particular concern. Much of the groundwater has been appropriated or applied for. The State Engineer is currently basing water rights decisions upon data which he believes to be inadequate to determine water quality and availability in the basin. He, along with the USGS and the State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, recommends a well drilling program to acquire the additional information about the groundwater characteristics of the basin. The information would be used to provide input data for a computer model, which is used as one of the bases for decisions concerning water rights and water use in the basin. The recommendation is that the appropriate DOE office enter into discussions with the New Mexico State Engineer to explore the potential mutual benefits of a well drilling program to determine the water availability in the San Juan Structural Basin

  12. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 2. San Jacinto River basin, Brazos River basin, San Bernard River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-02-01

    Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 41 gaging stations; and data for 44 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  13. Water resources data for California, water year 1980; Volume 1, Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of water resources data for the 1980 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lake and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report contains discharge records for 174 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 stations; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 9 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps

  15. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps.

  16. Rock mechanics evaluation of potential repository sites in the Paradox, Permian, and Gulf Coast Basins: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and thermomechanical analyses of a conceptual radioactive waste repository containing commercial and defense high-level wastes and spent fuel have been performing using finite element models. The thermal and thermomechanical responses of the waste package, disposal room, and repository regions were evaluated. four bedded salt formations, in Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah and in Deaf Smith and Swisher counties in the Permian Basin of northwestern Texas, and three salt domes, Vacherie Dome in northwestern Louisiana and Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in southeastern Mississippi, located in the Gulf Coast Basin, were examined. In the Paradox Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was much greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closure was less than 10 percent after 5 years. Surface uplift was nominal, and no significant thermomechanical perturbation of the aquitards was observed. In the Permian Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closures were greater than 10 percent in less than 5 years. Surface uplift was nominal, and no significant thermomechanical perturbation of the aquitards was observed. In the Gulf Coast Basin, the pressure exerted on the waste package overpack was greater than the initial in situ stress. The disposal room closures were greater than 10 percent in less than 5 years. No significant thermomechanical perturbation of the overlying geology was observed. 40 refs., 153 figs., 32 tabs

  17. Wabash River Basin comprehensive study covering reservoir sites on Embarrass River, Illinois and Clifty Creek and Patoka River, Indiana. Volume index. Volume I. Report. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-01

    The purpose of this interim report is to present comprehensive plans of development for reservoir sites on the Embarrass River, Clifty Creek and Patoka River for one or more of the following needs: flood control, water supply, water quality control and low flow augmentation, water recreation and general conservation of water and related resources. The projects presented in this interim report are compatible with comprehensive development of the water and related land resources of the Wabash River Basin currently being developed.

  18. Hydrologic modeling as a tool for land management and contingency planning in the Calcasieu Sabine Basin. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Calcasieu-Sabine Basin in southwest Louisiana contains approximately 126,518 hectares of wetlands, consisting of fresh marsh, intermediate marsh, brackish marsh and saline marsh. The hydrodynamics of the basin involves a combination of estuarine processes such as saltwater intrusion, response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary and lake dynamics. The basin is also affected by deep ship channels. As such, a robust, flexible and efficient numerical model is needed to incorporate all of these processes in an operational program. This study developed a hydrodynamic and salinity model for a portion of the basin that includes the lakes and marshes for the purpose of land management and contingency planning. The newly developed finite-difference hydrodynamic and salinity model is a combination of 1 and 2 dimensional computations and is intended for land, wildlife and habitat management. It can be used as a coastal restoration tool to evaluate the effectiveness of future and ongoing coastal restoration projects. The model was calibrated and validated against field measurements. It was shown to produce accurate simulations of the complex flow patterns of the Calcasieu-Sabine Basin along with information on salinity, water level fluctuations, velocities and discharges throughout the main channels and open water bodies within the area. It was concluded that the model provides a very useful planning and adaptive management tool to improve the understanding of the complex hydrology and salinity circulation pattern within the system. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Assessment of retention basin volume and outlet capacity in urban stormwater drainage systems with respect to water quality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet A Yurdusev; Ahmet A Kumanlioğlu; Bekir Solmaz

    2005-12-01

    The quality of river water or other surface waters is detrimentally affected by the contaminants carried by the rainfall runoff in urban areas. The control of pollution moved by rainfall runoff is achieved by installing outlets and small retention basins in stormwater collection systems, thereby allowing only a certain amount of rainfall water to overflow and leading the remaining to treatment plants. This study analyses the effect of concentration time on surface water pollution caused by rainfall runoff. For this purpose, a linear -curve is assumed for the flow hydrograph arising from the collection system, based on parameters of rainfall considered and the catchment area. An independent code is developed to analyse such a system and this is applied to an urban area using nine-year single-discrete rainfall records of Izmir Station, Turkey. The system is capable of tackling situations where there is only a basin or a basin with outlet.

  20. Riparian cottonwood ecosystems and regulated flows in Kootenai and Yakima sub-basins : Volume II Yakima (overview, report, appendices); TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins

  1. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume III (Overview and Tools).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  2. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume II Yakima (Overview, Report, Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  3. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-02-01

    Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 110 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging station; stage and contents at 12 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 53 gaging stations; and data for 38 partial-record stations comprised of 9 flood-hydrograph, 17 low-flow, and 12 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations.

  4. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  5. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

  6. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River basin, and intervening coastal basins. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-02-01

    Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 76 gaging stations; and data for 15 partial-record stations comprised of 9 flood-hydrograph, 3 low-flow, and 3 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  7. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  8. Water Resources Data, California Water Year 1982, Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Butcher, M.T.; Lamb, C.E.; Singer, J.A.; Smith, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1982 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 160 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 20 streams and 20 wells; water levels for 174 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinoski, K.G.; Hoffman, E.B.; Smith, G.B.; Bowers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 24 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 5 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 16 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  10. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 144 gaging stations; stage and contents for 15 lakes and reservoirs; watet quality for 21 streams. Also included are crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 5 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  11. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 16 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 16 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 10 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Water Resources Data for California, 1983. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Butcher, M.T.; Lamb, C.E.; Singer, J.A.; Smith, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1983 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 154 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 20 streams and 18 wells; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and federal agencies in California.

  13. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 150 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 23 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, three miscellaneous measurement sites, and one waterquality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1998. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.; Anderson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 157 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, water quality for 22 streamflow-gaging stations and 14 partialrecord stations, and precipitation data for 3 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1996. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 149 gaging stations and 6 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage height records for 1 station, water quality for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 17 partial record stations, and precipitation data for 4 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1997. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 151 gaging stations and 16 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage height records for 1 station, water quality for 23 streamflow-gaging stations and 10 partialrecord stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Califomia.

  17. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 188 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 39 streamflow-gaging stations and 11 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Jensen, R.M.; Hoffman, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 157 streamflow-gaging stations, 16 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 2miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 16 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 19 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 partial-record stations; and precipitation records for 13 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1995. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1995 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 141 streamflow-gaging stations, 6 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 21 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1993. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 156 streamflow-gaging stations, 12 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations and 6 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 10 stations . These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Jensen, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 137 gaging stations; stage and contents for 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 25 streams; and precipitation for 8 gaging stations. Also included are 15 crest-stage partial-record stations, 7 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 5 water-quality partial record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1994. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 143 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations; and ( 4) precipitation records for 8 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.M.; Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Mullen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains dischrage records for 171 streamflow-gaging stations, 16 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 3 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 24 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 23 streamflow-gaging stations, 4 partial-record stations; and precipitation records for 16 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U,S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  4. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2000, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.W.; Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 175 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 20 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 27 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 4 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 161 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 23 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partialrecord stations; and ( 4) precipitation records for 11 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  6. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2001, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Pope, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 180 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 20 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 37 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 3 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  7. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 193 gaging stations and 11 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 22 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 12 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  8. Water resources data, California, water year 2004, volume 1. southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 195 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 7 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. The annual mean sketches and climatological variability of the volume and heat transports through the inter-basin passages:A study based on 1 400-year spin up of MOM4p1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yaohua; WEI Zexun; WANG Yonggang; GUAN Yuping; WANG Xinyi

    2014-01-01

    The annual mean volume and heat transport sketches through the inter-basin passages and transoceanic sections have been constructed based on 1 400-year spin up results of the MOM4p1. The spin up starts from a state of rest, driven by the monthly climatological mean force from the NOAA World Ocean Atlas (1994). The volume transport sketch reveals the northward transport throughout the Pacific and southward trans-port at all latitudes in the Atlantic. The annual mean strength of the Pacific-Arctic-Atlantic through flow is 0.63×106 m3/s in the Bering Strait. The majority of the northward volume transport in the southern Pacific turns into the Indonesian through flow (ITF) and joins the Indian Ocean equatorial current, which subse-quently flows out southward from the Mozambique Channel, with its majority superimposed on the Ant-arctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). This anti-cyclonic circulation around Australia has a strength of 11×106 m3/s according to the model-produced result. The atmospheric fresh water transport, known as P-E+R (pre-cipitation minus evaporation plus runoff ), constructs a complement to the horizontal volume transport of the ocean. The annual mean heat transport sketch exhibits a northward heat transport in the Atlantic and poleward heat transport in the global ocean. The surface heat flux acts as a complement to the horizontal heat transport of the ocean. The climatological volume transports describe the most important features through the inter-basin passages and in the associated basins, including:the positive P-E+R in the Arctic substantially strengthening the East Greenland Current in summer;semiannual variability of the volume transport in the Drake Passage and the southern Atlantic-Indian Ocean passage;and annual transport vari-ability of the ITF intensifying in the boreal summer. The climatological heat transports show heat storage in July and heat deficit in January in the Arctic;heat storage in January and heat deficit in July in the

  10. Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume II: Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated in 1991 in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of this project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to aid management in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

  11. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume II. Natural areas of the Lake Michigan drainage basin and endangered or threatened plant and animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, F.; Lindsley, D.

    1977-09-01

    The accelerating encroachment of human activity on the natural landscape has made many citizens appreciate the need to save representative biotic communities before urbanization and technologically induced change eliminate such communities. Active programs in natural-area preservation are now in progress in the four basin states; these programs have strong public support and legislative mandate. Local, state, and federal agencies and private individuals have taken an active interest in protecting select areas as samples of the biotic communities and natural features of the Basin. Most natural areas described in this report have been dedicated or reserved in some fashion. Other areas are being added by the basin states each year. The maintenance of natural communities is closely linked to the preservation of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals which would cease to survive as isolated populations. Under federal regulations, certain plants and animals are listed as endangered or threatened in the Basin. As individual state lists are prepared and investigations proceed, it is probable that many more threatened species will be found.

  12. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  13. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  14. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  15. Evaluation of Helium Purge and Vent Process to Reduce Oxygen Concentrations in the Large Diameter Container and Cask Void Volumes at K Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide calculations to model the following activities and associated procedures: (1) Model a Helium Purge System (HPS) to reduce the oxygen concentration (i.e., O2 mole fraction) to less than 1% in the single Large Diameter Container (LDC) void volume, by a direct purge and vent process, after sludge load out is complete. (2) Model a HPS to reduce oxygen concentration (i.e., O2 mole fraction) to less than 1% in the Cask and filter-connected LDC void volumes prior to transport to T-Plant. This document will evaluate and determine the following items, in order, to address the issues noted above: (1) Demonstrate the purge system process and methodology will ensure the Cask and LDC void volumes can be purged below 1% oxygen for both models defined above. (2) Based on previous item (1), determine the number of purge/vent cycles for the Cask/LDC, and single LDC, to enable the LDC void volume to obtain an oxygen concentration below 1%. (3) Based on previous items (1) and (2), determine the length of purge/vent time for each cycle and model using a reduced final purge cycle pressure in single LDC (i.e., 35 psig) and Cask/LDC (37 psig) and using an increased final vent cycle pressure in single LDC (i.e., 4 psig) and Cask/LDC (7 psig). Revision 2 of this document provides a greater purge pressure and reduced vent pressure per cycle which increases process cycle durations but decreases oxygen concentrations per cycle. (4) Determine a recommended dynamic pressure setting on the helium purge feed regulator setting or volumetric helium feed flow to meet the proposed cycle times in previous items (1) through (3). (5) Determine a final Cask purge pressure based on the single LDC process run data. The final pressure shall ensure the process avoids damaging the filter media between the two void volumes (6) Provide any special design change recommendations or specific design requirements that the purge system must meet to adequately optimize the

  16. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 6: oil-shale development in the Piceance Creek Basin and potential water-quality changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report brackets the stream quality changes due to pre-mining pumping activites required to prepare oil shale lease Tracts C-a and C-b for modified in situ retorting. The fluxes in groundwater discharged to the surface were identified for Tract C-b in a modeling effort by another laboratory. Assumed fluxes were used for Tract C-a. The quality of the groundwater aquifers of the Piceance Basin is assumed to be that reported in the literature. The changes are bracketed in this study by assuming all premining pumping is discharged to the surface stream. In one case, the pumped water is assumed to be of a quality like that of the upper aquifer with a relatively high quality. In the second case, the pumped water is assumed to come from the lower aquifer. Complete mixing and conservation of pollutants was assumed at sample points at the White River and at Lees Ferry of the Colorado River. A discussion of possible secondary effects of oil shale and coal mining is presented. In addition, a discussion of the uncertainties associated with the assumptions used in this study and alternative uses for the water to prevent stream contamination by oil shale development is provided.

  17. 100KE/KW fuel storage basin surface volumetric factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document presents calculations of surface Volumetric factors for the 100KE and 100KW Fuel Storage Basins. These factors relate water level changes to basin loss or additions of water, or the equivalent water displacement volumes of objects added to or removed from the basin

  18. Vinna Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, J.; Franců, J.; Mikuláš, Radek; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Tomanová-Petrová, P.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 223-241 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  20. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  1. Volume Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Valerio; Christodoulou, Marios; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  2. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  3. Volume-to-volume registration

    OpenAIRE

    Harg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of automated volume-to-volume registration applications for three separate registration steps desired in enhancing neurosurgical navigation is considered. Prototype implementations for MRI-to-MRI registration, MRI-to-US registration and US-to-US registration have been made using registration methods available in the Insight Toolkit, with variants of the Mutual Information similarity metric. The obtained results indicate that automatic volume-to-volume registration using Normali...

  4. The geologically recent giant impact basins at Vesta's south pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul; O'Brien, David P; Marchi, Simone; Gaskell, Robert; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Jaumann, Ralf; Buczkowski, Debra; McCord, Thomas; McSween, Harry Y; Williams, David; Yingst, Aileen; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Chris

    2012-05-11

    Dawn's global mapping of Vesta reveals that its observed south polar depression is composed of two overlapping giant impact features. These large basins provide exceptional windows into impact processes at planetary scales. The youngest, Rheasilvia, is 500 kilometers wide and 19 kilometers deep and finds its nearest morphologic analog among large basins on low-gravity icy satellites. Extensive ejecta deposits occur, but impact melt volume is low, exposing an unusual spiral fracture pattern that is likely related to faulting during uplift and convergence of the basin floor. Rheasilvia obliterated half of another 400-kilometer-wide impact basin, Veneneia. Both basins are unexpectedly young, roughly 1 to 2 billion years, and their formation substantially reset Vestan geology and excavated sufficient volumes of older compositionally heterogeneous crustal material to have created the Vestoids and howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. PMID:22582256

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  6. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  7. Development of a System-Wide Program, Volume II : Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife); Willis, Charles F. (S.P. Cramer and Associates., Gresham, OR)

    1994-06-01

    The authors report their results of studies to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Three papers are included in this report. They are entitled: (1) Development of a Systemwide Predator Control Program: Indexing and Fisheries Evaluation; (2) Economic, Social and Legal Feasibility of Commercial Sport, and Bounty Fisheries on Northern Squawfish; (3) Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM): Modeling Approach for Evaluation of Control of Northern Squawfish Populations using Fisheries Exploitation.

  8. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 3. Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 7(3) contains the following maps: Index Map; Faults, Ground Acceleration, and In Situ Stress; Rock and Mineral Resources; Drainage Basins and Groundwater Discharge Zones; Groundwater Resources; and Crystalline Rock Bodies

  9. Geodynamic evolution of sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roure, F.; Ellouz, N.; Shein, V.S.; Skvortsov, I.I. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    This volume constitutes the proceedings of a conference held in Moscow in 1992, and organized by the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), the IGIRGI and VNIGNI Russian institutes under the auspices of the Russian Ministries of Fuels and Energy, Ecology and Nature. Geological features of the CIS countries, especially Russia, have driven their geologists` interest to specific questions as the petroleum potential of Proterozoic series, the resources located at a depth of 5000 m and more, or the impact of recent deformations on petroleum exploration and production. From the 27 papers of this conference, only 16 were selected which deal with oil and natural gas fields or coal deposits and geologic traps in the extensional and compressional basins of the CIS republics or in their western counterparts, or with physical and numerical structural models and other modeling techniques used for petroleum potential appraisal in sedimentary basins. The other papers deal with thematic aspects of basin formation in general or in specific areas with no reference to hydrocarbon genesis. (J.S.).

  10. Understanding sedimentation in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Y.; Carter, A; Palk, C.; S. Brichau; Hu, X

    2011-01-01

    The Cenozoic Song Hong–Yinggehai Basin in the South China Sea contains a large volume of sediment that has been used in previous studies, together with regional geomorphology, to argue for the existence of a large palaeodrainage system that connected eastern Tibet with the South China Sea. To test this and to understand the significance of sediment volumes deposited in the Song Hong–Yinggehai Basin, this study compared erosion histories of source regions with sediment volumes deposited during...

  11. Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 -- Evaluation: 1993 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10--20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993--a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10--20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish. The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon

  13. Equations for estimating timber volume in the region of the River Basin of Ituxi, Lábrea, Amazon, Brazil Equações para estimativa de volume de madeira para a região da bacia do Rio Ituxi, Lábrea, AM

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Thaines; Evaldo Muñoz Braz; Patricia Povoa Mattos; Andreia Aparecida Ribeiro Thaines

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the stock of commercial timber in forests demands efficient methods, making possible to estimate efficiently and accurately the present and future timber volume. The aim of this work was to  adjust the mathematical models used to estimate timber volume, allowing the determination of the timber potential of a region with greater accuracy and lower cost. The study was conducted at Lábrea, State of  Amazonas, Brazil in an area of 6,000 ha, inserted in the Project Forest Mana...

  14. Experimental Drainage Basins in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronne, J. B.; Lekach, J.; Cohen, H.; Gray, J.

    2002-12-01

    Within the hyper-arid to semiarid areas of Israel are three experimental drainage basins. They are the Nahal (stream in Hebrew) Yael, subdivided into five sub-basins, Rahaf-Qanna'im (main and tributary, respectively) and Eshtemoa. These basins vary in drainage area and climate, and in monitoring duration and type. All are drained by gravel-bed channels. As the size of monitored drainage area is limited, 3-4 additional representative basins covering areas of 300, 1000, 2000 and 8000 square kilometers will likely be implemented in the next decade. The basins have precipitation, runoff, sediment and fluviomorphological records. Each was conceived for differing purposes, but all share the common two objectives for the continuous monitoring: 1. Many hydrological issues may be approached if, and only if, there are prototype databases on a wide spectrum of hydrological processes; and 2. There is a need for long-term records to assess large floods and subsequent hydrologic and geomorphic recovery. Lessons derived from a large number of research projects on these experimental basins focus on characteristics of runoff in arid climates. For example, the effect of the spatial distribution of rainfall on runoff generation becomes increasingly important with aridity. Rainfall angle on hillslopes and storm intensity and direction derived from rainfall recorders and radar backscatter are crucial for explanation of runoff response. Runoff hydrographs tend to have more bores, shorter-duration peaks, briefer recessions, longer dry periods, and are more variable in terms of flood volume and peaks with increased aridity. Suspended-sediment fluxes, yields and concentrations are relatively large in the semiarid realm, reaching maxima at the beginning of a flood season and after long dry spells. Bedload fluxes are exceptionally high from dryland basins in which hillslopes are minimally vegetated and where bedload transport takes place in channels lacking an armor layer. Bedload

  15. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  16. Quantum volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  17. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  18. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  19. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faille I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  20. Modeling fluid flow in faulted basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time) geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers). In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretization, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat) at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator. (authors)

  1. Advanced Workflows for Fluid Transfer in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Muriel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional 3D basin modeling workflow is made of the following steps: construction of present day basin architecture, reconstruction of the structural evolution through time, together with fluid flow simulation and heat transfers. In this case, the forward simulation is limited to basin architecture, mainly controlled by erosion, sedimentation and vertical compaction. The tectonic deformation is limited to vertical slip along faults. Fault properties are modeled as vertical shear zones along which rock permeability is adjusted to enhance fluid flow or prevent flow to escape. For basins having experienced a more complex tectonic history, this approach is over-simplified. It fails in understanding and representing fluid flow paths due to structural evolution of the basin. This impacts overpressure build-up, and petroleum resources location. Over the past years, a new 3D basin forward code has been developed in IFP Energies nouvelles that is based on a cell centered finite volume discretization which preserves mass on an unstructured grid and describes the various changes in geometry and topology of a basin through time. At the same time, 3D restoration tools based on geomechanical principles of strain minimization were made available that offer a structural scenario at a discrete number of deformation stages of the basin. In this paper, we present workflows integrating these different innovative tools on complex faulted basin architectures where complex means moderate lateral as well as vertical deformation coupled with dynamic fault property modeling. Two synthetic case studies inspired by real basins have been used to illustrate how to apply the workflow, where the difficulties in the workflows are, and what the added value is compared with previous basin modeling approaches.

  2. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  3. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  4. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  5. Lower Arkansas River basin high priority issue : Rattlesnake creek subbasin : January 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a section from Volume III: Kansas River Basins, of the Kansas Water Plan, January 2009. This section is pertaining to Rattlesnake Creek subbasin,...

  6. Thickness of Proximal Ejecta from the Orientale Basin from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data: Implications for Multi-Ring Basin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.a; Head, James W.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the ejecta distribution around large lunar basins is important to understanding the origin of basin rings, the volume of the transient cavity, the depth of sampling, and the nature of the basin formation processes. We have used newly obtained altimetry data of the Moon from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to estimate the thickness of ejecta in the region surrounding the Orientale impact basin, the youngest and best preserved large basin on the Moon. Our measurements yield ejecta thicknesses of approx.2900 m near the Cordillera Mountains, the topographic rim of Orientale, decaying to approx.1 km in thickness at a range of 215 km. These measurements imply a volume of ejecta in the region from the Cordillera ring to a radial range of one basin diameter of approx.2.9 x 10(exp 6)cu km and permit the derivation of an ejecta-thickness decay model, which can be compared with estimates for the volume of excavation and the size of the transient cavity. These data are consistent with the Outer Rook Mountains as the approximate location of the transient cavity s rim crest and suggest a volume of approx.4.8 x 10(exp 6)cu km for the total amount of basin ejecta exterior to this location.

  7. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...... basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...

  8. Early Mesozoic basin aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Early Mesozoic basin aquifers in the states of Massachusettes, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,...

  9. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program....

  10. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  11. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  12. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  13. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  14. The Ebro river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    River basins worldwide are under pressure from economic activities. In Europe, the two main factors hindering the achievement of good chemical and ecological status of European river basins are pollution, mainly coming from agriculture, and hydromorphology (e.g. for navigation, hydroelectricity and flood control). The economic activities affect the chemical and ecological status of rivers, lakes and groundwater and deplete available soil, sediments and water resources. The w...

  15. Subsurface structure and the stress state of Utopia basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, Mindi Lea

    Topography and gravity data from recent Mars' space missions are used to analyze the subsurface structure of the Utopia basin, focusing on the volume and density of fill that causes the shallowness of the basin. Using the assumption that the initial isostatic state of Utopia was similar to that of the Hellas basin allows for construction of a thin-shell elastic model of Utopia that facilitates investigation of its interior configuration. A system of equations was developed that allows a solution for the original basin shape, the amount of fill within Utopia basin, the amount of flexure due to the fill material, the total vertical load and the horizontal load potential. The presence of apparently ancient impact craters within the Utopia basin indicates that the majority of the material within Utopia was deposited early in Mars' history when the elastic lithosphere of Mars was (presumably) relatively thin (shell model also allows us to calculate the stress field due to the flexure/membrane strains. The stress results indicate that the radial tectonic features seen in the Utopia region are not due solely to deformation of the elastic lithosphere. However, a more rigorous finite element analysis of the basin mechanics predicts a zone of observed radial faults for large elastic thicknesses. This model also predicts a region of strike-slip faulting just outside of the basin where concentric reverse faults are located. The inclusion of global compressional stresses due to the Tharsis load, global cooling, and/ or global climate changes could effectively increase the zone of predicted radial faults within the basin as well as shift the faulting style outside of the basin from strike-slip to the observed concentric faults.

  16. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  17. Tectonic subsidence history and thermal evolution of the Orange Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, K.K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Wees, J.-D. van; Kuhlmann, G.; Paton, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Orange Basin offshore southwest Africa appears to represent a classical example of continental rifting and break up associated with large-scale, transient volcanism. The presence of lower crustal bodies of high seismic velocities indicates that large volumes of igneous crust formed as a conseque

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF HYDROLOGICAL RISK MANIFESTATION IN JIJIA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. BURUIANĂ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jijia river basin surface geographically fits in Moldavian Plateau, Plain of Moldavia subunit. Being lowered by 200 to 300 m compared to adjacent subunits, it appears as a depression with altitudes between 270-300 m.Through its position in the extra-Carpathian region, away from the influence of oceanic air masses, but wide open to the action of air masses of eastern, north-eastern and northern continental origin, Jijia basin receives precipitations which vary according to the average altitude differing from the northern to the southern part of the basin (564 mm in north, 529.4 mm in Iasi. A characteristic phenomenon to the climate is represented by the torrential rains in the hot season, under the form of rain showers with great intensity, fact that influences the drainage of basin rivers. Jijia hydrographic basin is characterized by frequent and sharp variations of flow volumes and levels which lead to floods and flooding throughout the basin. The high waters generally occur between March and June, when approximately 70% of the annual stock is transported. The paper analyzes the main causes and consequences of flooding in the studied area, also identifying some structural and non-structural measures of flood protection applied by authorities in Jijia hydrographic basin. As a case study, the flood recorded in Dorohoi in June 28-29, 2010 is presented.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  20. Depositional setting and diagenetic evolution of some Tertiary unconventional reservoir rocks, Uinta Basin, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, J.K.; Fouch, T.D.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Douglas Creek Member of the Tertiary Green River Formation underlies much of the Uinta basin, Utah, and contains large volumes of oil and gas trapped in a complex of fractured low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. In the SE part of the basin at Pariette Bench, the Eocene Douglas Creek Member is a thick sequence of fine- grained alluvial sandstone complexly intercalated with lacustrine claystone and carbonate rock. Sediments were deposited in a subsiding intermontane basin along the shallow fluctuating margin of ancient Lake Uinta. Although the Uinta basin has undergone postdepositional uplift and erosion, the deepest cored rocks at Pariette Bench have never been buried more than 3000m.-from Authors

  1. LERF Basin 44 Process Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-08-31

    This document presents a plan to process a portion of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 44 wastewater through the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this process test is to determine the most effective/efficient method to treat the wastewater currently stored in LERF Basin 44. The process test will determine the operational parameters necessary to comply with facility effluent discharge permit limits (Ecology 1995) and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) acceptance criteria (BHI-00139), while achieving ALARA goals and maintaining the integrity of facility equipment. A major focus of the test plan centers on control of contamination due to leaks and/or facility maintenance. As a pre-startup item, all known leaks will be fixed before the start of the test. During the course of the test, a variety of contamination control measures will be evaluated for implementation during the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. Of special interest will be techniques and tools used to prevent contamination spread during sampling and when opening contaminated facility equipment/piping. At the conclusion of the test, a post ALARA review will be performed to identify lessons learned from the test run which can be applied to the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. The volume of wastewater to be treated during this test run is 500,000 gallons. This volume limit is necessary to maintain the ETF radiological inventory limits per the approved authorization basis. The duration of the process test is approximately 30 days.

  2. Direct Volume Rendering of Curvilinear Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Wilhelms, J.; Challinger, J.; Alper, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct volume rendering can visualize sampled 3D scalar data as a continuous medium, or extract features. However, it is generally slow. Furthermore, most algorithms for direct volume rendering have assumed rectilinear gridded data. This paper discusses methods for using direct volume rendering when the original volume is curvilinear, i.e. is divided into six-sided cells which are not necessarily equilateral hexahedra. One approach is to ray-cast such volumes directly. An alternative approach is to interpolate the sample volumes to a rectilinear grid, and use this regular volume for rendering. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in terms of speed and image quality are explored.

  3. Permian Basin, Texas: Volume 1, Text: Final preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) at the proposed 49 acre site located 21 miles north of Hereford, Texas in Deaf Smith County. Department of Energy must conduct in situ testing at depth to ascertain the engineering and environmental suitability of the site for further consideration for nuclear waste repository development. The ESF includes the construction of two 12-ft diameter engineered shafts for accessing the bedded salt horizon to conduct in situ tests to ascertain if the site should be considered a candidate site for the first High Level Nuclear Waste Repository. This report includes pertinent engineering drawings for two shafts and all support facilities necessary for shaft construction and testing program operation. Shafts will be constructed by conventional drill-and-blast methods employing ground freezing prior to shaft construction to stabilize the existing groundwater and soil conditions at the site. A watertight liner and seal system will be employed to prevent intermingling of aquifers and provide a stable shaft throughout its design life. 38 refs., 37 figs., 14 tabs

  4. WiBasin: basin management through an integrated platform

    OpenAIRE

    Llort Pavon, Xavier; Sánchez-Diezma Guijarro, Rafael; Sancho, David; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Sempere Torres, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present WiBasin, a cloud platform for basin and dam management. It includes different sources of precipitation (both observed and forecasted), integration over the catchment domain (to provide an aggregated value of potential rainfall accumulated over the basin) , and a complete dissemination environment (web-viewer, capability of issuing hazard warnings with configurable thresholds, SMS, mails, etc.)

  5. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  6. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  7. Reversing the indus basin closure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    After independence, a swift and extensive development of Indus river basin has intensified commitment of water resources. During dry period, the indication of over commitment and basin closure are visible. In the beginning 2000s, he river basin water resources were committed to more than 99% without any environmental flows. The paper tries to unfold drivers closing the Indus basin and the scope for change. Defining and implementing water allocation mechanism to ascertain equity, sustainabilit...

  8. South Bohemian basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spudil, J.; Brož, B.; Dašková, Jiřina; Holcová, K.; Kvaček, Z.; Pešek, J.; Svobodová, Marcela; Sýkorová, Ivana; Teodoridis, V.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 190-206 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Pasco Basin hydrometeorological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides detailed precipitation and evapotranspiration distributions for the Pasco Basin for use in groundwater recharge calculations. The results are shown on precipitation and evapotranspiration distribution maps. The parameters, calculation methods, sensitivity determinations, and fitting methods used in the development of these maps are also discussed

  10. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.;

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  11. Restoring the Nile Basin

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Watershed management has come to be recognized as a critical issue in the Nile Basin. Upstream land use can cause degradation and soil erosion, resulting in lower agricultural yields locally and causing sedimentation downstream. The increased sediment load causes economic problems by reducing water quality, and irrigation and hydropower potential, as well as increasing flooding. This note ...

  12. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  13. Equations for estimating timber volume in the region of the River Basin of Ituxi, Lábrea, Amazon, Brazil Equações para estimativa de volume de madeira para a região da bacia do Rio Ituxi, Lábrea, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Thaines

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    To quantify the stock of commercial timber in forests demands efficient methods, making possible to estimate efficiently and accurately the present and future timber volume. The aim of this work was to  adjust the mathematical models used to estimate timber volume, allowing the determination of the timber potential of a region with greater accuracy and lower cost. The study was conducted at Lábrea, State of  Amazonas, Brazil in an area of 6,000 ha, inserted in the Project Forest Management Seringal Iracema II. The forest is predominantly dense with emergent trees, also with the occurrence of open forest with bamboo and palms. For the process of adjusting the models to estimate the volume of commercial timber, 141 trees of commercial species were cubed by Smalian method. The equations developed for the Forest Management Project Seringal Iracema II are valid for diameters between 50 cm and 140 cm and for forests with similar structure; to standing trees due to its simplicity and accuracy, the best equation was Kopezki-Gehrardt (V = - 0.6870 + 0.00103 d²; for felling trees or for studies of biomass and carbon stock, the equation indicated is Schumacher-Hall (LnV = -9.5452 + 2.12837 Ln (d + 0.72209Ln (h.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.64.283

    A necessidade de quantificação do estoque de matéria-prima florestal, em floresta nativa, conduz para a busca de métodos eficientes de estimativa do volume de madeira, que possibilitem quantificar o estoque presente e futuro de maneira eficiente e precisa. O objetivo desse trabalho foi ajustar modelos matemáticos, para estimativa de volume comercial de madeira, permitindo a determinação do potencial madeireiro de uma região, com maior precisão e menor custo. O estudo foi realizado no Município de Lábrea, AM, em uma área de 6 mil ha, inserida no Projeto de Manejo Florestal Seringal Iracema II. A floresta é predominantemente densa com árvores emergentes, também com ocorrência de Foresta

  14. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  15. Sediment Transportation Induced by Deep-Seated Landslides in a Debris Flow Basin in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meei Ling; Chen, Te Wei; Chen, Yong Sheng; Sin Jhuang, Han

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon Morakot brought huge amount of rainfall to the southern Taiwan in 2009 and caused severe landslides and debris flow hazard. After Typhoon Morakot, it was found that the volume of sediment transported by the debris flow and its effects on the affected area were much more significant compared to previous case history, which may due to the huge amount of rainfall causing significant deep-seated landslides in the basin. In this study, the effects and tendency of the sediment transportation in a river basin following deep-seated landslides caused by typhoon Morakot were evaluated. We used LiDAR, DEM, and aerial photo to identify characteristics of deep-seated landslides in a debris flow river basin, KSDF079 in Liuoguey District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Eight deep-seated landslides were identified in the basin. To estimate the potential landslide volume associated with the deep-seated landslides, the stability analysis was conducted to locate the critical sliding surface, and the potential landside volume was estimated based on the estimation equation proposed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI, 1990). The total potential landslide volume of the eight deep-seated landslides in KSDF079 basin was about 28,906,856 m3. Topographic analysis was performed by using DEM before and LiDAR derived DEM after typhoon Morakot to calculate the landslide volume transported. The result of erosion volume and deposition volume lead to a run out volume of 5,832,433 m3. The results appeared to consist well with the field condition and aerial photo. Comparing the potential landslide volume and run out volume of eight deep-seated landslides, it was found that the remaining potential landslide volume was about 80%. Field investigation and topographic analysis of the KSDF079 debris flow revealed that a significant amount of sediment deposition remained in the river channel ranging from the middle to the downstream

  16. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. (Sonatrach Division Exploration, Algiers (Algeria))

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  18. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project recommended path forward, volume III: Alternatives and path forward evaluation supporting documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume I of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project - Recommended Path Forward constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. Volume II provided a comparative evaluation of four Alternatives for the Path Forward and an evaluation for the Recommended Path Forward. Although Volume II contained extensive appendices, six supporting documents have been compiled in Volume III to provide additional background for Volume II

  19. Petroleum exploration potential of Tamtsag Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guo-qing; GUO Qing-xia; ZHANG Ya-jin; ZHAO Hong-wen

    2004-01-01

    The Tamtsag Basin is located in the extreme eastern portion of the Mongolia. The Basin and its counterpart in China (the Hailar Basin) are united a whole basin on the structural setting. In recent years, the Tamtsag Basin attracts more and more attention with the important exploration discovered in the 19th block by SOCO and in Hailar Basin of China. This paper discusses the exploration potential of Tamtsag Basin from the viewpoint of petroleum geology.

  20. Volumes in Hyperbolic Space

    OpenAIRE

    Laternser, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the investigation of volumes of large Coxeter hyperbolic polyhedron. First, the paper investigates the smallest possible volume for a large Coxeter hyperbolic polyhedron and then looks at the volume of pyramids with one vertex at infinity.

  1. Canterbury Basin Sea Level

    OpenAIRE

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Institute for Geophysics John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Building 196 (ROC) 10100 Burnet Road (R2200) Austin TX 78758-4445 USA; Hoyanagi, K.; Department of Geology Faculty of Science Shinshu University 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 Japan; Blum, P.; United States Implementing Organization Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845 USA; Guèrin, G.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Slagle, A. L.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Blair, S. A.; Department of Geological Sciences Florida State University 006 Carraway Building Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Browne, G. H.; Hydrocarbon Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Carter, R. M.; Marine Geophysical Laboratory James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville QLD 4811 Australia; Ciobanu, M.; Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes CNRS UMR-6197 Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer Technopole Brest-Iroise Plouzane 29280 France; Claypool, G. E.; Organic Geochemist 8910 West 2nd Avenue Lakewood CO 80226 USA; Crundwell, M. P.; New Zealand Observer/Paleontologist (foraminifers) Paleontology and Environmental Change Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Ding, X.; School of Marine Sciences China University of Geosciences (Beijing) 29 XueYuan Road, Haidian District Beijing P.R. China; George, S. C.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia; Hepp, D. A.; MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences University of Bremen Leobener Strasse MARUM Building, Room 2230 28359 Bremen Germany

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin,...

  2. MONTHLY AVERAGE FLOW IN RÂUL NEGRU HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGH MELINDA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Râul Negru hydrographic basin represents a well individualised and relatively homogenous physical-geographical unity from Braşov Depression. The flow is controlled by six hydrometric stations placed on the main collector and on two of the most powerful tributaries. Our analysis period is represented by the last 25 years (1988 - 2012 and it’s acceptable for make pertinent conclusions. The maximum discharge month is April, that it’s placed in the high flow period: March – June. Minimum discharges appear in November - because of the lack of pluvial precipitations; in January because of high solid precipitations and because of water volume retention in ice. Extreme discharge frequencies vary according to their position: in the mountain area – small basin surface; into a depression – high basin surface. Variation coefficients point out very similar variation principles, showing a relative homogeneity of flow processes.

  3. Forecasting contaminant concentrations: Spills in the White Oak Creek Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) model has been installed and sufficiently calibrated for use in managing accidental release of contaminants in surface waters of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed at ORNL. The model employs existing watershed conditions, hydrologic parameters representing basin response to precipitation, and a Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) to predict variable flow conditions throughout the basin. Natural runoff from each of the hydrologically distinct subbasins is simulated and added to specified plant and process water discharges. The resulting flows are then routed through stream reaches and eventually to White Oak Lake (WOL), which is the outlet from the WOC drainage basin. In addition, the SSARR model is being used to simulate change in storage volumes and pool levels in WOL, and most recently, routing characteristics of contaminant spills through WOC and WOL. 10 figs

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  5. The Neuquén basin, Argentina: A case study in sequence stratigraphy and basin dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto C. Riccardi

    2006-01-01

    @@ As stated in one of the contributions to this volume, the Neuquen Basin-covering more than 160,000 km2 between c. 32° and 42° S and 68° and 71° W, and containing a Meso-zoic-Cenozoic sedimentary succession at least 7 km thick-is perhaps one of the most thoroughly prospected areas in Argentina. Its geological study goes back to the 19th Century, and shows an exponential increase throughout the 20th, when it became the main source of Argentine oil and gas production.

  6. Economic assessment of acquiring water for environmental flows in the Murray Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz; Connor, Jeffery D.; Kirby, Mac; Mainuddin, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    This article is an economic analysis of reallocating River Murray Basin water from agriculture to the environment with and without the possibility of interregional water trade. Acquiring environmental flows as an equal percentage of water allocations from all irrigation regions in the Basin is estimated to reduce returns to irrigation. When the same volume of water is taken from selected low-value regions only, the net revenue reduction is less. In all scenarios considered, net revenue gains ...

  7. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  8. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode analysi

  9. Economic impact of alternative policy responses to prolonged and severe drought in the Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, James F.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Ward, Frank A.

    2005-02-01

    In the Rio Grande Basin, water is overallocated, demands are growing, and river flows and uses are vulnerable to drought and climate change. Currently, the basin is in the third year of severe drought; irrigation and municipal water diversions have been severely curtailed; extensive diversions threaten endangered species, and reservoir volumes are nearly depleted. A central challenge is development of policies that efficiently and equitably allocate the basin's water resources among competing uses across political and institutional jurisdictions. A basin-wide, nonlinear programming model optimizes resource allocations and water use levels for the upper part of the Rio Grande Basin to test whether institutional adjustments can reduce damages caused by drought. Compared to existing institutions, we find that future drought damages could be reduced by 20 and 33% per year through intracompact and interstate water markets, respectively, that would allow water transfers across water management jurisdictions. Results reveal economic tradeoffs among water uses, regions, and drought control strategies.

  10. Use of environmental isotope tracer and GIS techniques to estimate basin recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunmbaku, Abdulganiu A. A.

    The extensive use of ground water only began with the advances in pumping technology at the early portion of 20th Century. Groundwater provides the majority of fresh water supply for municipal, agricultural and industrial uses, primarily because of little to no treatment it requires. Estimating the volume of groundwater available in a basin is a daunting task, and no accurate measurements can be made. Usually water budgets and simulation models are primarily used to estimate the volume of water in a basin. Precipitation, land surface cover and subsurface geology are factors that affect recharge; these factors affect percolation which invariably affects groundwater recharge. Depending on precipitation, soil chemistry, groundwater chemical composition, gradient and depth, the age and rate of recharge can be estimated. This present research proposes to estimate the recharge in Mimbres, Tularosa and Diablo Basin using the chloride environmental isotope; chloride mass-balance approach and GIS. It also proposes to determine the effect of elevation on recharge rate. Mimbres and Tularosa Basin are located in southern New Mexico State, and extend southward into Mexico. Diablo Basin is located in Texas in extends southward. This research utilizes the chloride mass balance approach to estimate the recharge rate through collection of groundwater data from wells, and precipitation. The data were analysed statistically to eliminate duplication, outliers, and incomplete data. Cluster analysis, piper diagram and statistical significance were performed on the parameters of the groundwater; the infiltration rate was determined using chloride mass balance technique. The data was then analysed spatially using ArcGIS10. Regions of active recharge were identified in Mimbres and Diablo Basin, but this could not be clearly identified in Tularosa Basin. CMB recharge for Tularosa Basin yields 0.04037mm/yr (0.0016in/yr), Diablo Basin was 0.047mm/yr (0.0016 in/yr), and 0.2153mm/yr (0.00848in

  11. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin. PMID:26881457

  12. Origin of hydrocarbons in the Slovak part of the Danube Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Milička Ján; Kopal Lukáš; Kudlička Lukáš; Polc Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The Danube Basin is one of our largest Neogene basins in Slovakia with the highest volume of potential source rocks in active hydrocarbon generation zones. The source rocks, however, are quite poor with low hydrocarbon potential. In Blatné- and Rišňovce depressions at the northern part of the Danube Basin only early oil and oil generation window were reached below 2900 m during the Upper Miocene to Pliocene, due the lower temperature. In the southern Central Gabčíkovo Depression (...

  13. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  14. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

  15. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  16. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 2 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEARCE, K.L.

    2000-04-05

    Volume 2 provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories of sludge currently stored within the Hanford Site's 105-K Basin This volume also provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories for the sludge streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities.

  17. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham;

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the...

  18. Multivariate volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  19. USING SRTM TO QUANTIFY SIZE PARAMETERS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENDORHEIC BASINS IN SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hesse

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.

  20. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  1. Luminescence dating of ancient Darhad basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheul Kim, Jin; Yi, Sangheon; Lim, Jaesoo; Kim, Ju-Yong

    2016-04-01

    . Thus, age control on existing 14C ages from this site is limited, chronological interpretation based on the 14C ages is still incomplete in Hodon outcrop sediments. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) is an alternative method for dating to overcome the problems associated with 14C methods. OSL has been extensively used for dating arctic sediments (Thomas et al., 2006; more). Previous optical ages on Darhad paleolake sediments obtained using IRSL (Infrared-stimulated luminescence) on feldspars (Gillespie et al., 2008; Batbaatar et al., 2009). Feldspar has much brighter luminescence than quartz, while the OSL signal of feldspars bleaches at least one order of magnitude slower than the OSL signal of quartz (Godfrey-Smith et al., 1988; Huntly and Lamothe, 2001; Mauz and Bungenstock, 2007; Kim et al., 2012). In glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine environments, inadequate bleaching of the OSL signal is known to be a potential problem of burial ages (Thomas et al., 2006). OSL dating of permafrost deposits may also involve uncertainty about the inhomogeneous radiation field surrounding the dosimeter and the absorption of ionizing energy alternately by water and ice in a not-constant pore volume (Haeberli et al., 2003). In this study, we test the applicability of quartz OSL dating for the uppermost paleolake sediments in the Hodon outcrop of the Darhad basin. The OSL results were systematically compared with additional radiocarbon ages from wood fragments to conclude the reliability of the OSL dates and to construct intensive chronology for Late-Pleistocene Darhad paleolake. To evaluate the time of recent expansion of the paleolake, the northern piedmont (Talyn outcrop) of the basin was dated by OSL.

  2. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kasei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS, a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN. MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  3. Layered volume splatting

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, P.; Pajarola, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new layered, hardware-accelerated splatting algorithm for volume rendering. Layered volume splatting features the speed benefits of fast axis-aligned pre-classified sheet-buffer splatting while at the same time exhibiting display quality comparable to high-quality post-classified view-aligned sheet-buffer splatting. Additionally, we enhance the quality by using a more accurate approximation of the volume rendering integral. Commonly, the extinction coefficient of the volume r...

  4. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  5. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  6. CELL VOLUME CONFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    V. Štrbák

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review describes the history of cell volume conferences with the emphasis on the research of cell volume sensitive peptide exocytosis initiated by Prof. Monte A. Greer as well as the recent achievements on the study of the mechanisms of cell volume adjustment and their implications in the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell proliferation and death.

  7. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of this IM/IRA Plan contains OU 2 surface water, sediment, ground water and soil chemistry data, as well as the South Walnut Creek Basin Surface Water IM/IRA schedule and a tabulation of ARARs. (FL)

  8. Comparing Groundwater Contamination Vulnerability in Large, Urbanized Basins of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Hudson, G. B.; Leif, R.; Eaton, G. F.

    2002-12-01

    We have sampled over 700 public drinking water wells as part of a study to assess relative contamination susceptibility of the major groundwater basins in California. The parameters used to rank wells according to vulnerability are groundwater age dates (using the tritium-3helium method), stable isotopes of the water molecule (for water source determination), and occurrence of low level Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Long-screened production wells supply clean, high quality samples, and sample the resource that is being used. However, the groundwater age distribution from production wells may be quite broad, and comparisons to the predicted initial tritium value for the measured mean age, along with analysis of radiogenic 4Helium are used to de-convolute the mixed age. Results from the Los Angeles and Orange County Basins, and Santa Clara Valley, will be presented. A large volume of both imported and locally captured water is artificially recharged in these intensively managed basins. An effective confining unit in the Santa Clara Valley basin prevents widespread vertical transport of contaminants down to drinking water wells. In the southern California basins, groundwater age and the frequency of occurrence of low-level VOCs are spatially correlated, with more recently recharged water likely to have VOC detections. 'Pre-modern' water is nearly always free of VOCs, except when a suspected 'short circuit', (e.g., loss of integrity in well casing) allows near surface contamination to reach 'old' water. Methyl-tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) can be a useful time marker in groundwater basins, with water recharged after the 1980's showing traces of MTBE. Water resource managers can use these vulnerability assessments to focus monitoring efforts, site new wells, plan land use, and evaluate remediation activities. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  9. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  10. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  11. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is

  12. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution - University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

  13. Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shrestha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modeling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimizes an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow. This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The Shuffled Complex Evolution – University of Arizona automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002–2003, obtaining an optimized Cfsnow of 0.0007 m−1. For validation purposes, the optimized Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated vs. observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction. Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly-gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall

  14. Effects of reservoirs on flood discharges in the Kansas and the Missouri River basins, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    The floods of 1993 were of historic magnitude as water in the Missouri and the Mississippi Rivers reached levels that exceeded many of the previous observed maximums. Although large parts of the flood plains of both rivers upstream from St. Louis, Missouri, were inundated, water levels would have been even higher had it not been for the large volume of runoff retained in flood-control reservoirs. Most of the total flood-control storage available upstream from St. Louis is located along the main stem and tributaries of the Missouri River; the largest concentration of reservoirs is located within the Kansas River Basin. The Kansas River Basin accounts for about l0 percent (60,000 square miles) of the drainage area of the Missouri River Basin, and reservoirs control streamflow from 85 percent (50,840 square miles) of the drainage area of the Kansas River Basin. Analyses of flood discharges in the Kansas River indicate that reservoirs reduced flooding along the Kansas and the lower Missouri Rivers. Results of analyses of the 1993 flooding, which include total basin rainfall, peak discharge, and total flood volume on the Kansas River, are compared with analyses of the 1951 flood, which had a similar total volume but a substantially larger peak discharge.

  15. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  16. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  17. Option contracts for allocating water in inter-basin transfers: the case of the Tagus-Segura Transfer in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Dolores; Garrido, Alberto; Calatraba, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Users in the Mediterranean region face significant water supply risks. Water markets mechanisms can provide flexibility to water systems run in tight situations. The largest water infrastructure in the Iberian Peninsula connects the Segura and Tagus Basins. Stakeholders and politicians in the Tagus Basin have asked that water transfers between the two basins be eventually phased out. The need to increase the statutory minimum environmental flow in the middle Tagus and to meet new urban demands is going to result in a redefinition of the Transfer's management rules, leading to a reduction in the transferable volumes. To minimise the consequences of such restrictions to irrigators in the Segura Basin who depend on the transferred volumes, we propose the establishment of water option contracts between both basins that represents an institutional innovation with respect to previous inter-basin spot market experiences. Based on the draft of the new Tagus Basin Plan, we propose both a modification of the Transfer's management rule and an innovative inter-basin option contract. The main goal of the paper is to define this contract and evaluate it with respect to non-market scenarios. We also assess the resulting impact on environmental flows in the Tagus River and water availability for users in the Segura Basin, together with the economic impacts of such contract on both basins. Our results show that the proposed option contract would reduce the impact of a change in the transfer's management rule, and reduce the supply risks of the recipient area. Keywords: environmental flow, inter-basin transfer, option contracts, Tagus-Segura, water markets, water supply reliability.

  18. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  19. Performance of a 'Transitioned' Infiltration Basin Part 1: TSS, Metals, and Chloride Removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Poornima; Davis, Allen P

    2015-09-01

    The water quality performance of a 'failed' stormwater infiltration basin that has 'transitioned' to a wetpond/wetland has been evaluated over a three-year period. Total suspended solids, heavy metals, and chloride in highway runoff and discharge from the transitioned basin were measured during 38 storm events. The transitioned basin provided significant reductions in TSS Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) and mass in the runoff. Reductions in metal EMCs generally occurred. Chloride followed a seasonal cycle of high loading and mass export during colder periods, and gradual reductions in both EMCs and mass during other periods. The cumulative mass reductions were 89% TSS, 73% copper, 63% lead, 55% zinc, and 45% chloride for the study period. Combined with the dry-weather water quality in the transitioned basin, the mechanisms of pollutant removal were identified as volume reduction, sedimentation, adsorption, and dilution. The presence of wetpond/wetland features, including hydrophytic vegetatioņ enhanced the pollutant removal processes. PMID:26182408

  20. Photogeologic map of the Hellas basin floor, Mars: Nature, origin, and sequence of major infill units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, H.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M.; Erkeling, G.; Ruesch, O.; Reiss, D.

    2015-10-01

    Based on all state- of -the-art datasets and USGS -mapping guidelines [1,2], we produced a comprehensive photogeological map of the Hellas basin floor and its immediate surroundings (scale 1:2,000,000; Fig. 1). We compiled a self-consistent geologic history of the area, incorporating absolute and relative dating of identified units, as well as insights gained by previous investigations in and around the Hellas basin [e.g.,3-5]. Based on their ages, derived approximate volumes, as well as other characteristics, we suggest potential circum-Hellas source regions for specific basin floor units. Large deposits and erosional units in the basin show ages very similar to those of volcanic units in and around Hellas (~3.7 Ga), which is in agreement with certain volcanic outgassing models enabling liquid water runoff during that time.

  1. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  2. Volume Regulation in Epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared to...... amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...

  3. Investigation of activated biological sludge particles sedimentation in rectangular settling basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarifying is the final step of biological sewage treatment plant. Usually this step is realized in big rectangular basins. The efficiency of sediment removal decreases during process run parallely to quantity of deposited sludge in the basin volume. Extension of basin exploitation time needs removal of deposited sediment during the technological campaign. But proper localization of any removing device in basin cross-section should be preceded by the measurement of mean sedimentation range. For that purpose the radiotracer (La-140) experiment has been carried out at the big (340 x 55 x 3 m) clarifier working in the petrochemical industry. The experiments have been conducted in two steps of basin filling with biological sludge, 15 and 50%. The distributions of labelled sediments on the basin bottom have been measured as well as RTD for sewage labelled with rhodamine B and also RTD for residual suspended sediment grains at basin outlet. Sedimentation mechanism has been discussed and 'favourable' sedimentation range has been determined. (author)

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Azov-Kuban Basin Province, Ukraine and Russia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 218 million barrels of crude oil, 4.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 94 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Azov-Kuban Basin Province as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  5. A STUDY OF THE REFERENCE CLIMATIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR IMPACT UPON THE HYDROLOGICAL REGIME. CASE STUDY: IALOMITA HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Borcan

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an analysis for the evolution and spatio-temporal variation of two climatic parameters (precipitation and evapotranspiration) and one hydrological parameter (the flown water volume) over a common period of time (1970-2007) in Ialomita Hydrographical Basin which has been recently affected by extended periods of drought. In achieving this aim we started our analysis from the equation of the water balance in a large hydrographical basin over a long period of time. Among the el...

  6. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT (VOLUME 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9

  7. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

    2009-01-19

    Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

  8. Mature Basin Development Portfolio Management in a Resource Constrained Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigerian Petroleum industry is constantly faced with management of resource constraints stemming from capital and operating budget, availability of skilled manpower, capacity of an existing surface facility, size of well assets, amount of soft and hard information, etceteras. Constrained capital forces the industry to rank subsurface resource and potential before proceeding with preparation of development scenarios. Availability of skilled manpower limits scope of integrated reservoir studies. Level of information forces technical and management to find low-risk development alternative in a limited time. Volume of either oil or natural gas or water or combination of them may be constrained due to design limits of the existing facility, or an external OPEC quota, requires high portfolio management skills.The first part of the paper statistically analyses development portfolio of a mature basin for (a) subsurface resources volume, (b) developed and undeveloped and undeveloped volumes, (c) sweating of wells, and (d) facility assets. The analysis presented conclusively demonstrates that the 80/20 is active in the statistical sample. The 80/20 refers to 80% of the effect coming from the 20% of the cause. The second part of the paper deals with how 80/20 could be applied to manage portfolio for a given set of constraints. Three application examples are discussed. Feedback on implementation of them resulting in focussed resource management with handsome rewards is documented.The statistical analysis and application examples from a mature basin form a way forward for a development portfolio management in an resource constrained environment

  9. Hydrologic response of a high altitude glacierized basin in the central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binquan; Yu, Zhongbo; Liang, Zhongmin; Acharya, Kumud

    2014-07-01

    Hydrologic cycles of most high altitude glacierized watersheds in the Tibetan Plateau are not closely monitored due to their inaccessibility. Understanding the hydrologic cycle in such a basin may provide insight into the role climate plays on changes in glacier mass. Thus, hydrologic simulations with a physical perspective in the Tibetan glacierized watershed are of great significance. A high altitude glacierized basin in the central Tibetan Plateau, Qugaqie basin, was investigated with an energy-balance based glacier-melt model and the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. With these two models, glacier mass balance was estimated and basin runoff from glaciers was simulated at a daily time step. Results from the simulation period (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2011) demonstrated that the glaciers experienced a large negative surface mass balance with the cumulative value of - 300 cm w.e.. In other words, up to 13.93 × 106 m3 water volume was melting out from the glaciers during these five years. In the 2007/08 year, however, the glaciers experienced a surplus mass balance because of the low air temperature and increased precipitation in the summer season. Infiltration, evapotranspiration (ET), and overland flow were also calculated using the GSSHA model. Results showed that precipitation, the main water source, contributed roughly 95% to the total mass gain of the annual water balance in the Qugaqie basin during the study period, while the glacial runoff (snow/ice melting) contributed 5% water balance. In the water loss, 17% of annual water volume was consumed by the ET process. As a result, the remaining water volume (83%) converted to the basin river flow to the Lake Nam Co. In the summertime, the glacial runoff accounted for 15% of the total basin runoff volume, while this contribution increased in the upstream portion to 46% due to a large percentage of glacierized area. The analysis showed that the glacial runoff contributions to the

  10. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.;

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125) and...

  11. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, N H;

    2016-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...

  12. Solid discharge and landslide activity at basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Iadanza, C.; Rossi, M.; Spizzichino, D.; Trigila, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a preliminary analysis aimed at understanding the relationship between landslide sediment supply and sediment yield at basin scale in central and southern Italy. A database of solid discharge measurements regarding 116 gauging stations, located along the Apennines chain in Italy, has been compiled by investigating the catalogues, named Annali Idrologici, published by Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Italiano in the period from 1917 to 1997. The database records several information about the 116 gauging stations, and especially reports the sediment yield monthly measurements (103 ton) and the catchments area (km2). These data have been used to calculate the average solid yield and the normalized solid yield for each station in the observation period. The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) has been used to obtained the size of the landslides, in order to estimate the landslide mobilization rates. The IFFI Project funded by the Italian Government is realized by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research - Geological Survey of Italy) in partnership with the 21 Regions and Self Governing Provinces. 21 of the 116 gauging stations and the related catchments have been selected on the basis of the length of the solid discharge observation period and excluding the catchments with dams located upstream the stations. The landslides inside the selected catchments have been extracted from the IFFI inventory, calculating the planimetric area of each landslide. Considering both the shallow and deep landslides, the landslide volume has been estimated using an empirical power law relation (landslide area vs. volume). The total landslide volume in the study areas and the average sediment yield measured at the gauging stations have been compared, analysing the behaviour of the basins which drainage towards the Tyrrhenian sea and the basins which drainage towards the Adriatic sea.

  13. Hydrocarbon habitat in rifted basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, P.A. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    Tectonically active rifts, palaeo-rifts and passive margin basins contain major hydrocarbon provinces. Their hydrocarbon charge can rely exclusively on pre-rift, syn-rift sedimentary sequences or a combination thereof. Maturation of source-rocks can be achieved during the syn-and/or post-rift stage of basin evolution. During rifting, conductive and convective heat transfer accounts for elevated geothermal gradients; these play an important role in the maturation of pre- and syn-rift source-rocks; as geothermal gradients decrease asymptotically during the post-rift stage, maturation of late syn- and post-rift source-rocks depends on massif overburden thicknesses. In most rift structuration and trap-formation predate or are contemporaneous with peak oil and gas generation. Post-rift subsidence and stress-induced basin tilting or inversion can cause modification of trap configurations, causing loss of hydrocarbons. (author). 58 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  15. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were...

  16. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  17. Krušné hory Piedmont basins. Sokolov Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rojík, P.; Dašková, Jiřina; Kvaček, Z.; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Teodoridis, V.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 90-142 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  19. Segregation of Uranium Metal from K Basin Sludge: Results from Vendor Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under contract to Fluor Hanford, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory directed laboratory, bench-scale, and pilot-scale vendor testing to evaluate the use of commercial gravity mineral concentration technology to remove and concentrate uranium metal from Hanford K Basin sludge. Uranium metal in the sludge corrodes by reacting with water to generate heat and hydrogen gas, and may constrain shipment and disposal of the sludge to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as remote-handled transuranic waste. Separating uranium metal from the K Basin sludge is expected to be similar to some gold recovery operations. Consequently, the capabilities of commercial gravity mineral concentration technologies were assessed for their applicability to K Basin sludge streams. Overall, the vendor testing demonstrated the technical feasibility of using gravity concentration equipment to separate the K Basin sludge into a high-volume uranium metal-depleted stream and a low-volume uranium metal-rich stream. I n test systems, more than 96% of the uranium metal surrogate was concentrated into 10 to 30% of the sludge mass (7 to 24% of the sludge volume). With more prototypical equipment and stream recycle, higher recoveries may be achieved

  20. Modeling the flexural evolution of the Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins of NW Zagros (Iran-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Eduard; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Casciello, Emilio; Parravano, Vanessa; Urruela, Aritz; Vergés, Jaume

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of the Amiran and Mesopotamian flexural basins of the Zagros belt is approached by coupled 2-D forward modeling of orogenic wedge formation, lithospheric flexural isostasy, and stream power erosion/transport/sedimentation. Thrust geometries and sequence of emplacement derived from geometric and kinematic models presented here are the inputs to our evolutionary model, constrained by basin geometry, sediment volume, and topography. Modeling results confirm that the Zagros flexural basins evolution is consistent with two stages of deformation: (1) the obduction stage involving the Kermanshah accretionary complex and a basement unit and (2) the collision stage, emplacing the Gaveh Rud and Sanandaj-Sirjan domains in the hinterland and forming a basement duplex in the outer part. Results provide quantitative insights into processes involved in mountain and basin building. The lithospheric equivalent elastic thickness (Te) changed from 20 km during the Amiran stage (~90-50 Ma) to 55 km during the Mesopotamian subsidence stage (last 20 Myr). The Amiran basin results from flexure of the Arabian plate below the load of the Kermanshah cover and basement thrust sheets. During this stage, material eroded in the inner parts was enough to fill the flexural trough. The Mesopotamian basin formed in front of the outermost basement units flexing the Arabian plate. During this latter stage, material eroded from the orogenic wedge was not enough to fill the Mesopotamian basin. An additional longitudinal sediment supply of up to 200 m/Myr is required to fill the flexural basin.

  1. New bifurcations of basin boundaries involving Wada and a smooth Wada basin boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Hai-Lin; Xu Jian-Xue; Jiang Jun

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and analyses double heteroclinic tangency in a three-well potential model,which can produce three new types of bifurcations of basin boundaries including from smooth to Wada basin boundaries,from fractal to Wada basin boundaries in which no changes of accessible periodic orbits happen,and from Wada to Wada basin boundaries.In a model of mechanical oscillator,it shows that a Wada basin boundary can be smooth.

  2. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  3. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  4. Cooking the volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Cooking possesses a system of units of measurement, that includes measures of volumes based on pre-metric units. This paper discusses the cooking measures and compares their features with those of the ancient Roman measures of capacity.

  5. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  6. The Mackenzie Basin impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, a commitment was made to begin development of a framework for an integrated regional impact assessment of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, the most populated region of Canada's north. The project, called Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS), is led by a multidisciplinary working group from government and non-governmental organizations with interests in the Basin. Objectives of MBIS include defining the direction and magnitude of regional-scale impacts of global warming scenarios on the physical, biological, and human systems of the Basin. MBIS will also identify regional sensitivities to climate, inter-system linkages, uncertainties, policy implications, and research needs. MBIS research activities as of March 1992 are outlined and policy concerns related to global warming are listed. Two new methodologies are being developed by MBIS to address particular economic and policy concerns: a socio-economic resource accounting framework and an integrated land assessment framework. Throughout MBIS, opportunities will be presented for western science and traditional native knowledge to be integrated

  7. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge

    2016-01-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called co-triad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The ne...

  8. Towards the amplituhedron volume

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Livia; Lukowski, Tomasz; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 $$ \\mathcal{N}=4 $$ super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description,...

  9. Volume anomaly in ferrimagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Pascard, H.; Globus, A.

    1981-01-01

    The volume anomaly ΔV/V due to the magnetic energy corresponding to the exchange interactions is experimentally determined for YIG. The experimental values (from 77 K to Tc) agree with the values deduced from the theoretical expression based on the Néel's theories of volume anomaly and of ferrimagnetism. These results are compared with those obtained by other authors on ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials with localized magnetic moments : a reduced curve is obtained.

  10. Volume holographic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Denz; K. O. Muller; F. Visinka; Berger, G; T. Tschudi

    2000-01-01

    Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog...

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  12. Geomorphic Terrains and Evidence for Ancient Volcanism within Northeastern South Pole-Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Noah; Mest, Scott C.; Teich, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    The interior of the enigmatic South Pole-Aitken Basin has long been recognized as being compositionally distinct from its exterior. However, the source of the compositional anomaly has been subject to some debate. Is the source of the iron-enhancement due to lower-crustal/upper-mantle material being exposed at the surface, or was there some volume of ancient volcanism that covered portions of the basin interior? While several obvious mare basalt units are found within the basin and regions that appear to represent the original basin interior, there are several regions that appear to have an uncertain origin. Using a combination of Clementine and Lunar Orbiter images, several morphologic units are defined based on albedo, crater density, and surface roughness. An extensive unit of ancient mare basalt (cryptomare) is defined and, based on the number of superimposed craters, potentially represents the oldest volcanic materials within the basin. Thus, the overall iron-rich interior of the basin is not solely due to deeply derived crustal material, but is, in part due to the presence of ancient volcanic units.

  13. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  14. LIQUID EFFLUENT RETENTION FACILITY (LERF) BASIN 42 STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents laboratory results obtained under test plan RPP-21533 for samples submitted by the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) from the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 42 (Reference 1). The LERF Basin 42 contains process condensate (PC) from the 242-A Evaporator and landfill leachate. The ETF processes one PC campaign approximately every 12 to 18 months. A typical PC campaign volume can range from 1.5 to 2.5 million gallons. During the September 2003 ETF Basin 42 processing campaign, a recurring problem with 'gelatinous buildup' on the outlet filters from 60A-TK-I (surge tank) was observed (Figure 1). This buildup appeared on the filters after the contents of the surge tank were adjusted to a pH of between 5 and 6 using sulfuric acid. Biological activity in the PC feed was suspected to be the cause of the gelatinous material. Due to this buildup, the filters (10 (micro)m CUNO) required daily change out to maintain process throughput

  15. Tectonic subsidence history and thermal evolution of the Orange Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, K. K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; van Wees, J.; Paton, D. A.; Kuhlmann, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Orange Basin offshore southwest Africa appears to represent a classical example of continental rifting and break up associated with large-scale, transient volcanism. The presence of lower crustal bodies of high seismic velocities indicates that large volumes of igneous crust formed as a consequence of lithospheric extension. We present results of a combined approach using subsidence analysis and basin history inversion models. Our results show that a classical uniform stretching model does not account for the observed tectonic subsidence. Moreover we find that that the thermal and subsidence implications of underplating need to be considered. Another departure from the uniform stretching model is re-newed sub-crustal stretching and linked to that uplift in the Cenozoic which is necessary to reproduce the observed phases of erosion and the present day depth of the basin. The dimension of these events has been examined and quantified in terms of tectonic uplift and sub-crustal stretching. Based on these forward models we predict the heat flow evolution not only for the available real wells but also for virtual wells over the entire study area. Finally the hydrocarbon potential and the temperature evolution is presented and shown in combination with inferred maturation of the sediments for depth intervals which comprise potential source rocks.

  16. Domain of composition and finite volume schemes on non-matching grids; Decomposition de domaine et schemas volumes finis sur maillages non-conformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, L.

    2004-05-01

    This Thesis deals with sedimentary basin modeling whose goal is the prediction through geological times of the localizations and appraisal of hydrocarbons quantities present in the ground. Due to the natural and evolutionary decomposition of the sedimentary basin in blocks and stratigraphic layers, domain decomposition methods are requested to simulate flows of waters and of hydrocarbons in the ground. Conservations laws are used to model the flows in the ground and form coupled partial differential equations which must be discretized by finite volume method. In this report we carry out a study on finite volume methods on non-matching grids solved by domain decomposition methods. We describe a family of finite volume schemes on non-matching grids and we prove that the associated global discretized problem is well posed. Then we give an error estimate. We give two examples of finite volume schemes on non matching grids and the corresponding theoretical results (Constant scheme and Linear scheme). Then we present the resolution of the global discretized problem by a domain decomposition method using arbitrary interface conditions (for example Robin conditions). Finally we give numerical results which validate the theoretical results and study the use of finite volume methods on non-matching grids for basin modeling. (author)

  17. SLIDE INVENTORY IN DUBRACINA RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Toševski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he slide inventory in Dubračina river basin consists of 39 slides. They have been detected by field geomorphological mapping and visual analysis of 1 meter digital elevation model. The slides detected using elevation model are validated by the field checking as well. The outline of all slides is generated using digital elevation model. The total area affected by sliding is 81873 m2 which is 0,44% of researched area. The area, volume, total lenght, width of displaced mass, dip angle of slope on the slide location and dip direction of sliding have been defined for each slide. Slides areas are ranging from 150 to 12956 m2. Minimal total slide lenght from the crown to the tip is 20 m and maximal is 226 m. Angles of slope dip on slide locations are ranging from 10,1° to 28,6° focusing that 76,7% total area affected by sliding has slope dip angle on slide location up to 20°. According to weighting factor calculations lithological unit flysch (E2,3 is marked as the most significant lithological factor of the sliding. All slides are located in the flysch weathering zone where zone crop out. It has been shown that terrain tendency for excessive erosion is very limitative factor in using digital elevation model for the remote slide mapping (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Natural Gas Exploration in Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Guangcan

    1995-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Basin located in the eastern part of Sichuan province, is a structural basin with obvious boundaries . It is also a geographic basin and covers an area of about180×103 km2. The basin is surrounded by mountains with altitudes of 1000-3000m above sea level. The western part of the basin is the Chengdu Plain.The middle part of the basin is hills with altitudes of300-600m above sea level. The eastern part of the basin is featured by bar anticlinal hills with a northeast-southwest trend and are separated in the middle by open flatlands .The hills have an altitude of 700-800m above sea level.

  19. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  20. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River

  1. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2. Plates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 8(2) contains the following maps: Geologic map of the Lake Superior Region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan); Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Ground Water Basins and Potential Major Discharge Zones; and Ground Water Resource Potential

  2. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui

    2008-01-01

    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  3. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  4. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  5. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  6. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  7. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  8. Petroleum geology of the northwest basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Hong [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Young [Dong Won Co., Sabuk (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-30

    Petroleum geology of the Northwest Basin, Argentina has been studied in detail using seismic reflection profiles, drill holes and structure maps. The Northwest Basin comprises the following four successor basins that are different in characteristics and tectonic development: pre-Carboniferous, Carboniferous, Cretaceous, and Tertiary basins. Petroleum plays in the Northwest Basin can be divided into four types based on hydrocarbon-trap structures. These include thrust-folds, paleo-channels, volcanic mounds and roll-over anticlines related to normal faulting. The thrust-fold structure is a typical trap structure of pre-Carboniferous and Carboniferous basins, and consists of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in southern exploration areas of the Northwest Basin. Paleo-channels provide a new possibility to the Carboniferous basin, and several of them occur in northern exploration areas of the Northwest Basin. Volcanic mounds and roll-over anticlines associated with the normal fault are related to the rifting event and play an important role in the Cretaceous basin. New prospects will be found if the above play types are well utilized. (author). 12 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  10. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  11. Maximum discharge and probable rainfall at Aiuruoca basin, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Campos Pinto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on rainfall and annual daily maximum discharge rates is essential to support decisions during the design of hydraulic structures. This study tested the adequacy of probability functions to predict the probable rainfall and discharge rates of the Aiuruoca River Basin in Minas Gerais State in Brazil. This basin is very important as starting point of the Rio Grande Basin that eventually discharges into the Parana River in the southern region of Brazil at the border with Argentina. It was found that the log-normal two parameters probability function provided the best fit to historical monthly rainfall series. For example, in the month of January, there is a 75% probability that 201 mm of rainfall will occur. This is the month with the highest volume of rainfall in the region. On another hand, for flow rate, the best fit was provided by the log-normal distribution with three parameters.

  12. Regional hydrology of the Dolores River Basin, eastern Paradox Basin, Colorado and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dolores River Basin, is in the eastern part of the Paradox Basin and includes the eastern slope of the La Sal Mountains, the western slopes of the Rico and La Plata Mountains, and the southwest flank of the Uncompahgre Plateau. The climate of this area is more humid than most of the surrounding Colorado Plateau region. Precipitation ranges from slightly 200 mm/yr to 1000 mm/yr; the estimated volume of water falling on the area is 4000 x 106 cm3/yr. Of this total, about 600 x 106 cm3/yr is runoff; 190 x 106 cm3/yr recharges the upper ground-water system; and an estimated 55 x 106 cm3 returns to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration from stream valleys. The remainder evaporates. Principal hydrogeologic units are permeable sandstone and limestone and nearly impermeable salt (halitic) deposits. Structurally, the area is dominated by northwest-trending salt anticlines and contiguous faults paralleled by synclinal structures. The Uncompahgre Plateau lies along the north and northeast sides of the area. The instrusive masses that form the La Sal Mountains are laccoliths with bysmaliths and other complex intrusive forms comprising, in gross form, moderately faulted omal structures. Intrusive rocks underlie the La Plata and Rico Mountains along the southeastern edge of the area. These geologic structures significantly modify ground-water flow patterns in the upper ground-water system, but have no conspicuous effect on the flow regime in the lower ground-water system. The water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh except where it is affected by evaporite dissolution from salt anticlines. The water of the lower ground-water system is slightly saline to briny. Water quality of the Dolores River is slightly saline to fresh, based on dissolved chemical constituents; some of the smaller tributaries of the river have saline water

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material

  14. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  15. Variance of volume estimators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáček, Jiří

    Jena : Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, 2007. s. 23-23. [Workshop on Stochastic Geometry, Stereology and Image Analysis /14./. 23.09.2007-28.09.2007, Neudietendorf] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * stereology * volume * variance Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  16. Volume measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  17. Overview of the Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Emslie, A. G.; Hudson, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, we provide a brief summary of the successes and remaining challenges in understanding the solar flare phenomenon and its attendant implications for particle acceleration mechanisms in astrophysical plasmas. We also provide a brief overview of the contents of the other chapters in this volume, with particular reference to the well-observed flare of 2002 July 23.

  18. Evolution of the Northeast German Basin — inferences from a 3D structural model and subsidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, M.; Bayer, U.

    1999-11-01

    A 3D structural model of the Northeast German Basin was evaluated with special emphasis on its evolution as an intracontinental depression. The study includes investigations on subsidence history and structural setting of the basin. Thickness evolution and calculated tectonic subsidence volumes of Permian to Quaternary sediments in the Northeast German Basin indicate that the subsidence history was related to five stages of basin evolution which differ in their subsidence mechanisms. For the initial rift phase in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, a dominant thermal event and subordinate horizontal stresses were indicated by thickness variation evolution and by structural evidence. The main part of basin subsidence occurred in a NW-SE-oriented basin in the subsequent phase of thermal relaxation with maximum subsidence from Early Permian (Rotliegend) to Middle Triassic (Muschelkalk). From Middle Triassic the thermal subsidence pattern was superposed by further tectonic events. In the Middle Triassic regional extension led to a reconfiguration of the southern part of the basin, where new NNE-SSW-trending troughs (Rheinsberg and Gifhorn Troughs) developed. In the Jurassic the northwestern part of the basin was uplifted while in the south the Keuper subsiding areas continued to sink and NW-SE-trending depressions, related to salt margins, became important. Differentiation continued into Cretaceous times when regional compression caused uplift of the southeastern part of the basin and basin margins. A final subsidence phase occurred in the Cenozoic. This was accompanied by intensive salt movement. Recent basin configuration reflects the superposition of structural elements resulting from different evolution stages. The main structural characteristics of the basin are: (1) a vertical tectonic zonation in a pre-Zechstein succession, which lacks significant internal structures, and a strongly deformed post-Zechstein succession, which was decoupled due to the thick

  19. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  20. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging...

  1. Inter-basin dynamics on multidimensional potential surfaces. I. Escape rates on complex basin surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Florin; Berry, R. Stephen

    2001-11-01

    In this report, we present a general prescription for computing the escape rate of the system from a basin with full consideration of the topographical fingerprint of that basin. The method is based on a solution of the reduced Fokker-Planck equation and built up to allow the separation of the inter-basin dynamics from that of the intra-basin motion. The main result is that when local well populations thermalize within a basin, local minima, especially those of higher energy, enhance the escape rate from the basin. Also, numerical analyses lead to the inference that kinetic traps of "wrong" structures are distinctive topographical patterns which may produce kinetic properties similar to those of the primary basin, i.e., that containing the global minimum, but lie in other basins.

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance

  3. Application of Muskingum routing method with variable parameters in ungauged basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-meng SONG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a flood routing method applied in an ungauged basin, utilizing the Muskingum model with variable parameters of wave travel time K and weight coefficient of discharge x based on the physical characteristics of the river reach and flood, including the reach slope, length, width, and flood discharge. Three formulas for estimating parameters of wide rectangular, triangular, and parabolic cross sections are proposed. The influence of the flood on channel flow routing parameters is taken into account. The HEC-HMS hydrological model and the geospatial hydrologic analysis module HEC-GeoHMS were used to extract channel or watershed characteristics and to divide sub-basins. In addition, the initial and constant-rate method, user synthetic unit hydrograph method, and exponential recession method were used to estimate runoff volumes, the direct runoff hydrograph, and the baseflow hydrograph, respectively. The Muskingum model with variable parameters was then applied in the Louzigou Basin in Henan Province of China, and of the results, the percentages of flood events with a relative error of peak discharge less than 20% and runoff volume less than 10% are both 100%. They also show that the percentages of flood events with coefficients of determination greater than 0.8 are 83.33%, 91.67%, and 87.5%, respectively, for rectangular, triangular, and parabolic cross sections in 24 flood events. Therefore, this method is applicable to ungauged basins.

  4. Pull-apart basin tectonic model is structurally impossible for Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Shah , A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya is considered a Neogene-Quatermary piggyback basin that was formed as result of the continent-continent collision of Indian and Eurasian plates. This model however is recently challenged by a pull-apart basin model, which argues that a major dextral strike-slip fault through Kashmir basin is responsible for its formation. And here it is demonstrated that the new tectonic model is structurally problematic, and co...

  5. Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation in Dongying Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunguang; Shang Weirong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Dongying basin is a faulted basin rich in hydrocarbon and is under more exploration (wildcat well density is 0.155 well/km ) in the southern Bohai Bay area of China, covering an area of 5700 km. Based on the paleotopographic setting of Paleozoic basement rocks, the basin was evolved into Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin which was faulted in the north and overlapped in the south by the blockfaulting movement in J2-J3. So, each formation of the source rocks in Paleogene is characterized by thick deposit in the north and thin deposit in the south.

  6. Hack's law of debris-flow basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; YUE Z.Q.; LEE C.F.; BEIGHLEY R.E.; CHEN Xiao-Qing; HU Kai-Heng; CUI Peng

    2009-01-01

    Hack's law was originally derived from basin statistics for varied spatial scales and regions.The exponent value of the law has been shown to vary between 0.47 and 0.70,causing uncertainty in its application.This paper focuses on the emergence of Hack's law from debris-flow basins in China.Over 5,000 debris-flow basins in different regions of China with drainage areas less than 100km2 are included in this study.Basins in the different regions are found to present similar distributions.Hack's law is derived fi'om maximum probability and conditional distributions,suggesting that the law should describe some critical state of basin evolution.Results suggest the exponent value is approximately 0.5.Further analysis indicates that Hack's law is related to other scaling laws underlying the evolution of a basin and that the exponent is not dependent on basin shape but rather on the evolutionary stage.A case study of a well known debris-flow basin further confirms Hack's law and its implications in basin evolution.

  7. Hydrological response to climate change for Gilgel Abay River, in the Lake Tana Basin -Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihun Taddele Dile

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to have severe effects on water availability in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Abay River, Upper Blue Nile Basin. The Statistical Downscaling Tool (SDSM was used to downscale the HadCM3 (Hadley centre Climate Model 3 Global Circulation Model (GCM scenario data into finer scale resolution. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was set up, calibrated, and validated. SDSM downscaled climate outputs were used as an input to the SWAT model. The climate projection analysis was done by dividing the period 2010-2100 into three time windows with each 30 years of data. The period 1990-2001 was taken as the baseline period against which comparison was made. Results showed that annual mean precipitation may decrease in the first 30-year period but increase in the following two 30-year periods. The decrease in mean monthly precipitation may be as much as about -30% during 2010-2040 but the increase may be more than +30% in 2070-2100. The impact of climate change may cause a decrease in mean monthly flow volume between -40% to -50% during 2010-2040 but may increase by more than the double during 2070-2100. Climate change appears to have negligible effect on low flow conditions of the river. Seasonal mean flow volume, however, may increase by more than the double and +30% to +40% for the Belg (small rainy season and Kiremit (main rainy season periods, respectively. Overall, it appears that climate change will result in an annual increase in flow volume for the Gilgel Abay River. The increase in flow is likely to have considerable importance for local small scale irrigation activities. Moreover, it will help harnessing a significant amount of water for ongoing dam projects in the Gilgel Abay River Basin.

  8. Assessment of the hydrological impacts of green roof: From building scale to basin scale

    OpenAIRE

    Versini, P.-A.; D. Ramier; Berthier, E.; de Gouvello, B.

    2015-01-01

    International audience At the building scale, the use of green roof has shown a positive impact on urban runoff (decrease and slowdown in peak discharge, decrease in runoff volume). The present work aims to study whether similar effects are possible at the basin scale and what is the minimum spreading of green runoff needed to observe significant impacts. It is particularly focused on the circumstances of such impacts and how they can contribute to storm water management in urban environme...

  9. Study of site effect in the Most basin area, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk; Knejzlík, Jaromír

    Vol. 3. Sofia: STEF92 Technology Ltd., Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2015, s. 1027-1034. (Volume III). ISBN 978-619-7105-33-9. ISSN 1314-2704. [SGEM 2015 - International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference /15./. Albena (BG), 18.06.2015-24.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-07027P Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : blasting operation * site effect * HVNR method * Most Basin Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  10. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle d

  11. Fractal basin boundaries generated by basin cells and the geometry of mixing chaotic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, HE; Yorke, JA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computations indicate that mixing in chaotic flows generates certain coherent spatial structures. Lf a two-dimensional basin has a basin cell (a trappings region whose boundary consists of pieces of the stable and unstable manifold of some periodic orbit) then the basin consists of a

  12. Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Hassan, Marwan A.; Slaymaker, H. Olav

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of logging activities on mass wasting were examined in five watersheds in the coastal mountains of British Columbia. Historical aerial photos were used to document mass wasting events, and their occurrence was related to logging activities in the study basins. Logged and forested areas were compared in terms of mass wasting magnitude and frequency, with reference to site characteristics. The recovery time of the landscape after logging was assessed. Bedrock type and basin physiography had no identifiable effect on mass wasting frequency and magnitude. Mass wasting failure was primarily controlled by slope gradient. Basin vulnerability increased, following clearcutting relative to forested areas, in that mass wasting was initiated on gentler slopes. The volume of sediment produced from logged slopes is of the same order as that from forested areas, which are steeper by as much as 10°. In both logged and forested areas, the size distribution of mass wasting events follows an exponential distribution. However, the variability in mass wasting size in forested areas is much higher than that obtained for logged areas. The recovery time after forest harvesting is over 20 years, which confirms published estimates based on vegetation reestablishment. Continuous disturbance of the basin, however, may extend the recovery time for the whole basin well beyond 20 years.

  13. 137Cs vertical distribution at the deep basins of the North and Central Aegean Sea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volume seawater samples were collected for the determination of 137Cs concentration along with depth in the deep basins of North and Central Aegean Sea. The vertical 137Cs distribution showed maximum concentration at the bottom of the basins, while the minimum values corresponded to the intermediate layer, where Levantine water exists. The surface 137Cs activity is found to lie between the two limits and is originated from the Black Sea waters. The typical oceanographic advection–diffusion balance model is modified to a diffusion-settling-decay balance model to better understand the vertical distribution and variation of the 137Cs concentration in the deep basins. In addition, the diffusivity of each basin, as well as the settling speed of particulate 137Cs is also estimated. The results are compared with theoretical approach as well as with previous data. - Highlights: • Three deep basins were studied using 137Cs as a tracer. • Deep waters constitute 137Cs repositories due to deep water formation followed Chernobyl accident. • Diffusivities, as well as particulate 137Cs settling speeds are estimated

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  15. The Role of Geochemistry and Basin Modelling in the Exploration of Mature province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum geochemistry and basin modelling has been an important tool in the reduction of risks in poorly explored basins. Historically the role of geochemistry is usually reduced once production is established and often in mature province is nonexistent. However, attempts to add reserves in mature provinces require an expansion of exploration programs based on new play concepts. Consequently, there is a clear role for geochemistry and basin modelling as this revitalization occurs.These new basin modelling and geochemical programs are aimed at answering three questions: . Can the petroleum system be extended? . Is a change in hydrocarbon character to be expected? . How much hydrocarbon potential remains?Unlike frontier exploration a significant sample base is normally available that can be used to more effectively constrain interpretations. Such programs have clearly aided exploration in the Niger Delta. For example, the collection of an extensive piston core dataset in conjunction with a basin modelling program provided strong support for the Niger Delta's petroleum system extending into deep water areas. While the geochemical character of the oils established the presence of multiple effective generative systems, each of which has different source characteristics and often-different ages. This information constraints model construction and hydrocarbon volume estimates. Oil data also established the importance of phase segregation. The presence of fractionated oils and maturation modelling results provides evidence for deeper hydrocarbon potential within the geographic limits of established hydrocarbon pays

  16. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  17. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Hartford-Deerfield Basin, Connecticut and Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James

    2016-01-01

    The Hartford-Deerfield basin, a Late Triassic to Early Jurassic rift basin located in central Connecticut and Massachusetts, is the northernmost basin of the onshore Mesozoic rift basins in the eastern United States. The presence of asphaltic petroleum in outcrops indicates that at least one active petroleum system has existed within the basin. However, to-date oil and gas wells have not been drilled in the basin to test any type of petroleum trap. There are good to excellent quality source rocks (up to 3.8% present day total organic carbon) within the Jurassic East Berlin and Portland formations. While these source rock intervals are fairly extensive and at peak oil to peak gas stages of maturity, individual source rock beds are relatively thin (typically less than 1 m) based solely on outcrop observations. Potential reservoir rocks within the Hartford-Deerfield basin are arkosic conglomerates, pebbly sandstones, and finer grained sandstones, shales, siltstones, and fractured igneous rocks of the Triassic New Haven and Jurassic East Berlin and Portland formations (and possibly other units). Sandstone porosity data from 75 samples range from less than 1% to 21%, with a mean of 5%. Permeability is equally low, except around joints, fractures, and faults. Seals are likely to be unfractured intra-formational shales and tight igneous bodies. Maturation, generation, and expulsion likely occurred during the late synrift period (Early Jurassic) accentuated by an increase in local geothermal gradient, igneous intrusions, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Migration pathways were likely along syn- and postrift faults and fracture zones. Petroleum resources, if present, are probably unconventional (continuous) accumulations as conventionally accumulated petroleum is likely not present in significant volumes.

  18. Preliminary interpretation of environmental isotope data in the Chad Basin aquifers, NE Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chad Formation is the youngest stratigraphic unit of the hydrographic Chad Basin which occupies the North Eastern part of Nigeria and stretches into neighbouring countries like Chad, Niger, Cameroun and even as far as Sudan. It is a Plio-Pleistocene mainly argillaceous sequence with three well defined arenaceous horizons referred to as Phreatic (Upper), early Plaocene (Middle) and Continental Terminal (Lower) aquifers. Most of the area of Chad Basin is Sahelian with mean annual rainfall below 500mm and characterized by high evaporation of more than 2000mm per annum and virtual absence of perennial rivers/streams except the surface water of the Lake Chad which has drastically reduced in volume due to recurrent droughts over the years. Competing demand for water in the Basin range from domestic through irrigation to industrial uses and there is increasing reliance on groundwater to meet these water requirements. Consequently, some of the aquifers of the Basin are subjected to tremendous stress and irrigation practices are characterized by heavy reliance on agrochemicals. This is against the backdrop of lack of adequate information on recharge of the aquifers and agricultural impact on groundwater resources in the basin which are crucial issues in sustainable development and environmentally sound management of the scarce water resources of the fragile ecosystem of the Chad Basin. This paper undertakes a preliminary interpretation of isotope data acquired so far under the IAEA sponsored TC Project No NIR/8/006: Isotope-based Investigations in Chad Basin Aquifers in an attempt to address some of these problems. The presence of pseudo fossil to completely fossil waters in the Middle and Lower aquifers has been inferred while Upper aquifer water shows evidence of meteoric recharge. Data assemblage is continuing and other issues like estimation of recharge (infiltration) rates, age correlation of the aquifers, water dynamics and modeling of flow regime and contaminant

  19. Quantifying Stability in Complex Networks: From Linear to Basin Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    The human brain, power grids, arrays of coupled lasers and the Amazon rainforest are all characterized by multistability. The likelihood that these systems will remain in the most desirable of their many stable states depends on their stability against significant perturbations, particularly in a state space populated by undesirable states. Here we claim that the traditional linearization-based approach to stability is in several cases too local to adequately assess how stable a state is. Instead, we quantify it in terms of basin stability, a new measure related to the volume of the basin of attraction. Basin stability is non-local, nonlinear and easily applicable, even to high-dimensional systems. It provides a long-sought-after explanation for the surprisingly regular topologies of neural networks and power grids, which have eluded theoretical description based solely on linear stability. Specifically, we employ a component-wise version of basin stability, a nonlinear inspection scheme, to investigate how a grid's degree of stability is influenced by certain patterns in the wiring topology. Various statistics from our ensemble simulations all support one main finding: The widespread and cheapest of all connection schemes, namely dead ends and dead trees, strongly diminish stability. For the Northern European power system we demonstrate that the inverse is also true: `Healing' dead ends by addition of transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This indicates a crucial smart-design principle for tomorrow's sustainable power grids: add just a few more lines to avoid dead ends. Further, we analyse the particular function of certain network motifs to promote the stability of the system. Here we uncover the impact of so-called detour motifs on the appearance of nodes with a poor stability score and discuss the implications for power grid design. Moreover, it will be shown that basin stability enables uncovering the mechanism for explosive synchronization and

  20. Mixed volumes of hypersimplices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider mixed volumes of combinations of hypersimplices. These numbers, called "mixed Eulerian numbers", were first considered by A. Postnikov and were shown to satisfy many properties related to Eulerian numbers, Catalan numbers, binomial coefficients, etc. We give a general combinatorial interpretation for mixed Eulerian numbers and prove the above properties combinatorially. In particular, we show that each mixed Eulerian number enumerates a certain set of permutations in...

  1. A century of oilfield operations and earthquakes in the greater Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, Egill; Goebel, Thomas; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the seismicity in the Los Angeles Basin (LA Basin) occurs at depth below the sediments and is caused by transpressional tectonics related to the big bend in the San Andreas fault. However, some of the seismicity could be associated with fluid extraction or injection in oil fields that have been in production for almost a century and cover ∼ 17% of the basin. In a recent study, first the influence of industry operations was evaluated by analyzing seismicity characteristics, including normalized seismicity rates, focal depths, and b-values, but no significant difference was found in seismicity characteristics inside and outside the oil fields. In addition, to identify possible temporal correlations, the seismicity and available monthly fluid extraction and injection volumes since 1977 were analyzed. Second, the production and deformation history of the Wilmington oil field were used to evaluate whether other oil fields are likely to experience similar surface deformation in the future. Third, the maximum earthquake magnitudes of events within the perimeters of the oil fields were analyzed to see whether they correlate with total net injected volumes, as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, maximum magnitudes were examined to see whether they exhibit an increase with net extraction volume. Overall, no obvious previously unidentified induced earthquakes were found, and the management of balanced production and injection of fluids appears to reduce the risk of induced-earthquake activity in the oil fields.

  2. Backward volume contraction for endomorphisms with eventual volume expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Vilton; Castro, Armando; Alves, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    We consider smooth maps on compact Riemannian manifolds. We prove that under some mild condition of eventual volume expansion Lebesgue almost everywhere we have uniform backward volume contraction on every pre-orbit for Lebesgue almost every point.

  3. Anisotropic Ambient Volume Shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Marco; Dachsbacher, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method to compute anisotropic shading for direct volume rendering to improve the perception of the orientation and shape of surface-like structures. We determine the scale-aware anisotropy of a shading point by analyzing its ambient region. We sample adjacent points with similar scalar values to perform a principal component analysis by computing the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. In particular, we estimate the tangent directions, which serve as the tangent frame for anisotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions. Moreover, we exploit the ratio of the eigenvalues to measure the magnitude of the anisotropy at each shading point. Altogether, this allows us to model a data-driven, smooth transition from isotropic to strongly anisotropic volume shading. In this way, the shape of volumetric features can be enhanced significantly by aligning specular highlights along the principal direction of anisotropy. Our algorithm is independent of the transfer function, which allows us to compute all shading parameters once and store them with the data set. We integrated our method in a GPU-based volume renderer, which offers interactive control of the transfer function, light source positions, and viewpoint. Our results demonstrate the benefit of anisotropic shading for visualization to achieve data-driven local illumination for improved perception compared to isotropic shading. PMID:26529745

  4. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  5. OTEC SKSS preliminary designs. Volume IV. Appendixes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-02-29

    This volume contains appendices to the Station Keeping Subsystem design study for the 40 MeW Modular Experiment OTEC platforms. Appendices presented include: detailed drag calculations; sample CALMS computer printouts for SPAR and BARGE static analyses; sample time domain computer printouts (Hydromechanics, Inc.) program; extreme value and fatigue load calculations; anchor design calculations; deployment calculations; bottom slope plots; time domain analysis report by Hydromechanics Inc.; detailed cost analysis; control systems study report by Sperry Systems Management; cost estimates for model basin tests; and hydrodynamic loading on the mooring cables. (WHK)

  6. Groundwater Availability Within the Salton Sea Basin Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A; Demir, Z; Moran, J; Mason, D; Wagoner, J; Kollet, S; Mansoor, K; McKereghan, P

    2008-01-11

    It is widely recognized that increasing demands for water in Southern California are being affected by actions to reduce and redirect the amount of water imported from the Colorado River. In the Imperial Valley region, for example, import reductions will not only affect agricultural users but also could produce significant collateral impacts on the level and quality of water in the Salton Sea, its regional ecology, or even the long term air quality in the greater basin. The notion of using groundwater in the Imperial Valley as an additional source for agricultural or domestic needs, energy production, or Salton Sea restoration efforts, so as to offset reductions in imported water, is not a new concept. Even though it has been discussed recently (e.g., LLNL, 2002), the idea goes back, in part, to several studies performed by the US Department of Interior and other agencies that have indicated that there may be substantial, usable amounts of groundwater in some portions of the Imperial Valley. It has been estimated, for example, that between 1.1 and 3 billion acre-feet (AF) of groundwater lie within the extended, deep basin underlying the valley and Salton Sea region, even though much of it may be unrecoverable or too poor in its quality (Imperial County, 1997). This is a significant volume with respect to the total annual precipitation volume received in California, whose average is close to 200 million (or 0.2 billion) AF per year (DWR, 1998), and especially with respect to the total annual precipitation received in the Salton Sea watershed itself, which we estimate (Appendix A) to be approximately 2.5 million acre feet (MAF) per year. Clearly, a thorough appraisal of the groundwater resources in the Imperial Valley and Salton Sea region--i.e., an assessment of their overall physical availability--will be needed to determine how they can be used and managed to suit new or redirected demands in the region. Development of an improved or updated groundwater assessment

  7. Satellite Observations of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Nathan; Markus, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    We utilize satellite laser altimetry data from ICESat combined with passive microwave measurements to analyze basin-wide changes in Antarctic sea ice thickness and volume over a 5 year period from 2003-2008. Sea ice thickness exhibits a small negative trend while area increases in the summer and fall balanced losses in thickness leading to small overall volume changes. Using a five year time-series, we show that only small ice thickness changes of less than -0.03 m/yr and volume changes of -266 cu km/yr and 160 cu km/yr occurred for the spring and summer periods, respectively. The calculated thickness and volume trends are small compared to the observational time period and interannual variability which masks the determination of long-term trend or cyclical variability in the sea ice cover. These results are in stark contrast to the much greater observed losses in Arctic sea ice volume and illustrate the different hemispheric changes of the polar sea ice covers in recent years.

  8. Linking basin evolution to plate tectonic processes in (northern) Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gravråk, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    Several sedimentary basins in Africa are classified as intracratonic basins, but no conclusive formation mechanism has been identified for these basin types. Tectonic subsidence curves may help in unraveling formation mechanisms or identify tectonic forcing for these basins. This thesis presents and analyses basin subsidence curves for basins in the interior of Africa and near its passive margins. A backstripping program has been written to solve the backstripping equations needed to make the...

  9. Estimating peak discharges, flood volumes, and hydrograph shapes of small ungaged urban streams in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Methods are presented for estimating peak discharges, flood volumes and hydrograph shapes of small (less than 5 sq mi) urban streams in Ohio. Examples of how to use the various regression equations and estimating techniques also are presented. Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating peak discharges having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The significant independent variables affecting peak discharge are drainage area, main-channel slope, average basin-elevation index, and basin-development factor. Standard errors of regression and prediction for the peak discharge equations range from +/-37% to +/-41%. An equation also was developed to estimate the flood volume of a given peak discharge. Peak discharge, drainage area, main-channel slope, and basin-development factor were found to be the significant independent variables affecting flood volumes for given peak discharges. The standard error of regression for the volume equation is +/-52%. A technique is described for estimating the shape of a runoff hydrograph by applying a specific peak discharge and the estimated lagtime to a dimensionless hydrograph. An equation for estimating the lagtime of a basin was developed. Two variables--main-channel length divided by the square root of the main-channel slope and basin-development factor--have a significant effect on basin lagtime. The standard error of regression for the lagtime equation is +/-48%. The data base for the study was established by collecting rainfall-runoff data at 30 basins distributed throughout several metropolitan areas of Ohio. Five to eight years of data were collected at a 5-min record interval. The USGS rainfall-runoff model A634 was calibrated for each site. The calibrated models were used in conjunction with long-term rainfall records to generate a long-term streamflow record for each site. Each annual peak-discharge record was fitted to a Log-Pearson Type III frequency curve. Multiple

  10. Red River Basin Mapping 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This LiDAR data covers the Red River Basin with portions of ND, MN, SD and flows into Canada. The US Red River Basin boudnary covers 40,860 sqmi,with the additional...

  11. The structure of Nansen and Amundsen Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micksch, U.; Jokat, W.

    2003-04-01

    During the AMORE expedition in August/September 2001, a US-German joint project, the Gakkel Ridge and the adjoining basins were investigated. In this contribution we report on the results of the seismic investigations in the Nansen Basin as well as in the Amundsen Basin. We obtained two almost parallel profiles through the Nansen Basin from the northeastern continental margin of Svalbard (29°E and 32°E) to the Gakkel Ridge at 17°E and 21°E. To investigate the Amundsen Basin, we left Gakkel Ridge at about 70°E towards Lomonossov Ridge for another transect. In total 1360 km of seismic reflection data with very good data quality were recorded. Parallel to the seismic reflection transects up to 30 sonobuoys were deployed. The data from both basins shows striking differences in the basement topography. While in the Nansen Basin the oceanic crust is more or less continuously shallowing, this is not the case in the Amundsen Basin. This points to some asymmetric spreading history of the Gakkel Ridge in northern and southern directions. Some of the Sonobuoys recorded also weak arrivals from the Moho discontinuity. The analysis of the wide angle and gravity data shows, that there are areas with a significant thinning of the oceanic crust. Results of the reflection and refraktion seismic as well as the gravity interpretation will be presented.

  12. Hydrological research basins and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    The International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, was held at Wageningen from September 24th to 28th. The conference was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the

  13. The karst hydrogeology of upper Ermenek Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The karst hydrogeology of the Upper Ermenek Basin whose surface area is about 2050 km2 is investigated within the framework of this study. The investigation comprised mainly the study of the characteristics of karstification in the basin and the role of the karstic features on the regional hydrodynamic structure. regional hydrodynamic structure

  14. K-Basin isolation barrier seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents various aspects of the design, analysis, procurement, and fabrication of the hydraulic seal on the isolation barriers to be installed in the 100-K Area spent nuclear fuel basin. The isolation barrier is used to keep water in the basin in the event of an earthquake

  15. HYDROGEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF SANDIKLI BASIN (AFYONKARAHISAR)-PRELIMINARY STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Seyman Aksever, Arş. Gör. Fatma; Davraz, Doç.Dr.Ayşen; Karagüzel, Prof.Dr.Remzi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aims of this research are to determine hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigations of Sandıklı (Afyonkarahisar) basin and to plan of optimum groundwater management of the basin. The Sandıklı basin is situated in the west of the Aegean region and discharge to the Büyük Menderes Basin. The research area is occurred from Sandıklı Kuruçay basin and Küçük Sincanlı basin. It has 1556 km2 recharge area. The basin has a semi-closed basin property due to discharge to Kestel Ri...

  16. Basin Fluid Mineralization during Multistage Evolution of the Lanping Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Lanping sedimentary basin has experienced a five-stage evolution since the late Paleozoic: ocean-continent transformation (late Paleozoic to early mid-Triassic); intracontinental rift basin (late mid-Triassic to early Jurassic); down-warped basin (middle to late Jurassic); foreland basin (Cretaceous); and strike-slip basin (Cenozoic). Three major genetic types of Ag-Cu polymetailic ore deposits, including the reworked hydrothermal sedimentary, sedimentary-hydrothermally reworked and hydrothermal vein types, are considered to be the products of basin fluid activity at specific sedimentary-tectonic evolutionary stages. Tectonic differences of the different evolutionary stages resulted in considerable discrepancy in the mechanisms of formation-transportation, migration direction and emplacement processes of the basin fluids, thus causing differences in mineralization styles as well as in genetic types of ore deposit.

  17. Neotectonic of subsiding basins : case of studies from Marañon and Beni basins, Peru and Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Climatic conditions make the fluvial processes very sensitive in the extended flood plain of subandean basins, giving typical morphostructures. Because of high subsidence rate, these basins are case for the understanding of neotectonics in subsiding basins. Recent anciente fluvial traces are used in combination with sub surface structures, neotectonic and seismotectonic data to study the neotectonic evolution of the Peruvian and Bolivian active foreland basins. These basins, the Marañon Basin...

  18. Three architectures for volume rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Hesser, Jürgen; Männer, Reinhard; Knittel, Günter; Straßer, Wolfgang; Pfister, Hanspeter; Kaufman, Arie

    1995-01-01

    Volume rendering is a key technique in scientific visualization that lends itself to significant exploitable parallelism. The high computational demands of real-time volume rendering and continued technological advances in the area of VLSI give impetus to the development of special-purpose volume rendering architectures. This paper presents and characterizes three recently developed volume rendering engines which are based on the ray-casting method. A taxonomy of the algorithmic variants of r...

  19. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  20. 105-KE basin pilot run relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to present the bases for selecting the exact in-facility location for installation of process equipment to support pilot testing activities in the 105-KE Basin at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The 105-KE Basin was constructed during the early 1950s, as an integralcomponent of the 105-K East reactor building. Similar basins were provided in all Hanford weapons production reactor buildings to receive fuel elements discharged from the reactors and stage them for rail transport to 200 Area fuel reprocessing plants. The 105-KE reactor began operation in 1955. It was shut down in 1971. However, the 105-KE Basin was reactivated several years later to store spent fuel from the N-Reactor basin and permit its continued operation during outages at the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant in the 200E Area

  1. K-Basins isolation barriers summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide an information summary for the 100-K Area fuel storage basins design change. The design change was made to resolve an unreviewed safety question related to potential water leakage from the basin following a design basis earthquake. The design change consists of installing isolation barriers in the K-East and K-West Basins. The barriers are installed in each basin to isolate the fuel storage portion of the basin from the location of the potential seismic induced leak. The summary represented by this report provides information on the issue, the courses of corrective action, the technical work to support the corrective action, and the fabrication, installation, testing of the isolation barriers

  2. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  3. Seismic stratigraphy and cenozoic evolution of west sumatra forearc basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudry, D.; Moore, G.F.

    1985-05-01

    Late Tertiary (Neogene) sediments deposited in the Sunda forearc reveal the stratigraphic and structural evolution of this active plate margin. A dense grid of multichannel seismic reflection data and information from 17 exploratory wells were used to establish a detailed seismicstratigraphic framework of the forearc region from 0/sup 0/ to 6/sup 0/N. Several important tectonic cycles are recognized: Paleogene orogeny, Neogene subsidence, and late Tertiary tectonism. Superimposed on these regional tectonic events are three major transgressive-regressive cycles of sedimentation related to changes in sea level and provenance. Paleogene and older metasedimentary and metamorphic rocks comprise basement beneath the landward (inner) margin of the forearc basin. Both basement rocks and lower Tertiary sedimentary rocks were deformed and eroded approximately 25 to 30 Ma. The continental shelf was exposed to subaerial erosion, and basin deposits were restricted offshore, coincident with a worldwide lowstand of sea level in the Oligocene. The Paleogene orogeny probably occurred prior to the erosional event that cut the prominent angular unconformity on the shelf. The Neogene history of forearc basin development is characterized by subsidence and nearly continuous sedimentation. A basal transgression began in latest Oligocene time and culminated in the middle Miocene. Alternating sequences of limestone and shale comprise two secondorder cycles of sedimentation that are superimposed on an overall transgressive event. A major regressive sequence followed in the Pliocene, owing to an influx of siliciclastic clay, silt, and sand derived from Sumatra. Sedimentation rates were high, and large volumes of terrigenous material were deposited in deltaic systems on the shelf. The shelfslope break prograded basinward nearly 10 km (6 mi) through lateral accretion and aggradation during a relative highstand or stillstand of sea level.

  4. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called co-triad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.

  5. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called cotriad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on-shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.

  6. Unraveling the hydrocarbon charge potential of the Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea: An integrated approach to reduce exploration risk in complex salt basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Oliver; Shtukert, Olga; Bishop, Andrew; Kornpihl, Kristijan; Milne, Graham

    2014-05-01

    Pleistocene (glacial). The models have been thermally calibrated. Consideration of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles was required for thermal calibration as well as to better understand and predict the hydrocarbon phase behavior. References: Koyi, H., Talbot, C.J., Tørudbakken, B.O., 1993, Salt diapirs of the southwest Nordkapp Basin: analogue modelling, Tectonophysics, Volume 228, Issues 3-4, Pages 167-187. Nilsen, K.T., Vendeville, B.C., Johansen, J.-T., 1995, Influence of regional tectonics on halokinesis in the Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea. In: Jackson, M.P.A., Roberts, D.G., Snelson, S. (eds), Salt tectonics, a global perspective, AAPG Memoir 65, 413-436.

  7. The Transition from Complex Crater to Peak-Ring Basin on the Moon: New Observations from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Kadish, Seth J.; Smith, Dave E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Impact craters on planetary bodies transition with increasing size from simple, to complex, to peak-ring basins and finally to multi-ring basins. Important to understanding the relationship between complex craters with central peaks and multi-ring basins is the analysis of protobasins (exhibiting a rim crest and interior ring plus a central peak) and peak-ring basins (exhibiting a rim crest and an interior ring). New data have permitted improved portrayal and classification of these transitional features on the Moon. We used new 128 pixel/degree gridded topographic data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, combined with image mosaics, to conduct a survey of craters >50 km in diameter on the Moon and to update the existing catalogs of lunar peak-ring basins and protobasins. Our updated catalog includes 17 peak-ring basins (rim-crest diameters range from 207 km to 582 km, geometric mean = 343 km) and 3 protobasins (137-170 km, geometric mean = 157 km). Several basins inferred to be multi-ring basins in prior studies (Apollo, Moscoviense, Grimaldi, Freundlich-Sharonov, Coulomb-Sarton, and Korolev) are now classified as peak-ring basins due to their similarities with lunar peak-ring basin morphologies and absence of definitive topographic ring structures greater than two in number. We also include in our catalog 23 craters exhibiting small ring-like clusters of peaks (50-205 km, geometric mean = 81 km); one (Humboldt) exhibits a rim-crest diameter and an interior morphology that may be uniquely transitional to the process of forming peak rings. Comparisons of the predictions of models for the formation of peak-ring basins with the characteristics of the new basin catalog for the Moon suggest that formation and modification of an interior melt cavity and nonlinear scaling of impact melt volume with crater diameter provide important controls on the development of peak rings. In particular, a power-law model of

  8. Incorporating safety into surface haulage in the Powder River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, W.; Jennings, C.

    1996-12-31

    The Powder River Basin (PRB) coal deposit extends from southeast Montana to northeast Wyoming. This paper describes a number of haulage practices and tools in use at several mines of the southern PRB and the way in which safety has been designed into and implemented for surface haulage of coal and overburden. Experiences described herein focus on the northeastern corner of Wyoming. All the mines in this area rely on safe and efficient movement of enormous volumes of material, and the results achieved in safety underscore the planning and attention to detail present in the PRB. There are currently 12 large surface mines (those greater than 10.0MM tons/year) operating in this area. In 1995, these mines produced over 230.0MM tons of coal.

  9. Intrinsic controls on the range of volumes, morphologies, and dimensions of submarine lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prélat, A.; Covault, J. A.; Hodgson, D. M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Zaïre fan, offshore Angola/Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a shallow subsurface lobe complex , offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (available grain size range and supply rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14 km × length 35 km × thickness 12 m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas. Examples of such systems include the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon, and the Zaïre systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5 km × length 8 km × thickness 30 m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes (a narrow range around 1 or 2 km 3), which suggests that there is a control to the total volume of sediment that individual lobes can reach before they shift to a new locus of deposition. This indicates that the extrinsic processes control the number of lobes deposited per unit time rather than their dimensions. Two alternative hypotheses are presented to explain the similarities in lobe volumes calculated from the six very different systems. The first states that

  10. Radon risk and natural radioactivity of Ziar Basin territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is one of the most important detection elements for assessing the environmental conditions, e.g.in conurbations. The radon radiation waters, and rocks on the Ziar Basin territory [Central Slovakia] was fully studied. Potential risk areas can be found in the vicinity of tectonic faults (verified and supposed). An excess of over 11% of the radon limit concentration was detected in the environment of some buildings. But in terms of high radioactivity Basin region, the dominant position is kept by the rhyolites, rhyodacites and their pyroclastic rocks. Higher values for the 222 Rn volume activity were identified for the samples of waters in rhyolite and granodiorite bodies situated in the tectonic lines of the NE - SW direction. During its transfer through living material the ionizing radiation causes ionization and produces changes in its structure and composition at the same time. This results along with heavy metals in cell death, damage to genetic material, and an increase in the incidence of malignant tumors of the digestation system and lymph-nodes, leukaemia and cancer of the lung. Since 1990, the localities under investigation have shown a higher sickness rate (congenital evolution defects, tumor diseases) when compared to the all-Slovak average

  11. Hydrogeomorphic effects of explosive volcanic eruptions on drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions can severely disturb landscapes downwind or downstream of volcanoes by damaging vegetation and depositing large volumes of erodible fragmental material. As a result, fluxes of water and sediment in affected drainage basins can increase dramatically. System-disturbing processes associated with explosive eruptions include tephra fall, pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and lahars—processes that have greater impacts on water and sediment discharges than lava-flow emplacement. Geo-morphic responses to such disturbances can extend far downstream, persist for decades, and be hazardous. The severity of disturbances to a drainage basin is a function of the specific volcanic process acting, as well as distance from the volcano and magnitude of the eruption. Postdisturbance unit-area sediment yields are among the world's highest; such yields commonly result in abundant redeposition of sand and gravel in distal river reaches, which causes severe channel aggradation and instability. Response to volcanic disturbance can result in socioeconomic consequences more damaging than the direct impacts of the eruption itself.

  12. Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

  13. Altitudinal zonation of runoff in the Rasina River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rasina River Basin is located on the territory of Central Serbia. The aim of this paper is to determine the amount and spatial distribution of water resources, that is, to establish the participation of altitudinal zones in the formation of the total runoff in the Rasina River Basin area upstream from the "Ćelije" reservoir. In terms of methodology, determination of water volume is based on four separated petrological-hydrological complexes. Average weighted specific runoff in a given territory is 9 l/s/km2. Metamorphites and magmatites are in the first place per participation in the total water runoff of 42.8 %. The second place belongs to sedimentary rocks that make 39.6 % of the total runoff . Unbound sediments participate in the total runoff value with 10.5 % and limestone with 7.1%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: The Research on Climate Change Influences on Environment: Influence Monitoring, Adaptation and Mitigation

  14. Radwaste '86: proceedings volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume contains all the papers presented at the above Conference, which was held in Cape Town, South Africa from 7 to 12 September 1986. A total of 55 contributions cover the full spectrum of the theme of the Conference, which was subdivided into four sessions. Conditioning, treatment and management of radioactive waste: 12 papers reporting on experiences in various countries, as well as specialist topics such as the extraction of radioactive contaminants from reactor pool water. Containment, safe handling and long-term integrity of ILLW packages: 2 papers dealing with cask design. Transport and storage of radwaste and spent fuel: 7 papers ranging from broad overviews to specific operations in different parts of the world. Radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact: 32 papers covering topics from site selection, design and operation, to modelling and monitoring studies. South Africa's Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility is comprehensively described. The volume is a useful reference for anyone interested in the disposal of radioactive waste, especially in arid environments, as well as its treatment and management prior to disposal, and will appeal to a wide range of disciplines including engineers, geologists, geophysicists, life scientists and environmentalists. Of particular interest would be the intensive studies undertaken in South Africa prior to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in that country

  15. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  16. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3-enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  17. Seismic constraints on a large mafic intrusion with implications for the subsidence mechanism of the Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrin, Alessandro; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Seismic refraction data from the ESTRID-1 profile are used for seismic velocity modeling along the strike of a large mafic intrusion in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, central Denmark. The P wave velocity structure identifies a ~8 km thick sedimentary succession with velocities between 1.8 and 5.7 km...... mGal) positive gravity anomaly known as Silkeborg Gravity High. The intrusion has a minimum volume of 40,000 km3, which implies that the magma influx and the consequent cooling of the lithosphere from high temperature could have had profound effects on the subsidence of the Danish Basin, in...

  18. Geology and coal-bed methane resources of the northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidebook is the first of its kind: A focused look at coal-bed methane in a large Rocky Mountain Laramide basin. The papers in this volume cover every aspect of coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin, including: The geology, environments of deposition, and geometry of the coal beds that contain the resource; the origin and migration history of the gas; basin-wide resource estimates; the engineering aspects of getting the gas out of the ground; the marketing and economics of producing coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin; the legal ownership of the gas; state regulations governing well spacing and field rules; disposal of produced water; and land and mineral ownership patterns in the northern part of the basin. Also included are detailed papers on all of the major coal-bed methane fields in the basin, and in a paper on the history of Fruitland gas production, a discussion of most of the not-so-major fields. A small section of the book deals with geophysical methods, as yet still experimental, for surface detection of underground hydrocarbon resources. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Stormwater Field Evaluation and Its Challenges of a Sediment Basin with Skimmer and Baffles at a Highway Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A field-scale data collection plan to monitor and evaluate the performance of a sediment basin design was developed and implemented using portable automatic stormwater samplers, flow modules, a rain gauge, and inflow weirs. The design configuration consisted of a skimmer as the primary dewatering device, three coir baffles installed inside the basin, polyacrylamide flocculant blocks and ditch checks in the inflow channel. A sediment basin built on a highway construction site in Franklin County, Alabama, U.S. using the aforementioned design configuration was monitored over 16 rainfall events from 15 November 2011 to 6 February 2012. The basin effectively removed sediments during the early stages of construction when the correct type of polyacrylamide flocculant blocks was used, e.g., 97.9% of sediment removal after a rainfall event on 16 November 2011. It is difficult and challenging to dose sediment-laden stormwater inflow with an exact amount of flocculating agent across all runoff producing events since rainfall is a stochastic variable. Based upon results from this study, it is recommended that a minimum volume of 251.9 m3/ha of contributing drainage area be used to sufficiently size a basin, which is still significantly under-designed for a 2-year, 24-h storm event in the southeast. This paper presents challenges and lessons learned regarding sediment basin design, monitoring, and performance that are beneficial to future studies.

  20. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  1. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal within the Mercury Valley Administrative Groundwater Basin, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.B. Gilliam; R.W.H. Carroll; G. Pohll; R.L. Hershey

    2006-01-01

    A detailed, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater flow model was created for the Mercury Valley Administrative Groundwater Basin (MVB). The MVB is a distinct groundwater basin as defined by the State of Nevada and is located partially within the boundary of the Nevada Test Site. This basin is being studied as a potential location for new industrial facilities and therefore would be subject to Nevada water-use limitations. The MVB model was used to estimate the volume of water that could be withdrawn from Mercury Valley without inducing laterally or vertically extensive water-table effects. In each model simulation, water-table drawdown was limited to a maximum of 0.5 m at the boundary of the basin and held within the screened interval of the well. Water withdrawal from Nevada groundwater basins is also limited to the State-defined perennial yield for that area. The perennial yield for the MVB is 27,036 m{sup 3}/day. The one existing water-supply well in Mercury Valley is capable of sustaining significantly higher withdrawal rates than it currently produces. Simulations showed this single well could produce 50 percent of the basin?s perennial yield with limited water-table drawdown. Pumping from six hypothetical water-supply wells was also simulated. Each hypothetical well was placed in an area of high hydraulic conductivity and far from the basin's boundaries. Each of these wells was capable of producing at least 50 percent of the basin's perennial yield. One of the hypothetical wells could simulate 100 percent of the perennial yield while staying within drawdown limitations. Multi-well simulations where two or more water-supply wells were simultaneously pumping were also conducted. These simulations almost always resulted in very limited lateral and vertical drawdown and produced 100 percent of Mercury Valley's perennial yield. A water-budget analysis was also conducted for each of the various stress simulations. Each of the

  3. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 1: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan including, determination of basin topographic characteristics, determination of channel and playa lake characteristics, operation of a stream gaging station, operation of a playa lake stage gaging system, and processing of data from a playa lake stage gaging system.

  4. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 1: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan including, determination of basin topographic characteristics, determination of channel and playa lake characteristics, operation of a stream gaging station, operation of a playa lake stage gaging system, and processing of data from a playa lake stage gaging system

  5. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  6. Discrete kinematic modeling of the 3-D deformation of sedimentary basins; Modelisation cinematique discrete de la deformation 3D des bassins sedimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, T.

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the

  7. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin resi...

  8. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  9. China's Qaidam Basin Sensitive to Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese meteorologists recently pointed out that the temperatures in northwest China's resource-rich Qaidam Basin are rising faster than the rest of the country as a result of climate change.The rapid rise in temperatures is likely to increase the long-term frequency of droughts and farming pests in the basin to the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Qaidam Basin covers 250,000 km2 in Qinghai Province and is known as resource-rich with salt lakes,petroleum,natural gas and other abundant mineral resources.

  10. Basins of Attraction for Chimera States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Panaggio, Mark; Abrams, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chimera states---curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators---typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we...... evaluate asymptotic states and associated destination maps, and demonstrate that basins form a complex twisting structure in phase space. Understanding the basins' precise nature may help in the development of control methods to switch between chimera patterns, with possible technological and neural system...

  11. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their...... theoretical relation has so far been unexplored. We present the direct connection between PW and GPV for NMI in the case of rigid and non-rigid image registration. Through step-by-step derivations of PW and GPV we clarify the difference and show that GPV is algorithmically inferior to PW from a model point of...... view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  12. Volume 6, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The International Journal of the First Year in Higher Education (Int J FYHE explores the transition experience of the first year student but this issue, Volume 6 Issue 1, has several unique characteristics. As a publication, it has a significant transition feature of its own: This issue is the last under this title and the current journal is to undergo a transformation, re-emerging with a new title and look in time for the inaugural STARS Conference in Melbourne, Australia in July 2015.   These are exciting times, not only for our editorial team, but also for prospective authors as the new journal will broaden the current First Year focus to that of enhancing students’ tertiary experiences across their entire learning journey in all its multiplicity and complexity.

  13. Estimates of primary ejecta and local material for the Orientale basin: Implications for the formation and ballistic sedimentation of multi-ring basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Minggang; Zhu, Meng-Hua

    2016-04-01

    A clear understanding of thickness distributions of primary ejecta and local material is critical to interpreting the process of ballistic sedimentation, provenances of lunar samples, the evolution of the lunar surface, and the origin of multi-ring basins. The youngest lunar multi-ring basin, Orientale, provides the best preserved structure for determining the thicknesses of primary ejecta and local material. In general, the primary ejecta thickness was often estimated using crater morphometry. However, previous methods ignored either crater erosion, the crater interior geometry, or both. In addition, ejecta deposits were taken as mostly primary ejecta. And, as far as we know, the local material thickness had not been determined for the Orientale. In this work, we proposed a model based on matching measurements of partially filled pre-Orientale craters (PFPOCs) with the simulations of crater erosion to determine their thicknesses. We provided estimates of primary ejecta thickness distribution with the thickness of 0.85 km at Cordillera ring and a decay power law exponent of b = 2.8, the transient crater radius of 200 km, excavation volume of 2.3 ×106 km3, primary ejecta volume of 2.8 ×106 km3. These results suggest that previous works (e.g., Fassett et al., 2011; Moore et al., 1974) might overestimate the primary ejecta thicknesses of Orientale, and the primary ejecta thickness model of Pike (1974a) for multi-ring basins may give better estimates than the widely cited model of McGetchin et al. (1973) and the scaling law for impacts into Ottawa Sand (Housen et al., 1983). Structural uplift decays slower than previously thought, and rim relief is mostly rim uplift for Orientale. The main reason for rim uplift may be the fracturing and squeezing upward of the surrounding rocks. The proportion of local material to ejecta deposits increases with increasing radial distance from basin center, and the thickness of local material is larger than that of primary ejecta at

  14. Petroleum maturation modelling, Abu Gabra Sharaf area, Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdalla Y.; Pearson, Michael J.; Ashcroft, William A.; Whiteman, A. J.

    2002-08-01

    Structural and maturation studies in the northwest of the Muglad Basin, Sudan showed a thick sedimentary section up to 9000 m in the deep sub-basins and an average of about 6000 m in the Sharaf-Abu Gabra Ridge. The isopach map of the Lower Cretaceous Abu Gabra-Sharaf formations, which contain source rocks, showed a thickness of sedimentary section between 2000 and 5000 m. The burial history showed high subsidence rates during the first rifting phase with relatively low subsidence rates during the following two phases in this part of the basin. Significant erosion of the sedimentary section occurred in the ridge area during Miocene and Cenomanian-Albian times. The geothermal gradients in the modelled wells range between 18 and 27.5 °C/km corresponding to the relatively wide range of present day heat flow of between 37 and 63 mW/m 2, averaging 50 mW/m 2. Heat flow history curves consistent with vitrinite reflectance data were adopted with elevated high heat flow (75 mW/m 2) during the first rifting phase followed by minor peaks (average 60 mW/m 2) during the second and the third rifting phases. Application of a kinetic vitrinite maturation model resulted in a present day oil window between 2000 and 4500 m. The source rock of the Abu Gabra (AG) and Sharaf (SH) formations, which has an average total organic carbon of 1.0% and hydrogen index (HI) of 280, was modelled for hydrocarbon generation. The section was divided into four layers; AG-1 (Albian), AG-2 (Aptian), SH-1 (Barremian) and SH-2 (Neocomian). Conditions for hydrocarbon generation are present throughout the Sharaf formation and in AG-2. The generation model suggests an average generation amount of 4 mgHC/g rock in the lower three modelled layers with a timing range between 120 Ma and the present. Total calculated oil volume is about 370 US billion bbls and the expected volume expelled and migrated (40%) is 150 US billion bbls. The total gas expelled and migrated (90%) is 1600 US trillion cu ft. Retention of

  15. Waste storage potential of Triassic basins in southeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1976-07-01

    Triassic basins, elongated deep basins filled with sediments, extend from Nova Scotia to Florida. The geology of the basins is discussed for each state. Their potential for liquid waste storage is assessed. Seismic risk is among the factors evaluated. It is recommended that the shallow Triassic Florence basin in northeast South Carolina be studied. 10 fig. (DLC)

  16. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-31

    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  17. A Comparison of Runoff Quantity and Quality from Two Small Basins Undergoing Implementation of Conventional and Low-Impact-Development (LID) Strategies: Cross Plains, Wisconsin, Water Years 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental managers are often faced with the task of designing strategies to accommodate development while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Low-impact development (LID) is one such strategy that attempts to mitigate environmental degradation commonly associated with impervious surfaces. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, studied two residential basins in Cross Plains, Wis., during water years 1999?2005. A paired-basin study design was used to compare runoff quantity and quality from the two basins, one of which was developed in a conventional way and the other was developed with LID. The conventional-developed basin (herein called ?conventional basin?) consisted of curb and gutter, 40-foot street widths, and a fully connected stormwater-conveyance system. The LID basin consisted of grassed swales, reduced impervious area (32-foot street widths), street inlets draining to grass swales, a detention pond, and an infiltration basin. Data collected in the LID basin represented predevelopment through near-complete build-out conditions. Smaller, more frequent precipitation events that produced stormwater discharge from the conventional basin were retained in the LID basin. Only six events with precipitation depths less than or equal to 0.4 inch produced measurable discharge from the LID basin. Of these six events, five occurred during winter months when underlying soils are commonly frozen, and one was likely a result of saturated soil from a preceding storm. In the conventional basin, the number of discharge events, using the same threshold of precipitation depth, was 180, with nearly one-half of those resulting from precipitation depths less than 0.2 inch. Precipitation events capable of producing appreciable discharge in the LID basin were typically those of high intensity or precipitation depth or those that occurred after soils were already saturated. Total annual discharge volume measured from

  18. K Basins Groundwater Monitoring Task, K Basins Closure Project: Report for April, May, and June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.

    2007-08-08

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring near the K Basins during April, May, and June 2007. Conditions remained similar to those reported in the previous quarter’s report, with no evidence in monitoring results to suggest groundwater impact from current loss of shielding water from either basin to the ground. During the current quarter, the first results from two new wells installed between KE Basin and the river became available. Groundwater conditions at each new well are reasonably consistent with adjacent wells and expectations, with the exception of anomalously high chromium concentrations at one of the new wells. The K Basins monitoring network will be modified for FY 2008 to take advantage of new wells recently installed near KW Basin as part of a pump-and-treat system for chromium contamination, and also the new wells recently installed between the KE Basin and the river, which augment long-term monitoring capability in that area.

  19. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-01-01

    Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes), studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes), studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904), which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry a...

  20. Variable Efficacy of Extended-release Mosquito Larvicides Observed in Catch Basins in the Northeast Chicago Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Justin E.; Corcoran, Peter C.; Runde, Amy; Henry, Marlon; Xamplas, Christopher; Nasci, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (NSMAD) has applied extended-release formulations of mosquito larvicides to approximately 50,000 catch basins in the suburbs north of Chicago, IL, USA. This is performed as part of NSMAD’s efforts to reduce local populations of the West Nile virus vector, Culex pipiens. Analyses from NSMAD’s monitoring of larvicide-treated basins throughout the District over the 2014 and 2015 seasons suggest that larvicides intended to provide extended durations of control (30–180 days) failed to provide control for the maximum duration specified on the product label in approximately 25% of the District’s basins. For larvicides designed to last up to 180 days (or about 26 weeks), failures were found at 1–15 weeks after treatment with most found at five weeks posttreatment. For larvicides formulated to last up to 30 days, failures were found at one to four weeks after applications with most found at three weeks posttreatment. The highest percentages of failing basins (ie, containing late-stage mosquito larvae or pupae during the specified product effectiveness period) were found in communities on the eastern side of the District, bordering Lake Michigan. As the larvicides appeared to function properly in the majority of monitored basins, it appears that the failures likely resulted from basin-specific physical factors (ie, basin volume, sediment content, and hydrology) that cause either product removal or a reduction in the concentration of the larvicide’s active ingredient below the effective levels in these basins. PMID:27103818

  1. Multi-National River Basin Cooperation and Management Case Study: Senegal River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaa, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    With increasing populations, urbanization and thus increasing demand for water, conflict on International River basins has been increasing over the years which has necessitated formation of International River frameworks to devise means of cooperation among the countries sharing the river basins. The main modes of cooperation in international river basins include allocating the waters of the river to the sharing countries such that each country manages its own water resources, or treating the...

  2. Modelling depositional shifts between sedimentary basins: Sediment pathways in Paratethys basins during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bartol; L. Matenco; D. Garcia-Castellanos; K. Leever

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of sedimentary basins separated by uplifted topographic barriers is characterised by gradual regressive deposition until one of the basins is filled and its sedimentation bypasses to the adjacent basin, defining a depositional shift. One of the critical parameters controlling these depositional shifts is sea level variation, its drop potentially triggering a depositional shift by cancelling the available accommodation space. Conversely, a sea level rise can create new accommodat...

  3. River Basin Water Assessment and Balance in fast developing areas in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Chin; Ranzi, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Uneven precipitation in space and time together with mismanagement and lack of knowledge about quantity and quality of water resources, have caused water shortages for water supply to large cities and irrigation areas in many regions of Viet Nam in the dry season. The rainy season (from June to October) counts for 80% of the total annual rainfall, while the water volume of dry season (from November to May of the following year) accounts for 20% only. Lack of sufficient water volumes occurs in some areas where the pressure of a fast increasing population (1.3% per year on average in the last decade in Viet Nam), intensive agricultural and industrial uses is one of the major problems facing sustainable development. For those areas an accurate water assessment and balance at the riverbasin scale is needed to manage the exploitation and appropriate use of water resources and plan future development. The paper describes the preliminary phase of the pilot development of the river basin water balance for the Day River Basin in the Red River delta in Viet Nam. The Day river basin includes a 7,897 km² area in the south-western part of the Red River in Viet Nam. The total population in the Day river basin exceeds 8 millions inhabitants, including the Hanoi capital, Nam Dinh and other large towns. Agricultural land covered 390,294 ha in 2000 and this area is going to be increased by 14,000 ha in 2010 due to land reclamation and expansion toward the sea. Agricultural uses exploit about 90% of surface water resources in the Day river basin but have to compete with industrial and civil needs in the recent years. At the background of the brief characterization of the Day River Basin, we concentrate on the application of a water balance model integrated by an assessment of water quality after consumptive uses for civil, agricultural and industrial needs to assist water management in the basin. In addition, future development scenarios are taken into account, considering less

  4. Structural Architecture and Evolution of Kumkuli Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bizhu; Xu Zhiqin; Jiao Cunli; Cui Junwen; Wang Shenglang; Wang Gonghuai; Li Zhaoyang; Qiu Zhuli

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the new data of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric survey, we analyzed the characteristics of the three geophysical attribute (gravity, magnetic, and resistivity) interfaces and the deep architecture and structure of Kumkuli basin. The research results can provide basic data for early basin structural study. From coupled basin and mountain system, analysis of the structure, and evolution of Knmknli basin, we found that there was zoning from north to south and from west to east. Kumkuli basin has three structural architecture layers including metamorphic crystallization basement, fold basement and sedimentary cover. Knmkuli basin can be divided into three structural units, two depressions, and one uplift. Structural evolution of the Kumkuli basin can be divided into five evolution stages, including Kumkuli microcontinent formed in Sinian-Ordovician, suture around Kumkuli basin formed in Eopaleozoic, retroarc foreland basin formed in Neopaleozoic, rejuvenated foreland hasin developed in Mesozoic, and strike slip and compression basin developed in Cenozoic.

  5. Comparison between control factors of high quality continental reservoirs in Bohai Bay basin and Ordos basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmao ZHENG; Jun YOU; Dongbo HE

    2008-01-01

    Bohai Bay basin,a typical extensional rift basin,and Ordos basin,an intra-craton down-warped basin,represent two important basin types in China.Because of their respective features,the main control factors for their high quality reservoirs are different.In Bohai Bay basin,the sandbody shows great variety in types and severely separated distribution and its high quality reservoirs are mostly controlled by the vertical secondary pore and vertical abnormal pressure.On the other hand,the sandbody in Ordos basin features a relative lack of variety,good continuity,indistinct vertical zone,and its reservoirs are mainly controlled bY the diagenetic differentiation caused by different sedimentation inside the sandbody.Therefore,in the Bohai Bay basin,the exploration should be based on the analysis of sedimentary facies and the favorable diagenefic zones and formations.The focus in Ordos basin,however,should be put on the relatively high permeability sandstones in a generally low permeable sandstone background.

  6. SHADOW MAPPING OR SHADOW VOLUME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two techniques of shadow generation are described. Volume shadow is geometric base but shadow mapping is image base. Silhouette detection is a most expensive step to create volume shadow. Two algorithms to recognize silhouette are introduced. Stencil buffer and Z- buffer are two other tools for creating shadow by volume shadow technique. Both algorithms are implemented in virtual environment with moveable light source. Triangular method and the Visible-non visible method are introduced. The recent traditional silhouette detection and implementation techniques used in volume shadow algorithm are improved. With introduce flowchart of both algorithms, the last volume shadow algorithm using stencil buffer is rewritten. A very simple algorithm to create volume shadow is proposed. The last shadow mapping algorithm is rewritten. These techniques are poised to bring realism into commercial games. It may be use in virtual reality applications.

  7. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye (Secale cereale), among...

  8. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  9. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  10. USGS Streamgage NHDPlus Version 1 Basins 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents 19,031 basin boundaries and their streamgage locations for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) active and historical streamgages from the...

  11. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.

  12. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  13. Overflow of Radioactive Water from K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the dose calculations for the postulated K Basin overflow accident using current methods to model the environmental doses for radioactive releases into the Columbia River and the air

  14. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.

    1995-09-22

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  15. K-Basins S/RIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES(ampersand)H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  16. Cretaceous Onlap, Gulf of Mexico Basin [cretonlapg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maximum extent of Cretaceous onlap is generalized from Plate 3, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled...

  17. Klamath Basin Water Rights Place of Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199...

  18. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  19. Hydrological Drought Analysis of Karkheh River Basin in Iran using Variable Threshold Level Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Karimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is an important phenomenon in recent years which caused a lot of problems for most of areas in Iran. Drought lead to water scarcity for people and this problem becomes one of the important challenges for the country. Karkheh River basin is one of the considerable water resources field in Iran and it is located in west parts of Iran. Current paper tries to take one step ahead toward scientific and practical drought management in Karkheh basin by analyzing hydrological drought. In this paper using daily discharge time series of 13 hydrometric stations which are located in the basin and also applying threshold level method, dry periods were extracted and results were analyzed. Results showed that the most volume and the most duration of drought in threshold level of 70% mostly happened within 1998-2000 and 2006-2008. Also the results of the frequency analysis of drought parameters indicted that for maximum deficit volume series Weibull distribution and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GP in accordance with 77% of stations and for maximum duration series, GP distribution in accordance with 54% of stations had the most consistency. Based on this consistency, return period of droughts were also computed and the possibility of drought predictions in future was determined.

  20. Basin development and petroleum prospects of central New Hebrides arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, H.G.; Wong, F.L.; Falvey, D.A.; MacFarlane, A.

    1986-07-01

    Two extensive intra-arc basins, the Central basin of Vanuatu and the Vanikolo basin, have recently been mapped in detail and appear to have developed in the last 3 m.y. primarily from subduction and arc-polarity reversal. The Central basin of Vanuatu is being modified by the ridge-arc collision and is still accumulating sediment, whereas the Vanikolo basin has no physiographic expression and is completely filled with sediment. Quaternary volcanism has separated the Central basin of Vanuatu into two physiographic basins (North Aoba and South Aoba basins). The Central basin is flanked on the west by five smaller insular basins associated with the islands of Malakula and Espiritu Santo. Although North and South Aoba basins lie in water depths as great as 3 km, migration paths into the shallower water basins appear to be present, and structures that could trap hydrocarbons occur. More than 5 km of sediment of Miocene and younger age were deposited in the deeper basins, whereas 2-km thick sediments of late Miocene and younger age occur near the islands. The most promising hydrocarbon basin is Malakula basin, which lies on the eastern shelf of Malakula Island, where onshore source rock analyses indicated potential gas concentrations. North of the Central basin of Vanuatu lies the largest basin in the region, the Vanikolo basin, covering more than 14,000 km/sup 2/ and containing more than 6 km of probablen Miocene and younger sediment. Water depths are more than 2 km in the deepest part of this basin, but much of the margins lie in water less than 1 km deep. Structures along the margins could trap hydrocarbons, especially along the western side, and are accessible to drilling. More work must be done in Vanikolo basin to assess hydrocarbon source rocks, migration, and heat flow before a comprehensive hydrocarbon evaluation can be made.

  1. Petroleum Exploration Prospects in Erlian Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Baosheng

    1994-01-01

    @@ Erlian Basin is located in the middle prairie,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the north border of China. Teetonieally, Erlian Basin is to the south of Bayinbaoligel Uplift and the north is the Wendouer Temple Uplift. In the east of the basin, there is Daxinganling Uplift and the west is Soulunshan Uplift. The basin covered an area of 100 000 km2, is a Mesozoic Cenozoic graben (rift)basin that evolved on the folded basement of Heveynian geosyncline.

  2. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin is a major petroleum province that forms the southern half of California’s Great Valley, a 700-km-long, asymmetrical basin that originated between a subduction zone to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Sedimentary fill and tectonic structures of the San Joaquin Basin record the Mesozoic through Cenozoic geologic history of North America’s western margin. More than 25,000 feet (>7,500 meters) of sedimentary rocks overlie the basement surface and provide a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the past ~100 m.y. Further, depositional geometries and fault structures document the tectonic evolution of the region from forearc setting to strike-slip basin to transpressional margin. Sedimentary architecture in the San Joaquin Basin is complicated because of these tectonic regimes and because of lateral changes in depositional environment and temporal changes in relative sea level. Few formations are widespread across the basin. Consequently, a careful analysis of sedimentary facies is required to unravel the basin’s depositional history on a regional scale. At least three high-quality organic source rocks formed in the San Joaquin Basin during periods of sea level transgression and anoxia. Generated on the basin’s west side, hydrocarbons migrated into nearly every facies type in the basin, from shelf and submarine fan sands to diatomite and shale to nonmarine coarse-grained rocks to schist. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources and future additions to reserves in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USGS San Joaquin Basin Province Assessment Team, this volume, chapter 1). Several research aims supported this assessment: identifying and mapping the petroleum systems, modeling the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, and defining the volumes of rock to be analyzed for additional resources. To better understand the three dimensional

  3. Paleo stress contribution to fault and natural fracture distribution in the Cooper Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Khair, H.; Cooke, D.; Hand, M.

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of the unconventional reservoirs to the global oil and gas production made it important to address the main factors that control high production from these reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing that intersect natural fractures results in a high stimulated rock volume and high production. Over a decade of effort to use elastic dislocation and different types of restoration to predict fracture network didn't succeed fully in addressing this factor. We used image log fractures and fault network within an iterative boundary element method (iBEM3D) to predict the paleo-tectonic events and the fracture network in the Cooper Basin. The methodology was able to predict only the major tectonic events that occurred after the deposition of the Cooper Basin sediments and contributed to the formation of the natural fractures. As the methodology does not include fault elastic properties, fracture orientations near the faults showed unrealistic results and should not be considered as indicative for the actual natural fractures. The main trend of the Cooper Basin fractures was attributed to post Triassic inter-seismic relaxation after major tectonic compressional events, which resulted in a normal fault stress regime. However, the current day stress regime is believed to be also a major factor in forming some of the natural fractures. Hunter Bowen orogeny in the Late Triassic contributed less to the existing fractures. Whereas, Cainozoic compressional forces played no role in the formation of the Cooper Basin natural fractures.

  4. Climate Risks on Water and Agriculture in the Indus Basin of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. E.; Brown, C. M.; Yu, W.

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan relies on the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world, known as the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) for its basic food security and water supply for all sectors of the economy. The basin that supports this irrigation system consists of the Indus River mainsteam and its major tributaries. The integrated systems framework used in this analysis provides a broad and unique approach to estimating the hydrologic and crop impacts of climate change risks, the macro-economic and household-level responses and an effective method for assessing a variety of adaptation investments and policies. In assessing the impacts, several different modeling environments must be integrated to provide a more nuanced and complete picture of how water and agriculture inter-relate. Moreover, such a framework allows for extensive scenario analysis to identify and understand key sensitivities. This is critical to making decisions in a highly uncertain future. Finally, through this integration of multiple disciplines, a richer and more robust set of adaptation investment options and policies for the agriculture and water sectors can be identified and tested. Continued refinements to the assessment approach developed in this volume will further help to sharpen critical policies and interventions by the Pakistan government. Fig 2. Impacts of climate change on GDP, Ag-GDP and Household income in the Indus Basin Fig1. The Indus River Basin

  5. Influence of basement structures on in situ stresses over the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Barnett, Samuel; Flottmann, Thomas; Paul, Pijush K.; Busetti, Seth; Hennings, Peter; Reid, Ray; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    The Jurassic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Surat Basin in southeast Queensland host a significant volume of coal seam gas resources. Consequently, knowledge of the in situ stress is important for coal permeability enhancement and wellbore stability. Using wireline log data and direct stress measurements, we have calculated stress orientations from 36 wells and stress magnitudes from 7 wells across the Surat Basin. Our results reveal a relationship between high tectonic stress and proximity to structures within the underlying "basement" rocks. The influence of tectonic stresses is diminished with depth in areas with thicker sedimentary cover that are relatively far from the basement structures. We suggest that this relationship is due to the redistribution of in situ stresses around areas where basement is shallower and where basement structures, such as the Leichhardt-Burunga Fault System, are present. This behavior is explained by a lower rigidity in the thickest basin cover, which reduces the ability to maintain higher tectonic stress. Over the entire Surat Basin, a significant amount of variability in in situ stress orientation is observed. The authors attribute this stress variability to complex plate boundary interactions on the northern and eastern margins of the Indo-Australian Plate.

  6. Effects of Overpressured Fluid Flow on Petroleum Accumulation in the Yinggehai Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang; DONG Weiliang; ZOU Huayao; JIANG Jianqun

    2004-01-01

    The Yinggehai Basin is a strongly overpressured Cenozoic basin developed in the northern continental sheff of the South China Sea. The flow of overpressured fluids in this basin has given rise to strong effects on petroleum accumulation. (1) The overpressured fluid flow has enhanced the maturation of shallow-buried source rocks, which has caused the source rocks that would have remained immature under the conduction background to be mature for hydrocarbon generation. As a result, the overpressured fluid flow has increased the volume and interval of mature source rocks. (2) The overpressured fluid flow has strong extraction effects on the immature or low-mature source rocks in the shallow parts. This has increased, to some extent, the expulsion efficiency of the source rocks. More importantly, the extraction effects have strongly limited the effectiveness of biomarker parameters from oil and condensate in reflecting the source and maturity of the oil and gas. (3) The flow has caused the sandstones in the shallow parts to get into the late diagenesis stage, and significantly reduced the porosity and penneability of the sandstones. This study confirms that even in sedimentary basins in which no topography-driven groundwater flow systems have ever developed, the cross-formation migration of overpressured fluids and the resultant energy conduction and material exchange can significantly affect the thermal regime, source rock maturation and sandstone diagenesis. As a result, the effects of overpressured fluid flow must be taken into account in analyzing the mechanism of petroleum accumulation.

  7. Probability distributions of landslide volumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Brunetti; Guzzetti, F.; M. Rossi

    2009-01-01

    We examine 19 datasets with measurements of landslide volume, VL, for sub-aerial, submarine, and extraterrestrial mass movements. Individual datasets include from 17 to 1019 landslides of different types, including rock fall, rock slide, rock avalanche, soil slide, slide, and debris flow, with individual landslide volumes ranging over 10−4 m3≤VL≤1013 m3. We determine the probability density of landslide volumes, p(VL), using kernel density estimation. Each landslide...

  8. The physics of volume rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiation transfer is an important topic in several physical disciplines, probably most prominently in astrophysics. Computer scientists use radiation transfer, among other things, for the visualization of complex data sets with direct volume rendering. In this article, I point out the connection between physical radiation transfer and volume rendering, and I describe an implementation of direct volume rendering in the astrophysical radiation transfer code RADMC-3D. I show examples for the us...

  9. The physics of volume rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Radiation transfer is an important topic in several physical disciplines, probably most prominently in astrophysics. Computer scientists use radiation transfer, among other things, for the visualization of complex data sets with direct volume rendering. In this article, I point out the connection between physical radiation transfer and volume rendering, and I describe an implementation of direct volume rendering in the astrophysical radiation transfer code RADMC-3D. I show examples for the use of this module on analytical models and simulation data.

  10. The physics of volume rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiation transfer is an important topic in several physical disciplines, probably most prominently in astrophysics. Computer scientists use radiation transfer, among other things, for the visualisation of complex data sets with direct volume rendering. In this note, I point out the connection between physical radiation transfer and volume rendering, and I describe an implementation of direct volume rendering in the astrophysical radiation transfer code RADMC-3D. I show examples for the use of this module on analytical models and simulation data.

  11. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...... coordinate with a Gaussian kernel. The scheme allows us to compare experiments represented as either lists of coordinates or volumes, and we introduce alternative entrances to databases by image-based indices constructed via novelty measures and singular value decomposition....

  12. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  13. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms

  14. Comprehensive analysis of sustainable flood retention basins

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qinli

    2011-01-01

    To adapt to climate change which results in increasing flood frequency and intensity, the European Community has proposed Flood Directive 2007/60/EC. It requires member states to conduct risk assessments of all river basins and coastal areas and to establish Flood Risk Management Plans focused on prevention, protection and preparedness by 2015. Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) that impound water are a new concept that arose in 2006. They can have a pre-defined or po...

  15. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  16. ALLUVIUM RUNOFF STUDY IN GILORT HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIGORE CIOCĂZAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the characterization of the solid runoff in the Gilort hydrographic basin, analyzing the variations in time (for the period 1982-2007 and in space (for the three major relief units in the basin of this parameter. The data came from the three hydrometric stations where are performed the measurements for the alluvium runoff: Ciocadia, Târgu-Cărbuneşti (Gilort river and Turburea.

  17. THE RIVER BASIN APPROACH IN TOURISM PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Slara, Agita

    2005-01-01

    The article describes advantages and disadvantages in tourism planning, using the river basins as background territory and borders. Tourism development planning is taking place according administrative territorial borders till nowadays in Latvia and in other tourism destinations in abroad. According tourist and visitor needs and environmental friendly approach it is more appropriate to use river basins in tourism planning. Tourists are not interested in administrative borders, but in qualitat...

  18. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present in the insoluble solids

  19. Shear-flow transition: the basin boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is investigated for a dynamical system (W97) that has been used to model transition to turbulence in shear flows. The basin boundary contains a linearly unstable equilibrium point Xlb which, in the self-sustaining scenario, plays a role in mediating the transition in that transition orbits cluster around its unstable manifold. However we find—for W97 with canonical parameter values—that this role is played not by Xlb but rather by a periodic orbit also lying on the basin boundary. Moreover, it appears via numerical computations that all orbits beginning near Xlb relaminarize. We offer numerical evidence that the parameter values of W97 are post-critical in the following sense: for some, subcritical parameter values, the basin boundary coincides with the stable manifold of Xlb and only a subset of nearby orbits relaminarize, whereas for supercritical values the basin boundary is the union of two stable manifolds, one belonging to the periodic orbit and dominating the basin boundary, and the other belonging to Xlb and detectable only as edge separating relaminarizing orbits of different characters. The periodic orbit appears at the critical parameter value via a homoclinic connection. This further leads to a proposal for the structure of the 'edge of chaos' somewhat different from that which has previously been proposed

  20. Lunar basin formation and highland stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K. A.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Scott, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Multiring impact basins, formed after solidification of the lunar crust, account for most or all premare regional deposits and structures expressed in the lunar landscape and for major topographic and gravity variations. A fresh basin has two or more concentric mountain rings, a lineated ejecta blanket, and secondary impact craters. Crackled material on the floor may be impact melt. The ejecta blanket was emplaced at least partly as a ground-hugging flow and was probably hot. A suggested model of basin formation is that the center lifts up and the rings form by inward collapse during evisceration. The resulting basin is shallow and has a central uplift of the mantle. This results in a central gravity high and a ring low. Later flooding by mare basalt has since modified most near side basins. Highland deposits of plains, furrowed and pitted terrain, and various hills, domes, and craters that were interpreted before the Apollo missions as being volcanic can now be interpreted as being basin related.

  1. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  2. California Basin Studies (CaBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The California Continental Borderland's present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 106 years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 106 years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation

  3. The thermal environment of Cascadia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Hautala, Susan L.; Bjorklund, Tor A.

    2012-07-01

    Located adjacent to the NE Pacific convergent boundary, Cascadia Basin has a global impact well beyond its small geographic size. Composed of young oceanic crust formed at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, igneous rocks underlying the basin are partially insulated from cooling of their initial heat of formation by a thick layer of pelagic and turbidite sediments derived from the adjacent North American margin. The igneous seafloor is eventually consumed at the Cascadia subduction zone, where interactions between the approaching oceanic crust and the North American continental margin are partially controlled by the thermal environment. Within Cascadia Basin, basement topographic relief varies dramatically, and sediments have a wide range of thickness and physical properties. This variation produces regional differences in heat flow and basement temperatures for seafloor even of similar age. Previous studies proposed a north-south thermal gradient within Cascadia Basin, with high geothermal flux and crustal temperatures measured in the heavily sedimented northern portion near Vancouver Island and lower than average heat flux and basement temperatures predicted for the central and southern portions of the basin. If confirmed, this prediction has implications for processes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, including the location of the "locked zone" of the megathrust fault. Although existing archival geophysical data in the central and southern basin are sparse, nonuniformly distributed, and derived from a wide range of historical sources, a substantial N-S geothermal gradient appears to be confirmed by our present compilation of combined water column and heat flow measurements.

  4. Brief communication "Importance of slope-induced error correction in volume change estimates from radar altimetry"

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    In deriving elevation change rates (dH/dt) from radar altimetry, the slope-induced error is usually assumed to cancel out in repeat measurements. These measurements, however, represent a location that can be significantly further upslope than assumed, causing an underestimate of the basin-integrated volume change. In a case-study for the fast-flowing part of Jakobshavn Isbræ, we show that a relatively straightforward correction for slope-induced error increases elevation cha...

  5. Riverine water inflows and the Baltic Sea water volume 1901-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cyberski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of riverine outflow into the Baltic Sea is presented for the years 1901 – 1990. The monthly outflows were calculated from the measurements in a number of representative rivers. The analysis included estimation of seasonal and multi-year characteristics of riverine outflows and periodic structure, as well as stochastic and statistical indicators characterising the influence of riverine water on the variability of the sea level and water volume in the basin. The article presents prognostic characteristics determined using analysis of parametric stochastic processes. The results obtained are related to oceanographic characteristics of the Baltic Sea. Keywords: Baltic volume; Baltic balance; river outflow; river seasonality

  6. PLIOCENE ALLUVIAL TO MARINE DEPOSITS OF THE VAL D’ORCIA BASIN (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY): SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND BASIN ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    MASSIMILIANO GHINASSI

    2007-01-01

    Since the Middle-Late Miocene, the Apennine chain was characterised by the development of several basins. These basins have been alternatively explained as extensional post-orogenic basins or syn-orogenic compressional basins. In this framework, the Pliocene depositional history of the Val d'Orcia Basin (Southern Tuscany) is described, based on a sequence stratigraphic approach. Three depositional sequences (Vd3a-c) have been recognized. The Vd3a sequence records marine ingression and subsequ...

  7. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  8. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: Geoinformatics for sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.; Tuncay, K.; Hubbard, K.; Comer, J.; Ortoleva, P.

    2004-01-01

    A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic

  9. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  10. Shelf petroleum system of the Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad, West Indies. 1. Source rock, thermal history, and controls on product distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum found in Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs of the Columbus basin is a mixture of biogenic gas, thermogenic gas, and oil. Based on gas isotope data, approximately one-third of the in-place petroleum volume is gas of biogenic origin. The source for all the thermogenic petroleum thus far discovered is interpreted to be a marine, siliciclastic facies of upper Cretaceous age, the eastern continuation of organic-rich deposits that occur all along the northern margin of the South American craton. Oil compositional variation indicates a progressive change from carbonate to siliciclastic source rocks eastward from Venezuela, through Trinidad, and into the Columbus basin. The thermogenic product ratio (gas vs. oil) in the Columbus basin varies geographically, being oil-dominated (60-70%) in the northwestern part of the basin and gas-dominated (∼ 90%) farther southeast. Subtle changes in oil and condensate geochemistry between these two areas can be explained by more terrestrial-derived kerogen and more oxidizing conditions in the southeastern part of the basin. We interpret this variation to be the result of a southward transition from a slope to shelf depositional environment during source rock deposition. A southward decrease in source rock HI from the slope to shelf deposits is interpreted to be the dominant factor controlling the observed thermogenic product distribution 'gas fraction of petroleum fields within the basin. Although significant thermal maturity variations occur across the basin, this is not the primary controlling factor on the geographic distribution of oil and gas. (author)

  11. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Benasson, Lisa;

    2011-01-01

    Resource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water...... scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until...... an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural...

  12. Water trading at the margin: The evolution of water markets in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turral, H. N.; Etchells, T.; Malano, H. M. M.; Wijedasa, H. A.; Taylor, P.; McMahon, T. A. M.; Austin, N.

    2005-07-01

    Water trading in Australia is enabled by much historical institutional development, which had other objectives at the time that it was implemented. After 2 decades of institutional reform to enable water markets in the Murray Darling Basin, active markets are reallocating surface water entitlements among irrigation users. However, permanent water trading is currently limited in terms of the volume traded and reallocation among uses. Given these limitations, this paper seeks to assess the success of surface water markets in the Murray-Darling Basin by comparing current practice against the six desirable characteristics for water markets suggested by Howe et al. (1986). Overall, it is argued that, despite the relatively low rate of reallocation, the market performs well against most criteria but that ongoing evolution of institutional arrangements is critical for improved success.

  13. Morphometrical Analysis and Peak Runoff Estimation for the Sub-Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Adebayo Wahab; Amoo, Oseni Taiwo; Adeyemo, Joshiah Adetayo; Mohammed, Abdulrasaq Apalando; Adeogun, Adeniyi Ganiyu

    2016-03-01

    This study utilized Spatial Information Technology (SIT) such as Remote Sensing (RS), a Geographical Information System (GIS), the Global Positioning System (GPS) and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for a morphometrical analysis of five sub-basins within the Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Morpho-metrical parameters, such as the total relief, relative relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, texture ratio, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, sinuosity factor and bifurcation ratio, have been computed and analyzed. The study revealed that the contribution of the morphometric parameters to flooding suggest catchment No. 1 has the least concentration time and the highest runoff depth. Catchment No. 4 has the highest circularity ratio (0.35) as the most hazardous site where floods could reach a great volume over a small area.

  14. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  15. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V D Loliyana; P L Patel

    2015-12-01

    In present study, a lumped conceptual hydrological model, NAM (MIKE11), is calibrated while optimizing the runoff simulations on the basis of minimization of percentage water balance (% WBL) and root mean square error (RMSE) using measured stream flow data of eight years from 1991 to 1998 for Yerli catchment (area = 15,701 km2) of upper Tapi basin, Maharashtra in Western India. The sensitivity of runoff volume and peak-runoff has been undertaken with reference to nine NAM parameters using the data of calibration period. The runoff volume and peak-runoff have been found to be highly sensitive with reference to maximum water content in root zone storage (Lmax) and overland flow coefficient (CQOF) respectively. On the other hand, runoff volume is found to be moderately sensitive with maximum water content in surface storage (Umax). The calibrated model has been validated for independent stream flow data of Yerli gauging site for years 2001–2004, and Gopalkheda gauging site for years 1991–1998 and 2001–2004. The model performance has been assessed using statistical performance indices, and compared the same with their yardsticks suggested in published literature. The simulated results demonstrated that calibrated model is able to simulate hydrographs satisfactorily for Yerli (NSE = 0.86–0.88, r = 0.93–0.96, EI = 1.05–1.12) as well as Gopalkheda subcatchments (NSE = 0.76–0.92 and r = 0.88–0.96, EI = 0.89–0.91) at monthly time scale. The model also performs reasonably well in simulating the annual hydrographs at daily time scale. The calibrated model may be useful in prediction of water yield and flooding conditions in the Purna catchment.

  16. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, O. A.; Jones, B. G.; Fergusson, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Sydney Basin is a foreland basin forming the southern part of the Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basin system in Eastern Australia. Tectonically the Sydney Basin is regarded as a retro-arc foreland basin that developed through Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic. Constructing a tectonstratigraphic framework for the basin is difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and poor age control, along with its complex tectonic history. A chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework for the Sydney Basin is presented based on literature synthesis combined with new data analysis. The chrono-tectonostratigraphic framework will provide an up-to-date and easy to follow detailed basin history which can be utilize in the exploration for conventional and unconventional resources in the Sydney Basin.

  17. Wave tectono-sedimentary processes in Tarim basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhijun; ZHANG Yiwei; CHEN Shuping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the unconformities, the formation times of structures, and geological wave filtering applied to basin fills of typical wells around the Manjiaer area in the Tarim basin, the wave tectono-sedimentary processes in the Tarim Basin are discussed. The results of geological wave filtering of basin fills of typical wells show that, in time domain, the evolution of the Tarim basin was controlled by various wave processes with the periods of 740±Ma, 200±Ma, 100±Ma and 30±Ma. The analyses of basin fills, basin subsidence and unconformities show that the trends of the sedimentary facies belts, depocenters, and centers of subsidence migrated and interchanged periodically with periods of 200±Ma. These show the propagation of wave movements in space domain. The wave evolution of the Tarim basin is of significance to understanding the formation of the oil and gas reservoirs in the basin.

  18. Sampling and analysis plan for the consolidated sludge samples from the canisters and floor of the 105-K East basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for sampling of fuel canister and floor Sludge from the K East Basin to complete the inventory of samples needed for Sludge treatment process testing. Sample volumes and sources consider recent reviews made by the Sludge treatment subproject. The representative samples will be characterized to the extent needed for the material to be used effectively for testing. Sampling equipment used allows drawing of large volume sludge samples and consolidation of sample material from a number of basin locations into one container. Once filled, the containers will be placed in a cask and transported to Hanford laboratories for recovery and evaluation. Included in the present SAP are the logic for sample location selection, laboratory analysis procedures required, and reporting needed to meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for this initiative

  19. Consequences of artificial deepwater ventilation in the Bornholm Basin for oxygen conditions, cod reproduction and benthic biomass - a model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigebrandt, A.; Rosenberg, R.; Råman Vinnå, L.; Ödalen, M.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and use a circulation model to estimate hydrographical and ecological changes in the isolated basin water of the Bornholm Basin. By pumping well-oxygenated so-called winter water to the greatest depth, where it is forced to mix with the resident water, the rate of deepwater density reduction increases as well as the frequency of intrusions of new oxygen-rich deepwater. We show that pumping 1000 m3 s-1 should increase the rates of water exchange and oxygen supply by 2.5 and 3 times, respectively. The CRV (cod reproduction volume), the volume of water in the isolated basin meeting the requirements for successful cod reproduction (S > 11, O2 > 2 mL L-1), should every year be greater than 54 km3, which is an immense improvement, since it has been much less in certain years. Anoxic bottoms should no longer occur in the basin, and hypoxic events will become rare. This should permit extensive colonization of fauna on the earlier periodically anoxic bottoms. Increased biomass of benthic fauna should also mean increased food supply to economically valuable demersal fish like cod and flatfish. In addition, re-oxygenation of the sediments should lead to increased phosphorus retention by the sediments.

  20. Petroleum geology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palo Duro Basin, Permian Basin, Texas is an asymmetric, relatively shallow, intracratonic basin in the southern Texas Panhandle filled mostly by Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian sedimentary rocks. Although deeper and prolific prolific petroleum-producing basins adjoin it on the north (Anadarko Basin), south (Midland Basin), and east (Hardeman Basin), the Palo Duro Basin has produced remarkably small amounts of oil and gas to date. This is all the more noteworthy because the sedimentary sequence and rock types of the basin are similar to those of the adjacent basins. Analyses of the stratigraphic succession and structural configuration of the Palo Duro Basin suggest that adequate reservoir rocks, top-seals, and geologic structures are present. Most of the structures formed early enough to have trapped hydrocarbons if they were migrating in the rock column. Although additional work is under way to properly address the question of the petroleum source rocks, generation, and migration, the general absence of production in the basin may relate to an overall deficiency in hydrocarbon generation within the basin. Geologic information in this report will form part of the basis for further analysis and conclusions on hydrocarbon potential in the Palo Duro Basin

  1. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  2. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments

  3. Preliminary discussion on relationship between deep-basin gas and uranium mineralization in Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep-basin gas is a kind of non-traditional natural gas deposit. The deep-basin gas in Ordos basin is closely associated with uranium mineralization. Upper Paleozoic in the basement of the basin represents both gas-sourced and uranium-sourced beds and uranium in Paleozoic strata is easily leachable. The squeezed water (i.e. deep-bed water) formed during the diagenetic process of uranium-sourced bed was rapidly heated and pressed making the uranium solubility in it greatly increased. It was just the peak-period of gas generation in the basin, and gas pressure greatly exceeded water pressure. So, the gas made deep-bed water moved and diffused upwards along faults. Because of the complicated gas-water geochemical barrier formed by the involvement of surface water, the precipitation of uranium occurred in overlying aquifers to form uranium deposit. This paper has summarized prospecting criteria of such uranium deposit as well

  4. Streamflow in the upper Santa Cruz River basin, Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow records obtained in the upper Santa Cruz River basin of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico, have been analyzed to aid in the appraisal of the surface-water resources of the area. Records are available for 15 sites, and the length of record ranges from 60 years for the gaging station on the Santa .Cruz River at Tucson to 6 years for Pantano Wash near Vail. The analysis provides information on flow duration, low-flow frequency magnitude, flood-volume frequency and magnitude, and storage requirements to maintain selected draft rates. Flood-peak information collected from the gaging stations has been projected on a regional basis from which estimates of flood magnitude and frequency may be made for any site in the basin. Most streams in the 3,503-square-mile basin are ephemeral. Ground water sustains low flows only at Santa Cruz River near Nogales, Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, and Pantano Wash near Vail. Elsewhere, flow occurs only in direct response to precipitation. The median number of days per year in which there is no flow ranges from 4 at Sonoita Creek near Patagonia to 335 at Rillito Creek near Tomson. The streamflow is extremely variable from year to year, and annual flows have a coefficient of variation close to or exceeding unity at most stations. Although the amount of flow in the basin is small most of the time, the area is subject to floods. Most floods result from high-intensity precipitation caused by thunderstorms during the period ,July to September. Occasionally, when snowfall at the lower altitudes is followed by rain, winter floods produce large volumes of flow.

  5. Supercritical bedforms in deep-marine lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor setting, Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing appreciation that seafloor gradients in many ancient deep-marine clastic environments are likely to have been steep enough to promote upper flow regime (Froude Number >1) processes and deposits. This issue was addressed by Komar (1971) who concluded that for a reasonable friction factor, f = 0.02, turbidity currents would be supercritical on slopes > 0.5°, a value exceeded on many basin-margin slopes and on the upper parts of submarine fans. Many deep-water depositional systems, therefore, probably contain significant volumes of deposits that have been misinterpreted using the classic Bouma Ta-Te divisions for a waning flow rather than as upper flow-regime (supercritical) bedforms. Using outcrop examples from lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor settings in the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, linked with recent experimental and theoretical work, this paper considers the range of deposits that can be reinterpreted as upper-flow regime bedforms in what might be termed "supercritical clastic systems". Such sedimentary structures involve a very wide range of grain sizes and include discontinuous and irregular sandwaves, backset (upstream-inclined) bedding in mounded gravels and sands and scour-and-fill structures. Irrespective of varying relative base level in the staging area for such flows, supercritical clastic systems show complex facies relationships. Komar, P.D. 1971. Hydraulic jumps in turbidity currents. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82, 1477-1488.

  6. When sink becomes source: Importance of sediment recycling in linked orogen-basin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Brian W.; Fosdick, Julie C.; Hubbards, Stephen M.; Fildani, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Much of the recent research on sedimentary system dynamics has focused on extant systems where the linkage of sediment production from eroding highlands can be directly linked to deposition in lowlands and/or offshore basins. Studies of such systems, typically late Pleistocene to Holocene in age, are especially valuable for quantitative constraints such as system morphometrics (e.g., longitudinal profiles, basin volumes, etc.) and rates of processes (e.g., erosion/denudation, sediment accumulation, etc.), which can be measured directly or estimated with relatively high certainty. Moreover, information about climate and tectonic forcings that are independent to the system is explicitly known for extant systems. However, an understanding of longer-term (>105 yr) evolution can only be gained through the investigation of ancient systems. Such systems are either buried in the subsurface, which requires geophysical remote sensing and/or drilling, or exposed at the Earth's surface as outcrops as the result of uplift and exhumation. The dynamic linkage of mountain belt and adjacent basin makes foreland basin systems ideal natural laboratories to address long-term sedimentary system evolution. In this presentation, we highlight important issues and challenges that sedimentary systems research is currently facing, with an emphasis on sediment recycling during progressive stages of basin development. In this context, we focus on sedimentary systems in which multiple episodes of uplift and erosion of the primary depocenter led to a history whereby basin material was repeatedly recycled. The spatial and temporal aspects of sediment recycling have implications for how provenance signals (based on composition, crystallization or metamorphic age information, thermal history, etc.) are used. Additionally, improved constraints regarding the timescales and magnitude of sediment recycling have implications for system-scale modeling. Key parameters such as total sediment volumes and

  7. Floodplain water storage in the Negro River basin estimated from microwave remote sensing of inundation area and water levels

    OpenAIRE

    Frappart, Frédéric; Seyler, Frédérique; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Leon, Juan Gabriel; A. Cazenave

    2005-01-01

    International audience The objective of this study is to determine spatio-temporal variations of water volume over inundated areas located in large river basins using combined observations from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1), the Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry satellite, and in-situ hydrographic stations. Ultimately, the goal is to quantify the role of floodplains for partitioning water and sediment fluxes over the great fluvial b...

  8. Temporal Variation of Sedimentation from Surface Runoff from Agricultural Land Uses in Sondu-Miriu Basin, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    K.O. Ouma; N.W. Mungai; N. Kitaka

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at two sites in Sondu-Miriu basin between November 2010 and May 2011, using runoff plots to determine the temporal variation of sediments, organic matter, solids and surface runoff from agricultural land uses. At Kabianga, lower sediment and surface runoff values were observed in natural vegetation while runoff was generally higher in April-May 2011 wet season. While there were significantly lower sediment concentrations and higher runoff volumes, organic content was s...

  9. Water exchange estimates derived from forcing for the hydraulically coupled basins surrounding Aespoe island and adjacent coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model study based on representative physical forcing data (statistically averaged from approximately 10 years) has been performed of the Aespoe area, subdivided into five separate basins, interconnected by four straits and connected to the Baltic coast through three straits. The water exchange of the shallow Borholmsfjaerden, with comparatively small section areas of its straits, is dominated by the sea level variations while the baroclinic exchange components (estuarine and intermediary circulation) also contribute. The average transit retention time (averaged over the basin volume for a full year cycle) is found to be a little over 40 days for exogenous water (i.e. coastal water and freshwater combined); this measure of the water exchange is comparable to the combined average of an ensemble consisting of 157 similarly analyzed basins distributed along the Swedish east and west coasts. The exchange mechanisms and model assumptions are discussed. The consequences for the retention times by short- and long-term variations of the forcing is also analyzed. The standard deviation (SD) of the retention time during an average year (intra-annual variation) is greater than the SD between years (interannual variation) for all basins except Borholmsfjaerden for which these two measures are in parity. The range of the retention times that results from an extreme combination of forcing factor variation between years is found to be greater the farther a particular basin is located from the coast, measured as the minimal number of separating straits. The results of an earlier investigation are also reviewed

  10. Understanding the hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin using multisource climate and remote sensing data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Demissie, Yonas; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we integrated satellite-drived precipitation and modeled evapotranspiration data (2000-2012) to describe spatial variability of hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin. Over 2000-2012 period, 4 out of 11 countries (Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) in the Nile Basin showed a positive water balance while three downstream countries (South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt) showed a negative balance. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass deviation in storage data analysis showed that at annual timescales, the Nile Basin storage change is substantial while over longer time periods, it is minimal (wetlands in South Sudan; this proportion is higher than the literature reported loss of 50% at the Sudd wetlands alone. The loss in runoff and flow volume at different sections of the river tend to be more than what can be explained by evaporation losses, suggesting a potential recharge to deeper aquifers that are not connected to the Nile channel systems. On the other hand, we also found that the expected average annual Nile flow at Aswan is greater (97 km3) than the reported amount (84 km3). Due to the large variations of the reported Nile flow at different locations and time periods, the study results indicate the need for increased hydrometeorological instrumentation of the basin. The study also helped improve our understanding of the spatial dynamics of water sources and sinks in the Nile Basin and identified emerging hydrologic questions that require further attention.

  11. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  12. The pollution removal and stormwater reduction performance of street-side bioretention basins after ten years in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Terry; Nichols, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the pollution removal and hydrologic performance of five, 10-year old street-side bioretention systems. The bioretention basins were subjected to a series of simulated rainfall events using synthetic stormwater. Four different pollution concentrations were tested on three of the bioretention basins. The four concentrations tested were: A) no pollution; B) typical Australian urban pollutant loads; C) double the typical pollution loads, and; D) five times the typical pollution loads. Tests were also undertaken to determine the levels of contaminant and heavy metals build-up that occurred in the filter media over the 10 year operational life of the bioretention systems. Although highly variable, the overall hydrological performance of the basins was found to be positive, with all basins attenuating flows, reducing both peak flow rates and total outflow volumes. Total suspended solids removal performance was variable for all tests and no correlation was found between performance and dosage. Total nitrogen (TN) removal was positive for Tests B, C and D. However, the TN removal results for Test A were found to be negative. Total phosphorus (TP) was the only pollutant to be effectively removed from all basins for all four synthetic stormwater tests. The study bioretention basins were found to export pollutants during tests where no pollutants were added to the simulated inflow water (Test A). Heavy metal and hydrocarbon testing undertaken on the bioretention systems found that the pollution levels of the filter media were still within acceptable limits after 10 years in operation. This field study has shown bioretention basin pollution removal performance to be highly variable and dependant on a range of factors including inflow pollution concentrations, filter media, construction methods and environmental factors. Further research is required in order to fully understand the potential stormwater management benefits of these systems. PMID:26254078

  13. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term solute transport through thick Cretaceous shale in the Williston Basin Canada using naturally-occurring tracer profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. The hydrogeologic evolution of sedimentary basins is generally determined from hydraulic and chemical data collected from aquifers. Hydraulic and chemical data from aquitards, which constitute a much greater volume of basins than aquifers and provide important controls on water and solute transport in the basins, are generally not collected nor studied. In this study we characterized the paleo-groundwater flow and solute transport controls through a vertical section of Cretaceous sediments in the Williston Basin, Canada located near Esterhazy, Saskatchewan. It consists of 384 m of thick argillaceous sediment (aquitard) overlying 93 m of heterogeneous calcareous silt, shale and sandstone (Mannville Fm.; aquifer). Paleo-hydrologic conditions were determined by interpreting high-resolution depth profiles of natural tracers of water isotopes (δ18O and (δ2H) and Cl- measured on (1) continuous core samples through the aquitard, upper aquifer, and thin Quaternary sediments, (2) water samples collected from monitoring wells installed in the aquifer and the Quaternary sediments, and (3) water samples collected from mine shaft inflows to 900 m below ground. 1D numerical transport modeling reproduced the measured profiles and yielded valuable information on the large-scale and long-term transport behavior in both the Cretaceous aquitard and the Basin. In the modeling, the shapes of the tracer profiles was explained by diffusion with paleo-events identified from the modeling including the introduction of fresher water into the aquifer possibly from the onset of glaciation (activation of the lower boundary) about 1 Ma ago and the impact of the most recent deglaciation about 10 ka ago (activation of the upper boundary). These findings show that the hydrogeologic conditions in deep, extensive basins, such as the Williston Basin, cannot be assumed to be static over geologic time. (authors)

  15. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow

  16. The value of thermochronometry to understanding mass accumulation in marine basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A.; Yan, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in sediment mass accumulation in marine basins are frequently assigned significance in terms of major changes in hinterland erosion rates as a consequence of climate change and/or tectonics. More often than not such interpretations are made on the basis of temporal associations with independent proxy records rather than direct evidence. A good example is the Cenozoic Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin in the South China Sea that contains large thicknesses of sedimentary rocks mostly deposited by outflow of a paleo Red River. Studies of seismic reflection data show basin sedimentation rates increased between 29.5-21 Ma, fell between 21 and 15.5 Ma, and rose once more between 15.5 and 10 .5 Ma with peak sedimentation rates in the Plio-Pleistocene. These changes have been widely seen as responses to shifts in the intensity of the East Asian monsoon (especially the changes that took place between 15.5-10 Ma) and/or local tectonics mainly connected to movements on the Red River Fault. The volume of sediment deposited in the Song Hong-Yinggehai Basin is equivalent to 504,350 km3 of eroded rock which if distributed across a drainage area similar to the present-day catchment of the Red River (~ 143,000 km2) represents about 3.53 km of denudation since 30 Ma, or less if the paleodrainage was once larger. To test if the palaeo Red River was once much larger or of similar size to the present apatite thermochronometry was used to define the long-term depths of erosion across northern Vietnam as well as more local sources such as Hainan Island. The long-term erosion rates derived from the thermochronometry show depths of erosion in northern Vietnam, averaged over an area similar to that of the modern Red River catchment, can account for 80% of the sediment deposited in the basin. The residual 20% can be explained by contributions from Hainan Island and the eastern margin of Vietnam. The results also show no major changes in erosion rates before or after 15 Ma thus shifts in

  17. Corrosion in ICPP fuel storage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant currently stores irradiated nuclear fuel in fuel storage basins. Historically, fuel has been stored for over 30 years. During the 1970's, an algae problem occurred which required higher levels of chemical treatment of the basin water to maintain visibility for fuel storage operations. This treatment led to higher levels of chlorides than seen previously which caused increased corrosion of aluminum and carbon steel, but has had little effect on the stainless steel in the basin. Corrosion measurements of select aluminum fuel storage cans, aluminum fuel storage buckets, and operational support equipment have been completed. Aluminum has exhibited good general corrosion rates, but has shown accelerated preferential attack in the form of pitting. Hot dipped zinc coated carbon steel, which has been in the basin for approximately 40 years, has shown a general corrosion rate of 4 mpy, and there is evidence of large shallow pits on the surface. A welded type 304 stainless steel corrosion coupon has shown no attack after 13 years exposure. Galvanic couples between carbon steel welded to Type 304 stainless steel occur in fuel storage yokes exposed to the basin water. These welded couples have shown galvanic attack as well as hot weld cracking and intergranular cracking, The intergranular stress corrosion cracking is attributed to crevices formed during fabrication which allowed chlorides to concentrate

  18. Satellite altimetry over large hydrological basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    The use of satellite altimetry for hydrological applications, either it is basin management or hydrological modeling really started with the 21st century. Before, during two decades, the efforts were concentrated on the data processing until a precision of a few decimeters could be achieved. Today, several web sites distribute hundreds of series spread over hundeds of rivers runing in the major basins of the world. Among these, the Amazon basin has been the most widely studied. Satellite altimetry is now routinely used in this transboundary basin to predict discharges ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. In a few years, satellite altimetry should evolve dramatically. This year, we should see the launchs of Jason-3 and that of Sentinel-3A operating in SAR mode. With SAR, the accuracy and resolution of a growing number of measurements should be improved. In 2020, SWOT will provide a full coverage that will join in a unique framework all the previous and forthcoming missions. These technical and thematical evolutions will be illustrated by examples taken in the Amazon and Congo basin.

  19. Corrosion in ICPP fuel storage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant currently stores irradiated nuclear fuel in fuel storage basins. Historically, fuel has been stored for over 30 years. During the 1970's, an algae problem occurred which required higher levels of chemical treatment of the basin water to maintain visibility for fuel storage operations. This treatment led to higher levels of chlorides than seen previously which cause increased corrosion of aluminum and carbon steel, but has had little effect on the stainless steel in the basin. Corrosion measurements of select aluminum fuel storage cans, aluminum fuel storage buckets, and operational support equipment have been completed. Aluminum has exhibited good general corrosion rates, but has shown accelerated preferential attack in the form of pitting. Hot dipped zinc coated carbon steel, which has been in the basin for approximately 40 years, has shown a general corrosion rate of 4 mpy, and there is evidence of large shallow pits on the surface. A welded Type 304 stainless steel corrosion coupon has shown no attack after 13 years exposure. Galvanic couples between carbon steel welded to Type 304 stainless steel occur in fuel storage yokes exposed to the basin water. These welded couples have shown galvanic attack as well as hot weld cracking and intergranular cracking. The intergranular stress corrosion cracking is attributed to crevices formed during fabrication which allowed chlorides to concentrate

  20. Basin-scale runoff prediction: An Ensemble Kalman Filter framework based on global hydrometeorological data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christof; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Devaraju, Balaji; Sneeuw, Nico; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-10-01

    In order to cope with the steady decline of the number of in situ gauges worldwide, there is a growing need for alternative methods to estimate runoff. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter based approach that allows us to conclude on runoff for poorly or irregularly gauged basins. The approach focuses on the application of publicly available global hydrometeorological data sets for precipitation (GPCC, GPCP, CRU, UDEL), evapotranspiration (MODIS, FLUXNET, GLEAM, ERA interim, GLDAS), and water storage changes (GRACE, WGHM, GLDAS, MERRA LAND). Furthermore, runoff data from the GRDC and satellite altimetry derived estimates are used. We follow a least squares prediction that exploits the joint temporal and spatial auto- and cross-covariance structures of precipitation, evapotranspiration, water storage changes and runoff. We further consider time-dependent uncertainty estimates derived from all data sets. Our in-depth analysis comprises of 29 large river basins of different climate regions, with which runoff is predicted for a subset of 16 basins. Six configurations are analyzed: the Ensemble Kalman Filter (Smoother) and the hard (soft) Constrained Ensemble Kalman Filter (Smoother). Comparing the predictions to observed monthly runoff shows correlations larger than 0.5, percentage biases lower than ± 20%, and NSE-values larger than 0.5. A modified NSE-metric, stressing the difference to the mean annual cycle, shows an improvement of runoff predictions for 14 of the 16 basins. The proposed method is able to provide runoff estimates for nearly 100 poorly gauged basins covering an area of more than 11,500,000 km2 with a freshwater discharge, in volume, of more than 125,000 m3/s.

  1. Regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin: Considerations of temporal scales of analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, Jonathan M.; Fry, Lauren M.; Gronewold, Andrew D.; Choi, Woonsup

    2014-11-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response commonly rely on regionalization techniques, where knowledge pertaining to gauged watersheds is transferred to ungauged watersheds. Hydrologic response indices have frequently been employed in contemporary regionalization research related to predictions in ungauged basins. In this study, we developed regionalization models using multiple linear regression and regression tree analysis to derive relationships between hydrologic response and watershed physical characteristics for 163 watersheds in the Great Lakes basin. These models provide an empirical means for simulating runoff in ungauged basins at a monthly time step without implementation of a rainfall-runoff model. For the dependent variable in these regression models, we used monthly runoff ratio as the indicator of hydrologic response and defined it at two temporal scales: (1) treating all monthly runoff ratios as individual observations, and (2) using the mean of these monthly runoff ratios for each watershed as a representative observation. Application of the models to 62 validation watersheds throughout the Great Lakes basin indicated that model simulations were far more sensitive to the temporal characterization of hydrologic response than to the type of regression technique employed, and that models conditioned on individual monthly runoff ratios (rather than long term mean values) performed better. This finding is important in light of the increased usage of hydrologic response indices in recent regionalization studies. Models using individual observations for the dependent variable generally simulated monthly runoff with reasonable skill in the validation watersheds (median Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.53, median R2 = 0.66, median magnitude of the deviation of runoff volume = 13%). These results suggest the viability of empirical approaches to simulate runoff in ungauged basins. This finding is

  2. A distributed runoff model for inland mountainous river basin of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENRensheng; KANGErsi; YANGJianping; ZHANGJishi

    2003-01-01

    In order to predict the futuristic runoff under global warming, and to approach to the effects of vegetation on the ecological environment of the inland river mountainous watershed of Northwest China, the authors use the routine hydrometric data to create a distributed monthly model with some conceptual parameters, coupled with GIS and RS tools and data. The model takes sub-basin as the minimal confluent unit, divides the main soils of the basin into 3 layers, and identifies the vegetation types as forest and pasture. The data used in the model are precipitation, air temperature, runoff, soil weight water content, soil depth, soil bulk density, soil porosity, land cover,etc. The model holds that if the water amount is greater than the water content capacity, there will be surface runoff. The actual evaporation is proportional to the product of the potential evaporation and soil volume water content. The studied basin is Heihe mainstream mountainous basin, with a drainage area of 10,009 km2. The data used in this simulation are from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 1995, and the first 10 years' data are used to simulate, while the last 5 years' data are used to calibrate. For the simulation process, the Nash-Sutcliffe Equation, Balance Error and Explained Variance is 0.8681,5.4008 and 0.8718 respectively, while for the calibration process, 0.8799, -0.5974 and 0.8800 respectively. The model results show that the futuristic runoff of Heihe river basin will increase a little. The snowmelt, glacier meltwater and the evaportranspiration will increase. The air temperature increment will make the permanent snow and glacier area diminish, and the snowline will rise. The vegetation, especially the forest in Heihe mountainous watershed, could lead to the evapoWanspimtion decrease of the watershed, adjust the runoff orocess, and increase the soil water content.

  3. Minivoids in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We consider a sphere of 7.5 Mpc radius, which contains 355 galaxies with accurately measured distances, to detect the nearest empty volumes. Using a simple void detection algorithm, we found six large (mini)voids in Aquila, Eridanus, Leo, Vela, Cepheus and Octans, each of more than 30 Mpc^3. Besides them, 24 middle-size "bubbles" of more than 5 Mpc^3 volume are detected, as well as 52 small "pores". The six largest minivoids occupy 58% of the considered volume. Addition of the bubbles and pores to them increases the total empty volume up to 75% and 81%, respectively. The detected local voids look like oblong potatoes with typical axial ratios b/a = 0.75 and c/a = 0.62 (in the triaxial ellipsoide approximation). Being arranged by the size of their volume, local voids follow power law of volumes-rankes dependence. A correlation Gamma-function of the Local Volume galaxies follows a power low with a formally calculated fractal dimension D = 1.5. We found that galaxies surrounding the local minivoids do not differ...

  4. Sonographic measurement of gallbladder volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, W J; Groh, W J; Darweesh, R M; Lawson, T L; Kishk, S M; Kern, M K

    1985-11-01

    Sonographic images of the gallbladder enable satisfactory approximation of gallbladder volume using the sum-of-cylinders method. The sum-of-cylinder measurements, however, are moderately cumbersome and time consuming to perform. In this investigation, in vitro and in vivo testing was done to determine that a simple ellipsoid method applied to sonographic gallbladder images yields reasonable volume approximations that are comparable to the volumes calculated by the sum-of-cylinders method. Findings from a water-bath experiment showed that measurement of gallbladder volume by the ellipsoid method closely approximated the true volume with a mean difference of about 1.0 ml. The results of in vivo studies in five volunteers demonstrated that the gallbladder contracted substantially after a fatty meal and that volumes calculated by the ellipsoid and sum-of-cylinders methods were nearly identical. Thus, a simple ellipsoid method, requiring negligible time, may be used to approximate satisfactory gallbladder volume for clinical or investigative studies. PMID:3901703

  5. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast volume summary - Volume 1 and Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste forecast volumes to be generated or received;at Westinghouse Hanford Company's Solid Waste program over the life cycle of the site are described in this report. Previous forecast summary reports have covered only a 30-year period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted for this FY 1996 report to ensure consistency with waste volumes reported in the 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans (MYPP). The volume data were collected on a life-cycle basis from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently ship or plan to ship solid waste to the Solid Waste program. The volumes described in detail are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic-mixed (TRU(M)) waste. The volumes reported in this document represent the external volume of the containers selected to ship the waste. Summary level information pertaining to low-level waste (LLW) is described in Appendix B. Hazardous waste volumes are also provided in Appendices E and F but are not described in detail since they will be managed by a commercial facility. Emphasis is placed on LLMW and TRU(M) waste because it will require processing and storage at Hanford Solid Waste's Central Waste Complex (CORK) prior to final disposal. The LLW will generally be sent directly to disposal. The total baselines volume of LLMW and TRU(M) waste forecast to be received by the Solid Waste program (until 2070) is approximately 100,900 cubic meters. This total waste volume is composed of the following waste categories: 077,080 cubic meters of LLMW; 23,180 cubic meters of TRU(M); 640 cubic meters of greater-than-class III LLMW. This total is about 40% of the total volume reported last year (FY 1995)

  6. Basin analysis and modeling of the burial, thermal and maturation histories in sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhous, M.; Galushkin, Y.

    2004-11-01

    This book is devoted to the field of basin analysis, and in particular to the one- and two-dimensional modeling of the burial, thermal and maturation histories of sedimentary basins, in the context of evaluating their hydrocarbon potential. A new modeling system is elaborated in this work and applied to continental basins. Particular attention is paid to specific features of basin evolution, including the compaction of sediments deposited at a variable rate, erosion of the sedimentary strata and basement, intrusive and hydrothermal activity, thermal activation and reactivation of the basement, lateral heat exchange of multiple-aged blocks of the oceanic and continental lithospheres, the jumping of spreading axes, etc. Alternative methods are applied for the control of tectonic subsidence, isostasy and rheology, lithosphere stretching and thinning. In order to evaluate their respective contributions to the thermal history of basins, a variety of situations are modeled, including spreading jumping, the evaluation of erosion heat, its impact on thermal history and links to pre- and post-sedimentation history, intrusion activity, and the formation and degradation of cryolitic zones (permafrost) in high-latitude basins of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. A joint analysis of heat flow transfer in the sedimentary cover and the underlying lithosphere and asthenosphere is applied to better reconstruct their thermal and maturation histories. To further enhance the model's validity, an additional powerful control tool is applied, based on the coincidence of two calculations of tectonic curve subsidence of the basement surface, obtained by two independent approaches: back-stripping and temperature-dependant density distribution in the crust. This approach is also used to refine the simulation sequence for tectonic and thermal events in the history of sedimentary basins. Contents: 1. The Geodynamic Setting and Some Geomechanical Aspects of the Initiation and

  7. Speculations on the formation of cratons and cratonic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Dan; Priestley, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Surface wave tomography using Rayleigh waves has shown that Tibet and the surrounding mountain ranges that are now being shortened are underlain by thick lithosphere, of similar thickness to that beneath cratons. Both their elevation and lithospheric thickness can result from pure shear shortening of normal thickness continental lithosphere by about a factor of two. The resulting thermal evolution of the crust and lithosphere is dominated by radioactive decay in the crust. It raises the temperature of the lower part of the crust and of the upper part of the lithosphere to above their solidus temperatures, generating granites and small volumes of mafic alkaline rocks from beneath the Moho, as well as generating high temperature metamorphic assemblages in the crust. Thermal models of this process show that it can match the P, T estimates determined from metamorphic xenoliths from Tibet and the Pamirs, and can also match the compositions of the alkaline rocks. The seismological properties of the upper part of the lithosphere beneath northern Tibet suggest that it has already been heated by the blanketing effect and radioactivity of the thick crust on top. If the crustal thickness is reduced by erosion alone to its normal value at low elevations, without any tectonic extension, over a time scale that is short compared to the thermal time constant of thick lithosphere, of ∼250 Ma, thermal subsidence will produce a basin underlain by thick lithosphere. Though this simple model accounts for the relevant observations, there is not yet sufficient information available to be able to model in detail the resulting thermal evolution of the sediments deposited in such cratonic basins.

  8. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J;

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate of...... albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  9. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J;

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  10. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged and...

  11. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed by a...... discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...

  12. Particles in small volume injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  13. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, T. (Texaco Overseas (Nig.) Petroleum Co., Lagos (Nigeria))

    1996-01-01

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia's oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra's magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  14. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, T. [Texaco Overseas (Nig.) Petroleum Co., Lagos (Nigeria)

    1996-12-31

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia`s oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra`s magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  15. Abiogenic hydrocarbons in commercial gases from the Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XianBin; WANG LianSheng; LIU ChunXue; YAN Hong; LI LiWu; ZHOU XiaoFeng; WANG YongLi; YANG Hui; WANG Guang; GUO ZhanQian; TUO JinCai; GUO HongYan; LI ZhenXi; ZHUO ShengGuang; JIANG HongLiang; ZENG LongWei; ZHANG MingJie

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the kinetic fractionation, composition and distribution characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopes for various alkane gases formed in different environments, by different mecha-nisms and from different sources in nature. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation or thermode-gradation of complex high-molecule sedimentary organic material can form microbial gas or ther-mogenic gas. The δ13C1 value ranges from -110‰ to -50‰ for microbial gases but from -51‰ to -35‰ (even heavier) for thermogenic gases. Controlled by the kinetic isotope fractionation, both microbial and thermogenic gases have δ13C and δD values characterized by normal distribution, i.e. δ13C1 δ13C2> δ13C3> δ13C4 and δDCH4<δDC2H6< δDC3H8< δDC4H10. The δ13C values and δD values are negatively correlated. Natural gases from 26 commercial gas wells distributed in the Xujiaweizi and Yingshan-Miaotaizi faulted de-pressions in the Songliao Basin, China, show δ13C1 values ranging from -30.5‰. to -16.7‰, with a very narrow δD range between -203‰--196‰. These gases are characterized by a reverse distribution of δ13C values but a normal distribution of δD values, and a negative correlation between their δ13C and δD values, indicating an abiological origin. The present study has revealed that abiogenic hydrocar-bons not only exist in nature but also can make significant contribution to commercial gas reserviors. It is estimated that the reserve volume of alkane gases with abiogenic characteristics in these 26 gas wells in the Songliao Basin is over 500×108 m3, The prospecting practice in the Songliao Basin has demonstrated that abiogenic alkane gases are of a promising resource, and it provides an example for the investigation of and search for abiogenic commercial natural gases worldwide.

  16. Abiogenic hydrocarbons in commercial gases from the Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    the reserve volume of alkane gases with abiogenic characteristics in these 26 gas wells in the Songliao Basin is over 500×108 m3. The prospecting practice in the Songliao Basin has demonstrated that abiogenic alkane gases are of a promising resource, and it provides an example for the investigation of and search for abiogenic commercial natural gases worldwide.

  17. Potential of using WATCH forcing data to model a low land river basin of the upper Murray-Darling basin in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, D.; Van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Scattered station based climate data is often not sufficient to describe the dynamics of the catchment processes and efficiently manage the water resources. Therefore, a lot of focus has been to identify alternative distributed data sources, such as; remotely sensed data or global re-analysis data. Hence, this study uses the Water and Global Change (WATCH) forcing data, based on 40 years ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), to model a semi-arid low land flood plain river basin in a data sparse region. The semi-distributed Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the river basin (Warrego, 52140.6 square km) located in the upper Murray-Darling basin in Eastern Australia. Multi station model calibration was achieved using the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting -2 (SUFI-2) algorithm with the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) as the goal function against monthly observed flow data. Modelling of a low land river system is highly challenging, due to topographic heterogeneity, nonlinear climatic behavior and sparse observed flow data with extended periods of zero flows. Preliminary simulation results indicate a NSE of 0.26 to 0.86 for the calibration period and 0.04 to 0.47 for the validation period. Furthermore, the volume fraction explained by the model ranged from 0.69 to 2.71 in the validation period. While the unsatisfactory results may be attributed to the SWAT modelling framework, which struggles with modelling flow in flat flood plains, the study does reveal the potential to use remotely sensed data in low land river basins with little or no climate data.

  18. Configuration Management Plan for K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes a configuration management program for K Basins that establishes the systems, processes, and responsibilities necessary for implementation. The K Basins configuration management plan provides the methodology to establish, upgrade, reconstitute, and maintain the technical consistency among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. The technical consistency afforded by this plan ensures accurate technical information necessary to achieve the mission objectives that provide for the safe, economic, and environmentally sound management of K Basins and the stored material. The configuration management program architecture presented in this plan is based on the functional model established in the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-1073-93, open-quotes Guide for Operational Configuration Management Programclose quotes

  19. Electricity, development and cooperation in mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy consumption along the southern rim of the Mediterranean basin is increasing much more quickly than on the northern side, in accordance with the different industrialization and urbanization rates. Over the last two decades, electric power consumption has been increasing throughout the basin at a rate exceeding not only that of total energy consumption but even that of the economy itself. The various electric power development strategies the countries of the Mediterranean have developed differ widely depending on the available energy resources they have. Power distribution systems are a strategic element of co-operation in the Mediterranean basin. Though all of these strategies involve cost trade-offs between diversification of energy sources, domestic supply and environmental protection, difficulties exist that may curtail the development of these programs. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. An important form of basin-mountain coupling:Orogenic belt and flank basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Erchie

    2004-01-01

    Orogeny is always associated with the erosion and sediments carried by both transverse and longitudinal river systems. Those two river systems transport sediments into foreland or hinterland basin and flank basin. Longitudinal river systems prevail in and around the Tibetan Plateau due to the fact that they flow parallel to the strike of structures within the developing mountain belt. The flank basins surrounded the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas are developed in different tectonic settings, including inland,continental margin and deep ocean, most of them containing oil and natural gas. Those basins not only have longer evolution histories than foreland basins but also are more complete in their records of deposition. Coupling of orogeny and flank basin deposition also occurred widely in pre-Cenozoic time, in particular, the coupling between the Qinling orogenic belt and Songpan-Ganzi flysch flank basin is the most distinctive. The evolution of ancient latitudinal rivers derived from the Qinling orogenic belt during periods of mountain building was controlled not only by landforms but also by the lateral extrusion of the crustal fragments.

  1. Ground-water hydraulics of the deep-basin brine aquifer, Palo Duro Basin, Texas panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin (Texas Panhandle) underlies thick Permian bedded evaporites that are being evaluated as a potential high-level nuclear waste isolation repository. Potentiometric surface maps of 5 units of the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer were drawn using drill-stem test (DST) pressure data, which were analyzed by a geostatistical technique (kriging) to smooth the large variation in the data. The potentiometric surface maps indicate that the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer could be conceptually modeled as 5 aquifer units; a Lower Permian (Wolfcamp) aquifer, upper and lower Pennsylvanian aquifers, a pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer, and a Pennsylvanian to Wolfcampian granite-wash aquifer. The hydraulic head maps indicate that ground-water flow in each of the units is west to east with a minor northerly component near the Amarillo Uplift, the northern structural boundary of the basin. The Wolfcamp potentiometric surface indicates the strongest component of northerly flow. Inferred flow direction in Pennsylvanian aquifers is easterly, and in the pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer near its pinch-out in the basin center, flow is inferred to be to the north. In the granite-wash aquifer the inferred flow direction is east across the northern edge of the basin and southeast along the Amarillo Uplift

  2. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  3. THE SUSTAINABLE RECOVERY OF THE TOURISM'S POTENTIAL OF VEGETATION IN THE BASIN OF SUCEAVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica FLUŢĂR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study followed in the first part, the analysis of the tourism potential of the natural vegetation within the basin of Suceava, the identification and description of the specific of tourism resources imposed by bio diversity, the drawing of cartographic representation of synthesis to reveal its potential volume and quality. In the second part, the data analysis and synthesis has allowed advancement of proposals for the development of tourism activities in sustainable development and the growing importance of this sector in all economic activities in the area and the NE Region.

  4. Iodine--hydrogen peroxide as a disinfectant for fuel storage basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine has been used effectively to maintain a large volume of water (5.7 x 106L) essentially free of bacteria (<10 microorganisms/mL) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The water, contained in a large concrete basin, is used for storing nuclear fuels, and a low bacteria population is essential to provide good water clarity for handling the fuel. Test results are presented to show the concentration of residual iodine in the water vs time, the effect of pH, and the measured bacteria population

  5. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  6. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  7. Exploration Experience and Problem concerning Deep Basin Gas in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaXinhua

    2004-01-01

    Deep basin gas (DBG) reservoirs, in view of the characteristics of their main parts containing gas, are a type of subtle stratigraphic lithologic traps. But they have different reservoir-forming principles, especially in the distribution of oil, gas and water. DBG is characterized by gas-water invertion, namely the water located above the gas; however, normal non-anticline subtle reservoirs have normal distribution of gas and water, namely the water located under the gas. The theory of DBG broke the conventional exploration idea that gas is usually found in the high part of reservoir and water is under the gas. So, it provided a wide field and a new idea for the exploration of natural gas. Recently Ben E. Law (2002), in his article entitled "Basin-centered Gas Systems", discussed global DBG systemically. He listed 72 basins or areas containing known or suspected DBG, covering North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South Asia, Middle East and Africa. Ordos basin, the Sichuan basin and the Jungar basin in China are presented and assumed to be of very high possibility. In China more attention has been paid to the research and exploration of DBG in the past years. The symposiums on DBG were held twice, in Guangzhou in 1998 and in Xi'an in 2000 respectively. In 2002 in particular, the publication of the book named Deep Basin Gas in China by Professor Wangtao indicated that China has entered a new stage in the research on DBG. Meanwhile, it is more cheering that the exploration of DBG in the Ordos Basin has achieved remarkable success. Therefore, analyzing the exploration experiences and problems regarding the Ordos basin will promote the exploration and research of DBG in China.

  8. Pyroclasts Key to Age and Use of Meter-Size Granite Basins, Sierra Nevada, CA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. G.; Gorden, M. A.; Sisson, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    More than 1000 meter-size granite basins at more than 220 sites occur in a 240-km-long belt from Lake Isabella north to the San Joaquin River on the west slope of the southern Sierra Nevada. The circular basins are carved in granitic outcrops at an average elevation of 1950 m. They range in volume from 40 to 1400 liters, median 130 liters. The basins display features compatible with a man-made origin, but required enormous, sustained labor to excavate. Until now their apparent purpose was believed to be some aspect of food preparation (Moore, Gorden, Robinson, Moring, 2008). About 120 km north of this belt a separate cluster of more than 350 similar granite basins occurs near a rare salt spring. They were clearly made by Indians to contain saline water to produce salt by evaporation (Moore and Diggles, 2009). An early study identified rhyolitic volcanic ash in the bottom of many basins in Sequoia National Park at both Giant Forest and at Redwood Meadow 13 km ESE (Stewart, 1929). That ash is unavailable, having been removed in recent time. Subsequent study of meadowland soils identified two ash layers in the region from explosive eruptions in the Mono Lake area: Tephra 1 and Tephra 2 (Wood, 1977). Later work indicates that Tephra 1 was erupted from the Glass Creek vent of the Inyo Craters (Miller, 1985) and that its refined age by tree-ring techniques is AD 1350 (Millar, King, Westfall, Alden, Delany, 2006). A fossil forest killed by Tephra 1 differs from modern forests in that it grew in the warmer climate of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP)--a period when drought conditions prevailed at lower elevations (Stine, 1994; Millar et al, 2006). In July 2010 ash was discovered near the bottom of a pristine granite basin (TUL-496) in a remote area of Giant Sequoia National Monument 14.5 km NW of Giant Forest. High-beam-current electron microprobe analyses of pumice glasses give Zr 145-420 ppm, homogeneous within lapilli, and correlated with MgO and CaO concentrations. The

  9. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runsescapements,...

  10. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  11. Subsurface Structure and the Stress State of the Utopia Basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, M. L.; Phillips, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    A great deal of work has been done in determining the resurfacing history of the northern lowlands; however, most of the previous research has focused on the depth and characteristics of the Hesperian and Amazonian plains units that cover an older, heavily cratered Noachian surface (e.g. Tanaka et. al. 2003). An analysis of the amount and density of fill within the Utopia Basin could provide valuable insight to the depositional environment of the northern lowlands during the earliest epoch of martian history. In the present study we use the topography and gravity data from recent Mars' missions to analyze the subsurface structure of the Utopia basin, focusing on the volume and density of fill that causes the shallowness of the basin. Using the assumption that the initial isostatic state of Utopia was similar to that of the Hellas basin allows us to construct a model for Utopia that facilitates investigation of its interior configuration. Based on the spherical harmonic, thin-shell elastic model of Banerdt (1986), we developed a system of equations that allows us to solve for the original basin shape, the amount of fill within Utopia basin, the amount of flexure due to the fill material, the total vertical load and the horizontal load potential. The presence of quasi-circular depressions within the Utopia basin (Frey 2004) indicates that the majority of the material within Utopia was deposited early in the Noachian when the elastic lithosphere of Mars was (presumably) relatively thin (15 km, with a corresponding lithospheric flexure/membrane deformation of >14 km. The high density obtained for the fill requires that it contain a large igneous component, the source of which is problematic. Relaxing the isostatic assumption to a reasonable degree perturbs the density bound only slightly. This thin-shell model also allows us to calculate the stress field due to the flexure/membrane strains. The stress results show that the circumferential and radial tectonic features

  12. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  13. Simplified vibratory characterization of alluvial basins

    CERN Document Server

    Semblat, Jean-François; Duval, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    For the analysis of seismic wave amplification, modal methods are interesting tools to study the modal properties of geological structures. Modal approaches mainly lead to information on such parameters as fundamental frequencies and eigenmodes of alluvial basins. For a specific alluvial deposit in Nice (France), a simplified modal approach involving the Rayleigh method is considered. This approach assumes a set of admissible shape functions for the eigenmodes and allows a fast estimation of the fundamental frequency of the basin. The agreement between modal numerical results and experimental ones is satisfactory. The simplified modal method then appears as an efficient mean for the global vibratory characterization of geological structures towards resonance.

  14. Basins of attraction for chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Erik A.; Panaggio, Mark J.; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Chimera states—curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators—typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we evaluate asymptotic states and associated destination maps, and demonstrate that basins form a complex twisting structure in phase space. Understanding the basins’ precise nature may help in the development of control methods to switch between chimera patterns, with possible technological and neural system applications.

  15. On algebraic volume density property

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A smooth affine algebraic variety $X$ equipped with an algebraic volume form $\\omega$ has the algebraic volume density property (AVDP) if the Lie algebra generated by completely integrable algebraic vector fields of $\\omega$-divergence zero coincides with the space of all algebraic vector fields of $\\omega$-divergence zero. We develop an effective criterion of verifying whether a given $X$ has AVDP. As an application of this method we establish AVDP for any homogeneous space $X=G/R$ that admi...

  16. Probability distributions of landslide volumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Brunetti; Guzzetti, F.; M. Rossi

    2009-01-01

    We examine 19 datasets with measurements of landslide volume, VL, for sub-aerial, submarine, and extraterrestrial mass movements. Individual datasets include from 17 to 1019 landslides of different types, including rock fall, rock slide, rock avalanche, soil slide, slide, and debris flow, with individual landslide volumes ranging over 10−4 m3VL&am...

  17. Topology-controlled volume rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Gunther H.; Dillard, Scott E.; Carr, Hamish; Pascucci, Valerio; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Topology provides a foundation for the development of mathematically sound tools for processing and exploration of scalar fields. Existing topology-based methods can be used to identify interesting features in volumetric data sets, to find seed sets for accelerated isosurface extraction, or to treat individual connected components as distinct entities for isosurfacing or interval volume rendering. We describe a framework for direct volume rendering based on segmenting ...

  18. Interactive High Performance Volume Rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Zellmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about Direct Volume Rendering on high performance computing systems. As direct rendering methods do not create a lower-dimensional geometric representation, the whole scientific dataset must be kept in memory. Thus, this family of algorithms has a tremendous resource demand. Direct Volume Rendering algorithms in general are well suited to be implemented for dedicated graphics hardware. Nevertheless, high performance computing systems often do not provide resources for hardwa...

  19. Large fused GPU volume rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis describes the underlying theory and implementation of a fused GPU volume rendering pipeline. The open source framework of XIP, largely developed at Siemens Corporate Research, is extended with fusion capabilities through a Binary Space Partitioning approach. Regions in the intersection pattern of multiple volumes are identified and subsequently rendered using either Texture Slicing or Raycasting in a cell based fashion. Results demonstrate interactive frame rates for reason...

  20. Formation and evolution of Turpan-Hami Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the analysis of regional stress field, the evolutionary of Tur pan-Hami Basin can be divided into three phases. The paper focuses on the analysis of stress features, types of basin, environment and thickness of deposition. (author)

  1. Ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Pattan, J.N.

    In order to delineate a mine site for ferromanganese nodules, extensive surveys were conducted in Central Indian Ocean Basin. Mapping of the basin by multibeam swath bathymetry (Hydrosweep) has revealed many new bottom relief features...

  2. Geology of the Caloris basin, Mercury: a view from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott L; Watters, Thomas R; Robinson, Mark S; Head, James W; Strom, Robert G; Chapman, Clark R; Solomon, Sean C; McClintock, William E; Prockter, Louise M; Domingue, Deborah L; Blewett, David T

    2008-07-01

    The Caloris basin, the youngest known large impact basin on Mercury, is revealed in MESSENGER images to be modified by volcanism and deformation in a manner distinct from that of lunar impact basins. The morphology and spatial distribution of basin materials themselves closely match lunar counterparts. Evidence for a volcanic origin of the basin's interior plains includes embayed craters on the basin floor and diffuse deposits surrounding rimless depressions interpreted to be of pyroclastic origin. Unlike lunar maria, the volcanic plains in Caloris are higher in albedo than surrounding basin materials and lack spectral evidence for ferrous iron-bearing silicates. Tectonic landforms, contractional wrinkle ridges and extensional troughs, have distributions and age relations different from their counterparts in and around lunar basins, indicating a different stress history. PMID:18599772

  3. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  4. Alluvial basin statistics of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SWPA_alvbsn is a vector dataset of alluvial-fill basin statistics for the Southwest United States. Statistics for each basin include physical details such as area,...

  5. Tectonomagmatic relationship between the Sierra Madre Occidental ignimbrite flare-up and the southern Basin and Range province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Labarthe-Hernandez, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is a Mid-Tertiary, large-volume, ignimbrite province at least 1,200 km long and 200-500 km wide, extending continuously from the U.S.-Mexico border (31\\deg N) to its intersection with the Mexican Volcanic Belt (21\\deg N). Considering the average thickness of 1,000 m for the ignimbrite plateau, based on several measured sections along the province, and the average wide of the province of 300 km, a conservative estimate of the physical volume of the SMO ignimbrites is about 360,000 km3. The southern part of the Basin and Range province is in Mexico. This extensional province overlaps in space and time with the SMO ignimbrite flare-up and formed NW- to NE-trending normal faults that bound many large grabens, which are particularly long and deep in the southern SMO. Basin and Range faulting occurred between at least 32 Ma and 12 Ma with both limits probably extending until the Eocene and the Quaternary. Ignimbrite activity can be as old as 51 Ma and as young as 17-16 Ma, but most of the ignimbrite volume was erupted in the 38-23 Ma period. Thus, the ignimbrite flare-up can be defined as a period of intense explosive volcanic activity that produced enormous volumes of silicic ignimbrite sheets, which took place mainly between 38 and 23 Ma in Mexico. The ignimbrite flare-up coincided in time with peaks in Basin and Range faulting, and the ignimbrite activity apparently migrated from the east-northeast to the west-southwest, i.e., from central Chihuahua (38-27 Ma) to Durango-Tayoltita-Nazas (32-29 Ma) to Zacatecas-Tepic (24-23 Ma), finishing by 16 Ma at Jalisco-Nayarit, as deduced from the compilation of geologic works done in the SMO. It is unknown yet whether there was a west-southward migration of Basin and Range faulting and if the ignimbrite flare-up occurred episodically as peaks (38-27 Ma, 32-29 Ma, and 24-23 Ma) or was continuous. Nevertheless, by the time that the ignimbrite flare-up started, the Basin and Range extension was

  6. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  7. New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.; Lawver, L.A.;

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999, new aerogeophysical surveys of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasia Basin produced the first collocated gravity and magnetic measurements over the western half of the basin. These data increase the density and extend the coverage of the U.S. Navy acromagnetic data from the 1970s. The new...... Norwegian-Greenland Sea. With the opening of the Labrador Sea, Greenland began similar to200 km of northward movement relative to North America and eventually collided with Svalbard, Ellesmere Island, and the nascent Eurasia ocean basin. Both gravity and magnetic data sets reconstructed to times prior to...

  8. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a

  9. Volume Reduction of Large Components - Minimising Waste Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycling concept comprises segmentation, decontamination, melting and clearance for recycling. Both metal scrap and large components are treated. The objective is to reduce the volume and weight of the waste and to recycle as much material as possible in order to reduce costs for storage in repository. Clearance of metals is applied in accordance with the European Commission's Recommendations for nuclear specific clearance, RP-89, Table 3. During the years, the demands for reduction of waste volumes have lead to improved techniques for pretreatment of large components prior to melting as well as minimisation of the waste volumes generated from the processes. In addition, the environmental aspect of a process that allows for recycling of valuable metals has become increasingly important. One example of a successful achievement is treatment and volume reduction of a full size 310 MT PWR steam generator. It began as a R and D project in co-operation with the Swedish nuclear power plant Ringhals and resulted in a unique concept for volume reduction and recycling of metal from steam generators. Focusing on systematic development in the area of waste treatment and recycling of radioactive metals Studsvik has established new techniques and logistics. The investments made have led to the development of methods for treatment of steam generators and other large components that have generated interest from utilities worldwide. The project objectives were to develop methods and techniques to achieve minimum waste volumes from the treatment of the Ringhals full size steam generator. Prior to treatment the steam generator had a weight of 310 MT and a storage volume of 400m3. The treatment resulted in less that 35m3 waste to be sent to repository, less than 9%

  10. Volume Reduction of Large Components - Minimising Waste Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Bjoern; Ekstrand, Stefan [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Kim, Jongbin [EuroNPC Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The recycling concept comprises segmentation, decontamination, melting and clearance for recycling. Both metal scrap and large components are treated. The objective is to reduce the volume and weight of the waste and to recycle as much material as possible in order to reduce costs for storage in repository. Clearance of metals is applied in accordance with the European Commission's Recommendations for nuclear specific clearance, RP-89, Table 3. During the years, the demands for reduction of waste volumes have lead to improved techniques for pretreatment of large components prior to melting as well as minimisation of the waste volumes generated from the processes. In addition, the environmental aspect of a process that allows for recycling of valuable metals has become increasingly important. One example of a successful achievement is treatment and volume reduction of a full size 310 MT PWR steam generator. It began as a R and D project in co-operation with the Swedish nuclear power plant Ringhals and resulted in a unique concept for volume reduction and recycling of metal from steam generators. Focusing on systematic development in the area of waste treatment and recycling of radioactive metals Studsvik has established new techniques and logistics. The investments made have led to the development of methods for treatment of steam generators and other large components that have generated interest from utilities worldwide. The project objectives were to develop methods and techniques to achieve minimum waste volumes from the treatment of the Ringhals full size steam generator. Prior to treatment the steam generator had a weight of 310 MT and a storage volume of 400m{sup 3}. The treatment resulted in less that 35m{sup 3} waste to be sent to repository, less than 9%.

  11. New insights into hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin: A multi-source satellite data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N. M.; Bohms, S.; Demissie, Y.; Gebremichael, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Nile River is the longest in the world with a length of 6,800 km. However, the contrast between the length of the river or the size of the basin and the comparatively small volume of basin runoff generated is a unique feature of the Nile Basin. Due to non-availability of in-situ hydrologic data, we do not clearly understand the spatial distribution of hydrologic sources and sinks and how much they control input-output dynamics? In this study, we integrated satellite-derived precipitation, and modeled evapotranspiration data (2000-2012) to describe spatial variability of hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin. We also used long-term gridded runoff and river discharge data (1869-1984) to understand the discrepancy in the observed and expected flow along the Nile River. Results indicate that over 2000-2012 period, 4 out of 11 countries (Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) in the Nile basin showed a positive water balance while three downstream countries (South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt) showed a negative balance. The top three countries that contribute most to the flow are Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. The study revealed that ~85% of the runoff generated in the Equatorial region is lost in an inter-station basin that includes the Sudd wetlands in South Sudan; this proportion is higher than the reported loss of 50% at the Sudd wetlands alone. The loss in runoff and flow volume at different sections of the river tend to be more than what can be explained by evaporation losses, suggesting a potential recharge to deeper aquifers that are not connected to the Nile channel systems. On the other hand, we also found that the expected average annual Nile flow at Aswan is larger (97 km3) than the reported amount (84 km3). Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass deviation in storage data analysis showed that at annual time-scales, the Nile Basin shows storage change is substantial while over longer-time periods, it is minimal (water sources and sinks in

  12. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  13. Analysis of land cover change impact on flood events using remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models: a case study of the Nyando River Basin in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, land cover changes in the Nyando River basin (3500 km2) of Kenya were analyzed and their impact of floods quantified. Three Landsat satellite images for 1973, 1986 and 2000 were acquired, processed and classified based on seven major land cover classes prevalent in the basin using a hybrid of supervised and non supervised classification procedures. The detected land cover changes, together with a DEM and a soil map of the basin, were then used to estimate physically based parameters for the selected hydrological models. The models were then used to estimate local and flood peak discharges and volumes arising from selected storm events for each state of the classified land cover dataset. To further understand how changes in the land cover may impact on the flood hydrology, three scenarios that represent quite extreme alternatives were formulated to study the possible bandwidth during floods. Land cover classification results revealed immense land degradation over the span of study. Forests reduced by an area of 488 km2 representing a 20% decline, while agricultural fields expanded by 581 km2 representing a 16% increase over the same period of time (1973-2000). Hydrological modeling results indicated that the basin underwent significant increase in the peak discharge value. The flood peak discharges in the whole basin were noted to have increased by at least 16% over the period of 1973 -2000.Flood volumes were also noted to have increased by at least 10% over the same period of time. (author)

  14. Consequences of artificial deepwater ventilation in the Bornholm Basin for oxygen conditions, cod reproduction and benthic biomass – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stigebrandt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We develop and use a circulation model to estimate hydrographical and ecological changes in the isolated basin water of the Bornholm Basin. By pumping well oxygenated so-called winter water, residing beneath the level of the summer thermocline, to the greatest depth of the basin, where it is forced to mix with the resident water, the rate of density reduction should increase and thereby the frequency of intrusions of new oxygen-rich deepwater. We show that pumping 1000 m3 s−1 should increase the rates of water exchange and oxygen supply by 2.5 and 3 times, respectively. The CRV (Cod Reproduction Volume, the volume of water in the isolated basin meeting the requirements for successful cod reproduction (S > 11, O2 > 2 mL L−1, should every year be greater than 54 km3, which is an immense improvement since it in certain years is currently much less. Anoxic bottoms should no longer occur in the basin and hypoxic events will become rare. This should permit extensive colonization of fauna on the earlier periodically anoxic bottoms. Increased biomass of benthic fauna should also mean increased food supply to economically valuable demersal fish like cod and flatfish. In addition, the bioturbation activity and re-oxygenation of the sediments should lead to increased phosphorus retention by the sediments.

  15. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-10-31

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

  16. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  17. Hydronomics and terranomics in the Nyando basin of Western Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Leah; Swallow, Brent; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the concepts of hydronomics as systems of rules that define water management and terranomics as systems of rules that define land management and explores their linkages in rainfed agriculture and irrigation areas in the Nyando basin. The upper reaches of the basin have experienced a change from large scale commercial farming to more intensive small holder farming while in the flood prone lower reaches of the basin several irrigation schemes have been set up. The basin has a co...

  18. Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K Basins are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage basins. The K Basins (K East and K West) are located in the Hanford 100K Area

  19. Detailed bathymetric surveys in the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; George, P.; Jaisankar, S.

    Over 420,000 line kilometers of echo-sounding data was collected in the Central Indian Basin. This data was digitized, merged with navigation data and a detailed bathymetric map of the Basin was prepared. The Basin can be broadly classified...

  20. The fate of evaporated water from the Ganges basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    This research studies river basin moisture recycling rates in order to determine the atmospheric part of the water cycle and the influence of the land surface there on. For river basins in India (Ganges and Indus), the fraction of evaporation that falls again as precipitation in the same river basin

  1. Riddled Basins of Attraction for Synchronized Type-I Intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancher, Martin; Nordahn, Morten; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1998-01-01

    Chaotic mortion resticted to an invariant subspace of total phase space may be associated with basins of attraction that are riddled with holes belonging to the basin of another limiting state. We study the emergence of such basins of two coupled one-dimensional maps, each exhibiting type...

  2. New Progress in Petroleum Exploration of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Digang

    1994-01-01

    @@ Basin Situation Tarim Basin located in the northwest of China, is one of the few largest basins in the world that haven't been well-explored, covering an area of 560 000km2, a little bit larger than that of France.

  3. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  4. Fast Volume Rendering and Deformation Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Haixin

    2001-01-01

    Volume rendering is a technique for simultaneous visualization of surfaces and inner structures of objects. However, the huge number of volume primitives (voxels) in a volume, leads to high computational cost. In this dissertation I developed two algorithms for the acceleration of volume rendering and volume deformation. The first algorithm accelerates the ray casting of volume. Previous ray casting acceleration techniques like space-leaping and early-ray-termination are only efficient when m...

  5. Basin development and tectonic history of the Llanos Basin, Eastern Cordillera, and Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.A. [PanCanadian Petroleum, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Addison, F.T.; Alvarez, R. [BP Exploration Ltd., Bogota (Colombia)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Middle Magdalena Valley, Eastern Cordillera, and Llanos basin constituted a major regional sedimentary basin from the Triassic to the middle Miocene. Basin development began during the Triassic to the earliest Cretaceous with a synrift megasequence related to the separation of North and South America in the proto-Caribbean. The synrift megasequence began with deposition in a continental environment that became paralic and shallow marine in the Early Cretaceous. Basin development continued into the Cretaceous in a back-arc setting east of the Andean subduction zone. The back-arc megasequence was dominated by shallow-marine sedimentation and produced an excellent regional source rock during the Turonian-Coniacian. Marine deposition was abruptly terminated during the early Maastrichtian due to the final accretion of the Western Cordillera.

  6. The Sequence Architecture of Volcanic Basin Fillings- An Example From Xujiaweizi Faulted Depression In Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Rihui; LIU Wanzhu; SHAN Xuanlong; WANG Pujun; CHEN Shumin; QU Yongbao

    2001-01-01

    The basin filling geometric pattern of volcanic eruptive rocks depends on both of the eruptive locations in a basin and structural styles of fault terraces. It is divided into three types by eruptive locations and occurrences of eruptive rocks, including the pattern of eruption along fault and occurrence (PEAFO), the pattern of eruption on footwall of a fault and occurrence (PEOFO) and the pattern of eruption on hangingwall of fault and occurrence (PEOHO) in Xujiaweizi fault depression of Songliao basin, Northeast of China. Those basin filling patterns of volcanic eruptive rocks are of specific geometric characteristics controlling or affecting sedimentation, geometry of sedimentary body and sequence architecture during a sequence evolution. The study shows that the volcanic rocks developed at different stages of lowstand, transgressive and highstand can give different controls or affects on the sequence architecture.

  7. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — VERSION 5/15/2012 HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION PRODUCTS FOR THE OFF-PROJECT WATER PROGRAM OF THE KLAMATH BASIN RESTORATION AGREEMENT By Daniel T. Snyder, John C....

  8. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199...

  9. Basin Subsegments from LDEQ source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [basin_subsegments_LDEQ_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon data set of watershed basin subsegments for Louisiana. The dataset was developed for the LDEQ Office of Water Resources' watershed assessment and...

  10. Development of indicators for assessment of Lake Malawi Basin in an Integrated Lake Basin Management (ILBM) framework

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Limbitso Chidammodzi; Victor Shiholo Muhandiki

    2015-01-01

    This paper sought to understand the current state of the management environment of Lake Malawi Basin, deduce a lake vision and develop indicators for assessing Integrated Lake Basin Management (ILBM) in the lake basin. The premise of the study was that targeted indicators are necessary to effectively monitor the lake basin and manage it sustainably. The study focused on the Malawian side of the lake. Interviews, field observations and review of existing lake management and indicator developme...

  11. Water Allocation Challenges in Rural River Basins: A Case Study from the Walawe River Basin,Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Weragala, D. K. Neelanga

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the water allocation challenges in the rural river basins of the developing world, where demands are growing and the supply is limited. While many of these basins have yet to reach the state of closure, their water users are already experiencing water shortages. Agricultural crop production in rural river basins of the developing world plays a major role in ensuring food security. However, irrigation as the major water consumer in these basins has low water use eff...

  12. Fostering Payments for Environmental Services (PES) in the Danube Basin: Why the Danube Basin and why payments for environmental services?

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, A.; Gutman, P.; Long, T.

    2005-01-01

    This publication describes the characteristics of the Danube basin and reviews the history of land use and ecological health in different parts of the basin. Several studies in recent years have identified numerous threats to the basin from development, industry, agriculture, tourism, and land management practices. These threaten the fragile ecosystems that support biodiversity and provide valuable environmental services. Although Danube basin countries have implemented programs to address so...

  13. Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hourticq, Joel; Megevand, Carole; Tollens, Eric; Wehkamp, Johanna; Dulal, Hari

    2013-01-01

    The Congo Basin represents 70 percent of the African continent's forest cover and constitutes a large portion of Africa's biodiversity. Agricultural development is a central lever to help people out of poverty, as well as a key driver of deforestation. Forest-friendly agricultural development is a challenge for the region. This report describes some ways forest-friendly agricultural develo...

  14. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    favourably orientated with respect to pre-existing structures in the lithosphere. Furthermore, stresses derived from lithospheric potential energy variations as well as those from plate boundary forces must be taken into account in order to explain intraplate seismicity and deformation such as basin...

  15. A layered moldavite from the Cheb Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Čada, M.

    Houston: Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2006. [Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /37./. 12.03.2006-17.03.2006, League City] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/2593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : moldavite * CHeb basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Analytical framework for River Basin Management Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Frederiksen, Pia;

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of the planning approach, and the processes and procedures, which have been followed in the preparation of the River Basin District Management Plans (RBMPs). Different countries have different policy and planning traditions and -styles. Developed o...

  17. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  18. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline

  19. Synthetical Approach to the Romanian Tisa Basin

    OpenAIRE

    POMPEI COCEAN; ADRIANA VARTANOFF

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the Romanian Review of Regional Studies is dedicated to the synthesis of the project entitled “The analysis of the present state of territorial development tendencies in the Romanian Tisa Basin”, representing the first stage of research, at national level, of the development phenomena within the entire hydrographical basin, approached together by Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine and Serbia.

  20. Structure and Hydrocarbons in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆春; 田在艺

    2002-01-01

    Having undergone four basin-forming tectonic cycles--Hercynian, Indosinian, Yanshanian, and Himalayan, the Junggar basin becomes a multi-cyclic superposed basin of old and hard mediun block pattern. Its multi-cyclic tectonic and sedimentary evolution results in five series of hydrocarbon source rock formations--Carboniferous, Permian, Upper Triassic, Middle-lower Jurassic, and Lower Tertiary, correspondingly forming five petroleum generation systems, of which the Permian and Middle-lower Jurassic petroleum generation systems are the most important with the highest exploration degree. Hydrocarbons are controlled by basin structure as follows: 1) Hydrocarbon accumulations are controlled by the structural styles of paleo-uplifts, paleo-overthrust belts and contorted anticline belts formed in multi-cyclic tectonic movements; 2) Important pathways for long distance lateral and vertical migration are provided respectively by unconformities and faults; 3) The pool-forming characteristics of the Permian petroleum system are controlled by paleo-structure; 4) The pool-forming characteristics of Jurassic and Tertiary petroleum system are controlled by recent structures.