Sample records for basilicata southern italy

  1. 2D electrical resistivity tomographies for investigating recent activation landslides in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy

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    L. Telesca


    Full Text Available The results of a geoelectrical survey in the study of recent activation landslides in the Lucanian Apennine chain (Southern Italy are discussed in this paper. During the last two years, after meteorological conditions which affected Southern Italy and in particular Basilicata Region, many landslides occurred in this area as reactivations of old movements. These reactivations seriously damaged buildings and infrastructure and they threatened the safety of the people living in the area. Taking into account the complexity and danger of the phenomena, some evacuation decrees for a few houses were adopted. In a short time and at low cost, by using the Mobile Laboratory of IMAA for geophysical measurements, active geoelectrical investigations were carried out and data processing performed using innovative techniques for data inversion. The results represent a valid cognitive support to choose the most appropriate technical solution for strengthening of the slopes and an example of best practice for the cooperation between the Civil Protection of Basilicata Region and IMAA-CNR

  2. Tree-ring growth and climate response of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in Basilicata (Southern Italy

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    Todaro L


    Full Text Available A dendroclimatic study on silver fir (Abies alba Mill. was carried out in the Abetina of Ruoti (PZ, Basilicata - southern Italy, a nearly natural mixed Quercus cerris - Silver fir forest. Observations were made on twenty-three large size dominant silver fir trees and dendroecological analyses performed for the period 1866-2007. Results show that late spring/summer precipitations, rather than temperatures, are the most critical factor affecting silver fir growth in this area.

  3. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

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    Todaro L


    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  4. The Occurrence of Phellinus torulosus in Apulia and Basilicata (Southern Italy : IDentification of Isolates by Morphologic, Microscopic, and Molecular Means

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    G. Campanile


    Full Text Available Basidiomes of Phellinus torulosus were found in 9 oak woods in Apulia and Basilicata (Southern Italy; from these basidiomes 138 isolates of P. torulosus were obtained and identified by their morphologic, microscopic, and molecular characteristics. Based on the type of aerial mycelium (fluffy, cottony or powdery and its growth, 9 morphotypes were identified. The morphology of the cultures was not correlated with the microscopic character of the 9 morphotypes. Molecular analysis, such as intergenic transcribed spacers-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS region, confirmed the results obtained with microscopy analysis.

  5. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi


    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  6. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in animals of Apulia and Basilicata, Italy. (United States)

    Muscarella, Marilena; Armentano, Antonio; Iammarino, Marco; Palermo, Carmen; Amorena, Michele


    This study evaluates the presence of anticoagulant rodenticides in animals with a diagnosis of suspected poisoning and in bait samples. The survey was carried out from 2010 to 2012, in 2 regions of South Italy (Puglia and Basilicata) on 300 organs of animals and 90 suspected bait samples. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted using an analytical method based on high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection (FLD) for the simultaneous determination of 8 anticoagulant rodenticides (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, coumachlor, coumafuryl, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, flocoumafen, and warfarin). The presence of anticoagulant rodenticides was detected in 33 organs of animals (11% of the total) and 6 bait samples (7% of the total). The most commonly detected compound was coumachlor (47% of 39 positive samples) followed by bromadiolone (24%), and brodifacoum (11%). The species mostly involved in anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning were dogs and cats. This study emphasizes the relevance of the determinations of anticoagulant rodenticides in cases of suspected poisoning in veterinary practice.

  7. Approaching the Kyoto targets: a case study for Basilicata region (Italy)

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    Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Pietrapertosa, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Cosmi, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito Scalo (Italy). Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Fisiche


    Approaching the national Kyoto Protocol (KP) targets involves a re-definition of the actual configuration of local energy systems. This study deals with a local scale application of the IEA-MARKAL models generator, in which the anthropogenic system of Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) is investigated to support the definition of coherent long- term strategies and sound climate protection policies. A scenario by scenario analysis points out the behaviour of the optimal mix of fuels and technologies in the presence of carbon dioxide emissions constraints. Trade off curves and reduced costs analyses outline the most effective actions for contributing to the national KP targets, with particular emphasis on the interventions in Civil (Residential, Commercial and Services) and waste management sectors. (author)

  8. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

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    Guarrera Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  9. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy). (United States)

    Salerno, Giovanni; Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Caneva, Giulia


    Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy), as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1%) and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%); most of the latter are now in decline. 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses). Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red) are previously unpublished.

  10. Environmental monitoring in many places of Basilicata and Puglie regions (Italy) since 1990 to 1993

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    Fraschetti, G.; Petagna, E.; Nocella, S.; Pappada', C.; Silvestri, N.; Magno, P.


    Since 1990 until 1993 the unity AMB-MON-MATRI of Trisaia research center of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) was many times requested from regional authorities to carry out an accurate monitoring of environmental radioactivity in many places of Basilicata and Puglie regions (Italy). In this paper the results of these works are showed

  11. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy

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    Montesano Vincenzo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’, one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy. Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L. as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge.

  12. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata region (South Italy). (United States)

    Montesano, Vincenzo; Negro, Donatella; Sarli, Giulio; De Lisi, Antonino; Laghetti, Gaetano; Hammer, Karl


    The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.'Zì Matteo', En. 'Uncle Matthew'), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of 'Vruca' (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge.

  13. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) (United States)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.


    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other

  14. Ritual healing in Arbereshe Albanian and Italian communities of Lucania, southern Italy

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    Quave, C.L.; Pieroni, A.


    This article describes the traditional healing and magical practices of three Arbëreshë and three Italian communities in the northern part of the Region Basilicata (Lucania), southern Italy. Data include several folk illnesses not previously discussed in the literature on south Italian nosology,

  15. Rockfall risk assessment for a road along the coastal rocky slope of Maratea (Basilicata Region, Italy) (United States)

    Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Colangelo, G.; Petraglia, A.; Pizzo, V.


    The rockfall risk has been evaluated for the Tirrena Inferiore State Road SS18 between 220+600 and 243+670 Kilometers in the coastal area of Maratea (Basilicata, Italy) through a specific multilayer technique. These results are particularly significant as validated in field through the occurrence of rockfall events after the study. The study part of "Tirrena Inferiore" SS18 road is often affected by rockfalls, which periodically (coinciding with abundant rainfalls, earthquakes and temperature lowering) cause large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. In order to assess the rockfall risk and define the countermeasure needed to mitigate the risk, an integrated index-based and physically-based approach was implemented. The roadway is subject to slopes with steep rocky vertical or sub-vertical faces affected by different systems of discontinuities, that show a widespread fracturing. The superficial parts of slopes are characterized by gaping fracturing, often karstified. Several historical rockfall events were recognized in the area and numerous geomechanical analyses, finalized to the stability analysis of rock walls, were carried out. The localization of the potentially unstable areas and the quantification of relative rockfall risk were evaluated through three successive phases of analysis. First, a map based on SMR (Slope Mass Rating) Index of Romana (1985) was produced, through a spatial analysis of both geomechanical parameters, such as the RMR Index of Bieniawski, and the distribution of the discontinuities. This approach therefore allowed the estimation of the potentially unstable zones and their classification on the basis of the resulting stability degree. Subsequently, an analysis of the rockfall trajectories in correspondence to the most unstable zones of slope was carried out by using ROTOMAP, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation software. The input data for computing the rockfall trajectories are the following: (1) digital terrain model (DTM), (2

  16. Predictive models and spatial analysis for the study of deserted medieval villages in Basilicata Region (Italy) (United States)

    Biscione, Marilisa; Danese, Maria; Masini, Nicola; Sabia, Canio


    The study is focused on villages that are abandoned throughout the Basilicata from the 13th to the 15th century (Masini 1998), which is an emblematic case of abandonment of settlements in Late Middle Ages, which was a very common phenomenon throughout the whole Europe, attracting the interest of several historians and archaeologists (Demians d'Archimbaud 2001) The aim of the present study is to offer a contribution to knowledge of the medieval Basilicata's landscapes and settlement's dynamics with a multidisciplinary approach, derived from the rescue archeology: we have integrated the documentary sources with the use of spatial analysis and predictive models (Danese et al. 2009). The preventive archeology was born to conciliate the protection of archeological heritage, in evidence and potential, with the needs of urban design and planning. It is of fundamental importance, for a reliable evaluation of archaeological potential (identifying invisible traces) to use innovative diagnostic technologies: geophysical prospections, remote sensing (Lasaponara & Masini 2010; Lasaponara et al. 2016) and spatial analysis for the creation of predictive models. The latter are used to accomplish operational purposes but also for the historical landscape reconstruction (Danese et al. 2013; 2014). They contribute to analyse settlements and their dynamics on the basis of definite method and parameters. Thanks to predictive models it is possible, in fact, to start off by information of well-known archeological sites and use this knowledge as an empiric test for understand which elements have influenced their localization in the space. The relationships among natural environment, social context and position site are analysed in order to make clear the rules of settlement. These rules are then used into the model (Podobnikar et al. 2001). In this work the employed methodology is Spatial Analysis, in order to subdivide the territory based on its importance respect to a given function

  17. Review on the use and the application of the ESA (Environmental Sensitive Areas methodology and updating of the map of environmental sensitivity areas to desertification for the Basilicata Region, Italy.

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    Ferrara A


    Full Text Available The estimation of environmental sensibility to desertification at regional scale requires the setting up of elaboration and updating methodologies capable of handling considerable amounts of data in an integrated approach. This would allow evaluating the different stages of environmental degradation as well as the existing interactions among the singular components of the territory. These maps are also strongly related to climate conditions, land use changes and new data availability. The present paper proposes a complete review on the environmental sensibility areas index (ESA methodology and its applicability in the Mediterranean context as an environmental management tool and a methodology for updating an ESA map, applied on the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy. The ESA map updating process with new spatial data sets, beside the interests for the updated information, represents a methodological reference for using and converting new spatial layer information into such scheme. An analysis of the differences among the two risk maps (past and present is also presented.

  18. The green economy for sustainable development: a spatial multi-criteria analysis - ordered weighted averaging approach in the siting process for short rotation forestry in the Basilicata Region, Italy

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    Severino Romano


    Full Text Available Optimising bioenergy chains and the creation of a bio-energy district can make a positive contribution to territorial development, land use planning and employment, while reducing environmental pollution. Energy planning issues are complex problems with multiple decision makers and criteria. Given the spatial nature of the problem, the present paper proposes a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach for supporting decision makers in the site selection process for short rotation forestry planting in the Basilicata Region, southern Italy. The methodology applied in the decision-support system is ordered weighted averaging, extended by means of fuzzy linguistic quantifiers. The purpose of the research is to formulate a systematic procedure to analyse complex decision problems, while supplying decision makers with a flexible tool to decide on possible agro-energy policies. The outcomes of the analysis may support decision makers in defining targeted agro-energy policies and help the private sector to identify the most appropriate cropping plan.

  19. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

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    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  20. Predicting Hydraulic Properties From Soil Physical and Topographical Data With A Neural Network Model For A Hillslope In Basilicata, Italy (United States)

    Leij, F. J.; Romano, N.; Schaap, M. G.; Palladino, M.

    Italy Infiltration and runoff of water on the slopes of mountains and hills are important components of hydrological models at the catchment and basin scale. The application of such models is being investigated for the Agri River basin in Basilicata. As part of the study, soil physical and other data were collected along the SCorletoT transect on & cedil;a hillslope of the Sauro River, which is the main tributary to the Agri River. The water retention and hydraulic conductivity are important parameters because they determine surface runoff and infiltration as well as subsurface flow. Since the measurement of hydraulic properties requires considerable time and resources, these properties have also been investigated with pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The objective of this study was to develop PTFs that use both basic soil properties and topographical variables. Water contents were measured on undisturbed soil samples at suctions of 1, 2, 5, 9, and 15 kPa with a sand-kaolin box and at 300, 600, and 1200 kPa with a membrane plate apparatus. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was determined according to the falling head method in the laboratory. Among the basic soil properties that were determined are: bulk density, particle density, porosity, organic carbon content, and particle-size distribution. Furthermore terrain attributes such as elevation, slope, as- pect were available from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The retention data were described with the parameters of the van Genuchten equation. Spearman Rank Corre- lations revealed a significant positive correlation between elevation and porosity, or- ganic carbon, silt fraction, and saturated water content and a negative correlation with bulk density, sand fraction and alpha. The slope was positively correlated with Ks and negatively with particle density and saturated water copntent. Retention parameters and hydraulic conductivity were subsequently predicted with a neural network model using various

  1. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

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    Lucia Leporatti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  2. Waste management system optimisation for Southern Italy with MARKAL model

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    Salvia, M.; Cosmi, C. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, C. da S. Loja, 85050 (PZ) Tito Scalo (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Mangiamele, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente, Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, C. da Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza (Italy)


    The MARKAL models generator was utilised to build up a comprehensive model of the anthropogenic activities system which points out the linkages between productive processes and waste disposal technologies. The aim of such a study is to determine the optimal configuration of the waste management system for the Basilicata region (Southern Italy), in order to support the definition of the regional waste management plan in compliance with the Italian laws. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of landfilling fees on the choice of waste processing technologies, in order to foster waste management strategies which are environmentally sustainable, economically affordable and highly efficient. The results show the key role of separate collection and mechanical pre-treatments in the achievement of the legislative targets.

  3. Precipitation change in Southern Italy linked to global scale oscillation indexes

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    T. Caloiero


    Full Text Available This study investigates precipitation variability in five regions of Southern Italy (Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily using a homogeneous database of about 70 rain gauges with more than 50 years of observation. First, a statistical analysis was performed through the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test in order to determine rainfall the trend on both yearly and seasonal scales. Then, the relationship between the rainfall and some teleconnection pattern indexes was investigated using Spearman's test. The results show remarkable statistically significant negative trends for annual and winter aggregations in most part of the series. Moreover, a strong correlation has emerged between the teleconnection patterns and precipitation in Southern Italy, particularly in winter and on the Tyrrhenian side of the study area.

  4. Carbapenemases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitals of two regions of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Calia, Carla; Pazzani, Carlo; Oliva, Marta; Scrascia, Maria; Lovreglio, Piero; Capolongo, Carmen; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Chiarelli, Adriana; Monno, Rosa


    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections are reported with increasing frequency elsewhere in the world, representing a worrying phenomenon for global health. In Italy, there are hotspot data on the diffusion and type of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and K. pneumoniae in particular, with very few data coming from Apulia and Basilicata, two regions of Southern Italy. This study was aimed at characterizing by phenotypic and genotypic methods carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from several Hospitals of Apulia and Basilicata, Southern Italy. Antibiotic susceptibility was also evaluated. The relatedness of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 150 K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, KPC-3 genotype was the most predominant (95%), followed by VIM-1 (5%). No other genotypes were found and no co-presence of two carbapenemase genes was found. A full concordance between results obtained by both the phenotypic and the genotypic tests was observed. All strains were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems, and among antibiotics tested, only tetracycline and gentamycin showed low percentage of resistance (18% and 15%, respectively). Resistance to colistin was detected in 17.3% of strains studied. The analysis of PFGE profiles of the carbapenemases-positive strains shows that one group (B) of the five (A to E) main groups identified was the most prevalent and detected in almost all the hospitals considered, while the other groups were randomly distributed. Three different sequence types (ST 307, ST 258, and ST 512) were detected with the majority of isolates belonging to the ST 512. Our results demonstrated the wide diffusion of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 in the area considered, the good concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Gentamicin and colistin had a good activity against these strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  5. Agro-pastoral diets in southern Italy from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age

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    Arena, Fabiola; Mannino, Marcello; Philippsen, Bente

    ), Basilicata (Murgia Timone, Grotta Funeraria and Toppo d’Aguzzo) and Apulia (Ipogeo dei Bronzi). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses inform us mainly on the intake of dietary protein, although, in diets characterized by limited meat consumption, they also provide us with information on plant consumption...... of prehistoric southern Italians were mixed and based on the consumption of terrestrial resources, including generally moderate proportions of animal protein (e.g. meat and dairy products) and isotopically-detectable proportions of C3 plants (e.g. cereals and legumes). Slight differences in the proportion......The period from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age was a time of considerable socio-cultural and economic change, which affected human diets. To improve our understanding of dietary change in communities living in the south of Italy during this period, we have undertaken stable carbon and nitrogen...

  6. Prevalence of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from raw beef in southern Italy. (United States)

    Nobili, Gaia; Franconieri, Ilenia; La Bella, Gianfranco; Basanisi, Maria Grazia; La Salandra, Giovanna


    Verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a significant foodborne public health hazard, where most human infections are associated with six serogroups (O157, O26, O103, O145, O111 and O104). VTEC was the fourth most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU in 2015, with 5901 confirmed human cases. Ruminant animals, including cattle, are a major reservoir of VTEC. The consumption of VTEC-contaminated animal-derived foodstuffs, especially undercooked ground beef, is an important transmission route. To the best of our knowledge, there are few data available on the contamination of VTEC in meat products in Italy. During 2015 and 2016, 250 raw meat samples were collected from retail markets in southern Italy (Apulia) and analysed for the occurrence of vtx genes (vtx1/vtx2) at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata (IZS PB, Italy). In addition, the isolates were characterized by determining the presence of VTEC main virulence factors, the antimicrobial resistance profiles and the genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results have shown that 8.4% (21/250) of the samples were positive for vtx genes in the preliminary screening step but VTEC strains were isolated from only 2% (5/250) of overall meat analysed samples, including raw ground beef, beef hamburger and beef carpaccio. 5 isolates displayed a multi-drug resistance phenotype. All VTEC strains were analysed by XbaI-PFGE and dendrogram revealed 5 distinct restriction profiles, indicating their relatively high genetic diversity. Although this study demonstrates a low prevalence of VTEC in raw beef marketed in southern Italy, the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains points to the need for proper hygiene during meat production to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms via foods to humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of asbestos observed in soils developed within San Severino Lucano village (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Punturo, Rosalda; Ricchiuti, Claudia; Apollaro, Carmine


    Concerns of potential health effects from disturbed natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) have resulted in environmental investigations worldwide, including Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Indeed, in this region, an increased number of lung disease were related to the environmental exposure to asbestos tremolite soils sources. On the basis of the effects of asbestos on biological systems, several authors ascribe the asbestos-fibres toxicity to the synergetic effect of fibre size, crystal habit, surface reactivity, ability to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), biopersistence and chemical composition. The human health risks are based on the potential fibres inhalation, when they become airborne through rocks (e.g. serpentinite) weathering or human activities producing dust. In this frame, this paper reports the results of a detailed study on soils that developed on serpentinite bedrocks cropping out within the San Severino Lucano village (Basilicata region, Italy) in order to assess the presence of NOA potentially hazardous to human health (Bloise et al., 2016a). Twelve soil samples have been collected within the village and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/AEM) and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DSC, DDSC). Results pointed out as the collected soil samples contain asbestos minerals, clay minerals, diopside, quartz, and Fe-Cr oxides in various amounts. High amounts of chrysotile and asbestos tremolite were found in soils, suggesting that human activities can disturb and provoke the release of inhalable asbestos in the atmosphere, triggering thus mechanisms of hazardous exposition for population. Results also showed a high content of Fe and Cr in chrysotile in some samples, while high amount of Ni was predominantly found in asbestos

  8. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

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    Bennett Bradley C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI. Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian

  9. Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy. (United States)

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico


    Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ∼300 bp) and 12S rDNA (∼330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode.

  10. Investigating the temporal fluctuations in geoelectrical and geochemical signals Jointly measured in a seismic area of Southern Apennine chain (Italy

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    S. Piscitelli


    Full Text Available We analyse geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy. In the investigated are some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. We analysed the temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools. We detected scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded, that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve our knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.

  11. Monitoring vaccine and non-vaccine HPV type prevalence in the post-vaccination era in women living in the Basilicata region, Italy. (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; Puliti, Donella; Ocello, Cristina; Anastasio, Pasquale Silvio; Moliterni, Espedito Antonio; Perinetti, Emilia; Serradell, Laurence; Burroni, Elena; Confortini, Massimo; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine


    A large free-of-charge quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination program, covering four cohorts annually (women 11, 14, 17 and 24 years), has been implemented in Basilicata since 2007. This study evaluated vaccine and non-vaccine HPV prevalence 5-7 years post-vaccination program implementation in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the public screening centers of the Local Health Unit in Matera between 2012 and 2014. Cervical samples were obtained for Pap and HPV testing (HC2, LiPA Extra® assay) and participants completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. Detailed HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the official HPV vaccine registry. HPV prevalence was described overall, by type and vaccination status. The association between HPV type-detection and risk/protective factors was studied. Direct vaccine protection (qHPV vaccine effectiveness [VE]), cross-protection, and type-replacement were evaluated in cohorts eligible for vaccination, by analyzing HPV prevalence of vaccine and non-vaccine types according to vaccination status. Overall, 2793 women (18-50 years) were included, 1314 of them having been in birth cohorts eligible for the HPV vaccination program (18- to 30-year-old women at enrolment). Among the latter, qHPV vaccine uptake was 59% (at least one dose), with 94% completing the schedule; standardized qHPV type prevalence was 0.6% in vaccinated versus 5.5% in unvaccinated women (P HPV, high-risk non-vaccine HPV, or any single non-vaccine type prevalence was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. These results, conducted in a post-vaccine era, suggest a high qHPV VE and that a well-implemented catch-up vaccination program may be efficient in reducing vaccine-type infections in a real-world setting. No cross-protective effect or evidence of type-replacement was observed a few years after HPV vaccine introduction.

  12. Parametric time series analysis of geoelectrical signals: an application to earthquake forecasting in Southern Italy

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    V. Tramutoli


    Full Text Available An autoregressive model was selected to describe geoelectrical time series. An objective technique was subsequently applied to analyze and discriminate values above (below an a priorifixed threshold possibly related to seismic events. A complete check of the model and the main guidelines to estimate the occurrence probability of extreme events are reported. A first application of the proposed technique is discussed through the analysis of the experimental data recorded by an automatic station located in Tito, a small town on the Apennine chain in Southern Italy. This region was hit by the November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake and it is one of most active areas of the Mediterranean region. After a preliminary filtering procedure to reduce the influence of external parameters (i.e. the meteo-climatic effects, it was demonstrated that the geoelectrical residual time series are well described by means of a second order autoregressive model. Our findings outline a statistical methodology to evaluate the efficiency of electrical seismic precursors.

  13. Geoelectrical Surveys for Characterization of the Coastal Saltwater Intrusion in Metapontum Forest Reserve (Southern Italy

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    Antonio Satriani


    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was carried out in the Metapontum Forest Reserve located along the Ionian coast of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy. In this work we used the method of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography for obtaining high-resolution electrical images in the investigated site. In particular, three electrical resistivity tomography, all orthogonal to the coastline, in the investigated area were carried out. To complete and integrate the geophysical data, soil and groundwater samplings, seventeen and five, respectively, were analyzed using chemical physical techniques. Geoelectrical survey, supported by laboratory analysis of soil and water samples have revealed the presence of a process of saltwater in coastal Forest Reserve of Metapontum, which have caused the decline of the existing pine forest with the consequent erosion and desertification problems. The results have disclosed the way to identify and discriminate large areas affected by intensive soil salinization and high resolution electrical images of the subsurface electrical resistivity plays a key role in delineating the saltwater intrusion front in coastal areas. Furthermore, our integrated study represents a contribution to the future programs for the protection, planning, and management of the terrestrial and marine resources in this coastal area.

  14. Multi-scale electromagnetic imaging of the Monte Aquila Fault (Agri Valley, Southern Italy) (United States)

    Giocoli, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata


    conclusion, taking into account all the above inferences, we think that suitable multi-scale electromagnetic approach has proved to be affective for MAF detection, giving valuable data to the seismic hazard assessment of the region. References Branno A., E.G.I. Esposito, A. Maturano, S. Porfido and V. Rinaldis (1985): Studio, su base macrosismica, del terremoto della Basilicata del 16 dicembre 1857. Bollettino della Società dei Naturalisti di Napoli, 1985, 92, 249-338. Maschio L., L. Ferranti and P. Burrato (2005): Active extension in Val d'Agri area, Southern Apennines, Italy: implications for the geometry of the seismogenic belt. Geophys. J. Int., 162 (2), 591-609, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02597.x. Burrato P., and G. Valensise (2007): Rise and fall of a hypothesized seismic gap: source complexity in the 16 December 1857, Southern Italy earthquake (Mw 7.0). Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98 (1), 139-148, doi: 10.1785/0120070094.

  15. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

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    Fabrizio Ferretti


    Full Text Available Aim of study: to support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach - based on simplified index – is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection. This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural treatments.Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district – Basilicata Region - Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and Methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1 the tendency towards instability, 2 the protective action of forest cover and 3 different silvicultural options.Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silvicultural options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations.Research highlights: The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silvicultural options for each forest category, a series of silvicultural treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase.Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy; Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP; management; silvicultural treatment; protective function and soil erosion.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S


    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  17. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

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    Domenico Ventrella


    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  18. Fusarium Rot of Orobanche ramosa Parasitizing Tobacco in Southern Italy

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    B. Nanni


    Full Text Available In tobacco crops grown in the province of Caserta (southern Italy, we noted, for the first time in Italy, very many broomrape (Orobanche ramosa plants exhibiting mycosis caused by a strain of Fusarium oxysporum that is not pathogenic to tobacco. After a brief description of the symptoms of the disease and its incidence in the field, we discuss, on the basis of the observations made and the data supplied by the literature, the feasibility of using this fungus in programmes to control Orobanche.

  19. [Manfredonia (Southern Italy): a continuous catastrophe, newfound citizenship, and removal]. (United States)

    Malavasi, Giulia


    This article concerns the history of Manfredonia (Apulia Region, Southern Italy), linked to the petrochemical industry owned by Eni (from 1960s to 1990s). The city suffered not only an important accident occurred in 1976 with arsenic dissemination, but also a continuous catastrophe. In the 1980s, the popular movement contributed to an improved citizenship, but also to rifts and conflicts. The petrochemical impact on community determined disruption in domestic and social relationships, divided memory, and removal.

  20. Evaluation of the return periods of water crises and evaporation in Monte Cotugno reservoir (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Copertino, Vito; Lo Vecchio, Giuseppina; Marotta, Lucia; Pastore, Vittoria; Ponzio, Giuseppe; Scavone, Giuseppina; Telesca, Vito; Vita, Michele


    In the past water resources management has been dealt and solved increasing water availabilities; today such opportunities have been considerably reduced and the technical-scientific perspectives are addressed above all to improve water system effectiveness and to promote an use of water resources that holds account of the droughts frequency and based on a correct estimate of the hydrologic balance. In this work a study on the water stored in Monte Cotugno reservoir in Sinni river - Basilicata (Southern Italy) - is proposed, estimating water crises return periods and reservoir evaporation. For such purpose the runs method was applied, based on the comparison between the temporal series of the "water volume" hydrological variable and a threshold representative of the "normal" conditions regarding which the availability in excess or defect was estimated. This allowed to individualize the beginning and the end of a water crisis event and to characterize the droughts in terms of duration, sum deficit and intensity. Therefore the return period was evaluated by means of the methodology proposed by Shiau and Shen in 2001, turned out equal approximately to 6 years. Such value was then verified with a frequency analysis of the "water volume" random variable, using the Weibull's distribution. Subsequently, the Fourier's analysis in the last twenty years was carried out, obtaining the same result of the previous methods. Moreover, in proximity of the Monte Cotugno reservoir the weather station of Senise is located, managed by ALSIA (Agenzia Lucana di Sviluppo e Innovazione in Agricultura), that provides in continuous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation since 2000. Such parameters allowed to apply five methods for reservoir evaporation estimate selected from those proposed in the literature, of which the first three, the Jensen-Haise's method, Makkink's method and Stephens-Stewart's one are based on solar radiation

  1. ENEA initiatives in Southern Italy: Progress report, analysis, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santandrea, E.


    In the past, technological development in Italy was concentrated in the country's heavily industrialized northern regions. The motive for this choice was the conception that to be successful in a highly competitive market, research investment had necessarily to favour those developed areas with an already proven capacity for guaranteed fast and high returns. Unfortunately this policy has created a technologically and economically depressed area, known as Mezzogiorno, in southern Italy. Within the framework of new national energy and economic policies calling for balanced economic and technological development, ENEA (Italian Commission for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) has been entrusted with the planning and managing of research, commercialization and technology transfer programs designed to stimulate high-technology industrial activity in Italy's southern regions so as to allow them to become more competitive in the upcoming European free trade market. Small business concerns shall be favoured in this new development scheme which shall respect the existing local social-economic framework. Emphasis shall be placed on privileging such elements as quality, flexibility and versatility, as opposed to lost cost mass production. Priority is to be given to the development of renewable energy sources, energy conservation techniques and environmentally compatible technologies

  2. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy

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    Tagarelli Antonio


    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy. The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  3. Novel monitoring protocol for the Monte Cotugno Dam (Southern Italy) healthiness (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Loperte, Antonio


    This work is concerned with the application of an integrated approach based on a non-invasive geophysical technique, as the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and geotechnical and visual inspections for the monitoring of the Monte Cotugno dam, the largest rock fill dam in Europe. Monte Cotugno dam is located on the Sinni river (Basilicata District, South Italy) and represents the nodal point of the whole hydraulic system on the Ionic side of Italy. In fact, the dam allows harnessing of the Sinni river water for agricultural, industrial, drinking and domestic purposes. The dam consists of a central core in sandy silt and of gravelly-sandy shoulders; its water tightness is ensured by a bituminous conglomerate facing on the upstream side, welded at the bottom to the foundation sealing system. The latter is about 1,900m long and consist of a massive concrete cut-off wall based on the marly-clay formation, 300m long on the right and 600 m long on the left side. On the valley bottom, dam is made up of a reinforced concrete cut-off wall that is inserted in the marly-clay formation and is surmounted by an inspection and percolation water collection tunnel. The watertight face consists of different layers and the shallowest layers have been affected by incipient small detachments due to thermal solicitations; These detachments affect the structural behavior of the dam, since they are way for water infiltration in the dam. For this reason, on 2010 dam's owner decided to activate an integrated geophysical survey based on the integrated use of Infrared Termography, ERT and Ground Penetrating Radar, with the aim to identify and evaluate the potential loss of water through small cracks in the bituminous concrete dam [1]. Following the results achieved by this non-invasive integrated approach, it was decided to activate a long term monitoring based on periodic ERT surveys. In particular, ERT surveys were carried out for two years at two specific times of the year, in order

  4. Genetic analysis of congenital hemimelia in buffaloes from Southern Italy

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    Simona Tafuri


    Full Text Available Hemimelia is a common congenital limb abnormality found in water buffaloes from Southern Italy. In humans, such defect has been associated with mutations in WNT7A and ESCO2 genes. These two candidate genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in the genomic DNA extracted from the blood of buffaloes, and cows for control. No differences in WNT7A and ESCO2 sequences between affected and healthy buffaloes were identified. However, comparing sequences of control cows and buffaloes, WNT7A showed simple species polymorphisms, and ESCO2 showed seven base-pair substitutions. These results demonstrate that limb malformations in buffaloes are not related to congenital defects in WNT7A gene. Interestingly, our findings highlight for the first time differences in the sequences of WNT7A and ESCO2 genes between buffaloes and cows.

  5. Three different Hepatozoon species in domestic cats from southern Italy. (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hodžić, Adnan; Greco, Grazia; Attanasi, Anna; Annoscia, Giada; Otranto, Domenico; Baneth, Gad


    Three species of Hepatozoon, namely, Hepatozoon felis, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon silvestris may affect domestic and/or wild felids. Although hepatozoonosis has been documented in a wide range of mammal species, data on cats are limited. To investigate the occurrence of these pathogens in cats, blood samples were collected from animals living in three provinces of southern Italy (Bari, Lecce, and Matera), and molecularly analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing of segments of the 18S rRNA gene. Out of 196 blood samples collected, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was amplified in ten cats (5.1%, CI: 3%-9%), with the majority of infected animals from Matera (8/34, 23.5%) and one each from the other two provinces. BLAST analysis revealed the highest nucleotide identity with sequences of H. canis, H. felis and H. silvestris deposited in GenBank. Results of this study indicate that these three species of Hepatozoon infect domestic cats in Italy. This is the first report of H. silvestris infection in a domestic cat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical analysis of an intense rainstorm occurred in southern Italy

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    S. Federico


    Full Text Available In this study we conduct a numerical analysis of an intense and destructive storm that occurred over Calabria, southern Italy, on 10–12 December 2003. More than 250 mm of precipitation was recorded over a large area in southern Calabria and one station reported about 660 mm in two days (more than half of the yearly climatological value. Precipitation fell mainly during 11 and 12 December. The storm was characterized by the entrance of an Atlantic upper-level trough associated with a deep surface low that advected humid marine air toward steep Calabrian orography. The steep mountain ridges favoured landslides, which were reported in several villages. Property damage was extensive.

    We study the storm at the mesoscale by means of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The model was successful at representing the observed accumulated rainfall patterns. This justifies our use of RAMS for further analysis of the physical and dynamic factors involved in the storm event. In particular, we use RAMS to evaluate the roles of Calabrian orography, surface latent heat flux, and upper level forcing.

    The key role of a potential vorticity (PV streamer, which forced the entire meteorological system from the upper levels is assessed by the PV inversion technique in a Limited Area Model Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS framework.

    Results show that the roles of Calabrian orography and surface latent heat flux are important in our simulations. Indeed, humid marine air masses were advected by the synoptic flow toward Calabrian steep coastal mountain ranges determining intense and abundant rainfall.

  7. Tracer Tests History in the Alburni Massif (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Santo, Antonio


    The Alburni Massif (Campania, southern Italy) is among the most important Italian karst areas, due to high number of caves (about 300), with several karst systems reaching depth of 500 m, and development of some kilometres. This remarkable karst is mainly related to three geological factors: presence of highly karstifiable and low-fractured Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones; peculiar morphological and structural conformation, with four main faults bounding the massif, forming a wide highplain with a variety of infiltration sites; presence of blind valleys and small catchments on flysch deposits, feeding the many swallets at the contact with the limestone rocks. The Alburni Massif represents an important hydrogeological structure, with a potential of about 10 mc/sec. Three basal spring systems are the main outcomes (Castelcivita, Tanagro and Pertosa) while other minor systems are located at higher elevation, as the Auso spring. The Castelcivita and Pertosa caves, located on the Alburni SW and NE foothills, respectively, are of particular importance also for the local economy, since Castelcivita became a show cave in 1930, followed two years later by Pertosa. Since 1950 many cavers have explored the Alburni Massif, due to the high potential of overall karstification, estimated in about 1 300m, and to the presence on its southern slope of the spectacular Auso spring. In this paper, the tracer tests carried out in the Massif are summarized, with the aim to update the available hydrogeological data, with particular regard to the most recent explorations and tests, carried out during the last 5 years, which brought significant new data to the overall knowledge of this remarkable karst area.

  8. Three-model ensemble wind prediction in southern Italy

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    R. C. Torcasio


    Full Text Available Quality of wind prediction is of great importance since a good wind forecast allows the prediction of available wind power, improving the penetration of renewable energies into the energy market. Here, a 1-year (1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013 three-model ensemble (TME experiment for wind prediction is considered. The models employed, run operationally at National Research Council – Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC, are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System, BOLAM (BOlogna Limited Area Model, and MOLOCH (MOdello LOCale in H coordinates. The area considered for the study is southern Italy and the measurements used for the forecast verification are those of the GTS (Global Telecommunication System. Comparison with observations is made every 3 h up to 48 h of forecast lead time. Results show that the three-model ensemble outperforms the forecast of each individual model. The RMSE improvement compared to the best model is between 22 and 30 %, depending on the season. It is also shown that the three-model ensemble outperforms the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast for the surface wind forecasts. Notably, the three-model ensemble forecast performs better than each unbiased model, showing the added value of the ensemble technique. Finally, the sensitivity of the three-model ensemble RMSE to the length of the training period is analysed.

  9. Seismological investigations in the Gioia Tauro Basin (southern Calabria, Italy

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    S. Gresta


    Full Text Available This study provides new seismological information to characterize the seismically active area of the Gioia Tauro basin (southern Calabria, Italy. Seismic activity recorded by a temporary network from 1985 to 1994 was analyzed for focal mechanisms, stress tensor inversion, P-wave seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters estimation. Fault plane solutions of selected events showed a variety of different mechanisms, even if a prevalence of normal dip-slip solutions with prevalent rupture orientations occurring along ca. NE-SW directions was observed. Stress tensor inversion analysis disclosed a region governed mainly by a NW-SE extensional stress regime with a nearly vertical ?1. These results are consistent with the structure movements affecting the studied area and with geodetic data. Furthermore, evaluation of P-waves seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters of a subset of events highlighted a strong heterogeneity of the crust and the presence of fault segments and/or weakened zones where great stress accumulation or long-rupture propagation are hindered.

  10. Three-model ensemble wind prediction in southern Italy (United States)

    Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Federico, Stefano; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Drofa, Oxana; Landi, Tony Christian; Malguzzi, Piero; Buzzi, Andrea; Bonasoni, Paolo


    Quality of wind prediction is of great importance since a good wind forecast allows the prediction of available wind power, improving the penetration of renewable energies into the energy market. Here, a 1-year (1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013) three-model ensemble (TME) experiment for wind prediction is considered. The models employed, run operationally at National Research Council - Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System), BOLAM (BOlogna Limited Area Model), and MOLOCH (MOdello LOCale in H coordinates). The area considered for the study is southern Italy and the measurements used for the forecast verification are those of the GTS (Global Telecommunication System). Comparison with observations is made every 3 h up to 48 h of forecast lead time. Results show that the three-model ensemble outperforms the forecast of each individual model. The RMSE improvement compared to the best model is between 22 and 30 %, depending on the season. It is also shown that the three-model ensemble outperforms the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) for the surface wind forecasts. Notably, the three-model ensemble forecast performs better than each unbiased model, showing the added value of the ensemble technique. Finally, the sensitivity of the three-model ensemble RMSE to the length of the training period is analysed.

  11. Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero


    Full Text Available A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period.

  12. Knowledge of seismic hazard for the preservation of cultural heritage: the case study of Naples (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Spiga, Efisio


    The recent seismic sequence that struck central Italy, started the August 24, 2016, is characterized by five events with magnitude Mw> 5.0. The strongest events of the seismic sequence were the August 24, with Mw = 6.0 located between Accumoli and Amatrice towns and the October 30 with Mw = 6.5, located between Norcia and Visso town. These earthquakes shocked not only Central Italy, with the death of about 300 people and the almost complete destruction of historical towns (Amatrice, Arquata del Tronto, Accumoli, Pescara del Tronto, Castelluccio, Norcia, Visso), but also shook the entire Italian country, strongly proposing the issue of the vulnerability of the city historical centers. The knowledge, the conservation and preservation of the natural and urban environment represent issues to be faced urgently for preventing the devastation of our heritage, unique in the world. The historical center of Naples was affected by the 30 event October 2016 with an intensity I = V MCS. In the last millennium more than a hundred earthquakes hit Naples, with intensity I> III MCS, ten of which has exceeded the damage level, sometimes with intensity greater of VII MCS. The historical Neapolitan urban context suffered devastating effects, reaching levels of damage equal to the VIII degree MCS, as a result of the large earthquakes occurred in 1456 (I0=XI MCS), 1688 (I0=XI MCS) and 1805 (I0=X MCS). In the twentieth century the city of Napoli was shaken by the 1930, 1962 and 1980, the three strong earthquakes occurred in southern Apennines, between Irpinia and Basilicata regions. The review of earthquakes with higher energy (M> 6) shows that the metropolitan area of Naples suffered high damage levels with intensity I = VIII MCS, especially in the historical center, with a damage recurring on the same architectonic elements of the historical heritage. The recent past of the seismic history teaches us that the Apennines is highly seismic, consequently in the future we can expected

  13. Calcio-carbonatite melts and metasomatism in the mantle beneath Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Wall, Frances; Stoppa, Francesco


    At Mt. Vulture volcano (Basilicata, Italy) calcite globules (5-150 μm) are hosted by silicate glass pools or veins cross-cutting amphibole-bearing, or more common spinel-bearing mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts. The carbonate globules are rounded or elongated and are composed of a mosaic of 2-20 μm crystals, with varying optical orientation. These features are consistent with formation from a quenched calciocarbonatite melt. Where in contact with carbonate amphibole has reacted to form fassaitic pyroxene. Some of these globules contain liquid/gaseous CO 2 bubbles and sulphide inclusions, and are pierced by quench microphenocrysts of silicate phases. The carbonate composition varies from calcite to Mg-calcite (3.8-5.0 wt.% MgO) both within the carbonate globules and from globule to globule. Trace element contents of the carbonate, determined by LAICPMS, are similar to those of carbonatites worldwide including ΣREE up to 123 ppm. The Sr-Nd isotope ratios of the xenolith carbonate are similar to the extrusive carbonatite and silicate rocks of Mt. Vulture testifying to derivation from the same mantle source. Formation of immiscibile silicate-carbonatite liquids within mantle xenoliths occurred via disequilibrium immiscibility during their exhumation.

  14. Competition Between Weeds and Pepper in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli


    Full Text Available In arid areas drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. The objective of this study was to study water competition and its effect on canopy relationship of a C4 weed (pigweed and a C3 weed (bindweed towards a C3 crop (pepper in a Mediterranean area. The experiment was carried out in 2008 in Matera, Southern Italy. Pigweed and bindweed were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a bell pepper field where a rainfed treatment (V0 was compared to a full irrigated one (V100, the latter corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration, (ETc. Soil water content was measured periodically; leaf water potential, net assimilation rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (T, Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration and A/Ci curves were also determined on pigweed, bindweed and pepper leaves. All gas exchange parameters differed between irrigated and rainfed treatments and between the three species.Water use efficiency was higher in pigweed than in pepper and bindweed. Between the considered weeds, pigweed competed for water with pepper significantly since, unlike bindweed, pigweed began to reduce stomatal conductance only when its leaf water potential achieved very negative values, lower than -2.00 MPa. Unlike C4 crops already saturated for CO2, pigweed photosynthesis is not completely saturated for CO2. Consequently, since atmospheric CO2 is increasing, when pigweed is grown in mixed stands where competition occurs, it can further limit other slow-growing species, both crops and weeds.

  15. Soil moisture monitoring in Candelaro basin, Southern Italy (United States)

    Campana, C.; Gigante, V.; Iacobellis, V.


    The signature of the hydrologic regime can be investigated, in principle, by recognizing the main mechanisms of runoff generation that take place in the basin and affect the seasonal behavior or the rainfall-driven events. In this framework, besides the implementation of hydrological models, a crucial role should be played by direct observation of key state variables such as soil moisture at different depths and different distances from the river network. In fact, understanding hydrological systems is often limited by the frequency and spatial distribution of observations. Experimental catchments, which are field laboratories with long-term measurements of hydrological variables, are not only sources of data but also sources of knowledge. Wireless distributed sensing platforms are a key technology to address the need for overcoming field limitations such as conflicts between soil use and cable connections. A stand-alone wireless network system has been installed for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths along a transect located in Celone basin (sub-basin of Candelaro basin in Puglia, Southern Italy). The transect consists of five verticals, each one having three soil water content sensors at multiple depths: 0,05 m, 0,6 m and 1,2 m below the ground level. The total length of the transect is 307 m and the average distance between the verticals is 77 m. The main elements of the instrumental system installed are: fifteen Decagon 10HS Soil Moisture Sensors, five Decagon Em50R Wireless Radio Data Loggers, one Rain gauge, one Decagon Data Station and one Campbell CR1000 Data Logger. Main advantages of the system as described and presented in this work are that installation of the wireless network system is fast and easy to use, data retrieval and monitoring information over large spatial scales can be obtained in (near) real-time mode and finally other type of sensors can be connected to the system, also offering wide potentials for future

  16. Hydrological anomalies connected to earthquakes in southern Apennines (Italy

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    E. Esposito


    Full Text Available The study of hydrological variations in the watersheds of seismic areas can be useful in order to acquire a new knowledge of the mechanisms by which earthquakes can produce hydrological anomalies. Italy has the availability of many long historical series both of hydrological parameters and of seismological data, and is an ideal laboratory to verify the validity of theoretical models proposed by various authors. In this work we analyse the hydrological anomalies associated with some of the big earthquakes that occurred in the last century in the southern Apennines: 1930, 1980 and 1984. For these earthquakes we analysed hydrometric and pluviometric data looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. The influence of rainfalls on the normal flows of rivers, springs and wells has been ascertained. Also, the earthquake of 1805, for which a lot of hydrological perturbations have been reported, is considered in order to point out effects imputable to this earthquake that can be similar to the effects of the other big earthquakes. The considered seismic events exhibit different modes of energy release, different focal mechanisms and different propagation of effects on the invested areas. Furthermore, even if their epicentres were not localised in contiguous seismogenetic areas, it seems that the hydrological effects imputable to them took place in the same areas. Such phenomena have been compared with macroseismic fields and transformed in parameters, in order to derive empirical relationships between the dimensions of the event and the characteristics of the hydrological variations. The results of this work point to a close dependence among hydrological anomalies, regional structures and fault mechanisms, and indicate that many clear anomalies have been forerunners of earthquakes. In 1993, the Naples Bureau of the Hydrographic National Service started the continuous monitoring of hydrologic parameters by a network of

  17. Analysis of extreme hydrological phenomena in southern Italy (Calabria region) (United States)

    Caloiero, Tommaso; Aceto, Luigi; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Petrucci, Olga


    Calabria (southern Italy) is a region exposed to the effects of contrasting climatic and hydrological phenomena. In fact, due to its oblong shape, to its position in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin, and for its mountainous nature, Calabria shows a high spatial variability of the climatic features and of related phenomena such as floods and drought. The present paper is based on the historical database ASICal (Historically flooded areas in Calabria), a catalogue of effects of floods and rain-related landslides that occurred in the region since the XIX Century. The catalogue has been built using the typical historical data sources as chronicles, diaries, historical books, local and regional agencies, press archives, scientific papers, and documents of civil protection offices. From these sources, we selected information on damage caused by rain related phenomena at a municipal scale and chronologically sorted by year, month and day. The analysis of the entire catalogue allows highlighting the regional Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE), defined as periods of intense rain causing damage on regional sectors conventionally selected as larger than 30% of the entire regional territory. For each event, as a measure of the magnitude of rainfall, the return period of the daily rainfall recorded during the event has been evaluated. In addition, we recently carried out a similar historical research to identify the main drought events affecting the region. In this case, due to the spatial and temporal characteristics of drought, data are collected both at municipal and regional scale, and the temporal scale is generally monthly or annual. For each event, we used as climatic descriptors a drought index for monitoring drought phenomena. Among drought indices, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which can be considered the most robust and effective, since it can be calculated for different time-scales and can be used to analyse different drought categories

  18. REE in karst bauxites: the Campania example (southern Italy) (United States)

    Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Balassone, G.; Rollinson, G.


    Global production of Rare Earth Element (REE) has dramatically increased in the last years, hence the strong interest to identify new deposits and to understand the processes responsible for their formation. Among REE concentrations related to weathering, the current targets are represented by the ion-adsorption deposit-types, occurring in China, in which REEs are adsorbed onto the surface of clays. Laterites have been also intensively investigated since the discovery of the secondary deposit of Mount Weld (Australia). Most REEs behave as immobile elements in laterites, and tend to be enriched compared to the underlying parent rocks. Many authors debate on a possible REE fractionation along the laterite profiles, resulting in the formation of supergene LREE-minerals. Bauxites are economic Al accumulations, derived from the weathering of alumosilicate-rich parent rocks resulting in the development of laterite profiles. Components as Ca, Mg, K, Si are leached and residual Fe, Al and Ti precipitate in form of hematite>>goethite, gibbsite [Al(OH)3] or amorphous Al hydroxides and anatase. Metabauxites can contain boehmite or diaspore [AlO(OH)]. Chemical composition (including REEs content) of lateritic bauxites generally mirrors the original composition of the parent rock. Geochemistry of REEs in karst bauxites, which lay on carbonate bedrocks and may be also allochthonous to them, is not so straightforward. Cretaceous karst bauxite deposits in the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) are presently uneconomic. A full mineralogical and geochemical study has been performed on several deposits of the Campania district, and three representative profiles have been sampled. In all deposits the bauxite ore has an oolitic-pisolitic texture, but contains also detrital intervals. The mineral association consists of boehmite, kaolinite and hematite, with less goethite and anatase. The main REE-bearing mineral is detrital monazite. In detail, we could detect (SEM) other LREE

  19. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milella Rosa Anna


    phenolic profile of ten autochthonous vines grown in two different areas of South Italy. By spectrophotometric analysis it has been possible to analyze quali-quantitive characteristics of such substances, while by ORAC method (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity we have measured, in vitro, the antioxidant action. The oenological potential has been evaluated, in relation to polyphenols content, of ten Vitis Vinifera varieties belonging to autochthonous vines of Basilicata, grown in espalier and tent in two areas: in the vineyard of Val d'Agri (PZ, in Basilicata, and in South-East Bari area, in Rutigliano (Ba, in Puglia. The ten varieties belonging to Southern Italy autochthonous vines include four black grapes and six white grapes. Data obtained on total polyphenols content, view of the considerable variability encountered, allow us to affirm that the polyphenolic ripening of wine grapes, thus the reaching of the maximum level, is very influenced by the “terroir”, defined as the cultivation area or environment, by season trend, by cultivation techniques and by the different vines nutritional conditions. The same holds true for the antioxidant activity of the 10 wine grapes varieties of this study, since it is closely related to the polyphenol

  20. Geothermal potential assessment for a low carbon strategy: A new systematic approach applied in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.; Caiozzi, F.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Montanari, D.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Santilano, A.; Wees, J.D. van; Manzella, A.


    In this study a new approach to geothermal potential assessment was set up and applied in four regions in southern Italy. Our procedure, VIGORThermoGIS, relies on the volume method of assessment and uses a 3D model of the subsurface to integrate thermal, geological and petro-physical data. The

  1. Folk pharmaceutical knowledge in the territory of the Dolomiti Lucane, inland southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.; Santoro, R.F.


    An ethnopharmacognostic survey on the traditional pharmaceutical knowledge (TPhK) of old and newly introduced natural remedies used for healing humans in a small mountainous area in Central Lucania, inland southern Italy, was carried out using classical ethnographical and ethnobiological methods.

  2. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on the River Avena (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milazzo, C.; Di Bella, C.; Casanova, J. C.; Ribas, Alexis; Cagnin, M.


    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2010), s. 171-176 ISSN 0394-1914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : endoparasites * rodents * fiumara * Southern Italy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.308, year: 2010

  3. Geothermal potential assessment for a low carbon strategy : A new systematic approach applied in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.; Caiozzi, F.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Montanari, D.; Pluymaekers, M. P D; Santilano, A.; van Wees, J. D.; Manzella, A.


    In this study a new approach to geothermal potential assessment was set up and applied in four regions in southern Italy. Our procedure, VIGORThermoGIS, relies on the volume method of assessment and uses a 3D model of the subsurface to integrate thermal, geological and petro-physical data. The

  4. Students' Perception of School Violence and Math Achievement in Middle Schools of Southern Italy (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea


    This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy. Standardized…

  5. Preliminary results of a 30-year daily rainfall data base in southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Stefano; Avolio, Elenio; Pasqualoni, Loredana


    This paper presents first exploratory results and analyses performed on a 30-year (1978–2007) homogeneous precipitation database that has been created for the Calabria peninsula, southern Italy. The database consists of complete time series of daily values of precipitation from 88 stations distri...

  6. Southern-European Signposts for Critical Popular Adult Education: Italy, Portugal and Spain (United States)

    Guimaraes, Paula; Lucio-Villegas, Emilio; Mayo, Peter


    This paper focuses on three Southern European countries, Italy, Portugal and Spain, to explore examples of projects that provide signposts for a critical popular education that contributes to an ongoing democratic process--one whereby citizens are developed as social actors and members of a collectivity rather than simply passive…

  7. Traditional pharmacopoeias and medicines among Albanians and Italians in southern Italy: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.


    A cross-cultural comparison of traditional household remedies in primary health care and ritual healing practices in two economically and socio-demographically similar communities in Lucania (inland southern Italy) was considered: Ginestra/Zhurë, inhabited by ethnic Albanians, who migrated to the

  8. Assessing chronological age of unaccompanied minors in southern Italy. (United States)

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Solarino, Biagio; Liuzzi, Claudia; Di Vella, Giancarlo


    The increasing volume of, and subsequent complexities resulting from, migratory flows in the broader context of globalization has led to a range of problems, not only the protection of human rights and disease control but also the identification of those with the right to apply for refugee status and the age assessment of unaccompanied minors. Italy is a magnet for immigration from other countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea because the Italian coasts are within easy reach. In Italy, as in other western countries, unaccompanied asylum seekers deemed to be younger than 18 years face a very different path through the immigration system from that experienced by adults. Generally, adults are subject to immediate deportation or detention in jail. Minors are processed through the juvenile system, where detection is not mandatory; they will often have access to educational programs and may be granted a residency permit. The Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Bari was approached by immigration police authorities and judges to explore the possibility of examining unaccompanied asylum seekers, who claim do be younger than 18 years, to assess their age. A group of forensic pathologists and odontologists performed this evaluation relying on the skeletal maturation as seen on radiographs of the wrist and the pelvis for iliac crests and on an orthopantomograph, together with background information and clinical examination of each individual. Case studies are presented. This article does not attempt to give a definitive account of the different scientific methods for the assessment of age. It is important to understand some of the methods that may be used in an attempt to assess developmental maturity and from which it may be possible to "read off" an approximate chronological age.

  9. Paesaggi monastici della Basilicata altomedievale / Monastic landscapes of the Early Medieval Basilicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sogliani


    Full Text Available Le ricerche sul paesaggio altomedievale e medievale della Basilicata, disegnato dalle fonti documentarie e da quelle materiali, sono state incentrate di recente sulla lettura archeologica delle trasformazioni insediative del territorio. Ai precedenti sistemi di gestione, rappresentati da pochi centri urbani e dalle ville rurali che mantengono il loro assetto fino all’età tardoantica, pur se con alcune a volte sostanziali modifiche, si sostituiscono a partire dall’VIII secolo altre realtà: nuovi centri urbani, siti fortificati, villaggi e chiese rurali, insediamenti monastici. Questi ultimi, sia di rito latino che di rito greco, giocheranno un ruolo fondamentale nello sfruttamento delle risorse del territorio rurale nonché nella riorganizzazione della compagine demografica ed economica della regione, all’indomani dei conflitti politici e delle crisi istituzionali rappresentati dal conflitto greco-gotico e dalle lotte tra potere longobardo, bizantino e normanno. The researches on early medieval and medieval landscape of Basilicata, drawn from documentary and archaeological sources, have been focused recently on the settlement transformations of the territory. Previous systems of land management, consisting of a few urban centers and rural villas that retain their structure, while offering some significant changes at times, until Late Antiquity, are replaced from the 8th c. by new items: new urban centers, fortified sites, villages and rural churches and monastic settlements. These last, both Latin and Greek, will play a key role in the exploitation of the resources of rural areas as well as in the reorganization of the demographic and economic structure of the region, in the aftermath of the political conflicts and institutional crisis represented by the Gothic war and power struggles between the Lombard, Byzantine and Norman role.

  10. Draft genome sequences of six listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy products from a processing plant in Southern Italy


    Chiara, M.; D'Erchia, A.M.; Manzari, C.; Minotto, A.; Montagna, C.; Addante, N.; Santagada, G.; Latorre, L.; Pesole, G.; Horner, D.S.; Parisi, A.


    Here we announce the draft genome sequences of 6 Listeria monocytogenes strains from ricotta cheese produced in a dairy processing plant located in southern Italy and potentially involved in a multistate outbreak of listeriosis in the United States.

  11. Provenance studies of obsidians from Neolithic contexts in Southern Italy by IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarta, Gianluca, E-mail:; Maruccio, Lucio, E-mail:; Calcagnile, Lucio, E-mail:


    Obsidian samples recovered in archaeological contexts in Southern Italy were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission) for the quantitative determination of both major and trace elements composition. The archaeological contexts were absolutely dated to the 5th millennium BC by mean of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dating analyses carried out on associated organic materials such as charcoal and human bones. The comparison of the compositional results obtained for the analysed samples with published data available for the known obsidian sources in the Mediterranean allowed to identify the sources of the raw material, giving an important contribution to the reconstruction of the ancient trade and exchange routes in Southern Italy prehistory.

  12. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano


    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  13. Risk factors for canine neosporosis in farm and kennel dogs in southern Italy. (United States)

    Paradies, Paola; Capelli, Gioia; Testini, Gabriella; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Trees, Alexander J; Otranto, Domenico


    Neosporosis by Neospora caninum causes losses to livestock production through abortion in cattle while, in dogs, it induces neuromuscolar disease. This study investigated neosporosis seroprevalence associated risk factors (including the seropositivity to leishmaniosis) in dogs of southern Italy, determined the prevalence of N. caninum oocyst shedding and examined the relationship between seroprevalence of neosporosis in farm dogs and cattle. Using an inhibition ELISA, 20.9% of 306 dogs had percent inhibition values >10 (indicative of exposure) and farm dogs had a significantly (pneosporosis infection is common in southern Italy both in dogs and in cattle and that dogs at higher risk of exposure are free-ranging ones living in farms. The lack of correlation between canine seroprevalence for N. caninum and L. infantum assumes a particular significance in an endemic area for leishmaniosis.

  14. Fat and out in Salerno and Province: adolescent obesity and early school leaving in Southern Italy


    Barone, Adriana; O'Higgins, Niall


    In this paper, we focus on the causes and consequences of adolescent obesity from an economic perspective. The paper examines the determinants of obesity and its role in influencing early school leaving amongst adolescents in the province of Salerno in Southern Italy. A simple human capital investment model is employed and this provides a framework within which to analyse the interrelated 'decisions' regarding schooling and overeating, taking into account the importance of time preference and...

  15. Reforestation and land use change in a drainage basin of southern Italy


    D’Ippolito A; Ferrari E; Iovino F; Nicolaci A; Veltri A


    In this study, the land use change in a large basin of Calabria region (southern Italy) subjected to extensive reforestation at the end of the ’50 has been carefully reconstructed and compared with the current situation. The runoff capacity of the basin was estimated using data available for the temporal periods before and after the reforestation interventions. The results show that the surface of the basin interested by former reforestation activities did not affect the runoff, probably due ...

  16. Verification of a Real Time Weather Forecasting System in Southern Italy


    Tiriolo, Luca; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Montesanti, Stefania; Federico, Stefano


    This paper shows the performance of an operational forecasting system, based on the regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS), at 3 km horizontal resolution over southern Italy. The model is initialized from the 12 UTC operational analysis/forecasting cycle of the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The forecast is issued for the following three days. The performance is evaluated for a whole year for the surface parameters: temperature, relative humidity, wind speed ...

  17. Long-term temperature changes in Sicily, Southern Italy (United States)

    Liuzzo, Lorena; Bono, Enrico; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Freni, Gabriele


    Temperature series recorded at 84 measurement stations across Sicily (Italy) have been analysed in order to detect statistically significant changes during the 1924-2013 period. The occurrence of abrupt change points in annual maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures and temperature range series was investigated using cumulative sum (CUSUM) charts. Then, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to the average annual, monthly and seasonal series. Prior to the application of the Mann-Kendall test, gaps in the historical dataset were filled using a geostatistical technique, namely the Residual Ordinary Kriging, and then processed to remove the influence of serial correlation on test results. Significant trends were quantified using a robust non-parametric estimate. Once the trends at each site were identified, the spatial patterns in those trends were obtained using the Inverse Distance Weighted. Results indicated a general increase in the analysed series over the area of study. Upward trends in maximum temperatures frequently occurred during the winter months, with the largest increases in the south-west, while mean temperatures increases occurred mostly during the spring, summer and winter. Across a wide western area, a small number of negative trends were observed in annual minimum temperatures, especially in autumn months. Temperature ranges showed both positive and negative trends. Decreasing trends occurred along the eastern coast and in the western part of the region.

  18. Traditional plant use in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern, Italy. (United States)

    Di Novella, Riccardo; Di Novella, Nicola; De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; De Feo, Vincenzo


    This paper reports an ethobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern Italy. This study conducted between 2009 and 2011, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in Southern Italy (Campania Region). In all, we interviewed 70 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 85 years. This people belonged to families which had strong links with traditional activities of the area. The research resulted to the identification of 192 plants belonging to 64 families. Among the species reported, 86 are used in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 69 as human foods, 18 as animal feed, 61 for domestic and 8 for agricultural uses. A survey of the available literature on Southern Italy ethnobotany reveals that some species have been never reported and about 10% of cited uses are new. Data obtained show that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy. (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico


    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Outstanding accumulation of Sphagnum palustre in central-southern Italy (United States)

    Casella, Laura; Zaccone, Claudio


    Lake Fibreno is a site where some outstanding anomalies for the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here one the southernmost European population of Sphagnum palustre occurs, and is restricted on the surface of a free-floating island, i.e., a round-shaped portion of fen (with a core of Sphagnum), erratically floating on the surface of a submerged sinkhole. Geological evidences point out the existence in the area of a large lacustrine basin since Late Pleistocene. The progressive filling of the lake, caused by changing in climatic conditions and neotectonic events, resulted in the formation of peat deposits in the area, following different depositional cycles in a swampy environment. So that, the studied free-floating island, probably originated around lake margins in the waterlogged area, was somehow isolated from the bank and started to float. Once the separation occurred, sedge peat stopped to accumulate, thus enhancing the role of S. palustre as the main peat-forming plant. The vegetation occurring at the moment of the isolation of the island was a coverage of Salix cinerea/Populus tremula stands below which cushions of moss and, in a lower extent, Thelypteris palustris/Equisetum palustre accumulated resulting in the formation of 2-3 meters of peat dominated by reeds and sedges. This vegetation has been partially degraded by grazing until 1970s, while in 1980s the lake became a nature reserve. Since then, the succession could resume in a spontaneous and natural way and it was possible for the vegetation to recover to natural dynamics and growing rate. The Sphagnum tussocks were measured in an empirical way at a distance of about 60 years after the last signaling and the result was a measurement of an accretion open to about 70 cm thick. Moreover, in a recent study, a 4-m deep peat core was collected from the centre of the island and results were surprising. In fact, 14C age dating, confirmed using 210Pb and 137Cs, showed

  1. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano


    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  2. Characterization and evaluation of olive germplasm in southern Italy. (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Nocerino, Sabrina; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele


    The southern Italian region of Campania has suitable pedo-climatic conditions and a large varietal heritage able to produce oils with high typicality. The aim of this study was to characterize 20 cultivars belonging to Campania's olive germplasm, evaluating their vegetative and production aspects and their oil quality characteristics. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2009, observing the following aspects in six plants per variety: entry into production, vigour, ripening and drupe oil content. The following analyses were carried out on monovarietal oils, obtained by microextractor: acid composition, polyphenol content and aromatic profile. The agronomic results showed early entry into production for the cultivars Racioppella, Ortolana, Biancolilla and Carpellese. However, entry into production was delayed for Ritonnella, Ortice, Cornia and Rotondella. As regards vegetative behaviour, Asprinia, from the province of Caserta and Pisciottana and Carpellese, from the province of Salerno, proved the most vigorous cultivars. Groups of similar cultivars emerged from chemical and sensory analysis of their oils, while other accessions were well characterized and separated from each other, showing a high level of diversity and specificity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Human responses to the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius, southern Italy (United States)

    Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Kilburn, Christopher; Sangster, Heather; Solana, Carmen


    , for instance, insisted in taking refuge in a church and this led to over 100 fatalities when the roof collapsed. Intervention by the State included: the effective deployment of troops to handle evacuation, to re-open lines of communication and to distribute food and other relief. Management of the disaster was enhanced when prefectural commissioners were given executive powers. We argue that increased State intervention appears to have reduced self-reliance. In the short-term recovery was supported by regional/state aid and by charitable donations particularly from other governments and members of Neapolitan diaspora in other parts of Italy and abroad. This enabled land clearance, agriculture was re-established and roads/rail links were restored. Long-term recovery was slow with affected local-authorities (i.e., comuni) showing low rates of population growth for more than 15 years.

  4. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy) (United States)

    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.


    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  5. Prevalence of dermatophytes and other superficial fungal organisms in asymptomatic guinea pigs in Southern Italy. (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Grable, S L; Ferrara, M; Santoro, D


    Guinea pigs have been indicated as a potential source of zoophilic dermatophytes that cause human dermatomycosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytes as well as saprophytic fungi in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy. Two-hundred pet guinea pigs were enrolled from both private veterinary clinics and pet shops in the Campania region, Italy, from August 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected using the MacKenzie's toothbrush technique. The plates were incubated for four weeks at 25°C and identification of the fungal colonies was based on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Two pathogenic dermatophytes were isolated in 9 (4·5%) of 200 guinea pigs; Epidermophyton species in 2 (1%) and Scopulariopsis species in 7 (3·5%). Saprophytic dermatophytes were isolated from 151 (75·5%) animals enrolled. No fungal growth was observed in 40 (20%) guinea pigs. The results of this study indicate a low prevalence of pathogenic dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy but the presence of Epidermophyton and Scopulariopsis species in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


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    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  7. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern Italy.

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    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leishmania spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. detection, and helminths were studied by traditional methods. Out of six carcasses tested, three were positive for E. canis and co-infection with Rickettsia sp. occurred in one of those. Sequences of the 16S rRNA E. canis gene were identical to each other but differed from most of those previously found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and wolves (Canis lupus from southern Italy. Helminths included just cystacanths of Sphaerirostris spp. from the intestine of two Eurasian otters and the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum from the lungs of a single Eurasian otter. None of the samples was positive for the other investigated selected pathogens. This study is the first report on the evidence of infection by rickettsial pathogens in the Eurasian otter. The present result prompts some inquiries into the pathogenic role of those bacteria for the isolated sub-populations of the endangered Eurasian otter in southern Italy.

  8. New insights on Lepidoptera of Southern Italy with description of the male of Coenotephria antonii Hausmann 2011 (Lepidoptera

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    M. Infusino


    Full Text Available Southern Italy is of particular biogeographic interest due to the location at the center of the Mediterranean Basin and its great environmental heterogeneity. Despite the faunistic interest of this territory, many insect taxa are still little investigated. Among insects, Lepidoptera have a relatively well known fauna, significantly increased in recent years, but there are still some gaps of knowledge in several habitats. The aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the Macrolepidoptera of Southern Italy, focusing our study in Calabria, and to offer some thoughts on the role played by the Mediterranean mountain forests for the biodiversity conservation. Samplings were carried out in three mountainous areas of Calabria (Pollino Massif, Sila Massif and Serre Mountains in May-November 2015 and in April-November 2016, using UV-LED light traps. We found ten species of high faunistic interest. Three species, Nebula senectaria, Perizoma lugdunaria and Acasis appensata, were for the first time recorded from Southern Italy, while seven were for the first time recorded from Calabria: Coenotephria antonii, Thera obeliscata, Triphosa dubitata, Trichopteryx carpinata, Asteroscopus sphinx, Lithophane semibrunnea and Sideridis reticulata. Of great interest was the discovery of the first male certainly attributable to Coenotephria antonii, endemic of Southern Italy, here described for the first time. The results exposed confirm that the fauna of Southern Italy is of great conservation value, hosting endemisms and several relict populations of European and Asiatic species with differentiated genetic lineages highly vulnerable to the climate change expected for the coming decades.

  9. Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Neola, Benedetto; Restucci, Brunella; Pagano, Teresa B; Veneziano, Vincenzo


    Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) infection was detected at post-mortem examination in the pulmonary arteries and hearts of 34/102 (33,3%) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the Campania Region in southern Italy. Pathological changes consisted of granulomatous interstitial pneumonia caused by larvae and intravascular pulmonary adult nematodes. These changes confirm that angiostrongylosis infection in red foxes has a mainly chronic course, in which the infected host may disperse parasite larvae in the environment over its lifetime. Results suggest that the life cycle of A. vasorum is well established in the red fox in the Campania Region representing a potential infection risk for dogs.

  10. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks in rivers: a case study from southern Italy. (United States)

    Protano, Carmela; Zinnà, Loredana; Giampaoli, Saverio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Vitali, Matteo


    We monitored heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) concentrations in surface water, sediments, and oligochaetes in four major rivers in Calabria (southern Italy) over the course of 1 year. As, Cd, and Pb showed accumulation factors of 10(3)-10(5) for water to sediment and 1-10 for sediment to oligochaetes. Hg showed a water to sediment accumulation factor of 10-100. Finally, Hg concentrations exceeded the Italian quality standard for freshwater in all of the rivers, and As concentrations in sediments exceeded the respective Canadian standard. However, the application of an ecological risk assessment method indicated low risks for all monitored rivers.


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    Y.T.R. Proroga


    Full Text Available In this study the presence of Coxiella burnetii in cow, buffalo and small ruminants (sheep and goat cheeses produced in southern Italy has been evaluated with the aim to analyze the risk of infection for consumers. The survey was performed using molecular assays (Real-Time PCR to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA. The samples have been furthermore tested with specific methods for species identification in milk and dairy products. C. burnetii has been detected in 75% of cow cheese samples, while in small ruminants and buffaloes diary products have been assessed at 45,9% and 23,9% respectively.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni in the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) population of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Gargiulo, Antonio; Cuomo, Alessandra; Santaniello, Antonio; Sensale, Mariangela; Borrelli, Luca; D'Angelo, Livia; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro


    Rectal swab samples were collected from 60 red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from July 2006 to April 2007 in Southern Italy. Samples were tested for Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli by culture methods and suspected colonies were then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. C. jejuni was detected in 5/60 (8.3%) samples examined but infection status was not related to age or sex and C. coli was not isolated. This is believed to be the first report of C. jejuni infection in the red squirrel.

  13. The history of the "Virgin with Child" sculpture (Ottaviano, Naples, southern Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Toscano, Maria; Cavazzini, Giancarlo


    historical context. Historical documents testify that the sculpture was a property of the cadet branch of noble Tuscan family of the Medici, the Medici of Ottaviano. A multianalytical approach has been used to try to indicate the supply area of the white marble of the studied sculpture. Considering the whole......A life-size whitish marble statue of a "Virgin with Child" has been recently rediscovered in the St.Rosario church located in Ottaviano, a small town near Naples (southern Italy). This artwork shows stylistic features of the Tuscan-Roman school of the 16th century, and is framed in an intriguing...

  14. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy. (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata


    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  15. Stability model and risk assessment for the Montescaglioso Landslide (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Amanti, Marco; Chiessi, Vittorio; Guarino, Paolo Maria; Spizzichino, Daniele; Troccoli, Alessandro; Vizzini, Giorgio


    In this paper, we present the final results of a landslide risk assessment evaluation implemented for the recent Montescaglioso landslide emergency occurred on 3rd December 2013 when a large and rapid slope failure, triggered by prolonged and intense rainfall, affected a big portion of the SW slope of the village. The slope failure damaged a main road, private homes and commercial buildings. The Montescaglioso village (Basilicata Region, Italy) is located on the top of a conglomerate hill overlying a gentle slope constituted by Plio-Pleistocene clays. The area has been affected since ancient time by different landslide typologies and mechanism, as determined by a direct geomorphological survey and from mapping and available technical literature. Phenomena such as rock-falls and rock lateral spreading in the upper part of the hill, and rotational/translational slides and earth flows can be recognized in the area. Landslides are mainly promoted by the geological and structural setting of the area as well as by very low mechanical characteristics of sediments outcropping in the area. After the emergency phase, a detailed program of field survey and laboratory campaign has been implemented during the last year. A detailed topographical analysis has been developed by using the LIDAR survey in order to define morphometric conditions and geometry modifications of the slope affected by the landslide. Based on the studies carried out in the area, the research has been aimed to assessing the stability conditions (residual landslide risk) of the SW slope of the hill trough an extended geological, geomorphological and geotechnical campaign linked with numerical study of present instability mechanism. The geological and geotechnical model of the slope has been defined trough the analysis of the past and recent logs obtained from several boreholes and also through the results of many mechanical test performed on samples taken in the area. The numerical study has been carried out

  16. Molecular and clinical analysis of haemoglobin Lepore in Campania, a region of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Ricchi, Paolo; Ammirabile, Massimiliano; Spasiano, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Di Matola, Tiziana; Cinque, Patrizia; Saporito, Caterina; Filosa, Aldo; Pagano, Leonilde


    To date in Italy, there is paucity on data about the prevalence, clinical and haematological features of patients carrying the haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore variant in homozygous or in association with other haemoglobinopathies. Here we report the results of a retrospective analysis on 33 patients from Campania, a region of Southern Italy, historically followed at 'UOSD Malattie Rare del Globulo Rosso' of Cardarelli hospital, Naples, Italy. We described 33 patients carrying the Hb Lepore variant: 21 compound heterozygotes with a common thalassaemia allele, six patients with homozygous state for Hb Lepore, five patients with Hb Lepore/Hb S and one patient with Hb Lepore/Hb Neapolis were identified. All individuals carried haplotype I or V. These thalassaemic patients showed different phenotypes ranging from severe disease with early blood transfusion dependency to moderate form of thalassaemia intermedia. In most cases, thalassaemia mutation type determined the severity of the disease. A great variability of clinical phenotype among the same genotypes was also observed suggesting the presence of unknown genetic modifiers acting in combination with Hb Lepore.

  17. Helminth community structure in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier


    We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.

  18. Parasite assemblages in the Western whip snake Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius (Colubridae) from southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, M; Aznar, F J; Mattiucci, S; Kinsella, J M; Pellegrino, F; Cipriani, P; Nascetti, G


    Parasite assemblages of the Western whip snake Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius were investigated from the Calabria region in southern Italy. A total of 14 parasite taxa including 6 nematodes, 3 acanthocephalans, 2 cestodes, 2 digeneans and a single pentastomid was identified. Within the study area, H. v. carbonarius serves as the final host for seven species of helminths, of which only four (Hexametra quadricornis, Kalicephalus viperae, Paracapillaria sonsinoi and Renifer aniarum) can be considered as snake specialists, while one (Oswaldocruzia filiformis) is shared with other reptiles and amphibians, and two (Paradistomum mutabile and Rhabdias fuscovenosa) with lizards. A large proportion of larval forms of six helminth taxa (about 95% of all helminths collected) was found, for which H. v. carbonarius serves as an intermediate and/or paratenic host; however, adult stages of helminths were prevalent in snakes with snout-to-vent length greater than 70 cm. Our results suggest that ontogenetic and ecological factors should exert a strong influence upon the helminth assemblage of Western whip snakes. We concluded that H. v. carbonarius plays an important role in southern Italy as an intermediate/paratenic host for species of helminths infecting vertebrate groups which may include this snake species within their feeding chain. Eleven taxa, including three potential agents of zoonosis, were added to the poorly known parasite fauna of this host.

  19. Verification of a Real Time Weather Forecasting System in Southern Italy

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    Luca Tiriolo


    Full Text Available This paper shows the performance of an operational forecasting system, based on the regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS, at 3 km horizontal resolution over southern Italy. The model is initialized from the 12 UTC operational analysis/forecasting cycle of the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The forecast is issued for the following three days. The performance is evaluated for a whole year for the surface parameters: temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. The verification has been performed against SYNOP stations over southern Italy. A dense non-GTS network over Calabria is used for precipitation. Results show that RMSE is about 2-3 K for temperature, 12–16% for relative humidity, 2.0–2.8 m/s for wind speed, and 55–75° for wind direction, the performance varying with the season and with the forecasting time. The error increases between the first and third forecast days. The verification of the rainfall forecast shows that the model underestimates the area of the precipitation. The model output statistics (MOS is applied to all parameters but precipitation. Results show that the MOS reduces the RMSE by 0–30%, depending on the forecasting time, on the season and on the meteorological parameter.

  20. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  1. Italy. (United States)


    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  2. Undulating Band Style and Fringe Style Matt-Painted Pottery from the Sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide Area (CS) Calabria - southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francesco, Anna Maria; Andaloro, Eliana; Jacobsen, Jan K.

    This paper presents a comparison of two different classes of Matt-Painted pottery attributed to the 8th century B.C. from the sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide (CS), Calabria, southern Italy. Matt-Painted pottery was widely produced in southern Italy during the early Iron Age,

  3. Intergarted geophysical investigations by GPR and ERT on the largest rock fill dam in Europe: Monte Cotugno dam (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Loperte, A.; Bavusi, M.; Cerverizzo, G.; Lapenna, V.; Soldovieri, F.


    This work is concerned with the first results of a survey based on the integration of geophysical techniques for the inspection of the Monte Cotugno dam, the largest rock fill dam in Europe. The Monte Cotugno dam, managed by National Irrigation Development and Agrarian Transformation in Puglia, Basilicata and Irpinia is located on the Sinni river (Basilicata District, South Italy) and represents the nodal point in the whole hydraulic system on the Ionic side of Italy; in fact, the dam allows harnessing of the Sinni river water for agricultural, industrial, drinking and domestic purposes. The dam is of the zoned type and consists of a central core in sandy silt and of gravelly-sandy shoulders; its water tightness is ensured by a bituminous conglomerate facing on the upstream side, welded at the bottom to the foundation sealing system. The latter is about 1,900m long and consist of a massive concrete cut-off wall based on the marly-clay formation, 300m long on the right and 600 m long on the left side. On the valley bottom it is made up of a reinforced concrete cut-off wall that is inserted in the marly-clay formation and is surmounted by an inspection and percolation water collection tunnel. The watertight face consists of a bottom levelling layer 7-8 cm thick in semi open-graded bituminous concrete, a 5 cm separation layer in dense-graded bituminous concrete, a drainage layer in very open-graded concrete varying in thickness from 10 to 16 cm from the top of the dam down, two 4-cm top layers in dense-graded bituminous concrete with stepped joints, a finishing sealing coat containing 1.5 kg/cm2 of asphalt. The shallowest part of this layering is started to show incipient small detachments due to thermal solicitations; these detachments represent a possible way for water infiltration in the dam. In this framework, it was decided to perform the identification, characterization and evaluation of the potential loss of water through small cracks in the bituminous concrete

  4. How many otters are there in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni


    Full Text Available Abstract
    Mapping available data about otter (Lutra lutra distribution according to the 10x10 km grid of the IGMI (Italian Geographical Military Institute national maps on the scale of 1:25000, we evaluated a current otter range of 9900 km2, disjoined in two areas: Molise region in central Italy, and Basilicata, Campania, Calabria and Apulia in southern Italy. Considering the results of an otter genetic census performed in the Pollino National Park and surroundings (southern Italy in 2004, we extrapolated the values of otter density found (0.18-0.20 otters/km of watercourse to the overall Italian otter range and to the linear development of the watercourses hosting otters (3313 km. The correspondent estimates of the Italian population size amounted to, respectively, 481-523 and 596-663 otters. Considering a correction factor based on the mean sprainting intensity reported, since 2000, for each catchment hosting otters, the estimated population size was reduced to 229-257 otters. We argue that a new extensive otter survey is urgently needed and that monitoring by non-invasive genetic sampling is recommended in order to define the population status and trend.
    Quante lontre ci sono in Italia? I dati disponibili relativamente alla distribuzione della Lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia, sono stati mappati secondo il reticolo 10 x 10 km IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano in scala 1:25000, ottenendo un areale complessivo di 9900 km2, suddiviso tra il Molise (Italia centrale e Puglia, Campania, Basilicata e Calabria (Italia meridionale. I valori di densità della specie (0,18 – 0,20 lontre/km di fiume ottenuti nel 2004 in un’ampia area, perlopiù compresa nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, sono quindi stati estrapolati alla superficie complessiva dell’areale italiano e alla lunghezza totale dei corsi d’acqua attualmente frequentati dalla Lontra (3313 km. La consistenza della

  5. Application of Carbon Footprint to an agro-biogas supply chain in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, Carlo; Rana, Roberto; Tricase, Caterina; Lombardi, Mariarosaria


    Highlights: • We used the methodological approach established by UNI EN ISO 14067 (2013). • We studied in detail an LCI of an agro-biogas supply chain located in Southern Italy. • Carbon sequestration was enabled by no-tillage practice in the investigated farm. • Low impacts were observed for transportation due to the short supply chain. • Environmental improvement was shown by reduction of the ammonium nitrate use. - Abstract: Over the last few years, agro-biogas has been receiving great attention since it enables replacement of natural gas, thereby representing a tool which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts. In this context, this paper is aimed at the application of the Carbon Footprint (CF) to an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy, according to ISO/TS 14067:2013, so as to calculate the related 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 ). The topic was addressed because agro-biogas SCs, though being acknowledged worldwide as sustainable ways to produce both electricity and heat, can be source of GHG emissions and therefore environmental assessments and improvements are needed. Additionally, the performed literature review highlighted deficiencies in PCF assessments, so this study could contribute to enriching the international knowledge on the environmental burdens associated with agro-biogas SCs. The analysis was conducted using a life-cycle approach, thus including in the assessment: functional unit choice, system border definition and inventory analysis development. The primary data needed was provided by a farm located in the province of Foggia (Apulia region in Southern Italy), already equipped with anaerobic digestion and cogeneration plant for biogas production and utilisation. Results from this study are in agreement with those found by some of the most relevant studies in the sector. Indeed, it was possible to observe that GWP 100 was almost entirely due to cropland farming and, in particular, to the

  6. Spatial and temporal features of heavy rainstorm events in Calabria, Southern Italy (United States)

    Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Greco, Raffaele


    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash floods, shallow landslides and debris flows, which cause several damage to manmade infrastructures and loss of lives. The analysis of spatial distribution and temporal features of intense rainfall events is a fundamental step for a better understanding of the phenomena and for its possible prediction. The present study is an attempt to improve, from a statistical point of view, the understanding at sub-hourly scale of the temporal and spatial structure of intense rainfall events, by examining those that have hit Calabria (Southern Italy) in the years 1998-2008. More in detail, a considerable amount of series with high temporal detail (5 min) related to 155 sites (one rain gauge per less than 100 sq km), were analysed. First, more than 152 thousands rainfall events, separated by at least 6 hours of dry weather, were recognized. Then, less than a third (45,533) were selected, since denoted as erosive. Finally, several heavy rainstorm events (HREs) were chosen by considering the rainfall events recorded simultaneously at different rain gauges, even non-contiguous, within the region. In particular, this further selection was conducted, based on heuristic threshold values of cumulated rainfall (≥ 100 mm), maximum intensity (≥ 50 mm/h), and kinetic energy (≥ 29 MJ/ha). Therefore, 25 distinct HREs, including all the well-known catastrophic geo-hydrological events, were subjected to thorough investigation. The obtained HREs, automatically classified according to their structure in time, were analysed as regards both spatial and temporal evolution. At this end, the 25 HREs were distinguished as widespread (17) or localized (8), if the affected area is ≥ 500 sq km or relate to several rain gauges well distributed throughout the region, gives robustness to the obtained results. References O.G. Terranova, and P. Iaquinta.: Temporal properties of rainfall events in Calabria (southern Italy). Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 751

  7. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

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    R. Orain


    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Guado San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  8. Magnetic minerals in Pliocene and Pleistocene marine marls from Southern Italy : rock magnetic properties and alteration during thermal demagnetization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Velzen, A.J.


    The rock magnetic properties of two different Pliocene to Pleistocene marine marls from southern Italy are studied. Different conditions during sedimentation have led to two completely different magnetic mineralogies in these marls. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 examine the rock magnetic properties of the

  9. An agro-town bias? Re-examining the micro-demographic model for Southern Italy in the eighteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, Daniel


    Over the past 25 years, there has been an orthodox view established that 18thcentury Southern Italy had a distinctive micro-demographic model based around a number of facets, 3 key ones being a proliferation of neo-local small nuclear households, an exceptionally low average age of first marriage

  10. Multi-temporal maps of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy from 1954 to 2010 (United States)

    Guerriero, Luigi; Revellino, Paola; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Focareta, Mariano; Grelle, Gerardo; Albanese, Vincenzo; Corazza, Angelo; Guadagno, Francesco M.


    Historical movement of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy has periodically destroyed residences and farmland, and damaged the Italian National Road SS90 and the Benevento-Foggia National Railway. This paper provides maps from an investigation into the evolution of the Montaguto earth flow from 1954 to 2010. We used aerial photos, topographic maps, LiDAR data, satellite images, and field observations to produce multi-temporal maps. The maps show the spatial and temporal distribution of back-tilted surfaces, flank ridges, and normal, thrust, and strike-slip faults. Springs, creeks, and ponds are also shown on the maps. The maps provide a basis for interpreting how basal and lateral boundary geometries influence earth-flow behavior and surface-water hydrology.

  11. Helminth infestation in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Tripepi, Mauro; Kinsella, John M; Panebianco, Antonio; Mattiucci, Simonetta


    Helminth infestation was identified at post mortem examination in 110/116 (95%) raptors belonging to six species in Southern Italy. Pathological changes associated with helminths were observed in 81/110 (74%) of birds. Lesions in the respiratory system were associated with the nematode Serratospiculum tendo only in Falco peregrinus. Lesions in the digestive tract in a range of species of raptors were associated with nematodes (Cheilospirura falconis, Dispharynx falconis, Dispharynx mathewossianae, Physaloptera spp., Procyrnea spp., Procyrnea leptoptera, Synhimantus spp., Synhimantus laticeps, Eucoleus dispar, Porrocaecum spp. and Porrocaecum angusticolle), acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus buteonis and Centrorhynchus globocaudatus), digeneans (Neodiplostomum spp., Neodiplostomum perlatum, Parastrigea intermedia and Strigea falconis) and a single cestode (Cladotaenia spp.). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brugiapaglia


    Full Text Available The pollen record from Trifoglietti lake (Calabria region provides new information about the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes occurred during the LateGlacial and Holocene period. The LateGlacial part of the record, for which only preliminary data is available, is a new and original sequence from southern Italy. The Holocene sequence, with 11 AMS radiocarbon dates shows a stable Fagus forest for the entire period. Apart from sporadic pastoralism activities and the selective exploitation of Abies, only a weak human impact is recognized in the pollen records. Lake level oscillations have been reconstructed and annual precipitations quantified using the Modern Analogue Technique. The reconstruction was effectuated both at millennial and centennial scale: the first shows an increasing of moisture from 11000 to 9400 cal BP and a maximum of humidity from 9400 to 6200 cal BP. Moreover, several climatic oscillations punctuated the Holocene and therefore superimposed the millennial trend.

  13. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z.


    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., 'Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria', edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., 'Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno' (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper

  14. Occurrence and distribution of Armillaria gallica genets in a declining oak stand of southern Italy

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    T. de Gioia


    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Armillaria root rot in conifer plantations and declining oak stands are frequently due to the spread of the fungus in the soil over long periods. This paper examines the occurrence and distribution of Armillaria genets in a declining mixed oak stand of southern Italy. Samples of rhizomorphs, mycelial mats and fruit bodies of Armillaria were collected from the soil, stumps, and living and dead trees. A total of 111 Armillaria isolates were collected, all belonging to the species A. gallica. They were grouped in 28 genets by somatic incompatibility. The largest genet covered an area of about 2.6 ha with a linear extent of 300 m. On the basis of an estimated 0.5 m annual growth in the soil, its age was assumed to be about 3 centuries. The results confirm the ability of A. gallica to remain alive and stable in a large area over a long time.

  15. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

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    Barreca L


    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  16. Trace metal distributions in Posidonia oceanica and sediments from Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy

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    A. DI LEO


    Full Text Available Distribution of metals (Hg, Pb, Sn, Cu, Cd and Zn was determined in sediments and in different tissues of Posidonia oceanica collected from San Pietro Island, Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy. In seagrass, results, compared with metal concentrations in sediments, showed that the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb, Sn and Cu were found in the roots, while in the green leaves were found the highest levels of Cd and Zn. Instead the lowest metal concentrations were found in the basal part of the leaf. Levels of  metals in the leaves were similar to those found by other authors in uncontaminated areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Mercury levels in roots were correlated to levels in sediments. This could demonstrate the plant memorizes sediments contamination . This study reinforces the usefulness and the relevance of Posidonia oceanica as an indicator of spatial metal contamination and an interesting tool for environmental quality evaluation.

  17. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

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    Giovanna Barbuti


    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  18. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.


    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  19. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dell`Atmosfera


    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., `Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria`, edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., `Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno` (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper.

  20. Exploring public engagement with geothermal energy in southern Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzone, Anna; Allansdottir, Agnes; De Franco, Roberto; Muttoni, Giovanni; Manzella, Adele


    This paper presents the results of an assessment of public views on eventual geothermal energy development in Sicily. The research was carried out under a much wider research project, VIGOR, with the aim to explore the feasibility of geothermal energy utilization in southern Italy. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to explore the views and opinions of local communities regarding the potential of geothermal energy applications; (2) to contribute to the growing literature on public engagement with energy issues. In order to explore public views towards geothermal technologies, we conducted a case study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Although Italy has enormous geological potential for geothermal energy production, levels of knowledge of this energy source amongst the public are low. The results indicate that the issue is shrouded in uncertainty and that the Sicilian public expresses a diffused lack of trust in decision-making processes. Taken together, these factors are likely to strongly impact eventual further developments in this sector. The results clearly show the need for further societal dialogue supported by a sound communication action strategy as the first stage in a public participation

  1. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

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    Calabrese V


    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  2. Influence of soil on groundwater geochemistry in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy

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    Tiziano Boschetti


    Full Text Available The role of soil compositions in influencing groundwater geochemistry in carbonate aquifers is still little known. Nothing is known regarding the influence of pyroclastic soils (andisol within the carbonate Apennines in central-southern Italy, despite their wide distribution. In this study we analyze some physical and chemical properties of pyroclastic soil at the Acqua dei Faggi experimental site (southern Italy, to assess its influence on groundwater geochemistry. Chemical analyses were carried out on saturated paste extracts and a physical analogue model was developed through two column experiments. Physico-chemical properties of rainwater and spring water, and some microbiological features of the soil medium were also taken into consideration. The studied soil has a great influence in modifying rainwater chemistry during percolation. About the 50% of HCO3- and Ca2+ in spring water is due to interaction between percolation water and soil medium, and equilibrium with calcite is reached at this stage. The Na+/K+ ratio is buffered by clay minerals in the soil by primary silicates in the pyroclastic cover and then buffered. Cl- and SO42- concentrations in spring water are very close to that of soil infiltration water during short-term interaction with soil, but a decline is showed during long-term cause to the anions adsorption effect in the andisol. Chemical and microbiological investigations show the existence of a soil microbial community that allows denitrification and nitrate reduction. Infiltration processes cause anoxic conditions within the soil medium, therefore the absence of NH4+ in spring water throughout the observation period should be due to anammox processes. These findings suggest that hydrochemistry and spring chemographs may be significantly influenced by several factors, such as relationships between soil and rainwater, vegetation, and microbial communities, which are not necessarily correlated with lithological and structural

  3. Occurrence of floods and the role of climate during the twentieth century (Calabria, Southern Italy) (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Polemio, Maurizio


    In region as Calabria (Southern Italy), characterized by mountainous morphology, the areas suitable for agriculture and urban development are represented by narrow river and coastal plains. The human utilization of these areas is often hard fought with rivers and flowing waters; floods cause periodically damage to agricultural activities, roads, rural settlements and, sometimes, to people. The morphological setting of the region is dominated by the presence of a main river network made up of ephemeral streams widely observed in southern Italy, are locally called fiumara. They show river beds that in plain sector are often larger than one kilometer, completely dry for almost the entire summer season and affected, during the winter, by severe flash floods characterized by huge sediment load. Because the migration of river channel through the wide river bed, discharge data are unavailable. A wide archive containing data on historical floods occurred through the past two centuries and the defensive works carried out to cope with flood damage in Calabria has been recently upgraded by using data coming from the Ministry of Public Works. In the present work, for a study area located in the northernmost province of Calabria, the historical series of floods which have occurred since 1800 has been collected. Damage caused by the different flood events have been compared to both rainfall data (if available) and data concerning defensive work construction. The aim is to assess if and (for what fiumara of the study area) works carried out in the past obtained the effect of reducing damage caused by flash floods. Results of the analysis can represent a useful tool to correctly drive the future development of the main plain of the study area.

  4. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro


    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  5. An application of a multi model approach for solar energy prediction in Southern Italy (United States)

    Avolio, Elenio; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Contini, Daniele; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Tiriolo, Luca; Montesanti, Stefania; Transerici, Claudio; Federico, Stefano


    The accuracy of the short and medium range forecast of solar irradiance is very important for solar energy integration into the grid. This issue is particularly important for Southern Italy where a significant availability of solar energy is associated with a poor development of the grid. In this work we analyse the performance of two deterministic models for the prediction of surface temperature and short-wavelength radiance for two sites in southern Italy. Both parameters are needed to forecast the power production from solar power plants, so the performance of the forecast for these meteorological parameters is of paramount importance. The models considered in this work are the RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) and they were run for the summer 2013 at 4 km horizontal resolution over Italy. The forecast lasts three days. Initial and dynamic boundary conditions are given by the 12 UTC deterministic forecast of the ECMWF-IFS (European Centre for Medium Weather Range Forecast - Integrated Forecasting System) model, and were available every 6 hours. Verification is given against two surface stations located in Southern Italy, Lamezia Terme and Lecce, and are based on hourly output of models forecast. Results for the whole period for temperature show a positive bias for the RAMS model and a negative bias for the WRF model. RMSE is between 1 and 2 °C for both models. Results for the whole period for the short-wavelength radiance show a positive bias for both models (about 30 W/m2 for both models) and a RMSE of 100 W/m2. To reduce the model errors, a statistical post-processing technique, i.e the multi-model, is adopted. In this approach the two model's outputs are weighted with an adequate set of weights computed for a training period. In general, the performance is improved by the application of the technique, and the RMSE is reduced by a sizeable fraction (i.e. larger than 10% of the initial RMSE

  6. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy). (United States)

    Mang, Stefania M; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito


    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses.

  7. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy

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    Stefania M. Mang


    Full Text Available Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy. Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses.

  8. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapeco, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

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    Carolina Souza Gusatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1, of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013, probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3 and D (n = 88. The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52% patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8% who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78% patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  9. Can antenatal classes reduce the rate of cesarean section in southern Italy? (United States)

    Cantone, Daniela; Pelullo, Concetta Paola; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Attena, Francesco


    Among European Countries, Italy has the highest rate of cesarean section (36.8%), and in the Campania region this rate reaches 60.0%. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether participation in antenatal classes during pregnancy reduces the rate of cesarean delivery in southern Italy. We selected three local health authorities, with the lowest, the highest, and an intermediate rate of cesarean delivery. The study included 1893 mothers who brought their children for vaccination and were interviewed about their participation in antenatal classes and their obstetric history. The main causes of cesarean section given in the interview were clinical indications (61.0%), previous cesarean section (31.0%) and woman's request (8.0%). When we excluded emergency cesarean delivery, we found a moderate association between participation in antenatal classes and cesarean section reduction (relative risk=1.27; 95% CI=1.08-1.49; in percentage values from 49.3% to 38.8%). Private hospitals and the two local health authorities with higher baseline rates of cesarean section showed an enhanced reduction of these rates. Our paper shows moderate efficacy of antenatal classes, which reduced the occurrence of cesarean section by about 10%. However, the cesarean section rate remained high. As it is possible that different classes have a different level of efficacy, a further study on a standardized model of an antenatal classes is in progress, to assess its efficacy in term of cesarean section reduction, with the purpose of its widespread implementation to the whole region. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

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    Lucchese Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  11. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions. (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania


    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

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    Carmela Nardelli


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n=500; BMI > 40 kg/m2 and controls (n=216; BMI 45 kg/m2 and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy.

  13. Population data for 17 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Apulia (Southern Italy). (United States)

    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Stella, A; D'Ovidio, F D; Frati, P; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A


    The 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit were analyzed in 98 unrelated healthy males from Apulia (Southern Italy). A total of 97 different haplotypes were identified, of which 96 haplotypes were unique and 1 occurred twice. Allele frequencies for each Y-STR locus in pooled sample and estimated value of gene diversity (GD) were evaluated. The lowest value of GD was observed for DYS392 (0.126) and the highest one (0.936) for DYS385. The HD (haplotype diversity) for the studied Y-STR set showed a value of 0.9994, with an HMP (haplotype match probability) value of 0.0006, while the overall DC was 98.98%. Microvariant alleles were found for the DYS458 and DYS385 markers and sequenced. Furthermore, Φ(st)-based genetic distance computation and pair-wise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test were carried out. When comparing our population with the Apulia sample previously investigated, the AMOVA analysis detected no evidence for significant differentiation. The comparison with all Italian populations submitted to the YHRD website showed no relevant differences with all Southern Italian populations (San Giorgio La Molara, Belvedere, Trapani and Catania) and significant genetic deviation with all Northern Italian populations (Udine, Biella, La Spezia, Modena, Ravenna, Marche and North Sardinia). Moreover, the other populations and meta-populations belonging to the whole Mediterranean area (Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were different from our Apulia sample. The data were submitted to YHRD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Community-led approaches and interventions for the regeneration of abandoned towns in Southern Italy

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    May East


    Full Text Available Defined as towns or villages that have been abandoned by their original inhabitants, the so-called ‘ghost towns’ are a sub-product of the opposing conditions of excessive urban growth in one hand and decline of rural regions on the other. Natural disasters, economic and demographic decline, armed conflict, disease and environmental contamination are repeatedly the drivers for their abandonment.  An increasing large concentration of these abandoned small villages is found in the impoverished Southern regions of Italy.  To investigate this problem and identify conservation approaches that could generate new dynamics to the abandoned historic villages, the paper starts by identifying the linkages between globalisation, rapid urbanisation and ghost towns. This is followed by an analysis of the root causes of ghost towns in an attempt to define a ghost town typology. With this in mind, this paper investigates integrated conservation approaches, which could promote the restoration of abandoned towns, strengthening their local identity and enhancing resource-efficient local economies. Based on these considerations, the paper focus the attention on three scenarios of rehabilitation: a community-led approach to conservation demonstrated by the medieval village Torri Superiore embedded in ecovillage principles; the hospitality concept albergo diffuso demonstrated by Albergo Diffuso Borgo di Castelvetere, acting as social, cultural and economic stimuli to depopulated villages; the Riace village humanitarian approach which has integrated migrants in the social fabric of its aging population. The paper ends by reflecting if Torri Superiore and Riace’s approaches offer a potential solution to the housing crises currently engulfing southern Europe. As a result of imaginative housing and food production practices, these villages have made significantly more progress than mainstream government approaches towards the realisation of sustainable communities

  15. Relationship between rainfall and shallow landslides in the southern Apuan Alps (Italy

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    R. Giannecchini


    Full Text Available The Apuan Alps region is one of the rainiest areas in Italy (more than 3000 mm/year, in which frequently heavy and concentrated rainfall occurs. This is particularly due to its geographical position and conformation: the Apuan chain is located along the northern Tuscan coast, close to the Ligurian Sea, and the main peaks reach almost 2000 m. In several cases, the storms that hit the area have triggered many shallow landslides (soil slip-debris flows, which exposed the population to serious risks (during the 19 June 1996 rainstorm about 1000 landslides were triggered and 14 people died. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds is very important in order to prepare efficient alarm systems in a region particularly dedicated to tourism and marble activities. With the aim of contributing to the landslide hazard evaluation of the southern Apuan Alps territory (upper Versilia area, a detailed analysis of the main pluviometric events was carried out. The data recorded at the main rain gauge of the area from 1975 to 2002 were analysed and compared with the occurrence of soil slips, in order to examine the relationship between soil slip initiation and rainfall. The most important rainstorms which triggered shallow landslides occurred in 1984, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000. Many attempts were made to obtain a possible correlation between rainfall parameters and the occurrence of soil slip phenomena and to identify the local rainfall threshold for triggering shallow landslides. A threshold for soil slip activity in terms of mean intensity, duration and mean annual precipitation (MAP was defined for the study area. The thresholds obtained for the southern Apuan Alps were also compared with those proposed by other authors for several regions in the world. This emphasized the high value of the rain threshold for shallow landslide activity in the Apuan area. The high threshold is probably also linked to the high mean annual precipitation and to the high

  16. Assessment of Multi-Mycotoxin Exposure in Southern Italy by Urinary Multi-Biomarker Determination (United States)

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Gambacorta, Lucia; Visconti, Angelo


    Human exposure assessment to deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) can be performed by measuring their urinary biomarkers. Suitable biomarkers of exposure for these mycotoxins are DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), FB1, ZEA + α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) + β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and OTA, respectively. An UPLC-MS/MS multi-biomarker method was used to detect and measure incidence and levels of these biomarkers in urine samples of 52 volunteers resident in Apulia region in Southern Italy. The presence of ZEA + ZOLs, OTA, DON, FB1 and AFM1 were detected in 100%, 100%, 96%, 56% and 6%, of samples, respectively. All samples contained biomarkers of two or more mycotoxins. The mean concentrations of biomarkers ranged from 0.055 ng/mL (FB1) to 11.89 ng/mL (DON). Urinary biomarker concentrations were used to estimate human exposure to multiple mycotoxin. For OTA and DON, 94% and 40% of volunteers, respectively exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these mycotoxins. The estimated human exposure to FB1 and ZEA was largely below the TDI for these mycotoxins for all volunteers. PMID:24476712

  17. Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet among adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy. (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio


    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13-16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents' adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03-2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94). The adolescents' KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents' intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.


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    Full Text Available This report describes and interprets two stratigraphic sections across the regressive part of Baronia Synthem, located near the villages of Flumeri and Vallesaccarda (Ariano Irpino area, Southern Italy. Four different depositional environments have been recognized: fluvial, lagoon, foreshore and shoreface. Fluvial deposits, occurring in the Flumeri section, consist of clast-supported conglomerates, horizontal laminated sands and muddy silts with freshwater ostracod assemblages, indicating deposition in braided river low-sinuosity channels. In the Flumeri section lagoonal deposits are generally represented by structureless layers of dark clay including ostracods of brackish coastal lagoon connected with shallow-marine waters. In the Vallesaccarda section lagoonal sediments only occur as muddy clasts. Foreshore deposits are represented by well sorted yellow sands with low-angle cross lamination; a horizontal layer of stratified gravels outcrops in Vallesaccarda section. The shoreface deposits consist of poorly sorted sands with trough cross stratification formed in a bar and trough system, of symmetric ripples layers, and of abundant mollusc shell debris; in the Vallesaccarda section a tempestite interval generated by storm activity has been found. In Flumeri section littoral and lagoonal facies assemblages alternate; in Vallesaccarda section only nearshore sediments crop out. Nearshore deposits denote a wave-dominated coastal marine environments. These data contribute to a better knowledge of the distribution of paralic facies on the Western margin of the Pliocene Irpinia-Daunia Basin. 

  19. Identification of Optimal Mechanization Processes for Harvesting Hazelnuts Based on Geospatial Technologies in Sicily (Southern Italy

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    Ilaria Zambon


    Full Text Available Sicily is a region located in the southern Italy. Its typical Mediterranean landscape is appreciated due to its high biodiversity. Specifically, hazelnut plantations have adapted in a definite area in Sicily (the Nebroidi park due to specific morphological and climatic characteristics. However, many of these plantations are not used today due to adverse conditions, both to collect hazelnuts and to reach hazel groves. Though a geospatial analysis, the present paper aims to identify which hazelnut contexts can be actively used for agricultural, economic (e.g., introduction of a circular economy and energetic purposes (to establish a potential agro-energetic district. The examination revealed the most suitable areas giving several criteria (e.g., slope, road system, ensuring an effective cultivation and consequent harvesting of hazelnuts and (ii providing security for the operators since many of hazelnut plants are placed in very sloped contexts that are difficult to reach by traditional machines. In this sense, this paper also suggests optimal mechanization processes for harvesting hazelnuts in this part of Sicily.

  20. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V


    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease.

  1. Pleurostomophora richardsiae associated with trunk diseases of grapevines in southern Italy

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    Antonia CARLUCCI


    Full Text Available Pleurostomophora richardsiae (Nannf. apud Melin & Nannf. L. Mostert, W. Gams & Crous was previously known mainly as a human pathogen. However, more recently this fungus has been isolated from wood tissue of grapevines that show Petri and esca disease symptoms in California (USA and South Africa. During an assessment carried out in southern Italy, the abundant presence of this fungus was demonstrated by morphological, cultural and molecular means. Pleurostomophora richardsiae was isolated from sub-cortical wood patches and streaking of trunks and cordons of grapevine cultivars that showed decline and dieback symptoms. To understand its putative pathogenic role, pathogenicity tests were conducted in greenhouse experiments, where young grapevine plants of two cultivars were artificially inoculated with two isolates each of Pl. richardsiae, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum. Within 130 d, all three fungi produced brown streaking in both grapevine cultivars. The L. theobromae and Pl. richardsiae isolates were the most aggressive. Although the Pm. aleophilum isolates were pathogenic, they induced less severe wood streaking than the other two fungi. Therefore, Pl. richardsiae is considered a fungal pathogen of grapevine. All three fungal species were re-isolated from discolored tissue of all inoculated shoots, thus fulfilling Koch’s postulates.

  2. Fluxes and the mass balance of mercury in Augusta Bay (Sicily, southern Italy) (United States)

    Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Bonsignore, Maria; Oliveri, Elvira; Barra, Marco; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Mario


    The flux (Φ) of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-seawater interface was investigated in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) where uncontrolled industrial discharge from one of the most important chlor-alkali plant in Europe has caused significant negative effects on the environment. Hg fluxes were measured by the deployment of in-situ benthic chamber. The obtained value of 1.3 kmol y-1 clearly emphasizes the role of the sediments as source of Hg for the overlying water column. Moreover, Hg concentrations in the outflowing bottom waters were measured to estimate the export of this pollutant from Augusta Bay to the open sea. The calculated value of 0.54 kmol y-1, corresponding to ∼4% of the anthropogenic input of Hg from coastal point/diffuse sources to the Mediterranean Sea (12.5 kmol y-1; Rajar et al., 2007; UNEP-MAP, 2001), assigns this area a crucial role in the Hg inventory of the entire Mediterranean basin. Finally, a consistent and robust mass balance for Hg in Augusta Bay was provided by combining the obtained data with Hg fluxes at seawater-atmosphere interface.

  3. Historical evolution of slope instability in the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Soriano, Marcella; Bellocchi, Gianni; Fiorillo, Francesco; Cevasco, Andrea; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco Maria


    There is interest in knowing historical spatio-temporal patterns of landslide activity. However, this is challenging to reconstruct because it is difficult to obtain detailed records for past landslide activity. Here, we deal with hydro-geomorphological signatures, such as storms, downpours, floods, snowmelt and mass movement, to detect annual slope instability events (ASIEs) over historical times. In order to obtain ASIEs for each year, a monthly Instability Density Index (IDI) was used and then monthly values were summed up to obtain a yearly value. Classes of monthly IDI varying between 0 (no instability) and 4 (highest instability) were determined from historical documents. We present an application for the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy, using data from a 313-year long series (1701-2013 CE). After 1880 CE the information becomes more valuable with directly observed landslide frequency. By this cataloguing, 129 ASIEs were obtained. Their evolution shows slight instability during the 18th century. Uneven and greater slope instability occurred instead across the 19th century, when an important phase of deforestation coincided with intensification of agricultural activities. Slope instability events continued during the 20th century but their causes are mainly related to anthropisation and the effects of recent climate change. It was determined that stormy autumns until the 19th century and successive winter-times with enhanced snowmelt, may have driven the reactivation of widespread instability events. We also found that mountainous and hilly terrains have an acute sensitivity to climate change.

  4. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

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    Giuseppe Grosso


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26 and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97 and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94. The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.

  5. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; Rosa, Rosanna De; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele


    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  6. Upper crustal structure in the Potenza area (Southern Apennines, Italy using Sp converted wave

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    D. Jongmans


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the records of the two Potenza seismic sequences (Southern Apennines, Italy which occurred in 1990 and 1991, in order to obtain information on the upper crustal structure in this area. The hypocentral depths are mainly concentrated below 10 km which is the supposed upper limit of the crystalline basement. The seismograms recorded at temporary arrays deployed during the two sequences clearly show on the vertical component, an intermediary phase between the P and S waves. For the investigated epicentral distances (less than 30 km the delay between this secondary phase and the direct S wave arrival is almost constant at each station, suggesting that the observed intermediary phase might be an S to P conversion at a discontinuity shallower than the hypocentral depth. This interpretation has been supported by polarisation analysis and numerical modelling results. Considering the regional geological structure, these latter have also shown that the interface generating strong converted waves could be the top of the Apulian carbonate platform overlaid with recent clay deposits and flysch sediments. 1D inversion of the travel-time data was performed in order to evaluate a local vertical upper crustal profile.

  7. Impact of Damaging Geo-Hydrological Events and Population Development in Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Maurizio Polemio


    Full Text Available Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their interactions can both amplify the damage and obstruct emergency management. The occurrence of DHEs depends on the interactions between climatic and geomorphological features: except for long-term climatic changes, these interactions can be considered constant, and for this reason, some areas are systematically affected. However, damage scenarios can change; events that occurred in the past could presently cause different effects depending on the modifications that occurred in the geographical distribution of vulnerable elements. We analyzed a catastrophic DHE that in 1951 affected an area 3700 km2 wide, located in Calabria (southern Italy, with four-day cumulative rainfall exceeding 300 mm and return periods of daily rain exceeding 500 Y. It resulted in 101 victims and 4500 homeless individuals. The probability that a similar event will happen again in the future is assessed using the return period of the triggering rainfall, whereas the different anthropogenic factors are taken into account by means of the population densities at the time of the event and currently. The result is a classification of regional municipalities according to the probability that events such as the one analyzed will occur again in the future and the possible effects of this event on the current situation.

  8. A Reliability Analysis of a Rainfall Harvesting System in Southern Italy

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    Lorena Liuzzo


    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH may be an effective alternative water supply solution in regions affected by water scarcity. It has recently become a particularly important option in arid and semi-arid areas (like Mediterranean basins, mostly because of its many benefits and affordable costs. This study provides an analysis of the reliability of using a rainwater harvesting system to supply water for toilet flushing and garden irrigation purposes, with reference to a single-family home in a residential area of Sicily (Southern Italy. A flushing water demand pattern was evaluated using water consumption data collected from a sample of residential customers during an extended measurement campaign. A daily water balance simulation of the rainwater storage tank was performed, and the yield-after-spillage algorithm was used to define the tank release rule. The model’s performance was evaluated using rainfall data from more than 100 different sites located throughout the Sicilian territory. This regional analysis provided annual reliability curves for the system as a function of mean annual precipitation, which have practical applications in this area of study. The uncertainty related to the regional model predictions was also assessed. A cost-benefit analysis highlighted that the implementation of a rainwater harvesting system in Sicily can provide environmental and economic advantages over traditional water supply methods. In particular, the regional analysis identified areas where the application of this system would be most effective.

  9. Late Quaternary activity along the Scorciabuoi Fault (Southern Italy as inferred from electrical resistivity tomographies

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    A. Loperte


    Full Text Available The Scorciabuoi Fault is one of the major tectonic structures affecting the Southern Apennines, Italy. Across its central sector, we performed several electrical resistivity tomographies with different electrode spacing (5 and 10 m and using a multielectrode system with 32 electrodes. All tomographies were acquired with two different arrays, the dipole-dipole and the Wenner-Schlumberger. We also tested the different sensitivity of the two arrays with respect to the specific geological conditions and research goals. Detailed geological mapping and two boreholes were used to calibrate the electrical stratigraphy. In all but one tomography (purposely performed off the fault trace, we could recognise an abrupt subvertical lateral variation of the main sedimentary bodies showing the displacement and sharp thickening of the two youngest alluvial bodies in the hanging-wall block. These features are interpreted as evidence of synsedimentary activity of the Scorciabuoi Fault during Late Pleistocene and possibly as recently as Holocene and allow accurate location of the fault trace within the Sauro alluvial plain.

  10. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy (United States)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni


    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  11. Pleurostomophora richardsiae, Neofusicoccum parvum and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum associated with a decline of olives in southern Italy

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    Antonia CARLUCCI


    Full Text Available In a recent survey of olive groves in the Canosa di Puglia, Cerignola and Foggia areas of southern Italy a decline of olive trees was observed. The symptoms consisted of a generalised decline of the trees beginning with foliar discolouration and leaf drop, wilting of apical shoots, die-back of twigs and branches, and brown streaking under the bark of the trunk, branches and twigs. At later stages of the disease necrosis and cankers were observed on the bark. The symptoms were similar to those caused by Verticillium wilt, but morphological and molecular analyses demonstrated that the fungal agent responsible was Pleurostomophora richardsiae. Pathogenicity tests carried out on young shoots showed rapid infection by P. richardsiae following artificial inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. richardsiae as the causal agent of brown streaking under the bark of olive trees, and of wilt of twigs and leaves. It is not clear if this fungus moves through the phloem or xylem, but on the basis of the sub-cortical symptoms, it appears that it moves through the phloem.

  12. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy) (United States)

    Marsico, A.; Giuliano, G.; Pennetta, L.; Vurro, M.


    Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, caves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SINTACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy). The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydrogeological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area.

  13. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy

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    A. Marsico


    Full Text Available Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, caves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SINTACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy. The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydrogeological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area.

  14. Soil organic carbon dynamics in typical durum wheat-based crop rotations of Southern Italy

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    Claudia Di Bene


    Full Text Available Mediterranean agricultural areas are dominated by cropping systems based on winter cereals crops, summer irrigated crops, foragebased systems, and mixed succession with bare fallow. Soil organic carbon (SOC is widely used to assess the environmental performance of these cropping systems, since it is strongly influenced by management practices and environmental conditions. This study evaluates the sustainability of representative intensive cropping systems of Southern Italy, in terms of SOC stock changes and CO2 emissions in the long-term perspective, using a process-based model (RothC10N combined with a GIS-based spatialization procedure. On the basis of SOC modelling, results showed that crop management practices currently adopted by farmers did not guarantee SOC sequestration in all the rotations (–4.29 Mg C ha–1. The sustainability of cropping systems can be improved through management practices such as the retention of crop residues into the field and/or the rational use of irrigation for the summer crop (6.73 Mg C ha–1. This finding could help policy makers to provide suggestions for a more effective local implementation of agro-environmental measures.

  15. Geomorphic evidence of Quaternary tectonics within an underlap fault zone of southern Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Giano, Salvatore Ivo; Pescatore, Eva; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo


    A composite seismic source, the Irpinia - Agri Valley Fault zone, located in the axial sector of the fold-and-thrust belt of southern Apennines, Italy, is investigated. This composite source is made up of a series of nearly parallel, NW-striking normal fault segments which caused many historical earthquakes. Two of these fault segments, known as the San Gregorio Magno and Pergola-Melandro, and the fault-related mountain fronts, form a wedge-shaped, right-stepping, underlap fault zone. This work is aimed at documenting tectonic geomorphology and geology of this underlap fault zone. The goal is to decipher the evidence of surface topographic interaction between two bounding fault segments and their related mountain fronts. In particular, computation of geomorphic indices such as mountain front sinuosity (Smf), water divide sinuosity (Swd), asymmetry factor (AF), drainage basin elongation (Bs), relief ratio (Rh), Hypsometry (HI), normalized steepness (Ksn), and concavity (θ) is integrated with geomorphological analysis, the geological mapping, and structural analysis in order to assess the recent activity of the fault scarp sets recognized within the underlap zone. Results are consistent with the NW-striking faults as those showing the most recent tectonic activity, as also suggested by presence of related slope deposits younger than 38 ka. The results of this work therefore show how the integration of a multidisciplinary approach that combines geomorphology, morphometry, and structural analyses may be key to solving tectonic geomorphology issues in a complex, fold-and-thrust belt configuration.


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    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  17. Use of molecular approaches in hydrogeological studies: the case of carbonate aquifers in southern Italy (United States)

    Bucci, Antonio; Petrella, Emma; Celico, Fulvio; Naclerio, Gino


    Waterborne pathogens represent a significant health risk in both developed and developing countries with sensitive sub-populations including children, the elderly, neonates, and immune-compromised people, who are particularly susceptible to enteric infections. Annually, approximately 1.8 billion people utilize a faecally contaminated water source, and waterborne diseases are resulting in up to 2.1 million human mortalities globally. Although groundwater has traditionally been considered less susceptible to contamination by enteric pathogens than surface water due to natural attenuation by overlying strata, the degree of microbial removal attributable to soils and aquifers can vary significantly depending on several factors. Thus, accurate assessment of the variable presence and concentration of microbial contaminants, and the relative importance of potentially causative factors affecting contaminant ingress, is critical in order to develop effective source (well) and resource (aquifer) protection strategies. "Traditional" and molecular microbiological study designs, when coupled with hydrogeological, hydrochemical, isotopic, and geophysical methods, have proven useful for analysis of numerous aspects of subsurface microbial dynamics. Accordingly, this overview paper presents the principal microbial techniques currently being employed (1) to predict and identify sources of faecal contamination in groundwater, (2) to elucidate the dynamics of contaminant migration, and (3) to refine knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics and behaviours of aquifer systems affected by microbial contamination with an emphasis on carbonate aquifers, which represent an important global water supply. Previous investigations carried out in carbonate aquifers in southern Italy are discussed.

  18. Electromagnetic methods to characterize the Savoia di Lucania waste dump (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Bavusi, M.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.


    The aim of this work is the joint application and integration of non-invasive geoelectrical methods for studying the landfill of Savoia di Lucania (Southern Italy). This landfill for its engineering features and small dimensions (70 m × 30 m × 6 m) represents an optimal test site to assess a geophysical survey protocol for municipal solid waste landfills investigation and monitoring. The landfill of Savoia di Lucania has been built with a reinforced concrete material and coated with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner. Three electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT), two self-potential (SP) map surveys and one induced polarization (IP) section have been performed, both in the surrounding area and inside the waste landfill. The geophysical investigations have well defined some buried boundaries of the landfill basin and localized the leachate accumulation zones inside the dumpsite. Comparison of our results with other engineering and geological investigations could be the key for evaluating the integrity of the HDPE liner. Finally, the joint use of the ERT, IP and SP methods seems to be a promising tool for studying and designing new monitoring systems able to perform a time-lapse analysis of waste landfill geometry and integrity.

  19. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Pliocene Bianco section, Calabria, southern Italy (United States)

    Rio, D.; Thunell, R.; Sprovieri, R.; Bukry, D.; Destefano, E.; Howell, M.; Raffi, I.; Sancetta, C.; Sanfilippo, A.


    An integrated micropaleontological and geochemical study was carried out on the Pliocene-age Bianco section located in Calabria, southern Italy. This section is somewhat unique for the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region in that it contains abundant calcareous and siliceous microfossils. Based on the biostratigraphic findings, it ranges in age from approximately 3.7-3.0 Ma. The Bianco section is composed of marly mudstones intercalated with diatomites, with the diatomites being particularly common in the upper 50 m of the section (above 3.1 Ma). The diatomites contain an abundant benthic foraminiferal assemblage and have a low organic carbon content indicating that bottom waters were fairly well-oxygenated during their deposition. Faunal and floral indicators suggest a cooling of surface waters in this region at 3.1 Ma. The diatom assemblages within the Bianco diatomites are very similar to those living in the Gulf of California, suggesting an upwelling origin for these silica-rich units. A model is proposed which attributes diatomite formation to upwelling induced by climatically controlled changes in local hydrography. ?? 1989.

  20. Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in the Vesuvio National Park (Campania, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Menale, Bruno; De Castro, Olga; Cascone, Ciro; Muoio, Rosa


    This paper illustrates the results of an ethnobotanical study carried out in the Vesuvio National Park (VNP) (Campania, Southern Italy). It describes the medicinal uses of the plants in an ancient area rich in ethnobiodiversity investigated for the first time. The main aim of the study was to understand at what extent current knowledge on medicinal plant uses is still alive in VNP. The informations were collected using semi-structured and unstructured interviews performed on 136 persons living in the investigated area from March to November 2014 and from April to October 2015. The age of the informants ranged from 47 to 85 years old; more than half of the informants aged between 61 and 70. Local plant uses were listed and analyzed in a table and compared with uses in other localities in Italy and in other regions of the Mediterranean basin. In VNP were recorded a total number of 132 plant species, belonging to 110 genera and 51 families mentioned for medicinal purposes. Among the recorded 132 plant species, 70 are spontaneous or subspontaneous and 62 are cultivated above all in the kitchen gardens or in the apartments, as food or as ornamental. Herbs represent the majority, followed by trees and shrubs or subshrubs. The investigated plants were used to cure 116 different human health diseases and 4 veterinary problems. The majority of plants are used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, skin and respiratory problems. The number of medicinal plants reported in this paper reflects a well-preserved traditional popular knowledge (TPK) of the elderly people living in the rural areas and in the small villages of VNP. The conservation of TPK is owed to the persistence of an oral tradition that safeguard the use of plants as herbal medicine. We realized that while the use of some wild plants is decreasing, people continue to gather some cultivated and invasive plants for preparing remedies. Researches like this are necessary to protect ancient memories, to promote the

  1. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna


    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  2. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna


    Anthropogenic gas emissions are projected to change future climates with potentially nontrivial impacts (Keller et al., 2008 and references therein) and the impacts of the increased CO2 concentration are, among others, the greenhouse effect, the acidification of the surface of the ocean and the fertilization of ecosystems (e.g. Huijgen and Comans, 2003). Geologic Sequestration into subsurface rock formations for long-term storage is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS. A major strategy for the in situ geological sequestration of CO2 involves the reaction of CO2 with Mg-silicates, especially in the form of serpentinites, which are rocks: i) relatively abundant and widely distributed in the Earth's crust, and ii) thermodynamically convenient for the formation of Mg-carbonates (e.g., Brown et al., 2011). In nature, carbonate minerals can form during serpentinization or during hydrothermal carbonation and weathering of serpentinites whereas industrial mineral carbonation processes are commonly represented by the reaction of olivine or serpentine with CO2 to form magnesite + quartz ± H2O (Power et al., 2013). Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in the subsurface as a result of fluid-rock interactions within serpentinite, which occur during serpentinization and carbonate alteration. In situ carbonation aims to promote these reactions by injecting CO2 into porous, subsurface geological formations, such as serpentinite-hosted aquifers. In the northern sector of the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) extensively occur serpentinites (Sansone et. al., 2012) and serpentinite-hosted aquifers (Margiotta et al., 2012); both serpentinites and serpentinite-hosted aquifers are the subject of a comprehensive project devoted to their possible use for in situ geological sequestration of CO2. The serpentinites derived from a lherzolitic and subordinately harzburgitic mantle, and are within tectonic slices in association with metadolerite dykes

  3. Shigella sonnei biotype g carrying class 2 integrons in southern Italy: a retrospective typing study by pulsed field gel electrophoresis

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    Romani Cristina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence and global dissemination of multiresistant strains of enteric pathogens is a very concerning problem from both epidemiological and Public Health points of view. Shigella sonnei is the serogroup of Shigella most frequently responsible for sporadic and epidemic enteritis in developed countries. The dissemination is associated most often to human to human transmission, but foodborne episodes have also been described. In recent years the circulation of multiresistant strains of S. sonnei biotype g carrying a class 2 integron has been reported in many countries worldwide. In southern Italy a strain with similar properties has been responsible for a large community outbreak occurred in 2003 in Palermo, Sicily. The objective of this study was to date the emergence of the biotype g strain carrying the class 2 integron in southern Italy and to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of biotype g S. sonnei isolated throughout an extended interval of time. Methods A total of 31 clinical isolates of S. sonnei biotype g identified in southern Italy during the years 1971–2000 were studied. The strains were identified at the serogroup level, characterized by biochemical tests and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE after digestion of DNA by XbaI. Carriage of class 2 integrons was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers and confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis of amplicons. Results The 15 isolates of S. sonnei biotype g identified in the decade 1971–1980 showed highly heterogeneous drug resistance profiles and pulsotypes. None of the isolates was simultaneous resistant to streptomycin and trimethoprim and none was class 2 integron positive. On the contrary, this resistance phenotype and class 2 integron carriage were very common among the 16 strains of biotype g identified in the following two decades

  4. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management (United States)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.


    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  5. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso


    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  6. Variations of local seismic response in Benevento (Southern Italy) using earthquakes and ambient noise recordings (United States)

    Improta, Luigi; di Giulio, Giuseppe; Rovelli, Antonio

    The city of Benevento (Southern Italy) has been repeatedly struck by large historical earthquakes. A heterogeneous geologic structure and widespread soft soil conditions make the estimation of site effects crucial for the seismic hazard assessment of the city. From 2000 until 2004, we installed seismic stations to collect earthquake data over zones with different geological conditions. Despite the high level of urban noise, we recorded more than 150 earthquakes at twelve sites. This data set yields the first, well documented experimental evidence for weak to moderate local amplifications. We investigated site effects primarily by the classical spectral ratio technique (CSR) using a rock station placed on the Benevento hill as reference. All sites in the Calore river valley and in the eastern part of the Benevento hill show a moderate high-frequency (f > 4 Hz) amplification peak. Conversely, sites in the Sabato river valley share weak-to-moderate amplification in a wide frequency band (from 1-2 to 7-10 Hz), without evident frequency peaks. Application of no-reference-site techniques to earthquake and noise data confirms the results of the CSRs in the sites of the Calore river valley and of the eastern part of the Benevento hill, but fails in providing indications for site effects in the Sabato river valley, being the H/V ratios nearly flat. One-dimensional modeling indicates that the ground motion amplification can be essentially explained in terms of a vertically varying geologic structure. High-frequency narrow peaks are caused by the strong impedance contrast existing between near-surface soft deposits and stiff cemented conglomerates. Conversely, broad-band amplifications in the Sabato river valley are likely due to a more complex layering with weak impedance contrasts both in the shallow and deep structure of the valley.

  7. The effects of lithology and landsliding on hillslope sediment supply: case study from southern Italy (United States)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; McDonald, Jordan


    Sediment supply from hillslopes -including volumes, rates and grain size distributions- controls the sediment fluxes from upland areas and modulates how landscapes respond to tectonics. Here, we present new field data from tectonically-active areas in southern Italy that quantifies how lithology and rock-mass strength control the delivery processes and grain size distributions of sediment supplied from hillslopes. We evaluate the influence of landslides on sediment supply along 8 normal faults with excellent tectonic constraints. Frequency-area analysis of the landslide inventory, and a new field-calibrated area-volume scaling relationship, reveal that landsliding in the area is not dominated by large landslides (β ˜2), with 83% of landslides being erosion rates, we infer that our inventory likely represents the integrated record of landsliding over 1-3 kyrs, implying minimum sediment fluxes between 6.90 x 102 and 2.07 x 103 m3/yr. We demonstrate that outcrop-scale rock-mass strength controls both landslide occurrence and the grain sizes supplied by bedrock weathering, for different lithologies. Comparisons of particle size distributions from bedrock weathering with those measured on landslide deposits demonstrates that landslides supply systematically coarser material, with lithology influencing the degree of coarsening. Finally, we evaluate the effect of landslide supply on fluvial sediment export, and show that D84 grain size increases by ˜ 6 mm for each 100-m increment in incision depth, due to the combination of enhanced landsliding and transport capacity in more incised catchments. Our results reveal a dual control of lithology and rock-mass strength on both the sediment volumes and grain sizes supplied to the fluvial system, which we demonstrate has a significant impact on sediment export from upland areas. This study provides a uniquely detailed field data set for studying how tectonics and lithology control hillslope erosion and sediment characteristics.

  8. Information sources and knowledge on vaccination in a population from southern Italy: The ESCULAPIO project. (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Ferro, Antonio; Marchese, Valentina; Napoli, Giuseppe; Palmeri, Sara; Raia, Daniele; Restivo, Vincenzo; Siddu, Andrea; Vitale, Francesco; Casuccio, Alessandra


    Vaccine knowledge of the general population is shaped by different information sources and strongly influences vaccination attitudes and uptake. The CCM-Italian Ministry of Health ESCULAPIO project attempted to identify the role of such information sources, in order to address adequate strategies to improve information on vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. In the present study, data on 632 adults from Southern Italy regarding information sources were collected, and their perceived and actual knowledge on vaccinations were compared and analyzed in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources. The main reported reference sources were general practitioners (GPs) (42.5%) and pediatricians (33.1%), followed by mass media (24.1%) and the Internet (17.6%). A total of 45.4% reported they believed to be informed (45.4%), while those estimated to be truly informed were 43.8%. However, as showed in the multivariate logistic regression, people having the perception to be correctly informed ascribed their good knowledge to their profession in the health sector (Adj OR 2.28, CI 1.09-4.77, p informed population thought the responsibility had to be attributed to mass media (AdjOR 0.45, CI 0.22-0.92, p information, instead, were younger (AdjOR 1.64, CI 1.04-2.59, p information about vaccination should be addressed to fortifying healthcare workers knowledge in order to make them public health opinion leaders. General population should be provided with correct indications on trustworthy websites on vaccines to contrast false information supplied by anti-vaccinists on their own websites or social networks pages and on the mass media.

  9. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

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    Franco Tassi


    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  10. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

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    Roberta Infascelli


    Full Text Available Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha, livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00, nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year. The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should

  11. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy (United States)

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.


    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  12. Productivity and modifications of ecosystem processes in gaps of a low Macchia in southern Italy

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    A. De Marco


    Full Text Available Disturbance in Mediterranean shrub lands creates gaps that break up the shrub cover and potentially restrict productivity and other ecosystem processes. Gaps make up to about 20% of the low Macchia area at the Castel Volturno nature reserve (southern Italy. The plant community consists mainly of small annual species (legumes, grasses and forbs that germinate in November and die out before the onset of summer drought. The inter-annual variability in productivity and the relative abundance of legumes, grasses and forbs were assessed over 4 yr (2004–2007 to evaluate main potential modifications of ecosystem processes determined by the occurrence of gaps in the shrub cover.

    In the study years, at the peak production, plant mass varied from about 250 to 700 g m−2; biomass belowground allocation varied from 23% in the wettest to 44% in the driest year. Belowground/aboveground biomass ratios were negatively related to rainfall and positively related to the length of the dry period, showing that water availability controls biomass allocation patterns. Legumes were the most abundant fraction (about 60% of the aboveground mass in the wettest year. In the drier years legumes exhibited a shorter life cycle and senesced by mid-spring. Among the three functional groups monitored, legumes were the most sensitive to water shortage and their biomass was positively related to the amount of rainfall and negatively related to the length of the dry period. The higher fraction of legume mass was associated with higher nitrogen content in plant tissues and in the soil. Senesced annual species decomposed more than senescent Phillyrea sp. leaves. The stability of organic carbon pool, evaluated through the endogenous mineralization coefficient (CEM, was lower in gaps than in understorey soils.

  13. Prediction of Climatic Change for the Next 100 Years in the Apulia Region, Southern Italy

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    Mladen Todorovic


    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on water resources and use for agricultural production has become a critical question for sustainability. Our objective was investigate the impact of the expected climate changes for the next 100 years on the water balance variations, climatic classifications, and crop water requirements in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. The results indicated that an increase of temperature, in the range between 1.3 and 2,5 °C, is expected in the next 100 years. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo variations would follow a similar trend; as averaged over the whole region, the ETo increase would be about 15.4%. The precipitation will not change significantly on yearly basis although a slight decrease in summer months and a slight increase during the winter season are foreseen. The climatic water deficit (CWD is largely caused by ETo increase, and it would increase over the whole Apulia region in average for more than 200 mm. According to Thornthwaite and Mather climate classification, the moisture index will decrease in the future, with decreasing of humid areas and increasing of aridity zones. The net irrigation requirements (NIR, calculated for ten major crops in the Apulia region, would increase significantly in the future. By the end of the 21st Century, the foreseen increase of NIR, in respect to actual situation, is the greatest for olive tree (65%, wheat (61%, grapevine (49%, and citrus (48% and it is slightly lower for maize (35%, sorghum (34%, sunflower (33%, tomato (31%, and winter and spring sugar beet (both 27%.

  14. Remote sensing for illegal dumps detection: a case study in southern Italy (United States)

    Vincenzo Angelino, Cesario; Focareta, Mariano; Meoli, Giuseppe; Piacquadio, Giovanni; Cicala, Luca; Parrilli, Sara; De Mizio, Marco


    This paper presents a case study about the detection of illegal dumps from optical satellite images in a large territory falling in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, Southern Italy. This location is also known with the term "Terra dei Fuochi" because in this area is particularly widespread the phenomenon of waste burning and, over the past decades, there have been many landfills of hazardous waste of industrial origin. In addition to the potential damage caused to the environmental matrices, this situation has led to considerable concerns over the health of citizens and a serious economic impact on the agricultural sector. In order to contrast this phenomenon, the government of the Campania Region organized some prevention, monitoring and repression activities. In particular, the monitoring activities are employed by periodic inspection of sites, which are often object of illegal deposits (former quarries, illegal dumps, as well as city and country roads). The periodic inspection is usually performed by patrols of the company SMA Campania (the in-house regional company, specialized in environmental protection), and law enforcement. As part of a project, the remote sensing company MAPSAT srl and CIRA (the Italian Aerospace Research Center), have proposed to SMA Campania to support the periodic monitoring inspection of the patrols, with optical satellite acquisitions. This paper describes the proposed approach, the type of data used, the technical problems encountered and solutions introduced. The periodic monitoring with biannual satellite acquisitions, was effective for both finding new illegal spills and to follow the evolution (in terms of extension) of landfills already found in the past.

  15. Assessment of the impact of climate change on the olive flowering in Calabria (southern Italy) (United States)

    Avolio, Elenio; Orlandi, Fabio; Bellecci, Carlo; Fornaciari, Marco; Federico, Stefano


    In phenological studies, plant development and its relationship with meteorological conditions are considered in order to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the characteristics of many crop species. In this work, the impact of climate change on the flowering of the olive tree ( Olea europaea L.) in Calabria, southern Italy, has been studied. Olive is one of the most important plant species in the Mediterranean area and, at the same time, Calabria is one of the most representative regions of this area, both geographically and climatically. The work is divided into two main research activities. First, the behaviour of olive tree in Calabria and the influence of temperature on phenological phases of this crop are investigated. An aerobiological method is used to determine the olive flowering dates through the analysis of pollen data collected in three experimental fields for an 11-year study period (1999-2009). Second, the study of climate change in Calabria at high spatial and temporal resolution is performed. A dynamical downscaling procedure is applied for the regionalization of large-scale climate analysis derived from general circulation models for two representative climatic periods (1981-2000 and 2081-2100); the A2 IPCC scenario is used for future climate projections. The final part of this work is the integration of the results of the two research activities to predict the olive flowering variation for the future climatic conditions. In agreement with our previous works, we found a significant correlation between the phenological phases and temperature. For the twenty-first century, an advance of pollen season in Calabria of about 9 days, on average, is expected for each degree of temperature rise. From phenological model results, on the basis of future climate predictions over Calabria, an anticipation of maximum olive flowering between 10 and 34 days is expected, depending on the area. The results of this work are useful for adaptation and

  16. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Impieri Massimo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  17. Sediment transport analysis at event scale in a semi-arid basin of Southern-Italy (United States)

    Bisantino, T.; Gentile, F.; Milillo, F.; Romano, G.; Trisorio Liuzzi, G.


    Erosion at basin scale is a main issue in nowadays research since it plays a role of first level in sustainable management of natural resources (land and water). In particular, in arid and semi-arid regions natural vegetative cover is sparse and runoff events cause high rates of sediment transport, while long periods of drought can be observed. Several types of erosion phenomena affect the torrents in the north-western area of the Puglia Region (Southern-Italy) where flood events are characterised by a considerable amount of suspended solids. In this area the solid load was monitored until 1989 by the National Hydrographic Service using manual sampling. To accurately estimate the sediment transport during flood events and in order to improve the methodologies to assess and predict soil erosion, a watershed representative of the area (Carapelle torrent) was selected, where an experimental station was set up for the continuous measuring of suspended solids. The station is equipped with a dual function infrared sensor (turbidity/suspended solids), a remote data acquisition system, an electromechanical and an ultrasound stage meter. A laboratory test of the turbidity sensor was preliminary performed to evaluate the dual functionality of the instrument (turbidity and suspended sediment concentration) in relation to the variations of sediment concentration and grain size distribution. Successively a field calibration was carried out to determine the relationship between optical and gravimetric data and to check the housing device. Afterwards, the high temporal resolution data collected over a 3-years period (2007-2009) were used to analyze the sediment transport dynamics. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationships in unsteady flows between the sediment concentration and the discharge, and to analyze the relationships at event scale between the sediment budget and some hydrological variables, in order to select the model that best represents the local

  18. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums (United States)

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.


    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  19. Identification of three potential insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in southern Italy

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    Toufic ELBEAINO


    Full Text Available In order to identify potential vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in olive orchards in Puglia (southern Italy, Hemiptera insects were collected from October to December, 2013, in olive orchards with high incidences of X. fastidiosa associated with “rapid decline” symptoms. The study focused on species in the Auchenorrhyncha (sharpshooter leafhoppers and froghoppers or spittlebugs, a group that includes known vectors of X. fastidiosa.  Adults of three species, i.e. Philaenus spumarius L. (Aphrophoridae, Neophilaenus campestris Fallén (Aphrophoridae and Euscelis lineolatus Brullé (Cicadellidae were captured, from which total DNA was extracted and assayed by PCR using three sets of specific primers designed for X. fastidiosa detection. Results of PCR showed that 38 out of a total of 84 tested insects were positive for X. fastidiosa, i.e. eight (of 20 P. spumarius, 14 (of 18 N. campestris and 16 (of 46 E. lineolatus. PCR amplicons of the RNA polymerase sigma-70 factor gene from six specimens (two of each insect species were sequenced. The sequences obtained were 99.3‒99.4% identical. BlastN analyses demonstrated these sequences to be similar to those of X. fastidiosa isolates from olive OL-X and OL-G reported from Puglia, whereas they displayed distant molecular identity (always less than 98% with X. fastidiosa subspecies from other countries. The detection of X. fastidiosa in P. spumarius and, for the first time, in N. campestris and E. lineolatus (which, unlike the others, is a phloem feeder, indicates potential vectoring roles of these insects for the spread of the bacterium in Puglia. Further investigations and specific infectivity trials are required to definitively determine the roles of these insects as effective vectors of this pathogen.

  20. Long-term geomorphological evolution of the axial zone of the Campania-Lucania Apennine, southern Italy: a review

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    Schiattarella Marcello


    Full Text Available Uplift and erosion rates have been calculated for a large sector of the Campania-Lucania Apennine and Calabrian arc, Italy, using both geomorphological observations (elevations, ages and arrangement of depositional and erosional land surfaces and other morphotectonic markers and stratigraphical and structural data (sea-level related facies, base levels, fault kinematics, and fault offset estimations. The values of the Quaternary uplift rates of the southern Apennines vary from 0.2 mm/yr to about 1.2–1.3 mm/yr. The erosion rates from key-areas of the southern Apennines, obtained from both quantitative geomorphic analysis and missing volumes calculations, has been estimated at 0.2 mm/yr since the Middle Pleistocene. Since the Late Pleistocene erosion and uplift rates match well, the axial-zone landscape could have reached a flux steady state during that time, although it is more probable that the entire study area may be a transient landscape. Tectonic denudation phenomena — leading to the exhumation of the Mesozoic core of the chain — followed by an impressive regional planation started in the Late Pliocene have to be taken into account for a coherent explanation of the morphological evolution of southern Italy.

  1. Negative effects of land-use changes in the karst setting of Apulia, southern Italy (United States)

    Parise, Mario


    Apulia is an almost entirely carbonate region in south-eastern Italy, representing the heel of the boot-shaped Italian peninsula. Due to its location in the heart of the Mediterranean basin, and its geographical configuration, which in some way connects the Italian territory to the eastward lands, it had a long history of human settlements, as shown by the many remarkable prehistoric findings that have been recorded in this area during the last century. The flatness of the region, derived from the geologic origin of Apulia as the undeformed foreland of the Southern Apenninic Chain of Italy, together with its NW-SE oriented peninsula configuration and the long coastlines, are at the origin of the good-continuity occupation by man during the different phases of human history. The original karst landscape, characterized by absence of surface runoff, due to rapid infiltration of surface water into the network of karst conduits and fissures within the carbonate rock mass, was with time modified by man. Agriculture initially developed in the narrow strips of land where the presence of residual deposits (terre rosse) allowed the establishment of thin soil layers, and/or in small depressions where water was able to be kept for a longer time within the epikarst. Outside of these sites, the karst landscape typically consisted of stony plateaus and subdued rounding hills. To gain further space to agricultural practices, part of the surrounding stony areas was cleared of rocks: the latter were extracted by hand, and used to build dry stone walls to delimitate the properties, and/or to act as a barrier to soil erosion or to work as terrace walls in the sectors with higher gradients. At the same time, extraction and re-use of carbonate rocks originated some of the typical rural architecture common in Apulia, from "trulli" to "pagliare" and, later on, to "masserie" (the old countryside mansions). In the last decades of XX century, thanks to the use of modern technologies and

  2. Uncertainty assessment through a precipitation dependent HUP: an application to a small Southern Italy catchment (United States)

    Biondi, D.; Versace, P.; Sirangelo, B.


    The present study focuses on the application of a precipitation dependent HUP (Hydrologic Uncertainty Processor) to assess the predictive uncertainty on water discharge predictions for a small headwater catchment located in Calabria (South Italy) through a complete example of the estimation procedure, modelling assumptions and results. The applied HUP was proposed by Krzysztofowicz in 1999, and is a component of the Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) which provides a general methodology for probabilistic forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. Within the BFS framework, the task of the HUP is to quantify the effects of various uncertainty sources on the forecasts, e.g. of river discharges, under the hypothesis that there is no precipitation uncertainty. According to the principle of Bayesian revision of a probability distribution, the general formulation of the HUP supplies the hydrologic uncertainty in terms of a family,g°(×|s,h0), of posterior densities of discharge H, for every possible realization s of the model river discharge process S and observation H0 = h0 of river discharge up to the forecast time. This result is obtained through the revision of a prior distribution g of the predictand, which exists before the preparation of a forecast, on the basis of a likelihood function f estimated from past evidence on model performance against observations. The implemented HUP rests on the following assumptions: precipitation dependent structure; nonstationarity of both actual river stage and model river stage process with lead time n; meta-gaussian formulation for all the conditional distributions. The study watershed is the test site of the Turbolo Creek catchment (29 km2), a tributary of the Crati River, located in Southern Italy. The hydro-meteorological database used within this study comprises rainfall, temperature, and discharge values sampled with a 20 minutes temporal resolution. The hydrologic response in the HUP is simulated by the RISE

  3. Seasonal variability of carbonaceous aerosols in an urban background area in Southern Italy (United States)

    Cesari, D.; Merico, E.; Dinoi, A.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Contini, D.


    Organic (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) are important components of atmospheric aerosol particles, playing a key role in climate system and potentially affecting human health. There is a lack of data reported for Southern Italy and this work aims to fill this gap, focusing the attention on the long-term trends of OC and EC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10, and on atmospheric processes and sources influencing seasonal variability. Measurements were taken at the Environmental-Climate Observatory of Lecce (SE Italy, 40°20‧8″N-18°07‧28″E, 37 m a.s.l.), regional station of the Global Atmosphere Watch program (GAW-WMO). Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between July 2013 and July 2016. In addition, starting in December 2014, simultaneous equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations in PM10 were measured using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer. A subset of 722 PM samples (361 for each size fraction) was analysed by using a thermo-optical method with a Sunset Laboratory OC/EC analyser, to determine elemental and organic carbon concentrations. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 μg/m3 and 17.5 μg/m3. The average OC and EC concentrations in PM10 were 5.4 μg/m3 and 0.8 μg/m3, in PM2.5 these were 4.7 μg/m3 and 0.6 μg/m3. Carbonaceous content was larger during cold season with respect to warm season as well as secondary organic carbon (SOC) that was evaluated using the OC/EC minimum ratio method. SOC was mainly segregated in PM2.5 and represented 53% - 75% of the total OC. A subset of EC data was compared with eBC measurements, showing a good correlation (R2 = 0.80), however, eBC concentrations were higher than EC concentrations of an average factor of 1.95 (+/- 0.55 standard deviation). This could be explained by the presence of a contribution of Brown Carbon (BrC), for example from biomass burning, in eBC measurements. Weekly patterns showed a slight decrease of carbon content during weekends with respect to weekdays especially

  4. Neapolis (CD 126 beta+ GGT->GGG): a result of a screening in Campania, a region in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Pagano, Leonilde; Viola, Assunta; Fioretti, Gennaro; Ammirabile, Massimiliano; Ricchi, Paolo; Prossomariti, Luciano


    Between January 1995 and December 2005, we conducted a screening program for the presence of Hb Neapolis, a rare abnormal Hb variant, in Campania, a region in Southern Italy. Nineteen patients with Hb Neapolis in heterozygosis and six patients with a genetic compound (Hb Neapolis/beta-thalassemia) were identified. Patients with Hb Neapolis in heterozygosis showed a slight alteration in HbA2 levels while compounds showed typical characteristics of thalassemia intermedia ranging from a non transfusion-dependent form for five patients to a transfusion-dependent form for one adult patient.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic phenomena affecting the historical landslide trend in the Subappennino Dauno (southern Italy) (United States)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Santaloia, Francesca; Polemio, Maurizio


    The aim of this work is to present a methodology, based both on the use methods of time series analyses and of geospatial analyses of monthly climatic data (rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), annual maximum of short-duration rainfall (from 1 hour to 5 days), historical modification of land use, and population variations in order to characterise the effects of these variables on the occurrence of landsliding in Daunia area, located on the eastern margin of the Southern Apennines thrust belt (southern Italy). Rock strata (mainly) interbedded with clayey marls, clays and silty-clays outcrop in this area. Due to the intense strain history, these successions are found to be from stratified to deeply fractured, up to be disrupted and floating as blocks in a clayey matrix. In turn, the clay units are laminated to intensely fissured and characterised by very poor mechanical properties (Santaloia et al., 2012). The statistical analyses deal with data coming from published databases, integrated by public and private documents, referring to a wide time span. Climate data records from 1877 to 2008 were elaborated, in particular the data coming from sixteen rainfall gauges, ten of which were also thermometric. Moreover, some monthly indices of rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, temperature, and landslide occurrence were introduced to simplify the analysis of parameters, characterised by spatial and temporal variability. The population records are from the 19th century up to now while the time period of reference for the land use data is from 1930 up to now. As concerns the landslide events, they were collected from 1918 to 2006. The main source of these records is the AVI database, an existing Italian database that collects data about damaging floods and landslides from 1918 to 1996. This dataset was integrated up to 2006 by consulting newspapers, scientific publications, technical reports, written by the researchers of the CNR-IRPI for the Civil

  6. Assessing the role of Climate Variability in the recent evolution of coastlines in southern Italy (United States)

    Di Paola, Gianluigi; Atkinson, David; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Walker, Ian


    During the last century, Climatic Variability (CV) and change effects have generated a discernable impact on the world's coasts, most notably through changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of storm surges, flooding, coastal erosion and sea-level rise. This study explores CV signals and coastal responses along a 36 km stretch of coast in the Molise region of southern Italy on the Central Adriatic Sea. Two dominant signals of CV in the Mediterranean region of Europe are characterized by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) patterns. The NAO is the leading mode of CV in the North Atlantic region and periods with positive NAO index values are typically associated with above average wind speeds across the mid-latitudes of the Atlantic and western Europe, with anomalously northerly flows across the Mediterranean region and enhanced trade winds over the sub-tropical North Atlantic. Although NAO is one of the most prominent patterns in all seasons, its relative role in regulating the variability of the European climate during non-winter months is not as clear as for the winter season. In contrast, the EAWR exerts strong influence on precipitation in the Mediterranean region such that, during the negative phase of EAWR, wetter conditions prevail across central Europe and the Mediterranean region, with precipitation extremes often occurring during these periods. This study examines the effects of NAO and EAWR on coastline response in the Molise region, which has a microtidal regime (ordinary tidal excursions of 30-40 cm). GIS analysis of shoreline changes from historical aerial photography from 1954-2011 was performed and 20 years (1989-2008) of wave data were analysed from the nearby Ortona buoy to define trends and extreme event occurrence in the wave climate in the study area. Finally, statistical associations between NAO, EAWR, and other CV indices of possible influence (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, Scandinavia Pattern, or the East

  7. Chemical control of branched broomrape in processing tomato using sulfonylureas in southern Italy

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    Giulia Conversa


    Full Text Available The present research investigated the efficacy and the selectivity of three sulfonylureas (SUs rimsulfuron (RS, chlorsulfuron (CS and triasulfuron (TS for Phelipanche ramosa control in processing tomato. In 2014 a single dose (D (75, 15 and 22.5 g ha–1 active ingredient – a.i.– of RS, CS and TS, respectively, split into three applications at equal rate, was delivered into the soil layer interested by the roots using two herbigation methods i through the drip irrigation system (DH or ii by foliar spray followed by overhead irrigation (FH. In 2015 SUs were applied in pre-transplant at one third of D, and in post-transplant at the dose D, at onehalf and at one-fourth of D, delivered in 3 rates by drip herbigation. In both experiments RS gave the best broomrape control and the highest yield increase compared with the untreated crop and CS improved crop yield similarly to RS despite being less effective in contrasting branched broomrape, In 2014, the foliar application of TS and CS resulted in plant injuries which, more significantly with TS, caused lower numbers and fresh weight of fruits as well as a lower crop productivity increase. In the same year the drip herbigation with TS resulted in the lowest broomrape control and tomato yield increase. In 2015, the best parasite control and tomato yield performances were obtained with RS and CS when applied in pre-transplant at 25.0 and 5.0 g ha–1 a.i., respectively, and in post-transplant at 75.0 and 15.0 g ha–1 a.i., respectively. With TS, the pre-transplant application a.i. was the most effective among the TS treatments resulting in a yield improvement similar to RS and CS, while it was confirmed the low broomrape control when applied through drip irrigation due to its low mobility in the soil. More research is needed in order to better exploit the combination of pre- and post-transplant applications in the chemical control of P. ramosa of tomato under the conditions in southern Italy.

  8. Public knowledge and perception of geo-hydrological risk in Calabria (southern Italy): preliminary results (United States)

    Antronico, Loredana; Coscarelli, Roberto; De Pascale, Francesco


    The analysis of risk perception is a fundamental tool to strengthen public awareness and knowledge that are directly linked to the way people perceive disaster risk. By means of a quantitative research method (structured interviews), a survey to acquire information on knowledge, communication and perception of natural hazard by the population was led with main reference to landslides and floods. With these aims, a questionnaire including about 50 queries was elaborated with the following main objectives: i) the state of knowledge about landslides and flood phenomena of the people living or working in the survey area; ii) the ability of the population in responding to emergency situations related to such phenomena and the background coming from past events; iii) the trust of the population towards administrators. Moreover, the communication between citizens and Local Authorities when a catastrophic event occurs was evaluated. The survey was carried out on an area of Tyrrhenian seacoast of Calabria (southern Italy) where a set of mountain front alluvial fans develops along the narrow coastal plain. In the study area, a series of rainfall events in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011 have induced several debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and inundations that threatened the population and mainly caused damage to private buildings and infrastructures located on the alluvial fans. Three municipalities were selected in the study area, where the proposed questionnaire was submitted face-to-face to 300 residents using a judgment sampling procedure. The preliminary results of the survey are alarming: citizens don't have a good communication with local institutions. In addition, the majority of respondents think that landslides and floods are caused by "man-made actions". They indicated "illegal building", "poor land-management practices" and "lack of interest of local administrators" as the main factors that have the most influence in the occurrence of landslides and

  9. Land use and human impact in the Mediterranean karst of southern Italy (United States)

    Delle Rose, M.; Parise, M.


    Human activities such as land use transformation, changes in land cover and soil surface conditions, and increasing urbanization in catchment basins may result in serious consequences for the natural environment: episodes of degradation or pollution, and deterioration in the water quality are continuously registered in many areas of the world. In addition, the human impact is also frequently at the origin of the occurrence of extreme hydrological conditions such as floods and droughts. Many natural environments are particularly susceptible to negative impacts from human activities: among these, karst is one of the most vulnerable, due to a number of geological, morphological and hydrogeological features. Karst is in fact characterized by the very limited presence, if not absence, of water flowing at the surface; water tends to quickly infiltrate underground through the network of cavities produced by karst processes. This may favour the movement of contaminants toward the water table, and the resulting deterioration in water quality. The intimate connection between surface and underground drainage, and the rapidity with which surface water may enter and percolate down through the karst rock, result in an overall extreme fragility of the karst landscape, and in a high to very high vulnerability to human impacts. In no other landscapes, likely, the effects of negative impacts, in terms of landscape modifications, or of events of pollution, may be so destructive and not recoverable. The present contribution deals with description of some examples from a typical karst Mediterranean area: the karst of Apulia, in southern Italy, where land use transformation and degradation of the natural environment have produced heavy modification in the natural landscape, leading in many cases to pollution, or to deterioration of naturalistic sites (including caves), and moving toward desertification processes as well. Assessment of the possible impacts of land use changes has become

  10. Cascading disasters in the huge coastal aquifer of Salento (Apulia region, Southern Italy) ensuing droughts (United States)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores


    their evolution compared to the promptness of surface effects. The study area is the Salento coastal karstic aquifer (Apulia region, Southern Italy), where the groundwater flows according to a regional flow system. It has been subject to successive meteorological droughts between 1960 and 2010. The groundwater monitoring performed during this period, even with some gaps, allows identifying time lags between superficial effects and underground system response, potential tipping points, and emerging signals of the cascading disasters.

  11. Using faults for PSHA in a volcanic context: the Etna case (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Gee, Robin; Pace, Bruno; Peruzza, Laura


    At Mt. Etna volcano (Southern Italy), recurrent volcano-tectonic earthquakes affect the urbanised areas, with an overall population of about 400,000 and with important infrastructures and lifelines. For this reason, seismic hazard analyses have been undertaken in the last decade focusing on the capability of local faults to generate damaging earthquakes especially in the short-term (30-5 yrs); these results have to be intended as complementary to the regulatory seismic hazard maps, and devoted to establish priority in the seismic retrofitting of the exposed municipalities. Starting from past experience, in the framework of the V3 Project funded by the Italian Department of Civil Defense we performed a fully probabilistic seismic hazard assessment by using an original definition of seismic sources and ground-motion prediction equations specifically derived for this volcanic area; calculations are referred to a new brand topographic surface (Mt. Etna reaches more than 3,000 m in elevation, in less than 20 km from the coast), and to both Poissonian and time-dependent occurrence models. We present at first the process of defining seismic sources that includes individual faults, seismic zones and gridded seismicity; they are obtained by integrating geological field data with long-term (the historical macroseismic catalogue) and short-term earthquake data (the instrumental catalogue). The analysis of the Frequency Magnitude Distribution identifies areas in the volcanic complex, with a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship representative of different dynamic processes. Then, we discuss the variability of the mean occurrence times of major earthquakes along the main Etnean faults estimated by using a purely geologic approach. This analysis has been carried out through the software code FISH, a Matlab® tool developed to turn fault data representative of the seismogenic process into hazard models. The utilization of a magnitude-size scaling relationship

  12. Geoethics and hazard education. A comparison between Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Zumbo, Rosarianna


    reactions. The design, the game and handling are a key to access the mental representation of the traumatic event that the child has formed. They are also used as indicators of the child experience and how he solves the traumatic elements of the event. The present work aims to collect testimonies and mental maps of drawn by Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta students. A critical comparison was made on the natural disasters experiences reported by students.

  13. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

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    Veneziano Vincenzo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both a perennial nuisance and an important health issue. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares and sandpits may be an important source of human infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of both canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy, and presence of canine parasitic elements, with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A regular grid of sub-areas (1 km × 700 m was overlaid on the city map using a Geographical Information System (GIS. In each sub-area the straightest 1 km transect was drawn and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Between February and May 2005 canine faeces were counted along the 1 km transects in 143 sub-areas, and 415 canine faecal samples were collected and submitted to coprological examinations. Negative binomial regression models and Gaussian random effects models were used to analyze the association between faeces count and human population density taking into account for extraPoisson variability. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between positivity to parasitic elements and number of canine faeces. Results Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6% contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9% canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between

  14. The decapod fauna (Axiidea, Anomura, Brachyura) from the Late Pleistocene of Trumbacà, Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). (United States)

    Garassino, Alessandro; Pasini, Giovanni; De Angeli, Antonio; Hyžný, Matúš

    We report a rich faunal assemblage from the Tyrrhenian (Late Pleistocene) of Trumbacà, located in the southern area of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The only brachyuran reported to date from this locality is Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880) by Vazzana (2008). The studied specimens have been assigned, as follows: ? Corallianassa sp., Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796), Dardanus substriatus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861), Paguristes cf. P. syrtensis de Saint Laurent 1970, Anapagurus sp., Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880), Ranina propinqua Ristori, 1891, Ebalia cf. E. deshayesi Lucas, 1846, Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767), Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758), Pisa armata (Latreille, 1803), Derilambrus cf. D. angulifrons (Latreille, 1825), Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783), Carcinus sp., Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761), and Xantho cf. X. incisus (Leach, 1814). The studied assemblage enlarges our knowledge on the evolution of the Mediterranean decapod faunas.

  15. Competitiveness in the Southern Euro Area; France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain


    Bogdan Lissovolik; Julio Escolano; Stefania Fabrizio; Werner Schule; Herman Z Bennett; Stephen Tokarick; Yuan Xiao; Marialuz Moreno Badia; Eva Gutierrez; Iryna V. Ivaschenko


    This collection of studies analyzes developments in nonprice external competitiveness of France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. While France, Italy, and Portugal have experienced substantial export market share losses, Greece and Spain performed relatively well. Export market share losses appear associated with rigidities in resource allocation (sectoral, geographical, technological) relative to peers and lower productivity gains in high value-added sectors. Disaggregated analysis of goo...

  16. Occurrence of fungicide resistance in populations of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) on table grape and strawberry in southern Italy. (United States)

    De Miccolis Angelini, Rita Milvia; Rotolo, Caterina; Masiello, Mario; Gerin, Donato; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco


    Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) is a pathogen with a high risk of development of resistance to fungicides. Fungicide resistance was monitored during 2008-2011 in B. fuckeliana populations from both table-grape vineyards and greenhouse-grown strawberries in southern Italy. Isolates showing different levels of resistance to anilinopyrimidines (APs) were detected at high frequency (up to 98%) in fields treated intensively with APs (4-7 sprays season(-1) ). A slight decrease in sensitivity to fludioxonil, always combined with AP resistance, was generally found at lower frequencies. The repeated use of fenhexamid on grapevine (3-8 sprays season(-1) ) led to a strong selection of highly resistant isolates (up to 100%). Boscalid-resistant mutants were detected at very variable frequencies (0-73%). Occurrence of resistance to quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) was also ascertained. Multiple fungicide resistance to 2-6 different modes of action were frequently recovered. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the target genes Erg27, SdhB and cytb were associated with resistance to fenehexamid, boscalid and QoIs respectively. Resistance to the fungicides commonly used against grey mould on table grape and strawberry is quite common in southern Italy. This is an outcome of the incorrect use of fungicides, often because of the maximum number of detectable residues of plant protection products imposed by big international retailers, and underlines the crucial role of antiresistance strategies in integrated pest management. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Etiology of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver disease in Southern Italy: results of a prospective multicentric study

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    Antonio Ascione


    Full Text Available The pattern of liver diseases has radically changed in our country over the last few decades. We prospectively collected data on the newly-diagnosed cases of chronic liver diseases in a region of southern Italy after about a decade from the last epidemiological study. We conducted a multicentric prospective study that enrolled 631 patients from 21 Liver Centers of the Campania region (Southern Italy at their first hospital admission or at their first outpatient visit. In our cohort of 631 patients (367 males, 263 females, 397 (62.9% were hepatitis C virus (HCV positive, 75 (11.9% were hepatitis B virus (HBV positive, 8 (1.3% were co-infected by HBV and HCV, 73 (11.6% had an alcoholic liver disease and 64 (10.1% had a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. HBV infection was present in young people with a higher-than-expected prevalence, despite the vaccination program which should have involved this population. HCV chronic hepatitis still remains the most common cause of liver disease in our region. HBV infection still continues to represent a health problem in young people, despite the vaccination program.

  18. Agonum tulliae sp. n. from the Sila National Park (Calabria, southern Italy (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Platynini

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    A. Mazzei


    Full Text Available Agonum tulliae sp. n. is described from the Sila Massif upland in Calabria, Italy. This species is similar to Agonum (Olisares sexpunctatum (Linné, 1758 as far as the external morphology is concerned, but it is easy to distinguish by the colour pattern, the shape of pronotum, and at best by the morphology of male genitalia. The study includes some remarks about the habitat and ecology of the new species. It lives only in the eastern part of the Sila massif and occupies the southernmost part of the distribution area of the Agonum sexpunctatum (Linné, 1758 complex in Italy.

  19. The geomorphic effects of dams on rivers: some examples from southern Italy (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria


    During the second half of the last century, many rivers in southern Italy have experienced huge channel adjustments mainly induced by anthropic interventions. Particularly, in several cases dams were built along them mainly to meet the growing need for energy and water for irrigation purposes. The present study investigates the cases of Fortore and Biferno rivers, whose lower courses are regulated respectively since 1966 and 1976 by the Occhito and Ponteliscione dams, with the aim to verify possible impacts of the dams on channel morphology and adjustments over the last 60 years. Channel changes were analyzed by means of a multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs integrated with topographic and geomorphological field. The obtained evolutionary trajectories highlight that channel adjustments occurred through two distinct phases and led to an overall channel narrowing and channel bed lowering accompanied by pattern changes in prevalence from multithread to single-thread channel configurations. Major channel adjustments occurred in the first phase, from the 1950s until the end of the 1990s, under the dominant control of in-channel mining, channel works and hydraulic interventions. Regarding this phase, the impact of the dams is highlighted by net differences in the amount of channel adjustments of the reaches located respectively upstream and downstream of them. Especially channel narrowing was more intense in downstream reaches (up to 98% in the Fortore River and up to 96% in the Biferno River) than in upstream reaches (up to 81% in the Fortore and up to 86% in the Biferno). With respectively 7.4 m y-1 and -7.8 m y-1, averages rates of narrowing are very similar for the Fortore and Biferno in downstream reaches. Observed differences suggest that, besides the control factors that guided the evolution of the entire fluvial systems, the closure of the two dams had additional and permanent effects on downstream reaches through overall

  20. Measuring forest floor evaporation from interception in prescribed burned forests in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Giuditta, Elisabetta; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Bogaard, Thom; Wenninger, Jochen; Greco, Roberto; Ialongo, Gianluca; Esposito, Assunta; Rutigliano, Flora Angela


    Wildfires are one of the major environmental issue in the Mediterranean area. Prescribed burning (PB) is increasingly used in Europe as a practice to reduce fire risk, through dead fine fuel reduction. Several studies have focused on fire effects on vegetation and soil microbial community, but very few on ecosystem processes involved in water cycle. This study aims to estimate interception by the litter and fermentation layer and the successive evaporation flux in laboratory conditions, using a water balance and 2H and 18O isotopes mass balance calculation, in order to assess PB effects on the hydrology and ecosystem in pine plantations. PB was carried out in spring 2014 in three pine plantations of Southern Italy, dominated by Pinus halepensis (Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni National Park, CVDANP), P. pinaster (Vesuvio National Park, VNP) and P. pinea (Castel Volturno Nature Reserve, CVNR). A dataset concerning the effects of PB on vegetation structure, floristic composition, microbial biomass and activity in the fermentation layer and 5-cm of soil beneath is available for the same stands. In each plantation, two cores of litter and fermentation layer were sampled in a burned area and in a near unburned area (control), respectively, with a collector to extract an "undisturbed" core. Then, each core was transferred in a lysimeter installed in the Water Lab of Delft University of Technology. In total, three lysimeters were set up and each experiment was carried out in duplicate. The laboratory had constant temperature, and both temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 15 minutes. To simulate rainfall, ~1 litre of tap water was sprinkled uniformly on the lysimeter with a plant spray (equivalent to 32 mm of rain). The precipitation was sprinkled every 3 days for a period of two months. Soil moisture and temperature were measured during the experiment every 15 minutes in the top and bottom of the litter and fermentation layer. Interception water was

  1. Distribution of trace elements in altered pyroclastites from Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy

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    Piccarreta, G.


    Full Text Available Three pyroclastic deposits from Monte Yulture volcanic area (Potenza, southern Italy looking like paleosols in the field were investigated in a previous study for mineralogy and major elements to estimate the stage of the weathering. Here is dealt with the behaviour of sorne trace elements (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb in the same deposits to give a comprehensive geochemical picture. The distribution of the chemical elements within the whole rock and after its attack with Na-pyrosulfate (residue + solute has been considered. Ba and Sr, as well as their distribution, appear to be controlled by the residual crystals in each of the deposits; La, Ce, Y and Nb are more concentrated in the solute that once was represented by vitric component, allophane, and Fe-Si-Al gels, biotite, carbonates and analcite; Y, Cr, and Ni show similar trends in whole rock and in solute. In particular La, Ce, Y, Y, Cr and Ni in the lowermost unit increase with the depth, as well as the contents of gels and allophane. Probably this behaviour was superimposed by the fluctuation of the water tables, as documented by the occurrence of a carbonate level upon the unit lies. It is concluded that the earliest stage of weathering did not affect the trace element distribution and that interpretations about chemical changes in deeply altered pyroclastic rocks should be always the outcome of careful accurate analyses.En un trabajo previo se estudiaron tres depósitos piroclásticos, considerados como paleosuelos, del área volcánica del Monte Yulture (Potenza, Italia para deducir su grado de meteorización. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de algunos elementos traza (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb en esos depósitos para intentar obtener una imagen geoquímica más completa. Se ha estudiado la distribución de elementos traza en la roca total y después de un ataque con pirosulfato-Na (residuo + solución. Ba y Sr parecen estar controlados

  2. Olive cultivars adaptability in Southern Italy in present and future climate (United States)

    Riccardi, M.; Alfieri, S.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Menenti, M.; De Lorenzi, F.


    The intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops is very significant and likely to provide the single major opportunity to cope with the effects of the changing climate on agricultural ecosystems. Assessment of adaptive capacity must rely on quantitative descriptions of plant responses to environmental factors (e.g. soil water availability, temperature). Moreover climate scenario needs to be downscaled to the spatial scale relevant to crop and farm management. Distributed models of crop response to environmental forcing might be used for this purpose, but severely constrained by the very scarce knowledge on variety-specific values of model parameters, thus limiting the potential exploitation of intra-specific biodiversity towards adaptation. We have developed an approach towards this objective that relies on two complementary elements: a)a distributed model of the soil plant atmosphere system to downscale climate scenarios to landscape units, where generic model parameters for each species are used; b)a data base on climatic requirements of as many varieties as feasible for each species relevant to the agricultural production system of a given region. By means of this approach, the adaptability of some olive cultivars was evaluated in a composite (hills and plains) area of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, Campania Region, about 20.000 ha). The yearly average temperature is 22.5 °C and rainfall ranges between 600 and 900 mm. Two different climate scenarios were considered: current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios at low spatial resolution were generated with general circulation models (AOGCM) and down-scaled by means of a statistical model (Tomozeiu et al., 2007). The climate was represented by daily observations of minimum, maximum temperature and precipitation on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km; 50 realizations were used for future climate. The soil water regime of 45 soil units was described for

  3. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe


    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  4. A new MODIS based approach for gas flared volumes estimation: the case of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Lacava, T.; Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.


    Gas flaring is one of the most controversial energetic and environmental issues the Earth is facing, moreover contributing to the global warming and climate change. According to the World Bank, each year about 150 Billion Cubic Meter of gas are being flared globally, that is equivalent to the annual gas use of Italy and France combined. Besides, about 400 million tons of CO2 (representing about 1.2% of global CO2 emissions) are added annually into the atmosphere. Efforts to evaluate the impact of flaring on the surrounding environment are hampered by lack of official information on flare locations and volumes. Suitable satellite based techniques could offers a potential solution to this problem through the detection and subsequent mapping of flare locations as well as gas emissions estimation. In this paper a new methodological approach, based on the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was developed to analyze and characterize the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (ENI-COVA) located in Val d'Agri (Basilicata) For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring), being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the RST approach was implemented on 13 years of EOS-MODIS (Earth Observing System - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data to detect COVA-related thermal anomalies and to develop a regression model for gas flared volume estimation. The methodological approach, the whole processing chain and the preliminarily achieved results will be shown and discussed in this paper. In addition, the possible implementation of the proposed approach on the data acquired by the SUOMI NPP - VIIRS (National Polar-orbiting Partnership - Visible Infrared Imaging

  5. Spatial interpolation methods for monthly rainfalls and temperatures in Basilicata

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    Ferrara A


    measured temperatures at eight sites from an independent dataset was done. There was a good agreement with mean R2 = 0.99 (mean RMSE = 0.6 °C. Based on this results universal kriging estimates and RST were used to produce monthly rainfall and temperature maps for Basilicata region aimed at using as quality input in forest modeling.

  6. Lo stato delle conoscenze su Insettivori e Roditori della Basilicata

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    Gaetano Aloise


    Full Text Available I pochi dati disponibili per ristrette aree o desumibili da lavori di sintesi e/o su singole specie, fanno della Basilicata una delle regioni con maggiori carenze di informazioni sulla teriofauna. È stata intrapresa una indagine, ancora in corso, volta ad ampliare le conoscenze sulla distribuzione di Insettivori e Roditori nella regione. I metodi utilizzati comprendono l'analisi del contenuto delle borre di rapaci, trappolamenti, avvistamenti e tracce. I dati sono inseriti nella ?Banca dati per la mammalofauna della Calabria e della Lucania? che consente la restituzione cartografica su una maglia U.T.M. di 10 x10 Km. In base ai dati attualmente disponibili (N= 2154, da 0 e 1300 m s.l.m., il grado di esplorazione della regione appare molto basso, infatti, solo il 24% circa dei quadranti che compongono la regione presentano almeno un dato. Le specie di Insettivori e Roditori sino ad ora rinvenute sono: Erinaceus europaeus, Sorex minutus, S. antinorii, S. samniticus, Neomys anomalus, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Talpa romana, T. caeca, Sciurus vulgaris, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula, Glis glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus savii, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Mus domesticus, Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Hystrix cristata. Tra quelle note per il sud Italia mancano dati concreti solo di Arvicola terrestris (da attribuire, però, certamente solo a carenza di dati, essendo accertata la sua presenza nelle aree limitrofe e data l?ecologia della specie e non si conoscono popolazioni stabili di Myocastor coypus (per la tipologia dei corsi d?acqua della regione che, come in tutto il meridione d?Italia, non ne favorisce l?insediamento se non in maniera puntiforme e in

  7. Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy

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    Carlucci, A.; Raimondo, M.L.; Santos, J.; Phillips, A.J.L.


    Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an


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    L.A. Carosielli


    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to verify the presence of Sarcocystis in muscle samples of sheep, goats, pigs, horses, cattle and buffalo, slaughtered in the province of Foggia, and Sarcocystis in histological samples of uretrhal muscles, during the histological monitoring of prostate on the occasion of National residue plan 2010. Seventy eight cattles aged between 5 and 24 months slaughtered in Puglia and Basilicata were tested, taken from animals of domestic or foreign born but farmed in Italy. Also taken pieces of masseter muscles, diaphragm, esophagus and heart to perform the microscopic survey. Macroscopically there were 6 cases positive in esophagi of sheep coming from Parco del Gargano and four cases from a herd of Manfredonia and Bovino (FG. In cattles microscopically positivity was 68% (53 positive including 9 with presence of three or more cystis in the microscopic field. The urethral muscles of cattle, included in monitoring residual plan, was interested by a very high positivity, less finding in horse (8 of 40 and pigs (18 of 98 even if animals come from small, rural and promiscuous farm, but not in sheep (44 of 54, goats (27 of 35 and buffalo (18 of 25. Is desirable, as well as epidemiological survey carried out by us, to educate the farmers on this zoonosic patology, proposing to estabilish a farm file where the farmer report the finding of sarcocystis together with other conditions found at the slaughterhouse.

  9. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene vegetation and climate in southern Italy: the case of Lago Trifoglietti

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    S. Joannin


    Full Text Available A high-resolution pollen record from Lago Trifoglietti in Calabria (southern Italy provides new insights into the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes which characterise the Holocene period in the southern Italy. The chronology is based on 11 AMS radiocarbon dates from terrestrial organic material. The Holocene history of the vegetation cover shows the persistence of an important and relatively stable Fagus forest present over that entire period, offering a rare example of a beech woodstand able to withstand climate changes for more than 11 000 yr. Probably in relation with early Holocene dry climate conditions which affected southern Italy, the Trifoglietti pollen record supports a southward delay in thermophyllous forest expansion dated to ca. 13 500 cal BP at Monticchio, ca. 11 000 cal BP at Trifoglietti, and finally ca. 9800 cal BP in Sicily. Regarding the human impact history, the Trifoglietti pollen record shows only poor imprints of agricultural activities and anthopogenic indicators, apart from those indicating pastoralism activities beneath forest cover. The selective exploitation of Abies appears to have been the strongest human impact on the Trifoglietti surroundings. On the basis of (1 a specific ratio between hygrophilous and terrestrial taxa, and (2 the Modern Analogue Technique, the pollen data collected at Lago Trifoglietti led to the establishment of two palaeoclimatic records tracing changes in (1 lake depth and (2 annual precipitation. On a millennial scale, these records give evidence of increasing moisture from ca. 11 000 to ca. 9400 cal BP and maximum humidity from ca. 9400 to ca. 6200 cal BP, prior to a general trend towards the drier climate conditions that have prevailed up to the present. In addition, several successive centennial-scale oscillations appear to have punctuated the entire Holocene. The identification of a cold dry event around 11 300 cal BP, responsible for a marked decline in

  10. Investigation of subsidence in the Manfredonia Gulf (Southern Italy) through multitemporal DInSAR techniques (United States)

    Triggiani, M.; Refice, A.; Capolongo, D.; Bovenga, F.; Caldara, M.


    We present results of an experiment aimed at detecting possible displacements due to subsidence in the coastal area of the Tavoliere plain, Puglia Region, in Southern Italy, through analysis of remotely sensed data. The Tavoliere is the second largest Italian plain. Its coastal area, between the urban centers of Manfredonia and Barletta, is composed of a 50 km long sandy beach (Manfredonia gulf), linking the Gargano massif at north with the Murge plateau in the south-east. Both areas belong to the carbonate Mesozoic Apulian platform. The current configuration of the Gulf was reached recently, as a consequence of the Holocene sea level rise. During the Neolithic age the plain was occupied by an elongated lagoon (Salpi Lagoon) [1]. During the 2nd century B.C., alluvial deposition caused the lagoon to be separated into two basins: the so-called Salpi lake at south and the Salso lake at north. To cope with the increasing demand of arable lands and with the necessity to make unhealthy areas accessible to humans, some reclaims were accomplished by diverting and channelling the rivers crossing the Tavoliere plain, and by levelling dune belts. At present, the beach is separated by low artificial dunes from the areas already reclaimed and intensely cultivated or exploited as evaporation basin for salt production. In the last decades, the coastal area has been retreating due to a reduction in sediment input necessary for coastal equilibrium. The levelling of dunes and the decrease of fluvial turbid discharge due to dam constructions are probably the cause of this deficit in sediment supply. During highly intense hydrodynamic and meteorological events, sea waters often penetrate deeply inland, flooding intensively cultivated areas. These events are occurring with growing frequency and rates. They are an indication of the possibility that those areas are subject to subsidence at a faster rate in comparison to the surroundings. An example is the salt marsh located inland of the

  11. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy and in Adeane (Southern Senegal

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    Rachele Ellena


    Full Text Available A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal, both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies.

  12. Investigating the time-correlation properties in self-potential signals recorded in a seismic area of Irpinia, southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo


    Recent studies have shown that many natural phenomena are characterized by temporal fluctuations with long-range power-law correlations, suggesting a fractal geometry of the underlying dynamical system. The presence of power-law correlations are detected in four time series of self-potential signals, measured in a seismic area of southern Italy, by means of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), a method that permits the detection of long-range correlations in nonstationary time series. Results show scaling behaviour for all the signals recorded, indicating the presence of fractal features expressing a long-term correlation quantified by the numerical value of the scaling exponents. Our findings suggest a possible correlation between the earthquakes occurred in the area investigated and the relative maxima/minima of the mean and the standard deviation of the scaling exponents. Furthermore, the normalized average and standard deviation curves for all the signals tend to converge in correspondence with an earthquake

  13. Financing R&D Projects in Southern Italy: The “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” Program

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    Gianpaolo Iazzolino


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation and financing of research and innovation projects. The paper analyzes and discusses the “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” program in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy, as a program for financing R&D projects in a geographical area far behind in development. Three real cases of R&D projects are described. The program was effective as regards the stimulus to realizing R&D activities by Calabrian SMEs and furthermore in relation to the improvement of cooperation between SMEs, research centers, universities and technological laboratories. The weak points of the program mainly regard the evaluation phase that made it impossible to get a feedback useful for policy and for driving future agenda.

  14. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire for Italian adults living in Sicily, Southern Italy. (United States)

    Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe


    The aim of this study was to develop and test the reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically developed for individuals living in Sicily, southern Italy. This study was conducted on a convenient sample of 178 adult volunteers aged 18-80 years recruited in the urban population of Catania. Dietary intake estimated by 2 FFQs was compared with six 24-h recalls covering a period of 10 months. A total of 110 food items were included in the FFQ. Person's coefficients between the first FFQ and mean of the six 24-h recalls showed high correlations for coffee, tea, pasta and dairy products, alcohol, total fats and carbohydrates (in women). The test-retest analysis showed high reproducibility of the FFQ. We showed that our FFQ provided a useful estimate of both food and nutrient intake in a healthy adult population.

  15. Activities and vectors responsible for the biological pollution in the Taranto Seas (Mediterranean Sea, southern Italy): a review. (United States)

    Cecere, E; Petrocelli, A; Belmonte, M; Portacci, G; Rubino, F


    Biological pollution, caused by the negative impact of alien species, also known as non-indigenous species (NIS), is regarded as one of the greatest threat to marine ecosystems. The recent upsurge in the number and spread of these species drew attention to putative vectors such as shipping and shellfish importation for culture and consumption. The port of Taranto in Southern Italy is a hub for several vectors as it serves commercial and military shipping, fishing and recreational boating, in addition to shellfish importation. An analysis of anthropogenic activities and possible vectors in Taranto Seas was recently carried out within the framework of the RITMARE Project, involving local stakeholders. Different categories of stakeholders answered dedicated questionnaires with a high degree of reticence, and this highlighted a general lack of awareness of the problems associated with alien species. Consequently, there is a strong need to instil a truly ecological awareness among the general public and stakeholders.


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    Full Text Available Several dinosaur footprints were discovered on three different levels cropping out in the CO.L.MAR quarry, south of the village of Borgo Celano in the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, southern Italy. The track-bearing levels belong to a carbonate inner platform succession referred to the Lower Cretaceous (upper Hauterivian-lower Barremian. This paper describes only the lowest dinoturbated bed, where footprints are preserved as natural cast. Forty footprints, mostly tridactyl, have been attributed to medium-sized theropods. Tridactyl tracks are similar to Kayentapus Welles, 1971 regarding ichnotaxonomy. Round shaped footprints, previously not described from this site, are found in association with tridactyl footprints and are related to ornitischian dinosaurs. 

  17. Inferences on the source mechanisms of the 1930 Irpinia (Southern Italy earthquake from simulations of the kinematic rupture process

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    A. Gorini


    Full Text Available We examine here a number of parameters that define the source of the earthquake that occurred on 23rd July 1930 in Southern Italy (in the Irpinia region. Starting from the source models proposed in different studies, we have simulated the acceleration field for each hypothesized model, and compared it with the macroseismic data. We then used the hybrid stochastic-deterministic technique proposed by Zollo et al. (1997 for the simulation of the ground motion associated with the rupture of an extended fault. The accelerations simulated for several sites were associated with the intensities using the empirical relationship proposed by Trifunac and Brady (1975, before being compared with the available data from the macroseismic catalogue. A good reproduction of the macroseismic field is provided by a normal fault striking in Apenninic direction (approximately NW-SE and dipping 55° toward the SW.

  18. Occurrence Probabilities of Wet and Dry Periods in Southern Italy through the SPI Evaluated on Synthetic Monthly Precipitation Series

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    Tommaso Caloiero


    Full Text Available The present article investigates dry and wet periods in a large area of the Mediterranean basin. First, a stochastic model was applied to a homogeneous database of monthly precipitation values of 46 rain gauges in five regions of southern Italy. In particular, after estimating the model parameters, a set of 104 years of monthly precipitation for each rain gauge was generated by means of a Monte Carlo technique. Then, dry and wet periods were analyzed through the application of the standardized precipitation index (SPI over 3-month and 6-month timespan (short-term and 12-month and 24-month period (long-term. As a result of the SPI application on the generated monthly precipitation series, higher occurrence probabilities of dry conditions than wet conditions have been detected, especially when long-term precipitation scales are considered.

  19. Spatial decision support for strategic environmental assessment of land use plans. A case study in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneletti, Davide; Bagli, Stefano; Napolitano, Paola; Pistocchi, Alberto


    This paper presents and discusses the construction of a spatial decision-support tool for the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of a land use plan: the spatial coordination plan of the Province of Naples, in southern Italy. The decision-support tool organises the relevant information, spatially resolves the actions of the plan, predicts their environmental impacts, and generates overall performance maps. Its final goal is to provide a suitable technical support to a formal SEA procedure. The expected implications of the plan, such as changes in land use and traffic flows and urban expansion, were modelled and assessed against a set of environmental criteria using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis and mapping. It was found that the SWOT analysis provided a good basis for assessment and strategy formulation. The paper also intends to contribute to the topic of data and scale issues in SEA, by exemplifying the role played by spatial data and spatial analyses to support informative SEA

  20. Renifer aniarum (Digenea: Reniferidae), an introduced North American parasite in grass snakes Natrix natrix in Calabria, southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Tkach, Vasyl V; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Kinsella, John M; Nascetti, Giuseppe


    Over the past decades, as a result of various human activities involving intentional or unintentional movement of animals, many helminth species have been introduced to new regions with several ecological and epidemiological implications for the native species. A high prevalence of infection with an introduced digenean Renifer aniarum, previously known only from North America, was found in the grass snake Natrix natrix in the Calabria region, southern Italy. Morphological and molecular comparison with North American R. aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection. Of 24 snakes sampled between 2009 and 2010, 22 were positive for this parasite. In contrast, all 17 snakes sampled from museum collections between 1983 and 1994 were negative. Our results support the hypothesis that R. aniarum was perhaps introduced into this area during the 1990s by the translocation of the American bullfrog Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus, a normal second intermediate host of the digenean in its native range in North America. Although the life cycle of R. aniarum is complex and includes 3 host stages, this parasite has found suitable first and second intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts in Italy. Renifer aniarum was second only to the very common grass snake tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea in both prevalence and abundance among 9 species of helminths recovered in our study.

  1. Minimum 1D velocity models in Central and Southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations

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    A. Frepoli


    Full Text Available We computed one-dimensional ( I D velocity models and station corrections for Centrai and Southern Italy, in- verting re-picked P-wave alTival times recorded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica seismic network. The re-picked data yield resolved P-wave velocity results and proved to be more suited than bulletin data for de- tailed tomographic studies. Using the improved velocity models, we relocated the most significant earthquakes which occurt.ed in the Apennines in the past 7 years, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events within most of the Apenninic belt. The interpretation of the obtained lD velocity models allows us to infer interesting features on the deep structure of the Apennines. Smooth velocity gradients with depth and low P-wave velocities are ob,'ierved beneath the Apennines. We believe that our results are effective to constrain hypocentral locations in Italy and may represent a first step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.

  2. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

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    S. Joannin


    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during

  3. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

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    Giovanni Argenti


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  4. The quality of preventive health care delivered to adults: results from a cross-sectional study in Southern Italy

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    Nobile Carmelo GA


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is assumed that providing clinical preventive services to patients can identify or detect early important causes of adult mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify access to preventive services in Southern Italy and to assess whether and how the provision of preventive care was influenced by any specific characteristics of patients. Methods In a cross-sectional study adults aged 18 years and over attending primary care physician (PCP offices located in Southern Italy were interviewed from June through December 2007. Quality indicators of preventive health care developed from RAND's Quality Assessment Tools and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS were used. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify and to assess the role of patients' characteristics on delivery of clinical preventive services. Results A total of 1467 subjects participated in the study. Excepting blood pressure preventive check (delivered to 64.4% of eligible subjects and influenza vaccination (recommended to 90.2% of elderly, the rates of delivery of clinical preventive services were low across all measures, particularly for screening and counseling on health habits. Rates for providing cancer screening tests at recommended times were 21.3% for colonoscopy, 51.5% for mammography and 52.4% for Pap smear. Statistical analysis showed clear disparities in the provision of clinical preventive services associated with age, gender, education level, perceived health status, current health conditions and primary care access measures. Conclusions There is overwhelming need to develop and implement effective interventions to improve delivery of routine clinical preventive services.

  5. Biological therapy utilization, switching, and cost among patients with psoriasis: retrospective analysis of administrative databases in Southern Italy

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    Guerriero F


    Full Text Available Francesca Guerriero, Valentina Orlando, Valeria Marina Monetti, Veronica Russo, Enrica Menditto Center of Pharmacoeconomics (CIRFF, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy Purpose: The aim was to describe the current use of biological therapies among patients affected by psoriasis and to analyze a drug utilization profile in naïve patients in terms of switching and treatment costs in a Local Health Unit (LHU of Southern Italy. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the health-related administrative databases of a LHU in Southern Italy covering a population of about one million inhabitants. All subjects with a main or secondary diagnosis of psoriasis who received at least one prescription of biological therapies between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014 were analyzed. Switching rate was evaluated in naïve patients within the first year of treatment. Drug cost was calculated for all drugs prescribed and comprised both costs for psoriasis drugs and costs for other treatments. Results: About 20% of patients identified with a diagnosis of psoriasis were under treatment with biological drugs. Among 385 subjects treated with biological therapy, 51.2% were in treatment with etanercept and 33% with adalimumab. Among naïve patients, switching rate to a different biological drug, within the first year of treatment, was 7.3%. The per patient yearly drug cost was €10,536: 96.8% for psoriasis-related drugs and 3.2% for other pharmaceutical treatments. The annual average cost per patient switching from the initial treatment was €13,021, while for those who did not switch from the initial treatment, the annual average cost was €10,342, with a significant difference of about €2,680 per patient per year (p=0.002. Conclusion: Our data may be useful in exploring the dynamics that characterize the use of biological therapy within a specific context and to optimize the use of resources for a better

  6. Salmonella serotypes isolated in geckos kept in seven collections in southern Italy. (United States)

    Russo, T P; Varriale, L; Borrelli, L; Pace, A; Latronico, M; Menna, L F; Fioretti, A; Dipineto, L


    Reptiles are considered an important reservoir of Salmonella species. This study evaluated the prevalence of Salmonella species in different species of gecko kept as pets in Italy. Faecal swab samples were collected from 70 clinically healthy geckos and examined for Salmonella species by culture that were then serotyped. Salmonella species were isolated from 24 of 70 (34·3%) samples. Eighteen isolates expressed resistance to ceftazidime and four isolates to ampicillin. Salmonella spp. can be isolated from apparently healthy captive gecko which should be considered as a potential source of infection for humans and other companion animals. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


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    Full Text Available In mammals combined factors such as body size reduction and loss of peripheral teeth are often associated with endemism phenomena. This condition is particularly evident in insular contexts where is a complete geographic isolation. During the Pleistocene there have been several glacial stages, which changed the physiognomy of the Italian peninsula strongly influencing the distribution and morphology of mammalian faunas. Several genetic studies have shown that some Southern Italian areas have particular endemic species of small and medium size mammals. During Pleistocene these areas have been characterized by particular climatic/environmental conditions, and are generally called "glacial refugia". They represent geographically isolated areas over time, where the origin of faunas with peculiar features is favoured. In this study, the occurrence of Meles meles from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Apulia, Southern Italy is documented for the first time. This taxon is represented only by a partial skull (splancnocranum that, despite the relative completeness, includes peculiar and well-preserved dental features that could be related to a partial endemic condition. The fossil shows a reduced body size and the agenesis of peripheral teeth, both conditions that are typical of the extant badgers from Crete, Rhodes and Japan. To test this hypothesis, tomographic analysis have been provided to establish the dental agenesis, and, in order to understand the magnitude of the body size reduction, biometric analyses have been carried on. The obtained data have been compared to measures of the extant Eurasian badgers.SHORT NOTE

  8. Deep electrical resistivity tomography and geothermal analysis of Bradano foredeep deposits in Venosa area (Southern Italy: preliminary results

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    V. Lapenna


    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys have been carried out to characterize the stratigraphical and structural setting and to better understand the deep water circulation system in the Venosa area (Southern Italy located in the frontal portion of the southern Appenninic Subduction. In this area there are some deep water wells from which a water conductivity of about 3 mS/cm and a temperature of about 35°C was measured. A deep geoelectrical tomography with dipole-dipole array has been carried out along a profile of 10000 m and an investigation depth of about 900 m. Furthermore a broad band magnetotelluric profile consisting of six stations was performed to infer the resistivity distribution up to some kilometres of depth. The MT profile was almost coincident with the geoelectrical outline. The applied methods allow us to obtain a mutual control and integrated interpretation of the data. The high resolution of the data was the key to reconstruct the structural asset of buried carbonatic horst whose top is located at about 600 m depth. The final results coming from data wells, geothermal analysis and geophysical data, highlighted a horst saturated with salted water and an anomalous local gradient of 60°C/km. The proposed mechanism is that of a mixing of fossil and fresh water circulation system.

  9. [Migration from Southern Italy to Argentina: Calabrians and Sicilians (1880-1930)]. (United States)

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L


    "The study analyzes Italian emigration to Argentina from Sicily and Calabria between 1880-1930, compared with out-migration flows from Piedmont. The concepts of cultural patrimony and of migratory strategy are used to measure the different potentials and job opportunities in the Argentinean labor market as well as in the Italian context for those returning home. Considering the high proportion of returnees, a positive or negative correlation between region of origin and of destination can be proposed. Southern Italians indicate a more permanent settlement. The authors conclude that the Argentinean society in its Italian component is the result of Southern rather than Northern influences." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  10. Tracing mercury pathways in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) by total concentration and isotope determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsignore, M.; Tamburrino, S.; Oliveri, E.; Marchetti, A.; Durante, C.; Berni, A.; Quinci, E.; Sprovieri, M.


    The mercury (Hg) pollution of sediments is the main carrier of Hg for the biota and, subsequently, for the local fish consumers in Augusta Bay area (SE Sicily, Italy), a coastal marine system affected by relevant sewage from an important chlor-alkali factory. This relationship was revealed by the determination of Mass Dependent (MDF) and Mass Independent Fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in sediment, fish and human hair samples. Sediments showed MDF but no MIF, while fish showed MIF, possibly due to photochemical reduction in the water column and depending on the feeding habitat of the species. Benthic and demersal fish exhibited MDF similar to that of sediments in which anthropogenic Hg was deposited, while pelagic organisms evidenced higher MDF and MIF due to photoreduction. Human hair showed high values of δ 202 Hg (offset of +2.2‰ with respect to the consumed fish) and Δ 199 Hg, both associated to fish consumption. - Highlights: • We report the Hg isotope ratios of sediments, fish and human hair in Augusta Bay. • Hg isotopes show mercury transfers from sediments to benthic and demersal fish. • MIF in fish appears to be driven by effect of photoreduction. • MIF in human hair is inherited by fish consumption. - The mercury (Hg) isotope composition of sediments, fish muscles and human hair has been investigated from the highly polluted Augusta Bay (SE Sicily, Italy)

  11. Hypsometry and relief analysis of the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, NE-Sicily (southern Italy) (United States)

    Pavano, F.; Catalano, S.; Romagnoli, G.; Tortorici, G.


    Tectonic forcing causes the relief-building of mountain chains and enforces the surficial processes in a persistent dismantling of rock volumes, continuously modelling Earth's surface. Actually, we observe transient landscapes that have temporarily recorded tectonic forcing as a codified signal. The Late Quaternary tectonic evolution of northeastern Sicily, located along the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary at the southern termination of the Calabrian arc, has been dominated by intense Plio-Pleistocene dynamics that severely modified the Late Miocene landscape. The present work aims to investigate geomorphically northeastern Sicily, essentially focusing on the hypsometric and relief analyses of the region in order to define how the topography responds to the post-Pliocene tectonic deformation. We apply different relief morphometric indices (Hypsometric Integral, Topographic Relief and Topographic Dissection) measured for each differently sized moving window, and we use different swath topographic profiles as well. Our analysis evidences differential morphological responses between distinct morphotectonic domains of the studied area, led by the combination of earlier morphological background and Late Quaternary tectonic deformation stages of the region. In addition, in the context of a constant and uniform tectonic uplift, the results define the general space- and time-relating pathways of the landscape geomorphic metrics. This enables us to bring out the controls of the vertical scale of landscape on hypsometry, exploring their mutual relationships. Finally, we reconstruct the Late Quaternary morphotectonic evolution of the region, defining the role played by the main tectonic alignments on the present geomorphic setting.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of the K-casein (CSN3 gene in goats reared in Southern Italy

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    Fabio Pilla


    Full Text Available K-casein (K-CN represents one of the most important proteins determining the manufacturing properties of milk,because of its essential role in micelle formation and stabilisation.Several genetic variants of K-CN have been described in goats. To investigate the occurrence of seven alleles and theirdistribution among breeds, a total of 170 animals, from six different breeds reared in Italy (Cilentana Nera, Derivata diSiria, Maltese, Jonica, Garganica and Cashmere, have been analysed in this paper by the primer extension method.Alleles A and B were found to be the most represented in all the analysed breeds; allele D is present only in Maltese andCashmere animals with a very low frequency; while allele G has been found in all but two (Garganica and Cashmerebreeds. Alleles C, E and F were not present in the material used for this study.

  13. Clinical Findings of HCV Chronic Infection in Undocumented Immigrants and Low-Income Refugees in Three Areas of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Alessio, Loredana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Gualdieri, Luciano; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Minichini, Carmine; Di Caprio, Giovanni; Starace, Mario; Onorato, Lorenzo; Scotto, Gaetano; Macera, Margherita; Coppola, Nicola


    In recent decades, Italy has become a land of immigration from countries suffering a socio-economic crisis. The aim of this study was to perform an organized screening to identify and offer care to immigrants with HCV infection. The screening, performed from 2012 to 2015, involved 1,727 immigrants in the Campania and Apulia regions in southern Italy. Screening was accepted by 1,727 (85%) out of 2,032 immigrants interviewed; 70 (4.1%) of the 1,727 were anti-HCV-positive, all unaware of their serological condition, 31 (44.3%) of whom were HCV-RNA-positive and 39 negative. The 31 HCV-RNA-positive immigrants were further investigated at a third-level clinic of infectious diseases. The HCV viral load was 2.6 x 107 ± 7.7 x107 IU/mL, and 35.5% showed HCV-genotype 1a or 1b, 23.8% genotype 2 and 22.6% genotype 3. Two immigrants had liver cirrhosis and, in accordance with the Italian Healthcare Authority guidelines, received an interferon-free regimen and achieved a sustained virological response (SVR); 18 had chronic hepatitis, 6 of whom with a high risk of progression and received interferonbased therapy, with SVR in 4, whereas 12 at low risk were put on a waiting list for future interferon-free treatment, once licensed. The remaining 11 HCV-RNA-positive immigrants were considered HCV inactive chronic carriers and were included in a long-term observational program. The screening program can be considered successful since it was accepted by 85% of the subjects interviewed and identified 70 anti-HCV-positive immigrants, all unaware of their clinical and virological condition.

  14. Dietary Consumption of Phenolic Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Sicily, Southern Italy

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    Giorgio Ivan Russo


    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols gained the interest of the scientific community due to their wide content in a variety of plant-derived foods and beverages commonly consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and cocoa. We aimed to investigate whether there was an association between dietary phenolic acid consumption and prostate cancer (PCa in South Italy. We conducted a population-based case-control study from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy (Registration number: 41/2015. Patients with elevated PSA and/or suspicious PCa underwent transperineal prostate biopsy. A total of 118 histopathological-verified PCa cases were collected and a total of 222 controls were selected from a sample of 2044 individuals. Dietary data were collected by using two food frequency questionnaires and data on the phenolic acids content in foods was obtained from the Phenol-Explorer database ( Association between dietary intake of phenolic acids and PCa was calculated through logistic regression analysis. We found lower levels of caffeic acid (2.28 mg/day vs. 2.76 mg/day; p < 0.05 and ferulic acid (2.80 mg/day vs. 4.04 mg/day; p < 0.01 in PCa when compared to controls. The multivariate logistic regression showed that both caffeic acid (OR = 0.32; p < 0.05 and ferulic acid (OR = 0.30; p < 0.05 were associated with reduced risk of PCa. Higher intake of hydroxybenzoic acids and caffeic acids were associated with lower risk of advanced PCa. High intake of caffeic acid and ferulic acid may be associated with reduced risk of PCa.

  15. Seismogenic zonation and seismic hazard estimates in a Southern Italy area (Northern Apulia characterised by moderate seismicity rates

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    V. Del Gaudio


    Full Text Available The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9 has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland. However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.

  16. Organotins (TBT and DBT) in water, sediments, and gastropods of the southern Venice lagoon (Italy). (United States)

    Berto, D; Giani, M; Boscolo, R; Covelli, S; Giovanardi, O; Massironi, M; Grassia, L


    The release of tributyltin (TBT) from maritime traffic represents one of the main problems of direct, diffuse, and continued contamination of the marine environment. In the present survey, the concentrations of TBT and dibultytin (DBT) in brackish waters, sediments, and the gastropods Nassarius nitidus were evaluated in order to estimate the contamination of the southern part of the Venice lagoon. TBT and DBT were determined by GC-MS/MS. Recent contamination of TBT was found in brackish waters near marinas, whereas the highest concentrations of TBT and DBT were observed in surface sediments at dockyards and harbours. High content of organotin in the gastropods sampled near the dockyards, harbours, and marinas showed a mobilisation from the sediments through the food web. The present study allowed assessment of whether, despite the ban on the use of TBT paints, waters, sediments, and biota were still being contaminated by organotin compounds in the southern Venice lagoon.

  17. Evaluating the Competitiveness of the Northern and Southern Macro-Regions of Italy

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    Lucia Aquilino


    Full Text Available This study uses the Crouch and Ritchie (1999 model of competitiveness to investigate/measure the competitiveness of northern and southern Italian macro-regions. Researching competitive advantages along with identifying strengths/weaknesses represent the objectives of this study. 156 responses were analysed, and findings show that northern regions tend to be more competitive than southern regions. While naturally endowed and created resources represent strengths in both regions, the competitiveness of all the determinant factors included in the tourism development, planning and policy of both tourist destinations are found to be quite inadequate. Moreover, the findings revealed that these mature destinations are experiencing the effects unleashed by a number of trends such as the development of new forms of tourism, the increasing number of tourist arrivals, the growth of the global economy and the sophistication of tourists’ tastes, representing both opportunities and threats that Italian destinations need to consider when planning/developing new strategies.

  18. The 1998-1999 Pollino (Southern Apennines, Italy seismic crisis: tomography of a sequence

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    A. B. Rosa


    Full Text Available In 1998-1999 a seismic sequence occurred in the Southern Apennines, after the moderate size (mb=5.0 9th September 1998 Pollino earthquake. It lasted about 14 months and was clearly localized to the sole north-west area of the main shock epicenter. Its peculiarity consisted in sudden changes of activity from a series of normal faults with Apenninic (NW-SE trend and transfer, presumably strike slip, faults with Antiapenninic (NE-SW and E-W trend. The complexity of the behavior and the different orientations of the activated systems suggest that the area acts as a hinge between the NW-SE trending Southern Apennines and the locally N-S trending Calabrian Arc.

  19. Circulation of multiple subtypes of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 with no evidence for HoBi-like pestivirus in cattle herds of southern Italy. (United States)

    Lanave, G; Decaro, N; Lucente, M S; Guercio, A; Cavaliere, N; Purpari, G; Padalino, I; Larocca, V; Antoci, F; Marino, P A; Buonavoglia, C; Elia, G


    Pestiviruses of cattle include bovine viral diarrhoea 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2) plus an emerging group, named HoBi-like pestivirus. In the present paper, the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses circulating in cattle in southern Italy are presented. Molecular assays carried out on a total of 924 bovine samples detected 74 BVDV strains, including 73 BVDV-1 and 1 BVDV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on partial 5'UTR and N pro sequences revealed the presence of 6 different subtypes of BVDV-1 and a single BVDV-2c strain. BVDV-1 displayed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, which can have both prophylactic and diagnostic implications. In addition, the detection of BVDV-2c highlights the need for a continuous surveillance for the emergence of new pestivirus strains in cattle farms in southern Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyclostratigraphic calibration of cretaceous magnetic polarity events (Cismon, Southern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Mayer, H.


    In an introductory section the problems of constructing a geologic time scale and the role of magnetic reversals and Milankovitch cycles in geochronology are outlined. Results of a detailed cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study of the Valanginian/Hauterivian part of the pelagic limestone section at Cismon in the Southern Alps are presented and used in conjunction to estimate the duration of magnetic subchrons between CM10N and CM8. The new estimates are shorter than in most published time scales by a factor of two to three. More research along these lines may make a revision of the Early Cretaceous time scale necessary. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. New study on the reproductive biology of a sexual strain of Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina, found in southern Italy: A genetic approach

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    Benazzi, Mario; Giannini Forli, Enrica [Pisa, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell`Ambiente e del Territorio. Lab. di Zoologia


    The offspring of a sexual strain of Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina, found in southern Italy, was studied. They have collected and controlled the cocoons laid by F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} specimens, ascertaining that the degree of sterility, in F{sub 1} appears similar to that of parental generation, while it increases in F{sub 2}, in which many cocoons were found completely empty.

  2. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the fragility fracture population of a region of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Moretti, L; Laviola, L; Moretti, B


    Increased risk of osteoporosis and its clinical significance in patients with diabetes is controversial. This study aims to increase the data which are available regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients affected by fragility fracture in Italy. We retrospectively studied Hospital Discharge Data (HDD) in the Apulian database for the period 2006–2010 to identify a fragility fracture diagnosis in males over 65 years of age and in females over 50. The database was then checked for drug prescriptions to identify those persons who had taken at least one osteoporosis drug. Within this latter group, thanks to hospital admission and prescription records, the subjects affected with diabetes mellitus were identified. Between 2006 and 2010 in Apulia 177,639 patients were hospitalized and diagnosed as having fragility fracture. The greatest number of those fragility fractures were found to be in the 70 to 79 age range (64,917 total; females 56,994, males 7,923). The prevalence of diabetes subjects in Apulia in this period was estimated at 6.5%. In the same region and period 21.1% of subjects affected by diabetes experienced a fragility fracture; in particular, this number was 27% for males and for 20.5% females. This is the first study providing data on the prevalence of fragility fractures and diabetes in the Apulian population. The data confirm that diabetes is a risk factor which influences bone density and risk of fractures and therefore the need of osteoporosis screening and treatment in diabetic patients.

  3. Reappraising a wartime earthquake: the October 3, 1943 event in the southern Marches (central Italy

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    Andrea Tertulliani


    Full Text Available The earthquake of October 3, 1943, is an important event for characterization of hazard in central Italy, but none of the earlier studies provide an exhaustive description of its effects. The context in which the earthquake occurred was very complex and many relevant records were not available for consultation when the studies were made. This study set out to improve our understanding of the earthquake and its effects by giving special care to the interpretative problems deriving from the peculiar historical and seismological context of the 1943 earthquake, with reference to the possible interactions between earthquake damage and war damage, and between the effects of the 1943 earthquake and those of other local earthquakes occurred between 1936 and 1951. The historical data set collected by earlier studies was critically revised and more data were sought in repositories that had not been previously considered. The number of localities for which a macrosesmic intensity can be assessed increased from 131 to 170. All intensity values were reassessed; from these we calculate a new macroseismic magnitude Mw 5.5 of the October 3, 1943, earthquake.

  4. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

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    Mariateresa Russo


    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  5. Historical Storminess and Hydro-Geological Hazard Temporal Evolution in the Solofrana River Basin—Southern Italy

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    Antonia Longobardi


    Full Text Available Precipitation extremes have always been part of the Earth’s climate system and associated multiple damaging hydrological events (MDHEs, the simultaneous triggering of different types of phenomena (landslides and floods, affect an always-increasing portion of human settlement areas. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the temporal evolution of severe geomorphological events and combined precipitation indices as a tool to improve understanding the hydro-geological hazard at the catchment scale. The case study is the Solofrana river basin, Southern Italy, and the focus is on four of main municipalities severely affected by natural disasters. Data for about 45 MDH events, spanning 1951–2014, have been collected and analyzed for this purpose. A preliminary monthly scale analysis of event occurrences highlights a pronounced seasonal characterization of the phenomenon, as about 60% of the total number of reported events take place during the period from September to November. Following, a statistical analysis clearly indicates a significant increase in the frequency of occurrences of MDHEs during the last decades. Such an increase appears to be related to non-stationary features of an average catchment scale rainfall-runoff erosivity index, which combines maximum monthly, maximum daily, and a proxy of maximum hourly precipitation data.

  6. Selection of autochthonous strains as promising starter cultures for Fior di Latte, a traditional cheese of southern Italy. (United States)

    Speranza, Barbara; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Altieri, Clelia; Sinigaglia, Milena


    This paper describes the selection of promising strains intended as starter cultures from the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria of Fior di Latte cheese (Apulia region, southern Italy). Ninety-five isolates were randomly selected from whey and Fior di Latte. After preliminary characterization based upon Gram staining, deamination of arginine, hydrolysis of esculine and production of CO2 from glucose and citrate, the isolates were studied for their growth at different temperatures (10, 15 and 45 °C), with salt addition (20, 40 and 65 g L(-1) ) and at pH 4.4 and their acidification score in MRS broth after 6 and 24 h. Data were modeled through the growth index and used as input to run a preliminary cluster analysis and a principal component analysis. In this way, nine promising strains were selected and used for validation at laboratory level, to study the acidification score in milk and propose some possible microbial mixtures. This paper reports the first research focusing on the design of a lactic starter for the production of Fior di Latte cheese, using a quantitative approach based on the evaluation of growth index and acidification score as well as on the use of a multivariate approach to select the most promising nine strains. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Mapping the main Leishmania phlebotomine vector in the endemic focus of the Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy

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    Erika Rossi


    Full Text Available Geographical information systems and remote sensing were used to analyze the distribution of the Leishmania infantum-Phlebotomus perniciosus parasite-vector system in relation to environmental features of two opposite sides (coastal and Apennine of Mt. Vesuvius, an area of intense transmission of human and canine leishmaniasis in southern Italy. Weekly phlebotomine collections were carried out during two consecutive warm seasons (2004- 2005 in 24 and 25 sites of the coastal and Apennine sides, respectively. Sandflies were caught using over one-thousand and seven hundred 20 x 20 cm-sticky traps placed in different environments. A total of 873 sandflies were collected, of which 284 (32.5% were identified as P. perniciosus. The cumulative density (number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap/two nights of this vector species was 3.9. P. perniciosus was significantly more abundant in the coastal side (5.8 as compared to the Apennine side (1.4. The main environmental differences between the two sides were the aspect (south-west for the coastal and north-east for the Apennine side and land use. The predominance of green vegetated environments (forest, semi-natural and agricultural areas in the coastal side, in contrast with the predominance of artificial surfaces (namely urban environment in the Apennine side, could be responsible for the different P. perniciosus densities between the two surveyed areas.

  8. A multidisciplinary approach to characterize the geometry of active faults: the example of Mt. Massico, Southern Italy (United States)

    Luiso, P.; Paoletti, V.; Nappi, R.; La Manna, M.; Cella, F.; Gaudiosi, G.; Fedi, M.; Iorio, M.


    We present the results of a multidisciplinary and multiscale study at Mt. Massico, Southern Italy. Mt. Massico is a carbonate horst located along the Campanian-Latial margin of the Tyrrhenian basin, bordered by two main NE-SW systems of faults, and by NW-SE and N-S trending faults. Our analysis deals with the modeling of the main NE-SW faults. These faults were capable during Plio-Pleistocene and are still active today, even though with scarce and low energy seismicity (Mw maximum = 4.8). We inferred the pattern of the fault planes through a combined interpretation of 2D hypocentral sections, a multiscale analysis of gravity field and geochemical data. This allowed us to characterize the geometry of these faults and infer their large depth extent. This region shows very striking gravimetric signatures, well-known Quaternary faults, moderate seismicity and a localized geothermal fluid rise. Thus, this analysis represents a valid case study for testing the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach, and employing it in areas with buried and/or silent faults of potential high hazard, such as in the Apennine chain.

  9. Patterns of ecology and distribution of the tree crickets Oecanthus dulcisonans and O. pellucens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Oecanthinae) in southern Italy. (United States)

    Labadessa, Rocco; Todisco, Simone


    Ecological proclivities of the tree cricket Oecanthus dulcisonans, which has been recently separated from the well known O. pellucens, have been poorly investigated. Moreover, studies on the patterns driving niche segregation between these related species are still needed. This study aims to explore the role of macro-habitat in shaping the distribution of O. dulcisonans and O. pellucens in southern Italy. Occurrence data were sampled by means of a rapid acoustic survey scheme at a regional scale. The significance of difference in ecological and habitat parameters was tested between the two species. While confirming species behavioural patterns, new findings are provided with regard to their ecological difference. Species distribution proves to be primarily driven by elevation gradient and temperature variation, with O. dulcisonans common and widespread in warmer lowlands and O. pellucens limited to higher altitudes. The two species also show significant spatial segregation within vegetation layers. These findings also provide cues for future studies on species interaction, as well as for the assessment of a monitoring scheme which may help interpreting the effects of broad environmental changes.

  10. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Russo


    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  11. The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy: biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids - sea bottom interface

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    T. Maugeri


    Full Text Available Among the submarine hydrothermal systems located offshore the volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy, the most active is located off the coasts of Panarea island. Thermal waters, gases and sulfur deposits coexist at the sea bottom where hydrothermal fluids are released from both shallow and deep vents. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluid phase shows the presence of a significant magmatic component and the physico-chemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir allow the release of reduced chemical species that are microbially mediated towards the production of organic carbon as a form of biochemical energy. Microorganisms inhabiting this environment possess nutritional requirements and overall metabolic pathways ideally suited to such ecosystem that represents a clear example of the close connection between geosphere and biosphere. Microscopic examination of the white mat attached to rock surfaces showed the presence of Thiothrix-like filamentous bacteria. Moderately thermophilic heterotrophic isolates were identified as strains of the genus Bacillus. Although the hydrothermal system of Panarea has to be considered a “shallow” system, it shows many characteristics that make it similar to the “deep” oceanic systems, giving a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge on such an unexplored world by working at this easily accessible site.


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    Full Text Available The analysis of Bichordites ichnofabric has been performed in laminated calcarenites of Upper Pleistocene marine terraces of the Crotone Peninsula, Ionian Calabria, outcropping in the coast nearby the village of Le Castella (southern Italy. These calcarenitic deposits show an intense and pervasive bioturbation, preserved mainly as endichnia s.s., exposed endichnia (false epichnia with hyp- and epireliefs and crossichnia, dominated by Bichordites monastiriensis. Other forms (more rare are Cardioichnus isp., Ophiomorpha nodosa, Planolites beverleyensis and ?Macaronichnus-like trace fossils. This shallow-water ichnofabric, that is recurrent in many sandy shallow water marine terraces of Pleistocene, exhibits hundreds of Bichordites monastiriensis (meniscate burrows that are studied in cross sections and plane views. A detailed taphonomic study shows many differences in the central core of Bichordites monastiriensis that varies in shape, length and dimension, from the outer meniscate envelopment, following the burrowing action of spatangoid echinids in sandy substrate. The rhythmical arrangement in shape and density of Bichordites in foreshore sandy bars with megaripples, with a regressive trend in the stratigraphic section, likely reflects variations and the strength of current along coast. 

  13. Civil protection and Damaging Hydrogeological Events: comparative analysis of the 2000 and 2015 events in Calabria (southern Italy) (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Caloiero, Tommaso; Aurora Pasqua, Angela; Perrotta, Piero; Russo, Luigi; Tansi, Carlo


    Calabria (southern Italy) is a flood prone region, due to both its rough orography and fast hydrologic response of most watersheds. During the rainy season, intense rain affects the region, triggering floods and mass movements that cause economic damage and fatalities. This work presents a methodological approach to perform the comparative analysis of two events affecting the same area at a distance of 15 years, by collecting all the qualitative and quantitative features useful to describe both rain and damage. The aim is to understand if similar meteorological events affecting the same area can have different outcomes in terms of damage. The first event occurred between 8 and 10 September 2000, damaged 109 out of 409 municipalities of the region and killed 13 people in a campsite due to a flood. The second event, which occurred between 30 October and 1 November 2015, damaged 79 municipalities, and killed a man due to a flood. The comparative analysis highlights that, despite the exceptionality of triggering daily rain was higher in the 2015 event, the damage caused by the 2000 event to both infrastructures and belongings was higher, and it was strongly increased due to the 13 flood victims. We concluded that, in the 2015 event, the management of pre-event phases, with the issuing of meteorological alert, and the emergency management, with the preventive evacuation of people in hazardous situations due to landslides or floods, contributed to reduce the number of victims.

  14. Eighteen years of GPS surveys in the Aeolian Islands (southern Italy: open data archive and velocity field

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    Alessandra Esposito


    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, geodetic networks became a most important tool to monitor the present day deformations of the volcanic arc of the Aeolian Islands. The first benchmarks were installed in this region at Lipari and Vulcano Islands and the number of GPS benchmarks increased in time since the early ’90s. These networks were periodically surveyed in the frame of national and international geodynamic projects and for Civil Protection programs devoted to the mitigation of the volcanic hazard. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV played a fundamental role in the realization and periodical reoccupation of these networks, with the goal to investigate the tectonic and volcanic processes, still active in this crucial area of the central Mediterranean. An updated GPS velocity map for this region, both for the horizontal and vertical component of land motion, with details for Lipari, Vulcano and Panarea Islands, is provided in this paper. The presented GPS velocity field also includes a set of additional discrete stations located in northern Sicily and Calabria together with data from the available CGPS networks active in southern Italy. Here we show the results from eighteen years of repeated GPS surveys performed in this region in the time span 1995-2013 and the open access AINET-GPS data archive, now freely available for the scientific community. Data will support scientific research and hopefully improve the assessment of volcanic and seismic hazard in this region.

  15. Assessment of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV incidence in Calabria, southern Italy: results of a three-year survey

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    Giuliana Renata Albanese


    Full Text Available Since 2006 a survey on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV has been carried out in Calabria, southern Italy, to determine the occurrence of the virus, to evaluate its incidence, to identify and characterize the virus strains, and to monitor the aphid vector populations. Citrus samples were collected from nurseries and orchards located in the five provinces of the region. The virus was not detected in the citrus-growing areas of Catanzaro (CZ or Crotone (KR, whereas it was found in three orchards in Cosenza (CS, three in Vibo Valentia (VV and twelve citrus plantings in Reggio Calabria (RC. The highest infection percentages occurred in citrus orchards close to fields already infected with CTV. Infections were detected not only in foreign cultivars, but also in local cultivars such as ‘Comune’ clementine, ‘Moro’, ‘Ovale’ and ‘Tarocco’ sweet orange, suggesting that CTV was transmitted by aphids. CTV occurred in only a few plantlets sampled in two citrus nurseries located near the main areas already infected. Serological differentiation of several CTV field isolates revealed that the mild strains were prevalent. Aphis gossypii (Glover and A. spiraecola Patch (= A. citricola Van der Goot were the most frequent aphids in the orchards, whereas Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Foscoulombe and Myzus persicae (Sulzer occurred with low incidence. The absence of T. citricidus (Kirkaldy was confirmed.

  16. Assessing the Risk of Aquifer Salinization in a Large-Scale Coastal Irrigation Scheme in Southern Italy (United States)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Passarella, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Daniela; Giordano, Raffaele; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; Maggi, Sabino; Bruno, Delia; Foglia, Laura


    A research study was conducted on a coastal irrigated agricultural area of southern Italy to assess the risks of aquifer degradation likely resulting from the intensive groundwater pumping from individual farm wells and reduced aquifer recharge. Information were collected both from farmers and delivery system's operators during a survey conducted in 2012 revealing that farmers depend mainly on groundwater with the aim to achieve flexible irrigation management as opposed to the rigid rotational delivery service of surface water supply provided by the local water management agency. The study area is intensively farmed by small land-holding growers with high-value micro-irrigated horticultural crops. Our team appraised the soil and aquifer degradation hazards using a simplified procedure for environmental risk assessment that allowed identifying the risk-generating processes, evaluating the magnitude of impacts, and estimating the overall risks significance. We also collected the stakeholders' perceptions on agricultural water management and use through field interviews, whereas parallel investigations revealed significant aquifer salinity increase during the recent years. As a final step, some preliminary risk mitigation options were appraised by exploring the growers' response to possible changes of irrigation deliveries by the water management agency. The present study integrated multi-annual observations, data interpretation, and modelling efforts, which jointly enabled the analysis of complex water management scenarios and the development of informed decisions. Keywords: Environmental risk assessment, Fuzzy cognitive maps, Groundwater degradation, Seawater intrusion

  17. InSAR Time Series Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Coastal Plain Subsidence: The Case of Sibari (Southern Italy

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    Giuseppe Cianflone


    Full Text Available We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy. Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.

  18. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy. (United States)

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G


    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements of projected areas of seated and standing people of southern Italy based on a statistical analysis. (United States)

    Calvino, Francesco; La Gennusa, Maria; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca; Simone, Angela


    One of the most important components affecting the human thermal balance is represented by its radiative exchange with the surrounding surfaces. The projected area of the human body is an important parameter of these thermal exchanges. Unfortunately, although the anthropometric measures of people are characterized by significant differences among various populations, the experimental data currently available in the literature refers to a small group of people. Moreover, measurements are generally performed regardless of the statistical significance of the involved subjects with respect to the population to which they belong. In this study, a statistical study is introduced that is based on a large analysis of the anthropometric characteristics of the analysed population. Moreover, a new experimental procedure is applied to evaluate the projected area factor and the effective radiating area of a sample of people belonging to the population of southern Italy. The calculated projected area factors are fairly in accordance with those originally proposed by Fanger for standing people. For seated people, however, the experimental values of the present study show some differences from those of the literature. This study provided a tentative explanation for these discrepancies.

  20. Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P. (United States)

    Mariotti Lippi, Marta; Foggi, Bruno; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Revedin, Anna


    Residue analyses on a grinding tool recovered at Grotta Paglicci sublayer 23A [32,614 ± 429 calibrated (cal) B.P.], Southern Italy, have demonstrated that early modern humans collected and processed various plants. The recording of starch grains attributable to Avena (oat) caryopses expands our information about the food plants used for producing flour in Europe during the Paleolithic and about the origins of a food tradition persisting up to the present in the Mediterranean basin. The quantitative distribution of the starch grains on the surface of the grinding stone furnished information about the tool handling, confirming its use as a pestle-grinder, as suggested by the wear-trace analysis. The particular state of preservation of the starch grains suggests the use of a thermal treatment before grinding, possibly to accelerate drying of the plants, making the following process easier and faster. The study clearly indicates that the exploitation of plant resources was very important for hunter-gatherer populations, to the point that the Early Gravettian inhabitants of Paglicci were able to process food plants and already possessed a wealth of knowledge that was to become widespread after the dawn of agriculture.

  1. The 9 September 2010 torrential rain and flash flood in the Dragone catchment, Atrani, Amalfi Coast (southern Italy) (United States)

    Violante, C.; Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Tranfaglia, G.


    In this paper we use a multi-hazard approach to analyse the 9 September 2010 flash flood in the Dragone basin, a 9 km2 catchment located along the Amalfi rocky coastal range, southern Italy. In this area, alluvial fan flooding has been the most frequent and destructive geologic hazard since Roman times. Sudden torrents of water (flash floods) are caused by high-intensity and very localized cloudbursts of short duration, inducing slope erosion and sediment delivery from slope to stream. The elevated bed load transport produces fast-moving hyperconcentrated flows with significant catastrophic implications for communities living at the stream mouth. The 9 September 2010 rainstorm event lasted 1 h with an intensity rainfall peak of nearly 120 mm h-1. High topographic relief of the Amalfi coastal range and positive anomalies of the coastal waters conditioned the character of the convective system. Based on geological data and post-event field evidence and surveys, as well as homemade videos and eyewitness accounts, it is reported that the flash flood mobilized some 25 000 m3 of materials with a total (water and sediment) peak flow of 80 m3 s-1. The estimated peak discharge of only clear water was about 65 m3 s-1. This leads to a sediment bulking factor of 1.2 that corresponds to a flow with velocities similar to those of water during a flood.

  2. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

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    Moretti Massimo


    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Sessa, Alessandra; Abbate, Rossella; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat) and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy

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    Marinelli Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.

  5. Sustainable yield of the Colle Quartara carbonate aquifer in the Southern Lepini Mountains (Central Italy

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    Giovanni Conte


    Full Text Available The present research is aimed to contribute to the groundwater resource sustainable management of a carbonate aquifer in a test area of the Lepini Mountains (Central Italy. This aquifer constitutes a major exploited groundwater body of central Apennines. At regional scale, the hydrogeological features of the Lepini hydrostructure are well known. The present study focuses on a portion of the Lepini Mountains where important tapping-works for drinking water supply are in activity (about 1.2 m3/s. New investigations were carried out including: meteo-climatic analysis, spring discharge and hydrometric time series processing, pumping test result interpretation. In addition, a detailed lithostratigraphical and structural survey of a portion of the Lepini hydrostructure at 1:10,000 scale was performed also examining the dense network of discontinuities affecting the carbonate aquifer. Extensional Plio-Pleistocene tectonic activity displaced the carbonate rock sequence under the Pontina Plain, where the carbonate aquifer is confined. The investigation results have allowed the reconstruction of the hydrogeological conceptual model of the studied portion of carbonate massif. Given the scale of the study and the results of the investigation, the carbonate aquifer can be treated as an equivalent porous medium, and the simplified numerical model of the aquifer was constructed with the code MODFLOW-2005. The numerical model, still now under continuous implementation, produced first results on the current withdrawal sustainability, allowing evaluation of possible alternative exploitation scenarios of the carbonate aquifer also considering the probably not significant flow exchanges with the Pontina Plain aquifer.

  6. Appraising hospital performance by using the JCHAO/CMS quality measures in Southern Italy.

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    Domenico Flotta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present study was to estimate the uptake to quality indicators that reflect the current evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of patients admitted to two hospitals in the South of Italy was conducted. For the purposes of the analysis, a sets of quality indicators has been used from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Four areas of care were selected: acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, pneumonia (PN, and surgical care improvement project (SCIP. Frequency or median was calculated, as appropriate, for each indicator. A composite score was calculated to estimate the overall performance for each area of care. RESULTS: A total of 1772 medical records were reviewed. The adherence rates showed a wide-ranging variability among the selected indicators. The use of aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB for AMI, the use of ACEI or ARB for HF, the use of appropriate thromboembolism prophylaxis and appropriate hair removal for surgical patients almost approached optimal adherence. At the other extreme, rates regarding adherence to smoking-cessation counseling in AMI and HF patients, discharge instructions in HF patients, and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in pneumonia patients were noticeably intangible. Overall, the recommended processes of care among eligible patients were provided in 70% for AMI, in 32.4% for HF, in 46.4% for PN, and in 46% for SCIP. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that there is still substantial work that lies ahead on the way to improve the uptake to evidence-based processes of care. Improvement initiatives should be focused more on domains of healthcare than on specific conditions, especially on the area of preventive care.

  7. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy

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    Angela Laganà


    Full Text Available Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already studied in the past. Certain changes were observed in the study areas, but they seem more likely to be due to other factors than pollution, such as the weather conditions, the age and natural evolution of the forests towards their climax.

  8. The presence of Italy in Brazilian furniture production and design: Fábrica de Móveis Federico Oppido & Irmão

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    Maria Cecília Naclério Homem


    Full Text Available Our maternal grandfather, Federico Oppido, was born in Tito, a small Basilicata town in Southern Italy, in 1877. A descendant of a family of painters and artisans, he was a draftsman, furniture manufacturer and interior decorator. He moved to São Paulo in 1888 where he studied at the Arts and Crafts Lyceum. After 1900, together with his brother Nicola, he owned Federico Oppido & C., a furniture-making and upholstery shop, which was later renamed Fábrica de Móveis "Federico Oppido & Irmão." He produced works in eclecticism, art nouveau and art déco for private customers, artists, architects, politicians and industry magnates. He can be considered one of the pioneers of modern furniture in Brazil thanks to the important works he produced in the latter style and as a result of his collaboration with swiss and brazilian artist John Graz in the manufacturing of tubular furniture that also adorned the interiors of the first residences designed by the architect Gregori Warchavchik. His factory is also credited with producing a wealth of well-known craftsmen, designers and painters. This year is the "Italy in Brazil" year, celebrating the 150th anniversary of Italy's unification. We are using this opportunity to honor Federico Oppido by publishing his biography, concentrating especially on his factory and the artists he influenced through his work. We are including the furniture he designed, family memories and information from his home town.

  9. The Vulnerability of People to Damaging Hydrogeological Events in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy). (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Salvati, Paola; Aceto, Luigi; Bianchi, Cinzia; Pasqua, Angela Aurora; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto


    Background: Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) are severe weather periods during which floods, landslides, lightning, windstorms, hail or storm surges can harm people. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency/intensity of DHEs and, consequently, the potential harm to people. Method: We investigated the impacts of DHEs on people in Calabria (Italy) over 37 years (1980-2016). Data on 7288 people physically affected by DHEs were gathered from the systematic analysis of regional newspapers and collected in the database named PEOPLE. The damage was codified in three severity levels as follows: fatalities (people who were killed), injured (people who suffered physical harm) and involved (people who were present at the place where an accident occurred but survived and were not harmed). During the study period, we recorded 68 fatalities, 566 injured and 6654 people involved in the events. Results: Males were more frequently killed, injured and involved than females, and females who suffered fatalities were older than males who suffered fatalities, perhaps indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-aged males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, suggesting that younger people show greater promptness in reacting to dangerous situations. Floods caused the majority of the fatalities, injured and involved people, followed by landslides. Lightning was the most dangerous phenomenon, and it affected a relatively low number of people, killing 11.63% of them and causing injuries to 37.2%. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoors, largely along roads. In contrast, people indoors, essentially in public or private buildings, were more frequently involved without suffering harm. Being "dragged by water/mud" and "surrounded by water/mud", respectively, represented the two extremes of dynamic dangerousness. The dragging effect of rapid-flowing water

  10. Historical Earthquakes and Expected Seismic Damage at Ischia Island, Resurgent Caldera (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.


    Information on the seismicity of the Ischia island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. The most recent earthquake of 1883 caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island, specially at Casamicciola town. This event (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed. After the 1883 earthquake there was a period of seismic quiescence except for some isolated events felt at beginning of the last century and the very occasional micro-earthquakes recorded in the last 20 years in the northern part of the island. The epicenter of all known earthquakes are on the northern slope of Mt. Epomeo (787 m a. s.l.) resurgent block, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. The Mt. Epomeo is a resurgent structure in the central sector of the island, whose uplift is correlated to the caldera resurgence process, for the increase of pressure of shallow magma reservoir. The caldera was formed after a large explosive eruption that deposited the Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff, about 55 ka B.P. The uplift, which started about 30 ka B.P., was of about 900 meters. The resurgent structure is bordered by a system of faults and fractures, with NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S strike and along these faults, in the northern sector, the seismicity has been localized. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such

  11. Leveraging social media for flood emergency management: an experience in Campania region (southern Italy) (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro


    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is exposed to severe hydrogeological risk scenarios, triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes to several hours. Many of these risk scenarios can only be mitigated by non-structural measures, which are mainly designed to increase the resilience of the exposed communities. Several studies have evidenced that the effectiveness of civil protection actions can be enhanced by using social media for disseminating and collecting information relevant for crisis preparedness, response and recovery. However, the application of social media in the management of hydrogeological risks is still in its infancy. The civil protection of Campania Region, as part of a FP7 project called SUPER (Social sensors for secUrity Assessments and Proactive EmeRgencies management), has been validating an integrated framework enabling optimal blending of social media in the emergency management processes. The SUPER project is a joint effort of social media experts (including social network providers) and security experts (including security and civil protection agencies), towards introducing an integrated and privacy-friendly approach to the use of social media in emergencies and security incidents. As part of the project outcomes, the "SUPER platform" has been developed. It consists of a set of social media processing components integrated in a Common Operational Picture, designed for supporting security and emergency management. A demonstration was primarily setup to evaluate how the SUPER platform can effectively facilitate the exploitation of social media data for improving civil protection actions during a simulated emergency scenario. To this purpose, a civil protection exercise took place in the city of Sorrento (Naples, Italy), involving tens of volunteers and emergency operators. The simulated emergency scenario was

  12. Radioactivity, radiological risk and metal pollution assessment in marine sediments from Calabrian selected areas, southern Italy (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Messina, M.; Faggio, G.; Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Belmusto, G.


    The two most significant categories of physical and chemical pollutants in sediments (radionuclides and metals) were investigated in this article, in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine sediments from eight different selected sites of the Calabria region, south of Italy. In particular samples were analyzed to determine natural and anthropic radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the investigated area. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The obtained results show that, for radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium), the specific activity ranges from ( 14 ± 1) Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) to ( 54 ± 9) Bq/kg d.w.; for thorium, from ( 12 ± 1) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 83 ± 8) Bq/kg d.w.; for potassium, from ( 470 ± 20) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 1000 ± 70) Bq/kg d.w. and for cesium it is lower than the minimum detectable activity value. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) outdoor and the external hazard index ( H_ex) were calculated to evaluate any possible radiological risk, mainly due to the use of marine sediments for the beach nourishment. The results show low levels of radioactivity, thus discarding any significant radiological risk. Some metals (As, Cd, Cr tot, Hg, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe), that could be released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources, were investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements and compared with the limits set by the Italian Legislation, to assess any possible contamination. Experimental results show that they are much lower than the contamination threshold value, thus excluding their presence as pollutants. The degree of sediment contaminations were quantified using enrichment factor ( EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) for

  13. The Vulnerability of People to Damaging Hydrogeological Events in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy

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    Olga Petrucci


    Full Text Available Background: Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are severe weather periods during which floods, landslides, lightning, windstorms, hail or storm surges can harm people. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency/intensity of DHEs and, consequently, the potential harm to people. Method: We investigated the impacts of DHEs on people in Calabria (Italy over 37 years (1980–2016. Data on 7288 people physically affected by DHEs were gathered from the systematic analysis of regional newspapers and collected in the database named PEOPLE. The damage was codified in three severity levels as follows: fatalities (people who were killed, injured (people who suffered physical harm and involved (people who were present at the place where an accident occurred but survived and were not harmed. During the study period, we recorded 68 fatalities, 566 injured and 6654 people involved in the events. Results: Males were more frequently killed, injured and involved than females, and females who suffered fatalities were older than males who suffered fatalities, perhaps indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-aged males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, suggesting that younger people show greater promptness in reacting to dangerous situations. Floods caused the majority of the fatalities, injured and involved people, followed by landslides. Lightning was the most dangerous phenomenon, and it affected a relatively low number of people, killing 11.63% of them and causing injuries to 37.2%. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoors, largely along roads. In contrast, people indoors, essentially in public or private buildings, were more frequently involved without suffering harm. Being “dragged by water/mud” and “surrounded by water/mud”, respectively, represented the two extremes of dynamic dangerousness. The dragging

  14. Metamorphic evolution of metadolerites from the Frido Unit ophiolites (Southern Apennine-Italy) (United States)

    Cristi Sansone, Maria T.; Prosser, Giacomo; Rizzo, Giovanna; Tartarotti, Paola


    The Southern Apennines chain is a fold-and-thrust belt resulting from the convergence of the African and European plates and simultaneous roll-back of SE-directed Ionian subduction (Upper Oligocene-Quaternary). Ophiolites in the Southern Apennines are related to northwest subduction of the oceanic lithosphere pertaining to the Ligurian sector of the Jurassic western Tethys. The ophiolitic sequences are enclosed within remnants of the Liguride accretionary wedge now incorporated in the Southern Apennine chain and they crop out in the north-eastern slope of the Pollino Ridge (Calabria-Lucania border zone). Mafic and ultramafic rocks, with garnet-bearing felses, amphibolites, gneiss and granitoides occur as tectonic slices within a matrix mainly composed of calcschists and phyllites. Metadolerites occur as dikes cutting through serpentinized peridotites. Metadolerites have different kinds of texture reflecting various degree of crystallinity and strain: porphyritic or aphyric, intersertal/intergranular, blastophitic, cataclastic to mylonitic. In all metadolerites primary plagioclase and clinopyroxene can be observed. The metamorphic mineral assemblage consists of brown amphibole, green amphibole, chlorite, blue amphibole, pumpellyite, prehnite, quartz, epidote, white mica, lawsonite and plagioclase (Pl2 and Pl3). Accessory phases are opaque minerals, Fe-hydroxides and zircon. Metadolerites are cross- cut by veins filled with pumpellyite, chlorite, prehnite, tremolite, plagioclase, white, mica, quartz, lawsonite, epidote and zircon. The veins are straight, a few millimetres in thickness and occur isolated or in closely spaced sets. The vein morphology ranges from planar to sinuous and irregular. On the basis of metamorphic mineral phases three different types of metadolerite can be distinguished: i) rocks with a high content of prehnite crystals in cataclastic-mylonitic bands, exhibiting an intersertal or a blastophitic texture or a mylonitic fabric and in some cases a

  15. Worst-case scenario approach to the tsunami hazard assessment for the Apulian coasts (southern Italy) (United States)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano


    In the framework of the Mediterranean basin, Apulia cannot be counted among the most active areas in terms of earthquake and tsunami activity. Nonetheless, in its northern part, which includes the Gargano peninsula, several earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred historically, some of which were also tsunamigenic. The most famous one is the 30 July 1627 event, which produced extensive inundation in the northern part of Gargano and relevant effects also in some portions of its southern side. Its parent fault is still a matter of debate, since both the inland epicentral location determined by macroseismic studies and the strike-slip dominant focal mechanism inferred from local geology are incompatible with a tsunami excitation capable of producing the effects reported by the coeval sources. Moreover, Apulia is bounded by much more tectonically active and tsunamigenic regions, such as the Dalmatia-Montenegro-Albania coastal belt to the East, the western Hellenic Arc to the South-East and the Calabrian arc to the South-West. Finally, Apulia is located in a strategic position in between eastern and western Europe, involving the installation of crucial international infrastructures, such as the Trans-Adriatic gas pipeline. For all the reasons mentioned above, performing an accurate assessment of the hazard related (at least) to earthquakes and tsunami impact in Apulia represents a need. The OTRIONS project developed a multi-parametric network for this purpose, and in its framework we studied the tsunami hazard along the Apulian coasts by means of a worst-case credible scenario approach. This involved the selection and characterisation of all possible tsunamigenic sources both at local and remote distances: this task was carried out as a shared effort with the Italian national RITMARE project. The recognised sources, mainly retrieved from the published literature and from databases available online, include tectonic faults as well as submarine landslides. The

  16. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy) (United States)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo


    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  17. Soil erosion and desertification: a combined approach using RUSLE and ESAs models in the Tusciano basin (southern Italy). (United States)

    de Paola, F.; Ducci, D.; Giugni, M.


    To identify the desertification prone areas the ESAs (Environmentally Sensitive Areas) model was developed in 1999 in the framework of MEDALUS (MEditerranean Desertification And Land USe) European project; this method has been used in many Mediterranean Countries (Greece, Portugal Italy, Egypt, etc.). The identification of areas sensitive to desertification by using the ESAs model has been carried out in the Tusciano river basin (261 km2) located in southern Italy (Campania region). All data defining the four groups of parameters related to soil quality, climate quality, vegetation quality, and management quality have been introduced in a geographical database, and overlain using a GIS. Afterwards, a sensitivity analysis highlighted the different impact of the desertification parameters on the mountainous, hilly, and downstream areas of the catchment, strongly different in terms of morphological, geological, climatic and land-use features. The assessment of desertification sensitivity shows a clear vulnerability status in the Tusciano river basin, where more than half of the area is susceptible to desertification risk. The results of the ESAs model have been combined with those of the soil loss, achieved using the RUSLE method, based approximately on the same environmental factors; nevertheless, ESAs model considers a wider range of parameters, allowing to characterize in detail the catchment, from the climatic, geomorphological, vegetational and socio-economical point of view. The comparison between the desertification prone areas map and the potential erosion map of the Tusciano river basin shows fundamental differences. The areas at higher erosion risk are located in the mountain and hilly sectors of the basin, while the downstream areas, at high desertification risk, are characterized by a low erosion risk. The hilly sector is especially prone to both risks, desertification and erosion. Finally, a correlation analysis for the risk classes was developed using

  18. Dynamics of natural regeneration in Pinus laricio stands from southern Apennines (Italy

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    Albanesi E


    Full Text Available The seedlings establishment was studied in small (380 m2, medium (855 m2 and large (1520 m2 gaps created in calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret stands (mean height 22 m in the Southern Apennine. After three growing seasons first results put in evidence: a no significant differences of water soil content were observed between gap sizes; b transmittance was higher in large and medium gaps than in small ones and in the centre and northern sides in both gap sizes; c calabrian pine seedling density was higher in large gaps than in medium and small ones and namely in the centre positions; silver fir seedlings appear after the second growing season in small and medium gaps; d seedling mortality of calabrian pine was relevant in small and medium gaps in the edge and silver fir seedling mortality in the centre of the large ones; e in these first years the ground vegetation (bramble and bracken represents a moderate detrimental effect on seedlings establishment that could be removed by partial cuttings.

  19. Numerical modelling in the coastal aquifer between Burlamacca Canal and Bufalina Ditch, southern Versilia (Tuscany, Italy

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    Gioia Bravini


    Full Text Available Groundwater numerical models are necessary instruments for management of water resources and for their protection, both in terms of quantity and quality. In this paper we present a study on an area located along the southern coastline of Versilia (Viareggio,LU affected by marine intrusion. The main purpose of this work was to create a mathematical flow model based on a conceptual hydrogeological model defined by a multidisciplinary approach. For the realization of the numerical model the ModFlow code and the graphic interface Visual ModFlow was used. The procedure for defining the mathematical model involves a series of steps such as horizontal and vertical discretization of the space, the definition of the initial and boundary conditions, the assignment of the hydraulic properties of the cells and, finally, the definitions of external perturbations to the system (recharge, evapotranspiration, drainage and pumping wells. Implementation, development and calibration of the numerical flow model was performed both in steady and transient state. Both models were calibrated using the manual “trial and error adjustment” method using heads measurements. Moreover the model results gathered in transient state simulation were compared with the data continuously recorded by a piezometer of the monitoring network of the Regional Hydrological Service. There is a good correlation between the measured data and those calculated by the model which then turns out to be sufficiently representative and provides a solid basis for the development of a transport model that could be useful to control and manage the phenomenon of the salt water intrusion.


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    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy was investigated in uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian sections from Southern Alps, previously detected through magnetostratigraphy, in order to achieve an integrated stratigraphic framework valid at low latitudes. Nannofossil investigations were carried out on smear slides and ultra-thin sections, revealing generally scarce to common abundances and poor-moderate preservation of nannofloras. An exhaustive taxonomic revision was performed to unambiguously separate forms which are transitional between two species and better delineate rapidly evolving groups. Four new species have been described: Zeugrhabdotus fluxus, Nannoconus puer, Nannoconus erbae, Hexalithus geometricus. Particular attention was paid to taxonomical aspects of primitive nannoconids, appearing and evolving across the early-late Tithonian transition and the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary intervals; the revision was also verified at DSDP Site 534A from Atlantic Ocean. Fourty-eight nannofossil bioevents were detected and the results help to increase potential stratigraphic resolution in this interval. Thirty-seven nannofossil bioevents in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Berriasian interval have been directly correlated to magnetostratigraphy (CM22-CM17 revealing a systematically older stratigraphic occurrence of these taxa than previously reported. A revised and partly new Tethyan calcareous nannofossil zonation scheme is here proposed for the uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian interval. It consists of seven bio-zones and eight subzones based on thirty-one bioevents, thirteen of them related to dissolution resistant taxa assuring highest reproducibility even in sections with high diagenetic overprint. The proposed biostratigraphic scheme gives higher resolution than previous zonations, especially for the Callovian-Kimmeridgian interval, where no biozonation was available for the Tethyan Realm. 

  1. A tridimensional reconstruction of the Forenza-Venosa Basin (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Chiara Tartarello, Maria; Bigi, Sabina


    The study area comprises a sector of the Southern Apennine thrust front and of the close foreland (Bradanic Foredeep). In this area Plio-Pleistocene continental deposits extensively crops out whereas the chain is represented by the Miocenic turbidites and the Allochtonous. The substratum is known only in exploration wells logs: it is represented by Jurassic - Miocene carbonate successions, composed by: Jurassic limestones and dolomites (Dolomitic Complex of Murge), Cretaceous limestones of Cupello Fm., Eocene to Miocene calcareous breccias with intercalation of basaltic layer of Lavello Breccias. Several seismic lines, isochrones maps and wells logs have been used to reconstruct the 3D model of the Forenza-Venosa Basin. It is characterized by the occurrence of Pre-Pliocene normal faults, that offset the carbonate complex with an horst and graben structure. The main regional normal fault has a NW-SE trend and a displacement of about 700 ms; this fault appears to be dislocated by an E-W trasfer fault. In the inner part of the area, it is clearly visible the thrust of the chaotic complex (Allochthonous Fm.) onto the foredeep deposits. The foredeep, filled by the Plio-Pleistocene deposits, has an NW-SE elongated geometry and only few kilometers of amplitude. The occurrence of pre Pliocene normal fault can be connected to the flexure of the Apulian platform during the Apennines evolution; the age of these faults can be considered as active during the Upper Miocene, as testified by the Miocene syn-sedimentary deposits, clearly visible in the seismic line, showing strong thickness variation. The low angle thrust plane placed the Allhocthonous Fm. on the Early Pliocene sequence, testify the migration of the compressional front of the chain after Early Pliocene. Even the E-verge folds involving the carbonate succession can be referred to this younger contractional phase. The folding affects also the Pliocene sequence, with a gentle bending in the northern part of the

  2. Chinese investments in Southern Europe's energy sectors: Similarities and divergences in China's strategies in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja-Alcaraz, Pablo


    China's Foreign Direct Investment in Europe has experienced a significant surge over the last decade. Southern European countries have not missed out on this trend and have gradually consolidated as important recipients of Chinese investments. This has allowed them to accumulate 23.5% of all Chinese FDI to Europe between 2000 and 2014 (10.8 billion Euro). The energy sectors of all four countries have been primary beneficiaries. Chinese entities have carried out impressive acquisitions in the Italian and Portuguese energy markets. In contrast, their presence in the Greek and Spanish energy markets has been discrete. In parallel, the penetration of Chinese investments in Italy and Spain's subsectors of renewable energies has been more prominent than in the Greek and the Portuguese ones. The former two countries have received significant investments in solar-related greenfield projects, whereas the latter have mostly benefited from operations in wind-related ones. The influence of Chinese ergy policies and promoting foreignntities has had an impact on the markets of all four countries. This trend is not consolidated. Data suggests that Chinese investments have been highly opportunistic. Athens, Rome, Lisbon and Madrid should see China's penetration in their markets as a mix bag of opportunities and challenges that demands better informed analysis. - Highlights: • China’s FDI in Southern European energy markets has experienced a recent surge. • Italy and Portugal are the region’s top recipients of Chinese FDI in energy markets. • Italy and Spain have received large Chinese investments in solar greenfield projects. • Chinese FDI in Southern Europe’s energy sectors is market and asset seeking. • Southern European energy strategies urge to be revised.

  3. Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy). (United States)

    Porfido, S.; Esposito, E.; Violante, C.; Sacchi, M.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Sciarrotta, S.


    Calabria and Sicily's Coast, particularly in the Messina Strait, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Southern Italy. Since 1783, there have been seven earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 6.0 and 7.2 These earthquakes have produced wide damages on the MCS Intensities scale of X or greater. The high rate of seismic activity in the region is related to the complex geologic setting resulting in a number of different sources of potentially damaging earthquakes. All these earthquake induced numerous and spectacular coseismic environmental effects overall along the coast where the impact was particularly catastrophic. These earthquakes caused several changes in elevation, due to tectonic deformations, landslides and settlements (i.e along both sides of the Messina Straits, 1908 event), relevant landslides (the February6, 1783 event triggered in Scilla, along the cliff of the M. Pacì a huge rock avalanche estimate of 5 Mm3 in the areal zone and 3 Mm3 in the submarine zone (Bozzano et al 2006), that fell into the sea generating a disastrous tsunamis), ground fractures (in the Capo Vaticano promontory area, 1905 event; in Messina Reggio C., Villa S. Giovanni, 1908 event); liquefaction phenomena (in the area of Messina, Ganzirri and Reggio Calabria, 1908 event), and catastrophic tsunamis (five induced by the 1783 Calabrian seismic sequence, other two by 1905 and 1908 events, Graziani et al 2006). The run-up observed ranging from few cm to tens of m: the highest tsunami wave was about 16 m in Scilla (Feb. 6, 1783 tsunami), 13 m in Pellaro (1908 event) and 1,30 m along the Calabrian coast (1905 tsunami) . Portion of the coast were lost, most of them eroded by the tsunamis with a coastline retreat and flooded the shore for several hundred meters inland depositing a large amount of silt and fish, and in some case killing people (i.e 1500 in Scilla and 28 in Messina during the February 6, 1783 tsunami, Barbano 2008; Porfido et al.,2008). Finally, it is

  4. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy (United States)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.


    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  5. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio


    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  6. Ductile extension of syn-magmatic lower crusts, with application to volcanic passive margins: the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Bidault, Marie; Geoffroy, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Aubourg, Charles


    Deep seismic reflection profiles of present-day volcanic passive margins often show a 2-layered lower crust, from top to bottom: an apparently ductile 12 km-thick middle-lower layer (LC1) of strong folded reflectors and a 4 km-thick supra-Moho layer (LC2) of horizontal and parallel reflectors. Those layers appear to be structurally disconnected and to develop at the early stages of margins evolution. A magmatic origin has been suggested by several studies to explain those strong reflectors, favoring mafic sills intrusion hypothesis. Overlying mafic and acidic extrusives (Seaward Dipping Reflectors sequences) are bounded by continentward-dipping detachment faults rooting in, and co-structurated with, the ductile part of the lower crust (LC1). Consequently the syn-rift to post-rift evolution of volcanic passive margins (and passive margins in general) largely depends on the nature and the properties of the lower crust, yet poorly understood. We propose to investigate the properties and rheology of a magma-injected extensional lower crust with a field analogue, the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy). The Ivrea Zone displays a complete back-thrusted section of a Variscan continental lower crust that first underwent gravitational collapse, and then lithospheric extension. This Late Paleozoic extension was apparently associated with the continuous intrusion of a large volume of mafic to acid magma. Both the magma timing and volume, and the structure of the Ivrea lower crust suggest that this section represents an adequate analogue of a syn-magmatic in-extension mafic rift zone which aborted at the end of the Permian. Notably, we may recognize the 2 layers LC1 and LC2. From a number of tectonic observations, we reconstitute the whole tectonic history of the area, focusing on the strain field evolution with time, in connection with mafic magma injection. We compare those results with available data from extensional mafic lower crusts at rifts and margins.

  7. Degradation Pathways for Geogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Soil Gases from the Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.; Nisi, B., Sr.; Vaselli, O.


    The chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases from the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) was analyzed to investigate the effects of biogeochemical processes occurring within the crater soil on gases discharged from the hydrothermal reservoir and released into the atmosphere through diffuse degassing. In this system, two fumarolic vents (namely Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova) are the preferential pathways for hydrothermal fluid uprising. For our goal, the chemistry of VOCs discharged from these sites were compared to that of soil gases. Our results highlighted that C4-C9 alkanes, alkenes, S-bearing compounds and alkylated aromatics produced at depth were the most prone to degradation processes, such as oxidation-reduction and hydration-dehydration reactions, as well as to microbial activity. Secondary products, which were enriched in sites characterized by low soil gas fluxes, mostly consisted of aldheydes, ketons, esters, ethers, organic acids and, subordinately, alcohols. Benzene, phenol and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) produced at depth were able to transit through the soil almost undisturbed, independently on the emission rate of diffuse degassing. The presence of cyclics was possibly related to an independent low-temperature VOC source, likely within sedimentary formations overlying the hydrothermal reservoir. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were possibly due to air contamination. This study demonstrated the strict control of biogeochemical processes on the behaviour of hydrothermal VOCs that, at least at a local scale, may have a significant impact on air quality. Laboratory experiments conducted at specific chemical-physical conditions and in presence of different microbial populations may provide useful information for the reconstruction of the degradation pathways controlling fate and behaviour of VOCs in the soil.

  8. Uplift history of the Sila Massif, southern Italy, deciphered from cosmogenic 10Be erosion rates and river longitudinal profile analysis (United States)

    Olivetti, Valerio; Cyr, Andrew J.; Molin, Paola; Faccenna, Claudio; Granger, Darryl E.


    The Sila Massif in the Calabrian Arc (southern Italy) is a key site to study the response of a landscape to rock uplift. Here an uplift rate of ∼1 mm/yr has imparted a deep imprint on the Sila landscape recorded by a high-standing low-relief surface on top of the massif, deeply incised fluvial valleys along its flanks, and flights of marine terraces in the coastal belt. In this framework, we combined river longitudinal profile analysis with hillslope erosion rates calculated by 10Be content in modern fluvial sediments to reconstruct the long-term uplift history of the massif. Cosmogenic data show a large variation in erosion rates, marking two main domains. The samples collected in the high-standing low-relief surface atop Sila provide low erosion rates (from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.13 ± 0.01 mm/yr). Conversely, high values of erosion rate (up to 0.92 ± 0.08 mm/yr) characterize the incised fluvial valleys on the massif flanks. The analyzed river profiles exhibit a wide range of shapes diverging from the commonly accepted equilibrium concave-up form. Generally, the studied river profiles show two or, more frequently, three concave-up segments bounded by knickpoints and characterized by different values of concavity and steepness indices. The wide variation in cosmogenic erosion rates and the non-equilibrated river profiles indicate that the Sila landscape is in a transient state of disequilibrium in response to a strong and unsteady uplift not yet counterbalanced by erosion.

  9. Landslides, floods and sinkholes in a karst environment: the 1-6 September 2014 Gargano event, southern Italy (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Melillo, Massimo; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Trabace, Maria; Parise, Mario; Guzzetti, Fausto


    In karst environments, heavy rainfall is known to cause multiple geohydrological hazards, including inundations, flash floods, landslides and sinkholes. We studied a period of intense rainfall from 1 to 6 September 2014 in the Gargano Promontory, a karst area in Puglia, southern Italy. In the period, a sequence of torrential rainfall events caused severe damage and claimed two fatalities. The amount and accuracy of the geographical and temporal information varied for the different hazards. The temporal information was most accurate for the inundation caused by a major river, less accurate for flash floods caused by minor torrents and even less accurate for landslides. For sinkholes, only generic information on the period of occurrence of the failures was available. Our analysis revealed that in the promontory, rainfall-driven hazards occurred in response to extreme meteorological conditions and that the karst landscape responded to the torrential rainfall with a threshold behaviour. We exploited the rainfall and the landslide information to design the new ensemble-non-exceedance probability (E-NEP) algorithm for the quantitative evaluation of the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides and of related geohydrological hazards. The ensemble of the metrics produced by the E-NEP algorithm provided better diagnostics than the single metrics often used for landslide forecasting, including rainfall duration, cumulated rainfall and rainfall intensity. We expect that the E-NEP algorithm will be useful for landslide early warning in karst areas and in other similar environments. We acknowledge that further tests are needed to evaluate the algorithm in different meteorological, geological and physiographical settings.

  10. Characterization of active fault scarps from medium to high resolution DEM: case studies from Central and Southern Apennines (Italy) (United States)

    Brunori, C.; Cinti, F. R.; Ventura, G.


    We identify geo-morphometric features of active fault scarps in Italy through a semiautomatic processing using GIS. Medium to high resolution DEM was used to characterize the geometry, structural, and erosive elements of two seismogenic normal faults in Central and Southern Apennines. The Pettino fault in L'Aquila area was detected using a 1 m pixel DEM derived from airborne LiDAR survey (Friuli Venezia Giulia Civil Protection). For the Castrovillari fault in northern Calabria region was used a 4 m pixel DEM (Regional Cartography Office of Regione Calabria). Scarp segments are region of planar discontinuities identified by selected values of DEM-derived Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). These planar discontinuities corresponds to landscape features such as, river terraces, roads scarps, and other natural or human features. The discrimination between these features have been accomplished overlaying extracted features on aerial photograph, geological and geomorphologic maps and in situ survey. After that, we perform the quantitative and statistical analysis of these areas identified as "fault scarps". The identification of elements relative to the scarps (e.g. base, crest, slope) is then obtained to derive the estimate of parameters describing the fault: altitude, height of the scarp, length, slope and aspect, Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). The spatial distribution of the extracted values was obtained through their statistical analysis. We analyze scarp parameters variations along the whole scarp extent, such as strike value from aspect variations, slope and profile curvature differences as indicators of tectonic and/or erosion activity. The combined analysis of the DEM-derived parameters allows us to (a) define aspects of three-dimensional scarp geometry, (b) decipher its geomorphological significance, and (c) estimate the long-term slip rate.

  11. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

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    Riccardo d’Andria


    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  12. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo d’Andria


    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  13. Could be the future climate change an opportunity for the winegrowers? The case study of Aglianico wine in southern Italy. (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Dragonetti, Giovanna; De Lorenzi, Francesca; De Mascellis, Roberto; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Giampiero; Manna, Piero; Minieri, Luciana; Oliva, Marco; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio


    Water deficit is a limiting factor to yield production and crop adaptation to future climate conditions. This is true for crops addressed mainly for biomass production (e.g. maize, wheat, etc.) but not for those where the quality is relevant. Specifically, in grapevine water stress (mid or limited) - occurring during specific phenological phases - is a factor to produce good quality wines. It induces for example the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Therefore, the water stress, due to the future increase of temperature and the rainfall decrease, could represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. The study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), in an area vocated to high quality wines production (ZOVISA project: Viticultural zoning at farm scale) The study was realized in two different soils (calcisol and cambisol), under the same climate, on Aglianico cultivar, standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks placed along a slope of 90 m length with 11% of gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Crop water stress index (CWSI) - estimated by the model - was related to physiological measurements (e.g leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Then, the model was applied to future climate condition (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of GCM in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. The results show that the effects of the climate change on the vine quality is dependent by the soil, being relevant to the cambisol and less pronounced to the calcisol, with an expected improvement of wine quality in the cambisol.

  14. Hepatitis E virus co-infection in HIV-infected patients in Foggia and Naples in southern Italy. (United States)

    Scotto, Gaetano; Grisorio, Benvenuto; Filippini, Pietro; Ferrara, Sergio; Massa, Salvatore; Bulla, Fabio; Martini, Salvatore; Filippini, Alberico; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fazio, Vincenzina


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection represents an emerging infection in developed countries and is thought to be a zoonotic infection. It has recently been described as a new causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed subjects, including HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to assess the sero-virological prevalence of HEV in HIV patients and in the general population as control group. A prospective and observational cohort study was carried out in two hospitals in southern Italy. The seroprevalence of HEV was determined in a cohort of 959 subjects, 509 (53%) of whom were HIV-positive patients and 450 were from the general population. Serum samples were tested for anti-HEV antibodies; repeatedly positive results were confirmed by a Western blot assay. In positive patients HEV RNA and genotypes were also determined. A total of 46 (4.8%) of the 959 serum samples examined were reactive to anti-HEV Ig and confirmed by Western blotting. The prevalence of HEV antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) was 2.7% in the control group and 6.7% in HIV-infected patients. Anti-HEV IgM was found in 6/46 (13.0%) of the anti-HEV Ig-positive serum samples, in 5/34 HIV patients and in 1/12 of the general population. No HIV-infected patient presented chronic hepatitis with HEV infection alone. This study indicates a higher circulation of HEV in HIV-infected patients, whereas a low prevalence of HEV antibodies in the general Italian population was shown. Chronic hepatitis with HEV alone was absent, while it was present in subjects with HIV-HEV, co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  15. Magnetotelluric imaging of the resurgent caldera on the island of Ischia (southern Italy): inferences for its structure and activity (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Carlino, S.


    The island of Ischia (located in the Bay of Naples, Italy) represents a peculiar case of a well-exposed caldera that has experienced a large (>800 m) and rapid resurgence, accompanied by volcanic activity. What drives the resurgence of calderas is a crucial issue to investigate, because this process is associated with potential eruptions and high risk to people living within and around such large active volcanic systems. To improve the knowledge of volcano-tectonic processes affecting the caldera of Ischia, electromagnetic imaging of the structures associated with its resurgence was performed and integrated with available geological information. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey of the island was carried out along two main profiles through the central-western sector, providing an electrical resistivity map to a depth of 3 km. These resistivity cross sections allowed us to identify the presence of a very shallow magmatic intrusion, possibly a laccolith, at a depth of about 1 km, which was responsible for both the resurgence and the volcanic activity. Furthermore, the tectonic structures bordering the resurgent area and the occurrence of a large thermal anomaly in the western sector of the caldera also provided a signature in the resistivity cross sections, with the magma intrusion producing advection of hot fluids with high geothermal gradients (>150 °C km-1) in the southern and western sectors. All of these data are fundamental for the assessment of the island's volcano-tectonic dynamics and their associated hazards. The structure and activity of the island have been controlled by the process of resurgence associated with the arrival of new magma and the progressive intrusion of a laccolith at a shallow depth. The reactivation of such a shallow system may imply imminent eruption which would pose a major volcanic hazard.

  16. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele


    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Yield response and optimal allocation of irrigation water under actual and simulated climate change scenarios in a southern Italy district

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    Pietro Rubino


    Full Text Available The potential effect of climate change on the optimal allocation of irrigation water was investigated for a Southern Italy district. The study was carried out on 5 representative crops (grapevine, olive, sugar beet, processing tomato, asparagus, considering six simulated climate change conditions, corresponding to three 30-year periods (2011-2040; 2041-2070; 2071-2100 for two greenhouse gas emission schemes proposed by IPCC (A2 and B1, plus the current climatic condition. The framework adopted was based on: i the modeling of crop yield response for increasing levels of water supply, under current and future climatic conditions, through a non-linear regression equation and ii the definition of the best water allocation by means of a mathematical optimization model written in GAMS. Total irrigation water (TIW volume was allowed to vary from a low total supply 10000 m3 to 7000000 m3, whilst a fixed surface, corresponding to that currently occupied in the studied district, was assigned to each crop. The economic return was studied in terms of Value of Production less the fixed and variable irrigation costs (VPlic. The TIW volume that maximized the VPlic of the whole district surface under the current climatic condition was 5697861 m3. The total volume was partitioned among the five crops as a function of the surface occupied: grapevine>olive>processing tomato>asparagus>sugar beet. Nevertheless, grapevine and olive received seasonal volumes corresponding only to 59 and 50% of total irrigation water requirements. On the contrary, processing tomato and asparagus received seasonal water volumes close to those fully satisfying irrigation water requirements (100% and 85% ETc. Future climatic conditions slightly differed from the current one for the expected optimal allocation. Under water shortage conditions (160000 m3 the whole irrigation water was allocated to the horticultural crops. Forecasted growing season features varied to a different extent in

  18. Control of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Bianco, Aida; Quirino, Angela; Giordano, Mariavalentina; Marano, Vito; Rizzo, Claudia; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo; Pavia, Maria


    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that has become a major cause of concern, since it is a frequent cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of the study was to describe the occurrence, the management and the control of an outbreak that occurred in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a teaching hospital in Southern Italy caused by multiple strains of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB). Case-patient was defined as a patient with an healthcare-associated infection caused by an XDRAB isolate identified in a clinically significant culture. Environmental samples were collected from different surfaces. The isolates were identified by typical Gram stain morphology, using the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France) and by MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry (bioMèrieux, France). Genotyping was performed through rep-PCR analysis. A patient presented an XDRAB ventilator-associated pneumonia at admission and was managed with strict isolation precautions until discharge. Five patients had a ventilator-associated pneumonia and two had a central line-associated bloodstream infection. Of the environmental samples, 1 sample obtained from the side of the bed of an infected patient yielded growth of XDRAB. Infection control measures were adopted. Rep-PCR analysis identified four patterns. The integration of epidemiological and microbiological data and the application of infection control measures were crucial to bring such an outbreak to a rapid halt. The distinctive characteristic of this study was the complex molecular pattern of the outbreak, which subsided in a short period of time due to adherence to infection-control measures, confirming the fundamental role of molecular typing in the comprehension of outbreaks dynamics and of integrated control interventions for the interruption of epidemic events.

  19. Civil protection and Damaging Hydrogeological Events: comparative analysis of the 2000 and 2015 events in Calabria (southern Italy

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    O. Petrucci


    Full Text Available Calabria (southern Italy is a flood prone region, due to both its rough orography and fast hydrologic response of most watersheds. During the rainy season, intense rain affects the region, triggering floods and mass movements that cause economic damage and fatalities. This work presents a methodological approach to perform the comparative analysis of two events affecting the same area at a distance of 15 years, by collecting all the qualitative and quantitative features useful to describe both rain and damage. The aim is to understand if similar meteorological events affecting the same area can have different outcomes in terms of damage. The first event occurred between 8 and 10 September 2000, damaged 109 out of 409 municipalities of the region and killed 13 people in a campsite due to a flood. The second event, which occurred between 30 October and 1 November 2015, damaged 79 municipalities, and killed a man due to a flood. The comparative analysis highlights that, despite the exceptionality of triggering daily rain was higher in the 2015 event, the damage caused by the 2000 event to both infrastructures and belongings was higher, and it was strongly increased due to the 13 flood victims. We concluded that, in the 2015 event, the management of pre-event phases, with the issuing of meteorological alert, and the emergency management, with the preventive evacuation of people in hazardous situations due to landslides or floods, contributed to reduce the number of victims.

  20. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites. (United States)

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe


    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination.

  1. Clues to the identification of a seismogenic source from environmental effects: the case of the 1905 Calabria (Southern Italy earthquake

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    A. Tertulliani


    Full Text Available The 8 September 1905 Calabria (Southern Italy earthquake belongs to a peculiar family of highly destructive (I0=XI seismic events, occurred at the dawning of the instrumental seismology, for which the location, geometry and size of the causative source are still substantially unconstrained. During the century elapsed since the earthquake, previous Authors identified three different epicenters that are more than 50 km apart and proposed magnitudes ranging from M≤6.2 to M=7.9. Even larger uncertainties were found when the geometry of the earthquake source was estimated. In this study, we constrain the magnitude, location and kinematics of the 1905 earthquake through the analysis of the remarkable environmental effects produced by the event (117 reviewed observations at 73 different localities throughout Calabria. The data used in our analysis include ground effects (landslides, rock falls and lateral spreads and hydrological changes (streamflow variations, liquefaction, rise of water temperature and turbidity. To better define the magnitude of the event we use a number of empirical relations between seismic source parameters and distribution of ground effects and hydrological changes. In order to provide constraints to the location of the event and to the geometry of the source, we reproduce the coseismic static strain associated with different possible 1905 causative faults and compare its pattern to the documented streamflow changes. From the analysis of the seismically-induced environmental changes we find that: 1 the 1905 earthquake had a minimum magnitude M=6.7; 2 the event occurred in an offshore area west of the epicenters proposed by the historical seismic Catalogs; 3 it most likely occurred along a 100° N oriented normal fault with a left-lateral component, consistently with the seismotectonic setting of the area.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign (United States)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Calidonna, C. R.; Sempreviva, A. M.


    The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern Italy), in an area characterized by a complex orography near the sea. Results of 1 km × 1 km grid spacing simulations are compared with the data collected during a measurement campaign in summer 2009, considering hourly model outputs. Measurements from several instruments are taken into account for the performance evaluation: near surface variables (2 m temperature and relative humidity, downward shortwave radiation, 10 m wind speed and direction) from a surface station and a meteorological mast; vertical wind profiles from Lidar and Sodar; also, the aerosol backscattering from a ceilometer to estimate the PBL height. Results covering the whole measurement campaign show a cold and moist bias near the surface, mostly during daytime, for all schemes, as well as an overestimation of the downward shortwave radiation and wind speed. Wind speed and direction are also verified at vertical levels above the surface, where the model uncertainties are, usually, smaller than at the surface. A general anticlockwise rotation of the simulated flow with height is found at all levels. The mixing height is overestimated by all schemes and a possible role of the simulated sensible heat fluxes for this mismatching is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes with the best performance in representing parameters near the surface and in the boundary layer during the analyzed campaign.

  3. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea


    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  4. Drone photogrammetry for geological research: field digital stratigraphic logs for turbiditic reservoir analog studies in Calabria, Southern Italy. (United States)

    Guillois, Maxime; Brocheray, Sandra; Paron, Paolo


    Drone technology combined with new algorithms like Structure from Motion (SfM) has revived and expanded the uses of photogrammetry bringing new flexibility and the capacity to carry on close range photogrammetry to inaccessible areas. This characteristics are particularly appealing in field geology offering the option to reconstruct continuous digital outcrop models of vertical or difficult to reach outcrops. In this light we present the results of a digital outcrop modelling of a Miocene turbiditic system (mainly sandstone) in Calabria (Southern Italy) generated through field data collected by means of a light-weight commercial drone, a detailed geological field survey and cloud point photogrammetric analyses comparing different software for this purpose (Agisoft Photoscan, Drone deploy, Arc3D). The geological model has been used as an input for preliminary reservoir modelling. We generated digital geological sections (stratigraphic logs) of 1,200 m of sections using expert digital image and terrain model interprepation from the DTM generated with drone data, with the goal to reconstruct the real thickness of each layer. We then compared the results with previously created detailed field geological cross sections. The comparison between drone-derived sections and field-survey sections shows a global accuracy of the thickness ranging between 1% to 10%. Although this new methodology still has to be validated in other morpho-lithological context it already demonstrating its usefulness for preliminary geological outcrop investigation and modelling in remote areas. We also compared the different softwares used and we made recommendations for future deployment. This research has been made possible thanks to a collaboration between UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, and UniLaSalle Beauvais, France.

  5. Sinkhole susceptibility in carbonate rocks of the Apulian karst (southern Italy) (United States)

    Di Santo, Antonio; Fazio, Nunzio L.; Fiore, Antonio; Lollino, Piernicola; Luisi, Michele; Miccoli, Maria N.; Pagliarulo, Rosa; Parise, Mario; Perrotti, Michele; Pisano, Luca; Spalluto, Luigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna


    Apulia region, the foreland of the southern Italian Apennines, is made up of a 6-7 km-thick succession of Mesozoic shallow-water limestones and dolostones, locally covered by thin and discontinuous Tertiary and Quaternary carbonate and clastic deposits. Due to their long subaerial exposure, the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock recorded the development in the subsurface of a dense network of karst cavities, mostly controlled by tectonic discontinuities. As a result, a strong susceptibility to natural sinkholes has to be recorded in Apulia. In addition, the possibility of occurrence of other problems related to the high number of man-made cavities has to be added in the region. A great variety of different typologies of artificial cavities (mostly excavated in the Plio-Pleistocene soft calcarenites) is actually present, including underground quarries, worship sites, oil mills, civilian settlements, etc. Overall, 2200 natural and 1200 artificial cavities, respectively, have been so far surveyed in Apulia. Following the urban development in the last century in Apulia, many of these cavities lie nowadays below densely populated neighborhoods, roads or communication routes. These conditions are at the origin of the main geomorphological hazard for the human society in Apulia, which requires a careful evaluation, aimed at protecting and safeguarding the human life, and at providing the necessary information for a correct land use planning and management. The importance of the sinkhole hazard is further testified by the worrying increase in the number of events during the last 5-6 years. In response to these situations, joint research activities were started by the Institute of Research for Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council (CNR-IRPI) and the Basin Authority of Apulia, aimed at several goals, that include (but are not limited to) the collection of information on natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Apulia, the implementation of numerical analyses for

  6. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy) (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.


    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  7. Hydro-Geological Hazard Temporal Evolution during the last seven decades in the Solofrana River Basin—Southern Italy (United States)

    Longobardi, Antonia; Diodato, Nazzareno; Mobilia, Mirka


    Extremes precipitation events are frequently associated to natural disasters falling within the broad spectrum of multiple damaging hydrological events (MDHEs), defined as the simultaneously triggering of different types of phenomena, such as landslides and floods. The power of the rainfall (duration, magnitude, intensity), named storm erosivity, is an important environmental indicator of multiple damaging hydrological phenomena. At the global scale, research interest is actually devoted to the investigation of non-stationary features of extreme events, and consequently of MDHEs, which appear to be increasing in frequency and severity. The Mediterranean basin appears among the most vulnerable regions with an expected increase in occurring damages of about 100% by the end of the century. A high concentration of high magnitude and short duration rainfall events are, in fact, responsible for the largest rainfall erosivity and erosivity density values within Europe. The aim of the reported work is to investigate the relationship between the temporal evolution of severe geomorphological events and combined precipitation indices as a tool to improve understanding the hydro-geological hazard at the catchment scale. The case study is the Solofrana river basin, Southern Italy, which has been seriously and consistently in time affected by natural disasters. Data for about 45 MDH events, spanning on a decadal scale 1951-2014, have been collected and analyzed for this purpose. A preliminary monthly scale analysis of event occurrences highlights a pronounced seasonal characterization of the phenomenon, as about 60% of the total number of reported events take place during the period from September to November. Following, a statistical analysis clearly indicates a significant increase in the frequency of occurrences of MDHEs during the last decades. Such an increase appears to be related to non-stationary features of an average catchment scale rainfall-runoff erosivity index

  8. The role of river trajectories and channel recovery potential within sustainable river management: some case studies from southern Italy (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Patrizio Ciro Aucelli, Pietro


    Most of Italian and European rivers have undergone notable channel adjustments since the last 150-200 years. Major adjustments fall within the second half of the last century and consisted in overall channel narrowing and degradation, accompanied by important pattern changes. In the cases of the six investigated rivers located in southern Italy (namely Trigno, Biferno, Fortore, Volturno, Sinni and Crati), major adjustments occurred from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s. They consisted in channel narrowing up to 98%, bed level lowering from -2 to -10m and extensive changes from multi-thread to single thread pattern that led to the abandonment of extensive channel areas and consistent increase of floodplain and terraced areas. The integrated analysis of river trajectories and potential control factors, both of natural and anthropic origin, showed that human disturbances, especially gravel mining and river control works, are key driving factors of channel adjustments. Furthermore, the presence of major hydraulic structures along the rivers Biferno, Fortore, Sinni and Trigno significantly influenced the amounts of channel adjustments which are sharply higher within the reaches located downstream of such structures. Considering the last 15-20 years, most of the evolutionary trajectories of the investigated reaches highlight ongoing channel stabilization or even some appreciable channel recovery. Particularly, channel widening had occurred in those reaches that are not under the direct influence of major hydraulic structures (check-dams and dams) and in which in-channel interventions had pratically ceased and woody riparian vegetation developed only in a discontinuous manner. Conversely, the reaches that are located immediately downstream of major hydraulic structures, in which control works are placed very close to the actual riverbanks and/or a continuous riparian forest has developed, appear stable, only locally affected by very slight widening, or even affected by

  9. Soil erosion risk scenarios in the Mediterranean environment using RUSLE and GIS: An application model for Calabria (southern Italy) (United States)

    Terranova, O.; Antronico, L.; Coscarelli, R.; Iaquinta, P.


    Soil erosion by water (WSE) has become a relevant issue at the Mediterranean level. In particular, natural conditions and human impact have made the Calabria (southern Italy) particularly prone to intense WSE. The purpose of this investigation is to identify areas highly affected by WSE in Calabria by comparing the scenarios obtained by assuming control and preventive measures and actions, as well as actual conditions generated by forest fires, also in the presence of conditions of maximum rainfall erosion. Geographic Information System techniques have been adopted to treat data of reasonable spatial resolution obtained at a regional scale for application to the RUSLE model. This work is based on the comparison of such data with a basic scenario that has been defined by the present situation (present scenario). In this scenario: (i) R has been assessed by means of an experimental relation adjusted to Calabria on the basis of 5-min observations; (ii) K has been drawn from the soil map of Calabria including 160 soilscapes; (iii) LS has been estimated according to the RUSLE2 model by using (among other subfactors) a 40-m square cell DTM; (iv) C has been derived by processing the data inferred from the project Corine Land Cover, whose legend includes 35 different land uses on three levels; and (v) P has been hypothesized as equal to 1. For the remaining three hypothesized scenarios, the RUSLE factors have been adjusted according to experimental data and to data in the literature. In particular, forest areas subject to fire have been randomly generated as far as fire location, extension, structure, and intensity are concerned. The values obtained by the application of the RUSLE model have emphasized that land management by means of measures and actions for reducing WSE causes a notable reduction of the erosive rate decreasing from ~30 to 12.3 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 . On the other hand, variations induced by hypothetical wildfires in forests on 10% of the regional territory

  10. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

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    P. De Vita


    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  11. Landslides affecting critical infrastructures: the use of a GB-InSAR based warning system in Calatabiano (Southern Italy). (United States)

    Nolesini, Teresa; Frodella, William; Bardi, Federica; Intrieri, Emanuele; Carlà, Tommaso; Solari, Lorenzo; Dotta, Giulia; Ferrigno, Federica; Casagli, Nicola


    Landslides represent one of the most frequent geo-hazard, not only causing a serious threat to human lives, but also determining socio-economic losses, countable in billions of Euros and expressed in terms of damage to property, infrastructures and environmental degradation. Recent events show a significant increase in the number of disasters with natural and/or technological causes, which could have potentially serious consequences for Critical Infrastructures (CI). Where these infrastructures tend to fail or to be destroyed, the resulting cascade effect (chain of accidents) could lead to catastrophic damage and affect people, the environment and the economy. In the field of landslide detection, mapping, monitoring and management, the availability of advanced remote sensing technologies, which allow systematic and easily updatable acquisitions of data, may enhance the implementation of near real time monitoring activity and the production of landslide maps, optimizing field work. This work aims at presenting an example of the advantages given by the combined use of advanced remote sensing techniques, such as Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-InSAR), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Infrared Thermography (IRT), in order to monitor and map the Calatabiano landslide, located in the Catania Province (Sicily Island, Southern Italy). The landslide occurred on October 24th 2015, after a period of heavy rainfall, causing the rupture of a water pipeline transect of the aqueduct supplying water to the city of Messina. As a consequence of this event a considerable lack in water resources occurred for a large number of the city inhabitants. A provisional by-pass, consisting of three 350 m long pipes passing through the landslide area, was implemented in order to restore the city water supplies during the emergency management phase. In this framework an integrated monitoring network was implemented, in order to assess the residual risk by analyzing

  12. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy. (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide


    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  13. Fault fluid evolution at the outermost edges of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio; Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Vita Petrullo, Angela


    This work focuses on the structural architecture and mineralization of a high-angle, extensional fault zone that crosscuts the Middle Pleistocene tuffs and pyroclastites of the Vulture Volcano, southern Italy. This fault zone is topped by a few m-thick travertine deposit formed by precipitation, in a typical lacustrine depositional environment, from a fault fluid that included a mixed, biogenic- and mantle-derived CO2. The detailed analysis of its different mineralization can shed new lights into the shallow crustal fluid flow that took place during deformation of the outer edge of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. In fact, the study fault zone is interpreted as a shallow-seated, tear fault associated with a shallow thrust fault displacing the most inner portion of the Bradano foredeep basin infill, and was thus active during the latest stages of contractional deformation. Far from the fault zone, the fracture network is made up of three high-angle joint sets striking N-S, E-W and NW-SE, respectively. The former two sets can be interpreted as the older structural elements that pre-dated the latter one, which is likely due to the current stress state that affects the whole Italian peninsula. In the vicinity of the fault zone, a fourth joint high-angle set striking NE-SW is also present, which becomes the most dominant fracture set within the study footwall fault damage zone. Detailed X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder obtained from hand specimens representative of the multiple mineralization present within the fault zone, and in the surrounding volcanites, are consistent with circulation of a fault fluid that modified its composition with time during the latest stages of volcanic activity and contractional deformation. Specifically, veins infilled with and slickenside coated by jarosite, Opal A and/or goethite are found in the footwall fault damage zone. Based upon the relative timing of formation of the aforementioned joint sets, deciphered after

  14. Stratigraphic and structural relationships between Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin and coeval carbonate platforms in southern Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Pescatore, Tullio; Renda, Pietro; Schiattarella, Marcello; Tramutoli, Mariano


    Stratigraphic studies and facies analysis integrated with a new geological and structural survey of the Meso-Cenozoic units outcropping in the Campania-Lucania Apennines, southern Italy, allowed us to restore the palaeogeographic pattern and the tectonic evolution of the chain during Oligo-Miocene times. The southern Apennines are a N150°-striking and NE-verging fold-and-thrust belt mainly derived from the deformation of the African-Apulian passive margin. Four wide belts with different features have been recognized in the chain area. From east to west the following units outcrop: (a) successions characterized by basinal to marginal facies, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene, tectonically lying on Plio-Pleistocene foredeep deposits; (b) successions characterized by shallow-water, basinal and shelf-margin facies, ranging in age from middle Triassic to Miocene ('Lagonegro units'), overthrust on the previous ones; (c) Triassic to Miocene carbonate platform successions ('Apenninic platform units'), overthrust on the Lagonegro units; (d) Jurassic-Cretaceous to Miocene deep-water successions (ophiolite-bearing or 'internal' units and associated siliciclastic wedges), outcropping along the Tyrrhenian belt and the Calabria-Lucania boundary, overthrust on the Apenninic platform units. All these units tectonically lie on the buried Apulian platform which is covered, at least in the eastern sector of the chain, by Pliocene to Pleistocene foredeep deposits. Stratigraphic patterns of the Cretaceous to lower Miocene Lagonegro successions are coherent with the platform margin ones. Calcareous clastics of the Lagonegro basin are in fact supplied by an adjacent western platform, as inferred by several sedimentological evidences (slump and palaeocurrent directions and decreasing grain size towards the depocentre of the basin). Tectonic relationships among the different units of the chain — with particular emphasis on the Lagonegro and Apenninic platform units of the

  15. Epidemiological survey on Leishmania infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs sharing the same rural area in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Muccio, Trentina; Manzillo, Valentina Foglia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Neola, Benedetto; Di Prisco, Francesca; D'Alessio, Nicola; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Gramiccia, Marina


    Southern Italy, particularly Campania region, is an area where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are endemic. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been hypothesized to play a role in occurrence of CanL in Italy but specific studies are poor. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs and foxes living in the same rural area (Picentini hills). 123 sera from autochthonous fox-hunting dogs were examined by immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) using a cut-off of 1:160. The seroprevalence of dogs examined was 17.9%. Moreover, 48 foxes were examined after having been shooted by hunters or road accidents. Spleen, liver and lymph node samples were analyzed by specific Leishmania nested PCR (n-PCR). 10 foxes were found infected by L. infantum (20.8%) of which 4 animals in spleen, 2 in lymph nodes and 4 both in spleen and lymph nodes. The overall n-PCR positivity was 17.4% for spleen samples and 13.3% for lymph nodes; all liver samples resulted negative. In positive PCR foxes no signs clearly referable to leishmaniasis were recorded at necropsy. The results confirmed the presence of L. infantum infection in red foxes from Southern Italy, with a moderate level of exposure. Because large proportions of dogs with ascertained progressive leishmaniasis show a prolonged "subpatent condition" during which they are only positive to n-PCR before seroconversion, our results allow to assume that exposure risk in foxes is lower than hunting dogs living in the studied area.

  16. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire]. (United States)

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale


    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  17. Solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 and impacts on irradiance, meteorological parameters, and aerosol properties over southern Italy (United States)

    Romano, S.; Lo Feudo, T.; Calidonna, C. R.; Burlizzi, P.; Perrone, M. R.


    The effects of the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 on short-wave (SW) and long-wave (LW) irradiance measurements, meteorological variables, and near surface particle properties have been investigated. Measurements were performed at three southern Italy observatories of the Global Atmospheric Watch - World Meteorological Organization (GAW-WMO): Lecce (LE, 40.3°N, 18.1°E, 30 m a.s.l.), Lamezia Terme (LT, 38.9°N, 16.2°E, 50 m a.s.l.), and Capo Granitola (CG, 37.6°N, 12.7°E, 50 m a.s.l.), to investigate the dependence of the eclipse effects on monitoring site location and meteorology. LE, LT, and CG were affected by a similar maximum obscuration of the solar disk, but meteorological parameters and aerosol optical and microphysical properties varied from site to site on the eclipse's day. The maximum obscuration of the solar disk, which was equal to 43.6, 42.8, and 45.1% at LE, LT, and CG, respectively, was responsible for the decrease of the downward SW irradiance up to 45, 44, and 45% at LE, LT, and CG, respectively. The upward SW irradiance decreased up to 45, 48, and 44% at LE, LT, and CG, respectively. Consequently, the eclipse SW direct radiative forcing (DRF) was equal to - 307, - 278, and - 238 W m- 2 at LE, LT, and CG, respectively, at the maximum obscuration of the solar disk. The downward and upward LW irradiance decrease was quite small (up to 4%) at the three sites. The time evolution of the meteorological parameters and aerosol optical and microphysical properties and their response strength to the solar eclipse impact varied from site to site, mainly because of the local meteorology and geographical location. Nevertheless, the solar eclipse was responsible at the study sites for a temperature decrease within 0.5-0.8 K, a relative humidity increase within 3.5-4.5%, and a wind speed decrease within 0.5-1.0 m s- 1, because of its cooling effect. The solar eclipse was also responsible at all the sites for the increase of near surface particle

  18. A three-dimensional QP imaging of the shallowest subsurface of Campi Flegrei offshore caldera, southern Italy (United States)

    Serlenga, Vincenzo; de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Russo, Guido; Amoroso, Ortensia; Virieux, Jean; Garambois, Stephane; Zollo, Aldo


    We build a three-dimensional attenuation image of the shallowest subsurface of Campi Flegrei caldera, a resurgent caldera located 15 km west of Naples, southern Italy. Extracting tstar (t*) measurements from an active seismic dataset can be achieved by a spectral ratio method which has been intensively used for earthquakes. The applicability of such measurement has to be validated for active seismic datasets which have a narrower frequency band compared to frequency band of quakes. The validation, as well as the robustness, of such extraction for narrow Ricker source wavelet has been checked through many synthetic and realistic tests. These tests allow us to conclude that this measurement is valid as long as 1) short signal time window are chosen to perform the spectral analysis; 2) the effects caused by heterogeneities of the sampled medium on the seismic spectra have to be taken into account in the description of elastic Green's function. Through such a deconvolution strategy, contributions of the fine velocity structure on signal amplitudes have been significantly removed: in case of suspicious behavior of the spectrum ratio, the measurement is disregarded. This procedure, a kind of deconvolution of the phase propagation imprint, is expected to leave nearly untouched the attenuation signature of seismic traces we are interested in. Such refined measurement approach based on the spectral ratio method has been applied to the real active seismic SERAPIS database providing us a reasonable dataset of 11,873 differential t* measurements (dt*). These data are used for imaging anelastic properties of Campi Flegrei caldera through a linearized, iterative, damped attenuation tomography. Based on configuration of sources and receivers, an attenuating volume as large as 13 x 13 x 1.5 km3 has been imaged. The tomography, with a resolution of 1 km in the horizontal directions and 0.5 km in the vertical direction, allowed to image important features whose reliability has been

  19. Efficacy of chemical treatment of the Pietra cantone limestone in the restoration of historic buildings of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy) (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Lisci, Carla; Sitzia, Fabio; Buccellato, Giampaolo


    The present work aims to evaluate the efficacy of some chemical products in the restoration works of the "Pietra cantone" limestone, a calcarenitic rock belonging to the carbonatic miocenic series (lower Tortonian) of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy), widely used in historic buildings. Such stone, once used in the masonry, if is not protected by plaster or in the presence of aqueous solutions circulating, frequently shows problems of chemical-physical decay, due to their petrophysical characteristics. In fact, being characterized by a highly porous (on average 35-42% vol.) carbonate matrix low-medium cemented, are easily alterable by weathering processes (i.e., dissolution, sulfation, etc.) and by cyclic mechanism of crystallization/solubilisation of salts and hydration/dehydration of hygroscopic phases belonging to the clay component of these calcarenites. These processes induce negative effects on physical-mechanical properties of stone, producing various macroscopic forms of alteration such as decohesion, disintegration, exfoliation, alveolation, etc. Where the decay of the walls is in an advanced stage, there was a strong retreat of the vertical profile of the facade of the building, resulting in critical static-structural. As a case study was taken the historic building of a tobacco manufacture, one of the first industrial establishments in Cagliari, then owned by the Italian State Monopoly. The factory dates back to the early decades of the XVIII century, the walls of which, however, belonged to the convent of the "Frati Minori" built towards the end of the XIV century along the wall that closed the east the historic district of "Marina" in front of the port of Cagliari. In addressing the structural restoration of this building, before selecting chemical products for dealing adequately of limestone, we proceeded at the outset to a thorough analysis of the structures built in "Pietra Cantone", and their physical-mechanical decay. Only thereafter the stone

  20. Assessing the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids to climate change in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo; De Lorenzi, Francesca


    Climate change will cause significant changes in water distribution and availability; as a consequence the water resources in some areas (like Mediterranean regions) will be limiting factors to the cultivation of some species, included cereals. So the perspective of climate change requires an analysis of the adaptation possibilities of food and fiber species currently cultivated. A powerful tool for adaptation is the relevant intra-specific biodiversity of crops. The knowledge, for different crop cultivars, of the responses to different environmental conditions (e.g. yield response functions to water regime) can be a tool to identify adaptation options to future climate. Moreover, simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system can be coupled with future climate scenarios to predict the soil water regime also accounting for different irrigation scheduling options. In this work the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (the "Destra Sele" plain, an area of about 18.000 ha), where maize is extensively grown for water buffalo feeding. Horticultural crops (tomato, fennel, artichoke) are grown, as well. The methodology applied is based on two complementary elements: - a database on climatic requirements of 30 maize hybrids: the yield response functions to water availability were determined from experimental data derived both from scientific literature and from field trials carried out by ISAFOM-CNR. These functions were applied to describe the behaviour of the hybrids with respect to the relative evapotranspiration deficit; - the simulation performed by the agro-hydrological model SWAP (soil-water-plant and atmosphere), to determine the future soil water regime at landscape scale. Two climate scenarios were studied: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios were generated within the Italian National Project AGROSCENARI. Climate scenarios at low spatial

  1. Social life cycle assessment and participatory approaches: A methodological proposal applied to citrus farming in Southern Italy. (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Irene; Iofrida, Nathalie; Strano, Alfio; Falcone, Giacomo; Gulisano, Giovanni


    Recently, Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) has been developed under the methodological framework of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) to evaluate the social impacts that emerge during the overall life cycle of a product or service. There is not yet a standardized methodology for S-LCA as there is for environmental LCA (eLCA), due to the nature of social impacts that do not depend only on the processes themselves, but also on the behavior and context of actors (manufactures, consumers, local community members, etc.). One of the most critical steps in the application of S-LCA concerns the choice of criteria for selecting affected actors, impact categories, subcategories, and the taxonomic relation among them. Moreover, the importance (in terms of weight) of these impacts may be felt differently by affected actors, confirming the importance of the context within which impacts arise. In this sense, the integration of participatory tools can be useful in making the S-LCA more locally relevant. The aim of the present study is twofold. First, we will outline a methodology that combines S-LCA with two research tools. The first is the focus group, adopted from qualitative research. The second is the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), adopted from operational research, which belongs to the framework of Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). These have been used to make the S-LCA more locally relevant and to legitimate the criteria used. Second, we will test this methodology by applying it to a specific field, i.e., 3 production areas and 3 different crop systems of citrus growing in the Calabria region in Southern Italy. Citrus growing is one of the most important agricultural sectors at regional level, and it is also well known for issues of social concern, particularly in relation to immigrant workers. The results show a number of differences between cases and could offer useful insights to both local decision makers, such as agricultural entrepreneurs, and to those public

  2. Validating the use of 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.


    Soil erosion represents an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture and forestry in many areas of the world, including southern Italy. Numerous models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution, based on the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management. However, there remains an important need for empirical measurements to provide a basis for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures as well as to support specific investigations and experiments. In this context, erosion plots provide useful information on gross rates of soil loss, but are unable to document the efficiency of the onward transfer of the eroded sediment within a field and towards the stream system, and thus net rates of soil loss from larger areas. The use of environmental radionuclides, particularly caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and excess lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ), as a means of estimating rates of soil erosion and deposition has attracted increasing attention in recent years and the approach has now been recognised as possessing several important advantages. In order to provide further confirmation of the validity of the estimates of longer-term erosion and soil redistribution rates provided by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements, there is a need for studies aimed explicitly at validating the results obtained. In this context, the authors directed attention to the potential offered by a set of small erosion plots located near Reggio Calabria in southern Italy, for validating estimates of soil loss provided by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements. A preliminary assessment suggested that, notwithstanding the limitations and constraints involved, a worthwhile investigation aimed at validating the use of 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land could be undertaken. The results demonstrate a close consistency between the measured rates of soil loss and

  3. Soil gas distribution in the main coseismic surface rupture zone of the 1980, Ms = 6.9, Irpinia earthquake (southern Italy) (United States)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Bigi, Sabina; Tartarello, Chiara; Sacco, Pietro; Lombardi, Salvatore; Ascione, Alessandra; Mazzoli, Stefano


    Soil gas measurements of different gas species with different geochemical behaviors were performed in the area of the Pecore Plain, a 200 m × 300 m sized, fault-bounded extensional basin located in the northern Mount Marzano massif, in the axial belt of the southern Apennine chain. The Pecore Plain area was affected by coseismic surface faulting during the Ms = 6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake, the strongest and most destructive seismic event of the last 30 years in southern Italy. The collected data and their geostatistical analysis provide new insights into the control exerted by active fault segments on deep-seated gas migration toward the surface. The results define anomalies that are aligned with the NW-SE trending coseismic rupture of the 1980 earthquake along the western border of the plain, as well as along the southern border of the plain where a hidden, E-W striking fault is inferred. Geospatial analysis highlights an anisotropic spatial behavior of 222Rn along the main NW-SE trend and of CO2 along the E-W trend. This feature suggests a correlation between the shape and orientation of the anomalies and the barrier/conduit behavior of fault zones in the area. Furthermore, our results show that gas migration through brittle deformation zones occurs by advective processes, as suggested by the relatively high migration rate needed to obtain anomalies of short-lived 222Rn in the soil pores.

  4. Geoethics and perception of seismic risk: the case of Pollino, Calabria, Southern Italy and the comparison with past societies (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco


    This work is a synthesis of research on the perception of seismic risk in the area of the Pollino, where it is been two years that an ongoing earthquake swarm is affecting the area between Calabria and Basilicata. Mr Downs has distinguished three different aspects in the perception of the environment: structural, preference and evaluation. Within this third aspect, the perception of seismic risk is an important dimension for the schedule. Starting from the territory, understood as the result of reciprocal interactions between humans and the physical space during the later stages of territorialization and reterritorialization, Geoethics can find a synthesis between humanistic and scientific knowledge in relating to the theme of disasters. The risk must be considered in its territorial nature, as a complex phenomenon which involves all aspects of the relations between man and environment. Assuming that the rupture of the dynamic equilibrium among population, environment and resources is the increasingly frequent causes of the outbreak of disasters in the academic increasing attention has been paid to the concept of resilience, for its potential to evaluate a system in a state of equilibrium and adaptation in response to a shock. Thus, the meaning adopted in the social sciences, not only in terms of natural disasters, but more generally for any change to the territory, refers to the ability to resist and recover their losses. Therefore, Geoethics can certainly help especially in educating the territory in terms of integrated risk management to become a tool that can enhance the resilience. In education-teaching, the concept of resilience is used especially for what concerns the sphere of the child's skills in effectively managing stress and difficulties of everyday life. In this context of risk, improve communications, awareness of the complexity of risk and the level of preparation would increase the resilience of the territory and to allow a more effective

  5. [Regional institutional accreditation measures for nephrology in Italy]. (United States)

    Quintaliani, G; Virgilio, M; Perelli, A; Camiletti, C


    The process of institutional accreditation has been initiated in Italy too because it is considered to be the criterion upon which new relations within the National Health Service must be based. These relations include payment for the service as well as choice of quality assessment and revision of the activities carried out and the services provided. This paper describes the regulations in force regarding Institutional accreditation and the specific regulations of Italian regional credit laws on nephrology. The Regions examined are Lazio, Campania, Marche, Basilicata and Lombardy. A synoptic table showing the most important criteria, differentiated according to each region, is also included.

  6. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano


    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  7. Grain-Size Control on the Rare Earth Elements Distribution in the Late Diagenesis of Cretaceous Shales from the Southern Apennines (Italy

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    Francesco Cavalcante


    Full Text Available Different grain-size fractions of samples collected from shales were investigated to determine the role of late diagenetic grade and mineralogy on the rare earth elements (REE distribution. The samples were collected from Upper Cretaceous varicoloured shales of the Sicilide Unit near the Corleto Perticara villages, Southern Apennines (Italy. The mineralogical and chemical composition of the sample’s five fractions (>63, 32–63, 2–32, 0.1–2, and <0.1 µm was studied. The data indicate that certain accessory minerals are more important than clay minerals in controlling the REE distribution. In particular, zircon controls the distribution of earth elements in the 0.1–2 µm fraction and is an efficient mechanism in determining the concentration and distribution of REEs in the studied shales.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  9. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena


    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum.

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and D. immitis in hunting dogs from southern Italy. (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Santoro, Mario; Pacifico, Laura; Sgroi, Giovanni; Auletta, Luigi; Buch, Jesse; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Veneziano, Vincenzo


    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen. E. canis, Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis seroprevalences were 7.6, 4.4, 0.3, and 0.2%, respectively. E. canis and Anaplasma spp. co-exposures were found in 30 dogs (2.2%), compared with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. co-exposures in 2 dogs (0.1%). Adult age was a risk factor for E. canis (OR 2.35) seroreactivity whereas hunting fur-bearing animals for E. canis (OR 4.75) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 1.87), respectively. The historical presence of tick infestation was identified as a risk factor for positivity to E. canis (OR 2.08) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.15). Finally, larger dog pack size was significantly associated with E. canis (OR 1.85) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.42) exposures. The results of the present survey indicated that hunting dog populations are at relative risk of CVBDs in southern Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of hunting dogs in the epidemiology of vector-borne organisms due to sharing common environments with wild, sympatric animal populations.

  11. Interactions between soil consumption and archaeological heritage: spatial analysis for hydrogeological risk evaluation and urban sprawl in the Tavoliere di Puglia (southern Italy) (United States)

    Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Masini, Nicola


    The soil consumption is a complex phenomenon because it is due to different causes and it also produces many consequences on landscape and related human activities. In low-relief areas of the Mediterranean regions such as the foredeep of the southern Italian chain, alluvional processes and flooding can play an important role on the amount of available soil, especially if one consider the recent climate changes and the recurrence of extreme events. Moreover the uncontrolled growth of the cities is a cause of soil consumption too. Consequently occurrence of flood events in low-relief areas, erosion processes and urban sprawl have a strong impact on agricultural activities and real estate market, but also in research activities about archaeological heritage, with the risk to loose signs of the past. To consider this phenomenon from a spatial point of view is essential to determine protection policies, but it is nowadays still a problem. In this contribution, we performed a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological features of the drainage network of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain in order to investigate erosional and depositional processes. GIS-supported statistical analysis of the drainage network features allow us to compile a map of the hydrogeological hazard [1]. The map has been used as a basic tool useful to consider areal distribution in soil consumption coming from alluvional processes, erosional phenomena and the urban sprawl of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain (Southern Italy). Moreover, we investigated the relationships between sectors of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain featured by higher hydrogeological risk and archaeological sensibility areas, such as places with existing or with not yet discovered archaeological sites or areas characterized by crop marks [2]. [1] Danese M., Gioia D., Biscione M., Masini N. 2014. Spatial Methods for Archaeological Flood Risk: The Case Study of the Neolithic Sites in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Computational

  12. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy. (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano


    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A GIS approach for the quantification of forest and agricultural biomass in the Basilicata region

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    D. Statuto


    Full Text Available In this paper the attention has been focused on the energy from biomass by-product, including forest biomass and agricultural production, waste and other sources of renewable energy, available in the Basilicata Region. In order to determine the quantity of extractable biomass from the forests of the region data from plans for forest management were used. These data were imported in a Geographic Information System, in order to determine in which part of the Region there is the possibility to find greater quantity of biomass. As for the determination of the quantities of agricultural biomass, the energy crops and the agricultural waste (such as crop residues, grass cuttings, pruning, manure, waste coming from agro-food industries, etc. were considered too. The reuse and exploitation of these wastes, while contributing to the solution of problems related to their disposal, promote their recovery as a primary source of energy. Once estimated the annual amount of biomass, the percentage of the annual energy contribution which this kind of by-product is able to ensure was determined; this renewable energy source may therefore significantly contribute to the development of the agro-forestry sector.

  14. Ecological Mapping for the Preventive Conservation of Prehistoric Mural Paintings in Rock Habitats: the Site of Filiano (Basilicata, Italy

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    Giulia Caneva


    Full Text Available Biodeterioration phenomena are of great relevance in rock settlements, due to favourable environmental conditions, such as the infiltration of rainwaters, condensation phenomena and abundance of salts and organic nutrients. Rinaldi’s rock shelter in Filiano, which is located in a natural forest of mixed oaks is of great value due to the important traces of prehistoric paintings. It is an emblematic case of the delicate balance, achieved throughout the centuries, between the environment and artwork. During the plurimillenarian history of the site, a portion of the ceiling that covered the shelter collapsed, leaving signs that are still visible today, together with traces of blackening left by the fires of ancient settlements. Several of the biodeteriogens typical of rocky habitats have already been detected and include algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, vascular plants and fungi, which form macroscopic communities.Each community has an ecological preference and the mapping of their distribution is a suitable tool for understanding variations in the environmental factors that most affect them. Relating ecological data to the taxonomical characterization of the species and to the spatial distribution of each community, a site map of the humidity and of the nutrients was obtained. Among the various communities, microcolonial fungi (MCF, which appear as little black spots, here, represent the most critical risk factor, due to their low water needs. An evaluation of the biological risk for the possible future attack of such a biological community was made, suggesting indirect mitigation measures, through modification of the microclimatic and local ventilation conditions.

  15. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl


    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  16. Trends and Extremes Analysis of Daily Weather Data from a Site in the Capitanata Plain (Southern Italy

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    Domenico Vitale


    Full Text Available The impacts of the climate change for agriculture is an ambitious and unresolved topic due to the complexity of the natural phenomena. The high variability of the Mediterranean basin does not allow us to generalize with enough certainty the results obtained from other researches and other locations. Therefore, a site specific analysis in Capitanata plain was conducted. The aim is to provide a detailed picture of recent change in climate regime in one of the most important agricultural area of South Italy. Climate analysis was carried out and several indices of extreme events were studied on the basis of temperature and precipitation observations registered at experimental station ‘Podere 124’ (CRA-SCA. The period under study is 1979-2008. Increasing trends were identified for the summer season with an intensification of the number of heat waves.

  17. Variability of Temperature and Its Impact on Reference Evapotranspiration: The Test Case of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy

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    Abderraouf Elferchichi


    Full Text Available The present study provides an assessment of the climate variability at a subnational scale, focusing on the case of the Apulia region, in Southeastern Italy. The variables considered for the purpose of a trend analysis were the minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures, and reference evapotranspiration. These are very important in an urban–rural planning context. The study was based on 38 monitoring stations and consisted in the application of the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test and a progressive trend analysis, both used to detect the changes. The 1950–2003 period was investigated on seasonal and annual scales. The results generally showed a warming process and an acceleration of the atmospheric evaporative demand which took place especially since the mid-1970s. The latter had a significant positive trend, while the period before the break point of the 70s had a cooling effect. Finally, the warming effect was more pronounced for minimum temperatures.

  18. Conservation and genetic characterisation of common bean landraces from Cilento region (southern Italy): high differentiation in spite of low genetic diversity. (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Cennamo, Paola; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Di Novella, Riccardo; Caputo, Paolo


    Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction. The analysis conducted using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci in 140 individuals revealed a high degree of homozygosity within each landrace and a strong genetic differentiation that was reflected in the success in assigning individuals to the source landrace. On the contrary, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, analysed in one individual per landrace, were highly similar among common bean landraces but allowed the identification of a cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata Walp.), a crop largely cultivated in the Old World before the arrival of common bean from Americas. In conclusion, our study highlighted that conservation of landraces is important not only for the cultural and socio-economic value that they have for local communities, but also because the time and conditions in which they have been selected have led to that genetic distinctiveness that is at the basis of many potential agronomical applications and dietary benefits.

  19. Application of DSSAT models for an agronomic adaptation strategy under climate change in Southern of Italy: optimum sowing and transplanting time for winter durum wheat and tomato

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    Domenico Ventrella


    Full Text Available Many climate change studies have been carried out in different parts of the world to assess climate change vulnerability and adaptation capacity of agricultural crops for determined environments characterized from climatic, pedological and agronomical point of view. The objective of this study was to analyse the productive response of winter durum wheat and tomato to climate change and sowing/transplanting time in one of most productive areas of Italy (i.e. Capitanata, Puglia, using CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO cropping system models. Three climatic datasets were used: i a single dataset (50 km x 50 km provided by the JRC European centre for the period 1975-2005; two datasets from HadCM3 for the IPCC A2 GHG scenario for time slices with +2°C (centred over 2030-2060 and +5°C (centred over 2070-2099, respectively. All three datasets were used to generate synthetic climate series using a weather simulator (model LARS-WG. No negative yield effects of climate change were observed for winter durum wheat with delayed sowing (from 330 to 345 DOY increasing the average dry matter grain yield under forecasted scenarios. Instead, the warmer temperatures were primarily shown to accelerate the phenology, resulting in decreased yield for tomato under the + 5°C future climate scenario. In general, under global temperature increase by 5°C, early transplanting times could minimize the negative impact of climate change on crop productivity but the intensity of this effect was not sufficient to restore the current production levels of tomato cultivated in southern Italy.

  20. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation and utilisation of maternal health services: a cross-sectional study among immigrant women in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Bianco, Aida; Larosa, Elisabetta; Pileggi, Claudia; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria


    Women make up approximately half of the world's one billion migrants. Immigrant women tend to be one of the most vulnerable population groups with respect to healthcare. Cancer screening (CS) and maternal and reproductive health have been included among the 10 main issues pertinent to women's health. The aim of this study is to explore breast and cervical CS participation and to acquire information regarding access to healthcare services during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period among age eligible immigrant women in Southern Italy. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each participant. Women aged 25-64 years who had not had a hysterectomy and women aged 50-69 years without history of breast cancer were considered eligible for the evaluation of cervical and breast CS participation, respectively. Moreover, women who had delivered at least once in Italy were enrolled to describe antenatal and postpartum care services use. All women were recruited through the third sector and non-profit organisations (NPOs). Rate of cervical CS among the 419 eligible women was low (39.1%), and about one-third had had a Pap test for screening purposes within a 3-year period from interview (32.8%). Regarding breast CS practices, of the 125 eligible women 45.6% had had a mammography for control purposes and less than a quarter (26, 20.8%) had their mammography within the recommended time interval of 2 years. About 80% of the respondents did not report difficulties of access and use of antenatal and postpartum services. This study provides currently unavailable information about adherence to CS and maternal and child health that could encourage future research to develop and test culturally appropriate, women-centred strategies for promoting timely and regular CS among immigrant women in Italy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  1. Validating the use of 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land in southern Italy. (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E


    Soil erosion represents an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture and forestry in many areas of the world, including southern Italy. Numerous models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution, based on the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management. However, there remains an important need for empirical measurements to provide a basis for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures as well as to support specific investigations and experiments. In this context, erosion plots provide useful information on gross rates of soil loss, but are unable to document the efficiency of the onward transfer of the eroded sediment within a field and towards the stream system, and thus net rates of soil loss from larger areas. The use of environmental radionuclides, particularly caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and excess lead-210 ((210)Pb(ex)), as a means of estimating rates of soil erosion and deposition has attracted increasing attention in recent years and the approach has now been recognised as possessing several important advantages. In order to provide further confirmation of the validity of the estimates of longer-term erosion and soil redistribution rates provided by (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements, there is a need for studies aimed explicitly at validating the results obtained. In this context, the authors directed attention to the potential offered by a set of small erosion plots located near Reggio Calabria in southern Italy, for validating estimates of soil loss provided by (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements. A preliminary assessment suggested that, notwithstanding the limitations and constraints involved, a worthwhile investigation aimed at validating the use of (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land could be undertaken. The results demonstrate a close consistency between the measured rates of soil

  2. Decision Support Systems To Manage Water Resources At Irrigation District Level In Southern Italy Using Remote Sensing Information. An Integrated Project (AQUATER) (United States)

    Rinaldi, M.; Castrignanò, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Rana, G.; Ventrella, D.; Acutis, M.; D'Urso, G.; Mattia, F.


    An efficient management of water resources is crucial point for Italy and in particular for southern areas characterized by Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. A three-year Project (2005-2008) has been funded by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Policies; it involves four Italian research institutions: the Agricultural Research Council (ISA, Bari), the National Research Council (ISSIA, Bari) and two Universities (Federico II-Naples and Milan). It is focused on the remote sensing, the plant and the climate and, for interdisciplinary relationships, the project working group consists of agronomists, engineers and physicists. The aims of the Project are: a) to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) combining remote sensing information, spatial data and simulation models to manage water resources in irrigation districts; b) to simulate irrigation scenarios to evaluate the effects of water stress on crop yield using agro-ecological indicators; c) to identify the most sensitive areas to drought risk in Southern Italy. The tools used in this Project will be: 1. Remote sensing images, topographic maps, soil and land use maps; 2. Geographic Information Systems; 3. Geostatistic methodologies; 4. Ground truth measurements (land use, canopy and soil temperatures, soil and plant water status, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Crop Water Stress Index, Leaf Area Index, actual evapotranspiration, crop coefficients, crop yield, agro-ecological indicators); 5. Crop simulation models. The Project is structured in four work packages with specific objectives, high degree of interaction and information exchange: 1) Remote Sensing and Image Analysis; 2) Cropping Systems; 3) Modelling and Softwares Development; 4) Stakeholders. The final product will be a DSS with the purpose of integrating remote sensing images, to estimate crop and soil variables related to drought, to assimilate

  3. Strategies for the promotion of the forest-wood chain in Calabria (southern Italy: the stakeholders’ point of view

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    Paletto A


    Full Text Available In Italy, the value of bioeconomy is 251 billion € and more than 1.7 million of workforce is employed in this sector. The forest-wood chain cover about 15% of total value of bioeconomy. The consultation draft of Italian Bioeconomy Strategy was presented on November 22, 2016. This document identifies three macro-sectors (agrifood, marine bioeconomy, forestry and biobased industry with the respective objectives and priorities. In addition, some Italian regions are organizing to devise a regional strategy detailing the key points of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and Italian Bioeconomy Strategy in accordance with local peculiarities. In order to develop a regional strategy for the forest sector it is important to investigate the social demands and needs involving the local stakeholders. The aim of the study is to investigate the stakeholders’ opinions of Calabria Region (Italy about the priorities of forest-wood chain to include in the future regional bioeconomy strategy. The stakeholders’ opinions were collected through the face-to-face administration of a structured questionnaire to 99 local stakeholders. The respondents assessed the importance of a set of objectives aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain at local level (economic exploitation of wood products; diffusion of forest certification; orientation of production to market demand; coordination of forest-wood-energy chain’s actors; implementation of environmental and cultural forest values; improvement of the level of mechanization in wood processing; improvement of the efficiency of forestry workers. In addition, the respondents assessed the capacity of some specific activities to achieve the above mentioned objectives. The collected data were used to define two strategies aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain in Calabria Region. The results show that for the interviewed stakeholders the main three objectives are: the implementation of environmental and cultural forest values, the

  4. Bio-chemostratigraphy of the Barremian-Aptian shallow-water carbonates of the southern Apennines (Italy: pinpointing the OAE1a in a Tethyan carbonate platform

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    M. Di Lucia


    Full Text Available Low biostratigraphic resolution and lack of chronostratigraphic calibration hinder precise correlations between platform carbonates and coeval deep-water successions. These are the main obstacle when studying the record of Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events in carbonate platforms. In this paper carbon and strontium isotope stratigraphy are used to produce the first chronostratigraphic calibration of the Barremian-Aptian biostratigraphy of the Apenninic carbonate platform of southern Italy. According to this calibration, the segment of decreasing δ13C values, leading to the negative peak that is generally taken as the onset of the Selli event, starts a few metres above the last occurrence of Palorbitolina lenticularis and Voloshinoides murgensis. The following rise of δ13C values, corresponding to the interval of enhanced accumulation of organic matter in deep-water sections, ends just below the first acme of Salpingoporella dinarica, which roughly corresponds to the segment of peak δ13C values. The whole carbon isotope excursion associated with the oceanic anoxic event 1a is bracketed in the Apenninic carbonate platform between the last occurrence of Voloshinoides murgensis and the "Orbitolina level", characterized by the association of Mesorbitolina parva and Mesorbitolina texana. Since these bioevents have been widely recognized beyond the Apenninic platform, the calibration presented in this paper can be used to pinpoint the interval corresponding to the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event in other carbonate platforms of central and southern Tethys. This calibration will be particularly useful to interpret the record of the Selli event in carbonate platform sections for which a reliable carbon isotope stratigraphy is not available.

  5. Investigating fossil hydrothermal systems by means of fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in banded travertine: an example from Castelnuovo dell'Abate (southern Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Marco; Boschi, Chiara; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo; Liotta, Domenico


    Southern Tuscany (Italy) hosts geothermal anomalies with associated widespread CO2 gas-rich manifestations and active travertine-deposing thermal springs. Geothermal anomalies have been active since the Late Miocene and have led to the formation of widespread Late Miocene-Pleistocene travertine deposits and meso- and epithermal mineralizations. This study investigates the travertine deposit exposed in the Castelnuovo dell'Abate area of southern Tuscany. Here, a fissure-ridge type travertine deposit and its feeding conduits, currently filled with banded calcite veins (i.e. banded travertine), represent a spectacular example of fossil hydrothermal circulation in the peripheral area of the exploited Monte Amiata geothermal field. The Castelnuovo dell'Abate travertine deposit and associated calcite veins were analysed to establish the characteristics of the parent hydrothermal fluids, and the age of this circulation. The focus of the study was on fluid inclusions, rarely considered in travertine studies, but able to provide direct information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the original fluid. Uranium-thorium geochronological data provided further constraints on the: (1) age of tectonic activity; (2) age of the hydrothermal circulation; and (3) evolution of the Monte Amiata geothermal anomaly. Results indicate that brittle deformation (NW- and SE-trending normal to oblique-slip faults) was active during at least the Middle Pleistocene and controlled a hydrothermal circulation mainly characterized by fluids of meteoric origin, and as old as 300-350 ka. This is the oldest circulation documented to date in the Monte Amiata area. The fluid chemical composition is comparable to that of fluids currently exploited in the shallow reservoir of the Monte Amiata geothermal field, therefore suggesting that fluid composition has not changed substantially over time. These fluids, however, have cooled by about 70 °C in the last 300-350 ka, corresponding to a cooling rate


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    Full Text Available A high resolution cyclostratigraphic study was carried out on a cyclicaly bedded succession of late Middle Miocene deep marine deposits from the Tremiti Islands, Adriatic sea (Italy. Astronomical calibration of the sedimentary cycles provides absolute ages for different calcareous plankton bioevents, widely used for intra Mediterranean correlation, in the interval between 11.12 and 12.60 Ma. The sedimentary record of the S. nicola composite section consists of an alternation of indurated, withish coloured, CaCo3 rich and grey less indurated, CaCo3 poor marly beds, at times replaced by red coloured CaCo3 poor marls. Results of direct correlation between the La 90 (1,1 solution of the insolation curve and the cyclic lithologic patterns occurring in the studied sections, combined with results of spectral methodologies applied on the climate sensitive data (CaCo3 and Globigerinoides showed that the classic Milankovitch periodicity can be represented through the modulation forcing of the studied sedimentary records. 

  7. LCA of the Collection, Transportation, Treatment and Disposal of Source Separated Municipal Waste: A Southern Italy Case Study

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    Giovanni De Feo


    Full Text Available This study performed a Life Cycle Assessment of the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of source-separated municipal waste (MW in Baronissi, a town of 17,000 inhabitants in the Campania region of Italy. Baronissi is a high-performing town in a region with scarcity of MW facilities. The environmental impacts were assessed with three different methods—IPCC 2007, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008—in order to evaluate how they influence the results as well as how the global warming affects the results, since it is one of the major environmental concerns of people. The obtained results showed how the presence of facilities in the area is fundamental. Their lack means high environmental loads due to the transportation of materials for long distances, particularly for the organic fraction. The presence of a composting plant at 10 km from the municipality would result in a decrease of 65% of the impacts due to the external transport, regardless of the evaluation method. The results obtained with ReCiPe 2008 and Ecological Footprint agreed, while those obtained with IPCC 2007 were very different since global warming is strongly affected by the transport phase. IPCC 2007 does not allow to take into account the advantages obtainable with a good level of separate collection. Considering a single impact evaluation method, there is a high risk of coming to misleading conclusions.

  8. Hair mercury levels in an urban population from southern Italy: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure. (United States)

    Díez, Sergi; Montuori, Paolo; Pagano, Adele; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale; Bayona, Josep M; Triassi, Maria


    Mercury levels in hair of a general population, 237 adults aged between 35-45, in Naples, Italy, were assessed. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire about age, gender, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fish consumption, number, surface and area of dental amalgam fillings. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.221 to 3.402 microg/g and the mean value for the subjects under study was 0.638 microg/g. Study participants were divided into three groups in accordance with fish consumption and dental amalgam: ANF (amalgam and no fish); NAF (no amalgam but with fish) and AAF (amalgam and fish). Significant differences in THg were found in the three groups (phair with respect to gender and age, but almost no association was found between THg and dental fillings. Conversely, a strong correlation was obtained between THg and fish consumption regardless of the group evaluated. Finally, mercury levels in hair exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg Hg/kg body weight per day (1 microg Hg/g hair) in 6% of the population (4% men and 2% women). However, the THg limits in our subjects were not exceeded according to the WHO guidelines, which use a benchmark dose of 0.23 microg Hg/kg bw/day (14 microg Hg/g maternal hair).

  9. Antioxidants in Varieties of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and Wild Poppy (Papaver rhoeas L. of Southern Italy

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    Anna Montefusco


    Full Text Available We report the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities, as well as the total phenol, flavonoid, tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, and carotenoid contents in the edible portion of wild and cultivated varieties of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and in the basal rosette leaves of the wild species of poppy (Papaver rhoeas L., known by natives as “paparina,” collected in the countryside of Salento (South Apulia, Italy. We analyzed (1 two cultivars of chicory, the “Catalogna” harvested in the area between S. Pietro Vernotico and Tuturano (Brindisi and the “Otrantina” harvested in Otranto (Lecce; (2 two wild chicory ecotypes harvested in S. Pietro Vernotico (Brindisi and Statte (Taranto, respectively; (3 the basal leaves of wild poppy harvested in Sternatia (Lecce. In all samples, our results showed that the hydrophilic antioxidant activity is, generally, higher than the lipophilic activity. Poppy leaves exhibited the highest hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities and the highest concentration of total phenols and flavonoids. Tocopherols were detected only as traces. Among the extracted carotenoids, lutein and β-carotene were the most abundant in all analyzed samples. Total carotenoid content was greater in wild than in cultivated plants.

  10. Economic Evaluation of Hydrological Ecosystem Services in Mediterranean River Basins Applied to a Case Study in Southern Italy

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    Marcello Mastrorilli


    Full Text Available Land use affects eco-hydrological processes with consequences for floods and droughts. Changes in land use affect ecosystems and hydrological services. The objective of this study is the analysis of hydrological services through the quantification of water resources, pollutant loads, land retention capacity and soil erosion. On the basis of a quantitative evaluation, the economic values of the ecosystem services are estimated. By assigning an economic value to the natural resources and to the hydraulic system, the hydrological services can be computed at the scale of catchment ecosystem. The proposed methodology was applied to the basin “Bonis” (Calabria Region, Italy. The study analyses four land use scenarios: (i forest cover with good vegetative status (baseline scenario; (ii modification of the forest canopy; (iii variation in forest and cultivated surfaces; (iv insertion of impermeable areas. The simulations prove that the variations of the state of forest areas has considerable influence on the water balance, and then on the provided economic value. Small economic changes derive from reducing the impermeable areas. Increasing the agricultural area to 50% of the total, and reducing the forest surface, affects soil erosion, reduces the storage capacity of the water, and consequently the water harvesting. The suggested methodology can be considered a suitable tool for land planning.

  11. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

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    Donato Sollitto


    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.

  12. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca


    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities.

  13. Buried volcanic structures in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy resulting from high resolution magnetic survey and seismic profiling

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    S. Ruggieri


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a correlation between volcanic structures and magnetic anomalies in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea based on high resolution magnetic profiling. A densely spaced grid of magnetic profiles coupled with multichannel seismics (seismic source Watergun 15 cubic inch was recorded in the Gulf of Naples, representing an active volcanic area during the Late Quaternary (volcanic centers of Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields and Ischia and Procida islands. The dataset was collected during the oceanographic cruise GMS00-05 which took place during October-November 2000 in the South Tyrrhenian Sea onboard of the R/V Urania (National Research Council, Italy. Shallow volcanic structures in the subsurface of the gulf were recognized by seismo-stratigraphic analysis of high resolution profiles; the volcanic nature of some of these structures was inferred identifying the magnetic anomalies on a high resolution magnetic anomaly map of the gulf. Even if qualitative, the correlations between seismic and magnetic profiles allow us to better assess the geological structure of the Gulf of Naples.

  14. Integrated geophysical survey to recognize ancient Picentia’s buried walls, in the Archaeological Park of Pontecagnano – Faiano (Southern Italy

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    A. Rossi


    Full Text Available There is no information on previous geophysical prospections carried out in the Archaeological Park of Pontecagnano- Faiano, in order to reconstruct the ancient settlement of Picentia, an Etrusco-Campanian and Roman settlement near Salerno (Southern Italy. Therefore, an integrated geophysical survey based on magnetic, geoelectric and ground-penetrating radar (GPR prospections was executed in the Park. The methods provided a basic map of buried ancient structures at depth from 0.1-0.2 to about 1.5 meters. Magnetic data were processed analyzing the analytical signal of the vertical derivative of the measured gradient and this substantially reduced a strong fence effect. The results of the geophysical prospections showed archaeological structures located close to those discovered in the excavated areas. The shape of the anomalies are usually elongated with well-defined geometrical characteristics. Many anomalies are arranged along orthogonal directions and they are very coherent with the excavated structures, namely the quarters structures of the ancient Picentia.

  15. Seasonal fluctuations of some biological traits of the invader Caprella scaura (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Italy

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    Ermelinda Prato


    Full Text Available Caprella scaura is an epifaunal amphipod crustacean that originates in the western Indian Ocean and has spread throughout the world, but very little is known about fundamental aspects of its biology. This paper is the first presentation of its life history traits in an invaded region. The study was conducted in the Mar Piccolo basin (southern Italy, Ionian Sea, over a one-year period. All biological parameters showed a strong seasonal pattern, breeding peaked twice during the year and the number of eggs in the ventral brood pouch ranged from 5 to 72. The sex ratio was generally close to 1:1. A strong correlation between total length of ovigerous females and number of eggs was observed. The mean length of both mature males and mature females was 10.63 and 7.70 mm, respectively. The results of this study showed that the population dynamics of this species was not dissimilar to that of other caprellids or marine epifaunal Crustacea. This caprellid has given rise to a stable population in the Mar Piccolo; it was present all year round in the study area but its density suggests that it is not yet a strong invader.

  16. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the “Land of Fires” Area of Southern Italy

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    Mauro Esposito


    Full Text Available The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-concentrations dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs (PCDD/Fs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known “Land of Fires” area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011–2.26 ng g−1 for the six “indicator” non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, and 0.0009–0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ g−1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a “sentinel” of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  17. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero


    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii and pre-treatment protocols for polymerase chain reaction analysis of milk samples: a field trial in sheep from Southern Italy

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    Alice Vismarra


    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping. The pre-treatment protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Tris-HCl to remove casein gave the best results in the least amount of time compared to the others on spiked milk samples. One sample of 21 collected from sheep farms was positive on one-step PCR, real time PCR and resulted in a Type I genotype at one locus (SAG3. Milk usually contains a low number of tachyzoites and this could be a limiting factor for molecular identification. Our preliminary data has evaluated a rapid, cost-effective and sensitive protocol to treat milk before DNA extraction. The results of the present study also confirm the possibility of T. gondii transmission through consumption of raw milk and its unpasteurised derivatives.


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    Full Text Available A study of the Trento carbonate platform (Southern Alps, Italy identified a different type of parasequence named "burrow decreasing- upward parasequence" (BDUP. This important type of bioturbated shallowing-upward sequence, 2.3-2.9 m thick, developed in a warm lagoonal environment and characterizes the Pliensbachian interval of the Calcari Grigi Formation. The study of surficial bioturbation and three-dimensional, Y-shaped deep burrows in the BDUP (produced mainly by crustacean decapods defined taphonomical characteristics and resulted in the identification of four types of Thalassinoides suevicus (Types I, II, III, IV. A detailed analysis of the burrows focused on the enlargement at the bifurcation point, on the development of the vertical burrow and on the coarse-grained skeletal debris infilling of the burrows. Surficial bioturbation affected only the first centimeters of the substrates and did not produce preservable trace fossils; it is recognizable by the taphonomic dislocation of shell beds and reorientation of skeletal remains. Bioturbation-burrowing analysis resulted in the identification of 19 "burrow decreasing- upward" parasequences (BDUP. They are ichnologically, taphonomically and sedimentologically well characterized, and represent a useful type for sequence stratigraphy in a carbonate platform environment dominated by biogenic activity.

  20. Evaluation of the orthodontic treatment need in a paediatric sample from Southern Italy and its importance among paediatricians for improving oral health in pediatric dentistry. (United States)

    Luzzi, Valeria; Ierardo, Gaetano; Corridore, Denise; Di Carlo, Gabriele; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Leonardi, Emanuele; Campus, Guglielmo-Giuseppe; Vozza, Iole; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio


    Data from epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence and severity of malocclusions in children are of great relevance to public health programs aimed at orthodontic prevention. Previous epidemiological studies focused mainly on the adolescence age group and reported a prevalence of malocclusion with a high variability, going from 32% to 93%. Aim of our study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in a paediatric sample from Southern Italy in order to improve awareness among paediatricians about oral health preventive strategies in pediatric dentistry. The study used the IOTN-DHC index to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment for several malocclusions (overjet, reverse overjet, overbite, openbite, crossbite) in a sample of 579 children in the 2-9 years age range. The most frequently altered occlusal parameter was the overbite (prevalence: 24.5%), while the occlusal anomaly that most frequently presented a need for orthodontic treatment was the crossbite (8.8%). The overall prevalence of need for orthodontic treatment was of 19.3%, while 49% of the sample showed one or more altered occlusal parameters. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females. Results from this study support the idea that the establishment of a malocclusion is a gradual process starting at an early age. Effective orthodontic prevention programs should therefore include preschool children being aware paediatricians of the importance of early first dental visit. Key words: Orthodontic treatment, malocclusion, oral health, pediatric dentistry.

  1. Retrospective assessment of macrophytic communities in southern Lake Garda (Italy from in situ and MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer data

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    Claudia Giardino


    Full Text Available In situ and hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer images acquired over a period of 13 years are used to assess changes in macrophyte colonization patterns in the coastal zones of the Sirmione Peninsula in the southern part of Lake Garda (Italy. In situ data (abundance, cover density and diversity of macrophyte communities and MIVIS-derived maps of colonized substrates are analyzed by considering the variability of the main hydrological and physicochemical variables in order to indicate the main factors that explain the spatiotemporal variability of macrophyte communities. The results show a considerable modification in terms of macrophyte structural complexity and colonized areas. Almost 98% of macrophyte meadows (in particular communities with a density of over 70% are lost and subsequently replaced by moderate to extremely rare communities with density from 10% to 40%. Well-established submerged macrophytes are replaced by de-structured communities characterized by moderate to scarce density: on average lower than 30%. The study indicates that macrophyte distribution along the littoral zone of the Sirmione Peninsula is certainly linked to water transparency and water level fluctuation. The results also indicate that the worsening of eutrophication may be associated with the gradual disappearance of macrophyte meadows, but may also be accelerated by herbivorous aquatic birds grazing there. Lastly, the increasing frequency and number of catamaran tours could be considered a threat for the stability of these valuable communities.

  2. Mixed-methods quantitative-qualitative study of 29 nonagenarians and centenarians in rural Southern Italy: focus on positive psychological traits. (United States)

    Scelzo, Anna; Di Somma, Salvatore; Antonini, Paola; Montross, Lori P; Schork, Nicholas; Brenner, David; Jeste, Dilip V


    This was a study of positive psychological traits in a group of rural Italians aged 90 to 101 years, and their children or other family members. Mixed-methods quantitative (standardized rating scales) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) study. Study participants' homes in nine villages in the Cilento region of southern Italy. Twenty-nine nonagenarians and centenarians and 51 family members aged 51-75 years, selected by their general practitioners as a part of a larger study called CIAO (Cilento Initiative on Aging Outcomes). We used published rating scales of mental and physical well-being, resilience, optimism, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Qualitative interviews gathered personal narratives of the oldest-old individuals, including migrations, traumatic events, and beliefs. Family members described their impressions about the personality traits of their older relative. Participants age ≥90 years had worse physical health but better mental well-being than their younger family members. Mental well-being correlated negatively with levels of depression and anxiety in both the groups. The main themes that emerged from qualitative interviews included positivity (resilience and optimism), working hard, and bond with family and religion, as described in previously published studies of the oldest old, but also a need for control and love of the land, which appeared to be unique features of this rural population. Exceptional longevity was characterized by a balance between acceptance of and grit to overcome adversities along with a positive attitude and close ties to family, religion, and land, providing purpose in life.

  3. Evaluation of toxic metal (Hg, Cd, Pb), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and pesticide (DDTs) levels in aromatic herbs collected in selected areas of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena


    This study provides, for the first time, data regarding levels of toxic metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and organochlorine compounds (PCBs and DDTs) in various aromatic herbs as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) collected in some towns of the Southern Italy with different anthropogenic and population pressure. Metal and organochlorine compound concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas-chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS), respectively. Pb emerged as the most abundant element, followed by Cd and Hg, while between organochlorine compounds, PCB concentrations were higher than those of DDTs. The pollutant concentrations were found to vary depending on the different herbs. The highest Pb levels were observed in rosemary (1.66 μg g(-1) dry weight) and sage (1.41 μg g(-1) dry weight), this latter showing also the highest Cd concentrations (0.75 μg g(-1) dry weight). For PCBs, the major concentrations were found in rosemary (2.75 ng g(-1) dry weight) and oregano (2.39 ng g(-1) dry weight). The principal component analysis applied in order to evaluate possible similarities and/or differences in the contamination levels among sampling sites indicated differences area-specific contamination.

  4. Effects of different boundary conditions on the simulation of groundwater flow in a multi-layered coastal aquifer system (Taranto Gulf, southern Italy) (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Foglia, Laura; Giudici, Mauro; Mehl, Steffen; Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio L.


    The evaluation of the accuracy or reasonableness of numerical models of groundwater flow is a complex task, due to the uncertainties in hydrodynamic properties and boundary conditions and the scarcity of good-quality field data. To assess model reliability, different calibration techniques are joined to evaluate the effects of different kinds of boundary conditions on the groundwater flow in a coastal multi-layered aquifer in southern Italy. In particular, both direct and indirect approaches for inverse modeling were joined through the calibration of one of the most uncertain parameters, namely the hydraulic conductivity of the karst deep hydrostratigraphic unit. The methodology proposed here, and applied to a real case study, confirmed that the selection of boundary conditions is among the most critical and difficult aspects of the characterization of a groundwater system for conceptual analysis or numerical simulation. The practical tests conducted in this study show that incorrect specification of boundary conditions prevents an acceptable match between the model response to the hydraulic stresses and the behavior of the natural system. Such effects have a negative impact on the applicability of numerical modeling to simulate groundwater dynamics in complex hydrogeological situations. This is particularly important for management of the aquifer system investigated in this work, which represents the only available freshwater resource of the study area, and is threatened by overexploitation and saltwater intrusion.

  5. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by Popular Herbal Remedies Used in Southern Italy Against Psoriasis and Other Skin Diseases (United States)

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M


    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NFκB activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200 µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NFκB activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50 = 49.5 µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50 = 147.8 µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50s = 9.6, 20.3 and 68 µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25278440

  6. Energy Exploitation of High-Temperature Geothermal Sources in Volcanic Areas—a Possible ORC Application in Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy

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    Angelo Algieri


    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the energy performances of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs for the exploitation of high temperature geothermal sources in volcanic areas. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed, and a parametric analysis has been performed that considers subcritical and transcritical configurations, and different organic fluids (isobutane, isopentane, and R245ca. The investigation illustrates the significant effect of the temperature at the entrance of the expander on the ORC behaviour and the rise in system effectiveness when the internal heat exchange (IHE is adopted. As a possible application, the analysis has focused on the active volcanic area of Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy where high temperature geothermal reservoirs are available at shallow depths. The work demonstrates that ORC systems represent a very interesting option for exploiting geothermal sources and increasing the share of energy production from renewables. In particular, the investigation has been performed considering a 1 kg/s geothermal mass flow rate at 230 °C. The comparative analysis highlights that transcritical configurations with IHE guarantee the highest performance. Isopentane is suggested to maximise the ORC electric efficiency (17.7%, while R245ca offers the highest electric power (91.3 kWel. The selected systems are able to fulfil a significant quota of the annual electric load of domestic users in the area.


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    Full Text Available We present calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and abundances for the Upper Pliensbachian-Lower Toarcian interval, including the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, represented by the Fish Level at Colle di Sogno (N Italy. In addition to biohorizons identifying NJT 5 and NJT 6 nannofossil zones, the first occurrences of C. superbus and D. striatus constrain the onset and the end of the T-OAE, respectively. We propose the last occurrence of M. jansae as additional event to approximate the end of the T-OAE at lower latitudes. Quantitative data highlight the “Schizosphaerella decline” marking the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary and the “Schizosphaerella crisis” at the onset of the T-OAE as supplementary biohorizons. S. punctulata and M. jansae constitute most of the micrite in the interval below the Fish Level, which is marked by an increase in abundance of small coccoliths remaining abundant in the overlying interval, with limited contributions of S. punctulata, while M. jansae disappears. Principal Component Analysis implemented nannofossil paleoecological and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The latest Pliensbachian was characterized by stable oligotrophic conditions favourable to calcification at low pCO2 levels promoting the proliferation of deep-dwelling and highly-calcified S. punctulata. During the earliest Toarcian an initial pulse of continental run-off introduced terrigenous material favouring the intermediate-dweller M. jansae and the low-salinity adapted Calyculus. Higher nutrient concentrations and ocean acidification magnified during the T-OAE, stimulatying mesotrophic low-calcified coccolith-producers and suppressing k-strategist deep- to intermediate-dwellers. After the T-OAE, partial recovery of calcareous nannoplankton indicates still perturbed conditions. Ecosystem modifications anticipated the T-OAE of ~1 million years with species origination and major changes in assemblages.

  8. Dating human occupation and adaptation in the southern European last glacial refuge: The chronostratigraphy of Grotta del Romito (Italy) (United States)

    Blockley, Simon; Pellegrini, Maura; Colonese, Andre C.; Lo Vetro, Domenico; Albert, Paul G.; Brauer, Achim; Di Giuseppe, Zelia; Evans, Adrian; Harding, Poppy; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Lincoln, Paul; Martini, Fabio; Pollard, Mark; Smith, Victoria; Donahue, Randolph


    Grotta del Romito has been the subject of numerous archaeological, chronological and palaeoenvironmental investigations for more than a decade. During the Upper Palaeolithic period the site contains evidence of human occupation through the Gravettian and Epigravettian periods, multiple human burials, changes in the pattern of human occupation, and faunal, isotopic and sedimentological evidence for local environmental change. In spite of this rich record, the chronological control is insufficient to resolve shifts in subsistence and mobility patterns at sufficiently high resolution to match the abrupt climate fluctuations at this time. To resolve this we present new radiocarbon and tephrostratigraphic dates in combination with existing radiocarbon dates, and develop a Bayesian age model framework for the site. This improved chronology reveals that local environmental conditions reflect abrupt and long-term changes in climate, and that these also directly influence changing patterns of human occupation of the site. In particular, we show that the environmental record for the site, based on small mammal habitat preferences, is chronologically in phase with the main changes in climate and environment seen in key regional archives from Italy and Greenland. We also calculate the timing of the transitions between different cultural phases and their spans. We also show that the intensification in occupation of the site is chronologically coincident with a rapid rise in Mesic Woody taxa seen in key regional pollen records and is associated with the Late Epigravettian occupation of the site. This change in the record of Grotta del Romito is also closely associated stratigraphically with a new tephra (the ROM-D30 tephra), which may act as a critical marker in environmental records of the region.

  9. A geochemical and geophysical reappraisal to the significance of the recent unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia


    Volcanic unrest at calderas involve complex interaction between magma, hydrothermal fluids and crustal stress and strain. Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), located in the Naples (Italy) area and characterised by the highest volcanic risk on Earth for the extreme urbanisation, undergoes unrest phenomena involving several meters of uplift and intense shallow micro-seismicity since several decades. Despite unrest episodes display in the last decade only moderate ground deformation and seismicity, current interpretations of geochemical data point to a highly pressurized hydrothermal system. We show that at CFc, the usual assumption of vapour-liquid coexistence in the fumarole plumes leads to largely overestimated hydrothermal pressures and, accordingly, interpretations of elevated unrest. By relaxing unconstrained geochemical assumptions, we infer an alternative model yielding better agreement between geophysical and geochemical observations. The model reconciles discrepancies between what observed 1) for two decades since the 1982-84 large unrest, when shallow magma was supplying heat and fluids to the hydrothermal system, and 2) in the last decade. Compared to the 1980's unrest, the post-2005 phenomena are characterized by much lower aquifers overpressure and magmatic involvement, as indicated by geophysical data and despite large changes in geochemical indicators. Our interpretation points out a model in which shallow sills, intruded during 1969-1984, have completely cooled, so that fumarole emissions are affected now by deeper, CO2-richer, magmatic gases producing a relatively modest heating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system. Our results do have important implications on the short-term eruption hazard assessment and on the best strategies for monitoring and interpreting geochemical data.

  10. Resilience vs soft crisis: dynamic risk assessment in complex hybrid systems. Case history of Ginosa (Taranto, Southern Italy) (United States)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Argentiero, Ilenia; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Pellicani, Roberta; Spilotro, Giuseppe


    Considering a natural system without human-induced modifications, its resilience can be altered by many natural drivers (e.g. geological characteristics, climate) and their spatial modifications over time. Therefore, natural hazardous phenomena could shift natural system over tipping points in an easier or more difficult way. So long as natural system does not involve human settlements or transport infrastructures, natural system risk assessment could not be a basic topic. Nowadays, human activities have modified many natural systems forming, as a result, hybrid systems (both human and natural), in which natural and human-induced drivers modify hybrid systems vulnerability in order to decrease or increase their resilience: scientists define this new age Anthropocene. In this context, dynamic risk assessment of hybrid systems is required in order to avoid disaster when hazardous phenomena occur, but it is a quite complex issue. In fact, soft crisis emerging signals are difficult to identify because of wrong risk perception and lack of communication. Furthermore, natural and human-induced modifications are rarely registered and supervised by governments, so it is fairly difficult defining how systems resilience changes over time. Inhabitants of Ginosa (Taranto, South of Italy) had modified many old rock dwellings over thousand years since the Middle Ages. Indeed, they had built up three-storey houses on three hypogeum levels of rock dwellings along the ravine. The Matrice street collapse in Ginosa is an example of how natural and human-induced spatial modifications over time had led a soft crisis to evolve in a disaster, fortunately without fatalities. This research aim is to revisit events before the Matrice street collapse on the 21st January 2014. The will is to define the relationship between the hybrid system resilience and soft crisis variation over time and how human and natural drivers were involved in the shift.

  11. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy) (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa


    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  12. Seasonal Fluctuations of Sap-Feeding Insect Species Infected by Xylella fastidiosa in Apulian Olive Groves of Southern Italy. (United States)

    Ben Moussa, Issam Eddine; Mazzoni, Valerio; Valentini, Franco; Yaseen, Thaer; Lorusso, Donato; Speranza, Stefano; Digiaro, Michele; Varvaro, Leonardo; Krugner, Rodrigo; D'Onghia, Anna Maria


    A study on seasonal abundance of Auchenorrhyncha species and their infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were monitored monthly over a 2-yr period from five olive groves. A total of 15 species were captured, identified, and tested for presence of X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For three species, Philaenus spumarius L., Neophilaenus campestris (Fallèn), and Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, positive reactions to X. fastidiosa were obtained, on average, in 16.3, 15.9 and 18.4% of adult insects, respectively. Philaneous spumarius was the dominant species (39.8% of total Auchenorrhyncha captured) with the highest adult abundance in summer months. Adult P. spumarius and N. campestris were first detected between March and May in both years, and all insects tested during these periods (year 1: n = 42, year 2: n = 132) gave negative reactions to X. fastidiosa by PCR. Similarly, first adults of E. lineolatus that appeared from October to November (year 1: n = 20, year 2: n = 15) tested negative for presence of X. fastidiosa Given the lack of transstadial and transovarial transmission of X. fastidiosa and considering that P. spumarius is univoltine, control measures against nymphal stages of P. spumarius should be investigated as means of population suppression to reduce spread of X. fastidiosa in olive groves. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M.


    the surface, where the model uncertainties are, usually, smaller than at the surface. A general anticlockwise rotation of the simulated flow with height is found at all levels. The mixing height is overestimated by all schemes and a possible role of the simulated sensible heat fluxes for this mismatching......The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern...... is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes...

  14. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD (United States)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino


    Italy) and its archaeobotanical implications. J. Archaeol. Sci. 37, 2365-2375. [4] Russo Ermolli E., Romano P., Ruello M.R., Barone Lumaga M.R, in press. The natural and cultural landscape of Naples (southern Italy) during the Graeco-Roman and Late Antique periods. J. Archaeol. Sci. [5] Amato, V., Aucelli, P.,D'Argenio, B., Da Prato, S., Ferraro, L., Pappone, G., Petrosino, P., Rosskopf, C.M., Russo Ermolli, E., 2012. Holocene environmental evolution of the coastal sector before the Poseidonia-Paestum archaeological area (Sele plain, southern Italy). Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei. doi:10.1007/s12210-011-0161-1 [6] Amato V., Bisogno G., Cicala L., Cinque A., Romano P., Ruello MR., Russo Ermolli E., 2010. Palaeo-environmental changes in the archaeological settlement of Elea-Velia: climatic and/or human impact signatures? In Ciarallo A., Senatore M.R. (2010) Scienze naturali ed archeologia. Il paesaggio antico: interazione uomo/ambiente ed eventi catastrofici. Aracne Editrice, Roma, pag 13-16. ISBN 978-88-548-3525-2 [7] Russo Ermolli E., Romano P., Ruello M.R., 2013. Human-environment interactions in the southern Tyrrhenian coastal area: hypothesis from Neapolis and Elea-Velia. In: Harris W.V. (Ed.) The ancient Mediterranean environment between science and history Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition 39, BRILL Leiden-Boston, ISBN 978-90-04-25343-8, pp. 213-232. [8] Büntgen, U., Tegel, W., Nicolussi, K., McCormick, M., Frank, D., Trouet, V., Kaplan, J.O., Herzig, F., Heussner, K-U., Wanner, H., Luterbacher, J., Esper, J., 2011. 2500 Years of European Climate Variability and Human Susceptibility. Science 331, 578-582.

  15. Refertilized mantle keel below the Southern Alps domain (North-East Italy): Evidence from Marosticano refractory mantle peridotites (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Fahnestock, M. Florencia; Bryce, Julia G.; Marzoli, Andrea


    The Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), a Cenozoic magmatic province in northeastern Italy, is one of the widest volcanic areas of the Adria plate. It consists of five main magmatic districts, and its most primitive products commonly host mantle xenoliths. In this study, we present a newly discovered xenolith suite from the Marosticano district that contains peridotites with compositional characteristics of mineral assemblages that provide insight into an unexpected nature of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) of the Adria plate. In contrast to xenoliths from other VVP sites previously studied (i.e., Val d'Adige and Lessini Mts.), Marosticano xenoliths exhibit highly refractory compositions typical of on-craton peridotites. High olivine forsteritic contents (Fo: 91-93) indicate high degrees of partial melting (> 25%) that should have been associated with the complete consumption of clinopyroxene. Major and trace element compositions further link these peridotite fragments to early Proterozoic cratonic mantle. The occurrence of clinopyroxene within such rocks suggests Marosticano clinopyroxene testify to a metasomatic legacy. The i) LREE-enrichments of Marosticano clinopyroxene and ii) the dissolved CO2 mole fractions (up to 1.0) for the inferred clinopyroxene-forming melt are consistent with carbonatite/CO2-rich silicatic melts as metasomatic agents. The latter could be responsible for the equilibrium temperatures (1033-1117 °C) and oxidizing conditions [ΔlogfO2 (FMQ) = - 0.6 - + 1.1], anomalously high for a cratonic environment but similar to the off-craton VVP xenoliths. The cratonic signature and carbonatite/CO2-rich silicate metasomatism found together in the Marosticano mantle xenoliths reveal that ancient features can be preserved in SCLM in a young, active geodynamic setting such as the Adria plate boundary. In this framework Lessini Mts. and Val d'Adige xenoliths could be interpreted as circumcratonic reminiscent domains affected by

  16. Effect of antecedent-hydrological conditions on rainfall triggering of debris flows in ash-fall pyroclastic mantled slopes of Campania (southern Italy) (United States)

    Napolitano, E.; Fusco, F; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; De Vita, P.


    Mountainous areas surrounding the Campanian Plain and the Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy) are among the most risky areas of Italy due to the repeated occurrence of rainfallinduced debris flows along ash-fall pyroclastic soil-mantled slopes. In this geomorphological framework, rainfall patterns, hydrological processes taking place within multi-layered ash-fall pyroclastic deposits and soil antecedent moisture status are the principal factors to be taken into account to assess triggering rainfall conditions and the related hazard. This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental study based on integrated analyses consisting of the reconstruction of physical models of landslides, in situ hydrological monitoring, and hydrological and slope stability modeling, carried out on four representative source areas of debris flows that occurred in May 1998 in the Sarno Mountain Range. The hydrological monitoring was carried out during 2011 using nests of tensiometers and Watermark pressure head sensors and also through a rainfall and air temperature recording station. Time series of measured pressure head were used to calibrate a hydrological numerical model of the pyroclastic soil mantle for 2011, which was re-run for a 12-year period beginning in 2000, given the availability of rainfall and air temperature monitoring data. Such an approach allowed us to reconstruct the regime of pressure head at a daily time scale for a long period, which is representative of about 11 hydrologic years with different meteorological conditions. Based on this simulated time series, average winter and summer hydrological conditions were chosen to carry out hydrological and stability modeling of sample slopes and to identify Intensity- Duration rainfall thresholds by a deterministic approach. Among principal results, the opposing winter and summer antecedent pressure head (soil moisture) conditions were found to exert a significant control on intensity and duration of rainfall

  17. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy). (United States)

    di Tizio, Alessandro; Łuczaj, Łukasz Jacub; Quave, Cassandra L; Redžić, Sulejman; Pieroni, Andrea


    In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic "isles" in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating

  18. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Tizio Alessandro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian, a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions. Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7 were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of

  19. Active tectonic structures and submarine landslides offshore southern Apulia (Italy): a new scenario for the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami (United States)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Iannace, Pietro; Torrente, Maurizio M.


    The southern Apulia foreland recorded a strong (Imax=X MCS) earthquake in 1743 and a concomitant tsunami, which struck the southeastern Salento coast. The seismo-genetic fault and the triggering factors of the tsunami are unknown. Three-dimensional interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles calibrated by wells using a GIS software enabled the recognition of the stratigraphic succession, structural framework, and submarine landslides offshore Salento. A thin Pliocene unit overlying the Mesozoic-Cenozoic substrate is covered by a Pleistocene succession separated by a Middle Pleistocene unconformity that formed during the regional uplift of Salento. The latter gave rise to the morphologic conditions for the deposition of a prograding wedge off the Salento coast, with a shelf break located at 150 m depth. Normal faults, mainly oriented NW-SE, displaced the early Lower Pleistocene succession and are buried by younger deposits. Since the Middle Pleistocene, a compressional event gave rise to the Apulia uplift and large folds and basement-involved reverse faults that are active in the eastern part of Apulia. A huge (58 km3) slump affecting the Middle Pleistocene prograding wedge has been documented offshore the southeast coast of Salento. The proposed geological scenario of the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami is (1) an initial strong earthquake (Imax=X MCS) associated with a thrust fault located in the eastern sector of the Apulia offshore, (2) a shacking-induced large-volume slump offshore Otranto, and (3) landslide-triggered tsunamis that struck the Salento coast.

  20. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti


    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  1. Minero-chemical composition as environmental quality assessment tool of an artificial water reservoir: the case of the "Pietra del Pertusillo" lake (Basilicata, Italia) (United States)

    fortunato, elisabetta; mongelli, giovanni; paternoster, michele; sinisi, rosa


    The Pietra del Pertusillo fresh-water reservoir is an artificial lake located in the High Agri River Valley (Basilicata); its dam was completed in 1963 for producing hydroelectric energy and providing water for human use to Puglia and Basilicata southern Italian regions (approximately 2 million people). Pertusillo lake lies within a national park because of the presence of many special protected areas. This reservoir is a natural laboratory for assessing the sediment pollution from human activities, including: waste-water treatment plants, landfills, farms, treatment oil plant, plastics and other industrial activities. In addition, the Pertusillo reservoir is located in the area of the largest oil field of continental Europe. This anthropogenic pressure may thus represent an impact factor on the environmental equilibrium and consequently the knowledge and control on their quality represents a relevant environmental challenge. This study reports the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical) PhD research focused on the analysis of the lacustrine sediments filling the Pietra del Pertusillo fresh-water reservoir. The lakes and its sediments represent the natural sink for nutrients and possible pollutants which tend to accumulate in relation to the nature and composition of the solid matrix but also the concentration and characteristics of the substances themselves. Moreover the deeper sediments, deposited under undisturbed condition, represent the "historical memory" of the ecosystem. Sub-aqueous lake sediments were investigated in May 2014, sampled using a small platform and a gravity corer (UWITEC, Austria) of 90 mm diameter which allowed to drill 19 cores up to 2 m long from the sediment/water interface. Successively cores were studied and described by using facies analysis techniques; a large number of core samples (147) were collected from the working half of each core, stored in HPDE containers, and frozen at -20

  2. Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern Italy) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin. (United States)

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.


    Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km

  3. Geometric Reconstruction of Bedrock and Overlying Recent Deposits In An Intra-mountain Basin: The Clusone Basin (southern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Caielli, G.; Berra, F.

    Regione Lombardia (Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica) and the National Research Council (CNR-IDPA Milano) acquired seismic reflection profiles in the Clu- sone basin (Middle Val Seriana, Southern Alps). In the study area, the bedrock is rep- resented by late Triassic carbonate units (Formazione di Castro, Dolomia Principale and coeval basinal facies, bordered northward by an important alpine fault) covered by a large amount of recent deposits that covers an area of more than 10 km2, with a maximum thickness of more than two hundreds meters, as documented by available well data. The aim of the seismic prospecting was to identify the sediments layering and the rock basement depth. The acquisition parameters were as follows: group in- terval 10 m; shot interval 5 m; geophone frequency 14 Hz; sample rate 1 ms; record length 2 s, energy source hydrapulse. The cable, with 120 channels, remained dur- ing all the experiment allowing reflection/refraction events acquisition. The data were processed by a standard procedure using PROMAX and SUNT5 processing codes. The statics were calculated starting from the refracted first arrivals using a two layer inversion based on least square optimisation. Standard seismic reflection processing was applied to obtain reflection images and it was integrated with seismic refraction data inversion. Seismic profiles allow to reconstruct both the main reflectors in the recent deposits and the geometry of the bedrock. The first results document a complex history in the drainage patterns of the Clusone basin, allowing to identify, in an intra- mountain basin, drainage directions that in some cases are different from the ones that can be observed today. The integration of well data and seismic profiles in this study of an intra-mountain basin allows on one side the identification of the bedrock geome- tries and, on the other, gives constrains for the reconstruction of the geomorphologic evolution of a sector of a mountain chain.

  4. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy (United States)

    Budetta, P.


    On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno) in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2). The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°), and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°), some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  5. Do we know how to reconcile preservation of landscapes with adaptation of agriculture to climate change? A case-study in a hilly area in Southern Italy (United States)

    Menenti, Massimo; Alfieri, Silvia; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca


    Limited impacts of climate change on agricultural yields are unlikely to induce any significant changes in current landscapes. Larger impacts, unacceptable on economic or social ground, are likely to trigger interventions towards adaptation of agricultural production systems by reducing or removing vulnerabilities to climate variability and change. Such interventions may require a transition to a different production system, i.e. complete substitution of current crops, or displacement of current crops at their current location towards other locations, e.g. at higher elevations within the landscape. We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options for adaptation of a valley in Southern Italy, dominated by vine and olive orchards with a significant presence of wheat. We have first estimated the climatic requirements of several varieties for each dominant species. Next, to identify options for adaptation we have evaluated the compatibility of such requirements with indicators of a reference (current) climate and of future climate. This climate - compatibility assessment was done for each soil unit within the valley, leading to maps of locations where each crop is expected to be compatible with climate. This leads to identify both potential crop substitutions within the entire valley and crop displacements from one location to another within the valley. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. We evaluated the adaptive capacity of the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to describe the hydrological conditions in response to climate for each

  6. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

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    P. Budetta


    Full Text Available On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2. The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°, and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°, some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  7. Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy). (United States)

    Calia, A.; Giannotta, M. T.; Masini, N.; Quarta, G.; Persico, R.


    Non destructive testing has been gaining a large interest in the field of the diagnostics applied to the cultural heritage. The exceptional and brittle nature of the investigated structures, in fact, discourages invasive investigation techniques even more than in other applications. In particular, non-destructive testing can be exploited for the detection of fractures or for the investigation of pillars and columns within churches of particular historical and/or architectural relevance. This has been recently done in the cathedral of Matera [1], and previously in the crypt of the Romanesque cathedral of Otranto [2]. In both cases, integrated prospecting has been performed, where GPR data have been considered together with acoustic sounding or resistive measurements and even microclimatic investigation. Integrated prospecting is a good help to perform not only the diagnosis of the structure but also its restoring and continuative preservation. In this contribution, we propose a case study where integrated methodologies have been adopted for the analysis of the conservation state of the architectural elements which constitute the church of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro, in Brindisi (Southern Italy). This church is a precious artifact of medieval age, which recently underwent restoration works. IBAM-CNR has been put in charge of the task to analyse the constitutive materials, the superficial finishing (paintings, patinas, plasters etc.) and the causes and the products of the decay. The information retrieved from the analysis of the materials have been fruitfully integrated with non-destructive testing of the structure. Some results will be shown at the conference. References [1] N. Masini, R. Persico, A. Guida, A. Pagliuca, "A Multifrequency and Multisensor Approach for the Study and the Restoration of Monuments: the Case of the Cathedral of Matera.", Advances in Geoscience, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2008. [2] G. Leucci, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Detection of Fracture From GPR

  8. Molecular detection of Cyclospora in water, soil, vegetables and humans in southern Italy signals a need for improved monitoring by health authorities. (United States)

    Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Koehler, Anson V; Papini, R; Normanno, G; Lacasella, V; Lonigro, A; Gasser, Robin B


    To date, in Europe, there is scant information on the occurrence of Cyclospora in water from treatment plants and in humans, and no data are available on soil or fresh plant products. Here, we undertook the first molecular survey of Cyclospora in multiple biological matrices collected from the Apulia region of southern Italy. Samples of irrigation water from four municipal treatment plants, eight different types of vegetables or fruit (cucumber, lettuce, fennel, celery, tomato, melon, endive and chicory) and soil from the same farms on which these plants were grown, as well as faecal samples from humans living in the same region were tested by qPCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Cyclospora was detected in 15.5% of all 213 samples tested. Specifically, this protist was detected in (i) treated water (21.3% of 94 samples), well water (6.2% of 16), but not drinking water (0% of 3); (ii) soil (11.8% of 51 samples) and vegetables (12.2% of 49), with the highest prevalence (18.7%) on fennel; and (iii) human stools (27.5% of 40 samples). In environmental and food samples, Cyclospora was detected mainly in autumn and was significantly more prevalent in the faeces from humans of 40-50 years of age. This is the first comprehensive molecular survey of Cyclospora in environmental, food and human faecal samples in Europe. These data suggest that irrigation water, soil and vegetables might be contaminated by Cyclospora cayetanensis, which might represent a source of infection to humans in the study area and calls for monitoring by health authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of thermo-rheological properties of the crust beneath Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the modulation of the ground deformation pattern (United States)

    Castaldo, R.; Gola, G.; Santilano, A.; De Novellis, V.; Pepe, S.; Manzo, M.; Manzella, A.; Tizzani, P.


    In this paper we develop a model of the ground deformation behaviour occurred at Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the 1992-2010 time period. The model is employed to investigate the forces and physical parameters of the crust controlling the subsidence of the Island. To this aim, we integrate and homogenize in a Finite Element (FE) environment a large amount of data derived from several and different observation techniques (i.e., geological, geophysical and remote sensing). In detail, the main steps of the multiphysics model are: (i) the generation of a 3D geological model of the crust beneath the Island by merging the available geological and geophysical information; (ii) the optimization of a 3D thermal model by exploiting the thermal measurements available in literature; (iii) the definition of the 3D Brittle/Ductile transition by using the temperature distribution of the crust and the physical information of the rocks; (iv) the optimization of the ground deformation velocity model (that takes into account the rheological stratification) by considering the spatial and temporal information detected via satellite multi-orbit C-Band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements acquired during the 1992-2010 time period. The achieved results allow investigating the physical process responsible for the observed ground deformation pattern. In particular, they reveal how the rheology modulates the spatial and temporal evolution of the long-term subsidence phenomenon, highlighting a coupling effect of the viscosities of the rocks and the gravitational loading of the volcano edifice. Moreover, the achieved results provide a very detailed and realistic velocity field image of the subsurface crust of the Ischia Island Volcano.

  10. Survey on the presence of non-dioxine-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in south Mediterranean coasts (Sicily, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Calvaruso, Enza; Pantano, Licia; Cascio, Giovanni Lo; Randisi, Barbara; Macaluso, Andrea; Vazzana, Mirella; Caracappa, Giulia; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo


    A total of 71 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy) were examined for non-dioxine like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) levels in muscle and adipose tissue by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method. The results revealed 6 high-indicator congener (∑ 6 PCB IND ) levels in 45% of the loggerhead turtles examined, with mean values of 980.39 ± 2508.39 ng/g wet weight in adipose tissue and 102.53 ± 238.58 ng/g wet weight in muscle tissue. The hexachloro and heptachloro PCB congeners were the most abundant in both the sample types. The highest NDL-PCB levels were reached in an adipose tissue sample of a loggerhead turtle of 80 kg stranded along the coasts of Termini Imerese (14 183.85 ng/g wet wt). No significant correlation was found between modified Fulton's K values of the loggerhead turtles and PCB contents (S = 47 151, p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between sexes (W = 365, p >  0.05). The PCB levels found in the present study were much higher than those found in the literature. The present study is the first report on the existence of NDL-PCBs in loggerhead turtles stranded in Sicilian coasts confirming C. caretta as a valuable indicator of contaminant exposure in the marine environment because of their specific biological and ecological characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2997-3002. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Sedimentary evolution of the Mesozoic continental redbeds using geochemical and mineralogical tools: the case of Upper Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic Monte di Gioiosa mudrocks (Sicily, southern Italy) (United States)

    Perri, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Mongelli, Giovanni; Cullers, Robert L.


    The continental redbeds from the Internal Domains of the central-western Mediterranean Chains have an important role in the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic reconstructions of the Alpine circum-Mediterranean orogen evolution since these redbeds mark the Triassic-Jurassic rift-valley stage of Tethyan rifting. The composition and the sedimentary evolution of the Middle Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic continental redbeds of the San Marco d'Alunzio Unit (Peloritani Mountains, Southern Italy), based on mineralogical and chemical analyses, suggests that the studied mudrock sediments share common features with continental redbeds that constitute the Internal Domains of the Alpine Mediterranean Chains. Phyllosilicates are the main components in the mudrocks. The 10 Å-minerals (illite and micas), the I-S mixed layers, and kaolinite are the most abundant phyllosilicates. The amount of illitic layers in I-S mixed layers coupled with the illite crystallinity values (IC) are typical of high degree of diagenesis, corresponding to a lithostatic/tectonic loading of about 4-5 km. The mineralogical assemblage coupled with the A-CN-K plot suggest post-depositional K-enrichments. Palaeoweathering proxies (PIA and CIW) record intense weathering at the source area. Further, the studied sediments are affected by reworking and recycling processes and, as consequence, it is likely these proxies monitor cumulative effect of weathering. The climate in the early Jurassic favoured recycling and weathering occurred under hot, episodically humid climate with a prolonged dry season. The source-area is the low-grade Paleozoic metasedimentary basement. Mafic supply is minor but not negligible as suggested by provenance proxies.

  12. Sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria and Sardinia suggest spatially differentiated palaeo-vegetation patterns in southern Italy during the Last Glacial period (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zucca, Claudio; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Zwanzig, Lisa; Madrau, Salvatore; Andreucci, Stefano; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Kadereit, Annette; Scarciglia, Fabio; Brückner, Helmut


    Several lakes on the southern Italian peninsula provide valuable palaeoenvironmental archives of the Last Glacial period. These archives include, e.g., the long high-resolution record from varved lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio, the bigger one of two maar lakes situated on top of Mt. Vulture. Its pollen record indicates (1) temperate deciduous forest during MIS5.2-MIS5.1 (St. Germain 2); (2) frequent vegetation fluctuations, then Artemisia steppe during MIS5.1-MIS4; (3) alternations between open steppe (stadials) and wooded steppe (interstadials) during MIS3; and (4) open steppe during MIS2 (Last Glacial Maximum). However, only few palaeosol records of this period have been reported from southern Italy in the literature so far. Such records would allow for gaining insight also into spatial patterns of the vegetation cover during this period that should have formed, e.g., according to relief, elevation, and continentality gradient (related to the much lower coastline during the last glacial period). So far, we have studied three sediment-palaeosol successions in southern Italy, two in the Calabria region, and one in north-western Sardinia. All of them have developed in alluvial fan deposits resting on littoral sediments of the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5). The southernmost succession studied is located near Lazzaro (south of Reggio di Calabria). It is exposed in an alluvial fan overlying the MIS5.5 terrace. Due to strong tectonic uplift (1.3 m ka-1) the alluvial fan has been dissected by the same creek which previously had built it up. Therefore, its internal structure is exposed, exhibiting a detailed sediment-palaeosol sequence. The palaeosols are mainly characterized by accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM), bioturbation and secondary carbonates. They represent Chernozem- and Phaeozem-like soils that most likely formed under steppe to forest steppe. SOM of the two uppermost Lazzaro palaeosols was 14C-dated to 26.8-28.8 ka cal BP and 28

  13. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Mittempergher, Silvia; Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea


    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution in outcrops of exhumed fault zones is of fundamental importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation. We present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM), developed on the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ), a well exposed strike-slip fault in the Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). The GLFZ has been exhumed from ca. 8-10 km depth, and consists of hundreds of individual seismogenic slip surfaces lined by green cataclasites (crushed wall rocks cemented by the hydrothermal epidote and K-feldspar) and black pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts, considered as a marker for seismic slip). A digital model of selected outcrop exposures was reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs processed with VisualSFM software. The resulting DOM has a resolution up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Most of the outcrop was imaged using images each one covering a 1 x 1 m2 area, while selected structural features, such as sidewall ripouts or stepovers, were covered with higher-resolution images covering 30 x 40 cm2 areas.Image processing algorithms were preliminarily tested using the ImageJ-Fiji package, then a workflow in Matlab was developed to process a large collection of images sequentially. Particularly in detailed 30 x 40 cm images, cataclasites and hydrothermal veins were successfully identified using spectral analysis in RGB and HSV color spaces. This allows mapping the network of cataclasites and veins which provided the pathway for hydrothermal fluid circulation, and also the volume of mineralization, since we are able to measure the thickness of cataclasites and veins on the outcrop surface. The spectral signature of pseudotachylyte veins is indistinguishable from that of biotite grains in the wall rock (tonalite), so we tested morphological analysis tools to discriminate

  14. Environmental and climatic conditions at a potential Glacial refugial site of tree species near the Southern Alpine glaciers. New insights from multiproxy sedimentary studies at Lago della Costa (Euganean Hills, Northeastern Italy) (United States)

    Kaltenrieder, Petra; Belis, Claudio A.; Hofstetter, Simone; Ammann, Brigitta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Tinner, Willy


    It has been hypothesized that refugia of thermophilous tree species were located in Northern Italy very close to the Alps, though, this hypothesis has yet to be tested thoroughly. In contrast to Central and Southern Italy with its relative wealth of data, only a few fragmentary records are currently available from Northern Italy for the last Glacial (Würm, Weichselian). Our new study site Lago della Costa lies adjacent to the catchment of the megafans of the Alpine forelands and the braided rivers of the Northeastern Po Plain that have so far inhibited the recovery of continuous Glacial and Late-Glacial records. We analyze pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal and ostracods to reconstruct the vegetation, fire and lake history for the period 33,000-16,000 cal. BP. We compare our data with Glacial records from Southern Europe to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between these potential refugial areas. A comparison with independent paleoclimatic proxies allows to assess potential linkages between environmental and climatic variability. New macrofossil and pollen data at Lago della Costa unambiguously document the local persistence of boreal tree taxa such as Larix decidua and Betula tree species around the study site during the last Glacial. The regular occurrence of pollen of temperate trees in the organic lake sediments (fine-detritus calcareous gyttja) suggests that temperate taxa such as Corylus avellana, Quercus deciduous, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, most likely survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at favorable sites in the Euganean Hills. The percentage values of temperate trees are comparable with those from Southern Europe (e.g. Monticchio in Southern Italy). We conclude that the Euganean Hills were one of the northernmost refugial areas of temperate taxa in Europe. However, the relative and absolute abundances of pollen of temperate trees are highly variable. Pollen-inferred declines of temperate tree

  15. Le biomasse come opportunità per il territorio: analisi tecnico-economica per la Regione Basilicata

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    Severino Romano


    Full Text Available In Basilicata region there is a considerable amount of unused wood as well as the capacity to use it as feedstock for the production of bioenergy. Thus, the supply of renewable energy could be increased through greater utilization of forest biomass. However, for a better planning of the production and processing chain, the energy and forestry sectors require better estimates of the availability of unused roundwood and residues. The aim of the research was the development of a model for the spatial evaluation of biomass quantities obtainable from forestland. The results obtained point out a significant amounts of biomass distributed on most of the territory; b good opportunities related to white certificate trading and c potential of business creation, entrepreneurship and local employment.

  16. Faba Greens, Globe Artichoke’s Offshoots, Crenate Broomrape and Summer Squash Greens: Unconventional Vegetables of Puglia (Southern Italy With Good Quality Traits

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    Massimiliano Renna


    Full Text Available Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. [L.] scolymus Hayek, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. are widely cultivated for their immature inflorescences, fruits and seeds, respectively. Nevertheless, in some areas of Puglia (Southern Italy, other organs of these species are traditionally used as vegetables, instead of being considered as by-products. Offshoots (so-called cardoni or carducci of globe artichoke, produced during the vegetative growing cycle and removed by common cultural procedures, are used like to the cultivated cardoons (C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC. The stems, petioles, flowers and smaller leaves of summer squash are used as greens (so-called cime di zucchini, like other leafy vegetables such as chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.. Also the plant apex of faba bean, about 5–10 cm long, obtained from the green pruning, are used as greens (so-called cime di fava like spinach leaves. Moreover, crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forssk., a root parasite plant that produces devastating effects on many crops (mostly legumes, is used like asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. to prepare several traditional dishes. In this study ethnobotanical surveys and quality assessment of these unconventional vegetables were performed. For their content of fiber, offshoots of globe artichokes can be considered a useful food to bowel. Summer squash greens could be recommended as a vegetable to use especially in the case of hypoglycemic diets considering both content and composition of their carbohydrates. For their low content of nitrate, faba greens could be recommended as a substitute of nitrate-rich leafy vegetables. Crenate broomrape shows a high antioxidant activity and may be considered as a very nutritious agri-food product. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that offshoots of globe artichoke, summer squash greens, faba greens and crenate broomrape have good

  17. Early dolomitization in the Lower Cretaceous shallow-water carbonates of Southern Apennines (Italy): Clues about palaeoclimatic fluctuations in western Tethys (United States)

    Vinci, Francesco; Iannace, Alessandro; Parente, Mariano; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio


    A multidisciplinary study of the dolomitized bodies present in the Lower Cretaceous platform carbonates of Mt. Faito (Southern Apennines - Italy) was carried out in order to explore the connection between early dolomite formation and fluctuating climate conditions. The Berriasian-Aptian investigated succession is 466 m thick and mainly consists of shallow-water lagoonal limestones with frequent dolomite caps. The dolomitization intensity varies along the succession and reaches its peak in the upper Hauterivian-lower Barremian interval, where it is present a completely dolomitized interval about 100-m-thick. Field relations, petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the analyzed dolomite bodies allowed identifying two populations of early dolomites, a fine-medium crystalline (FMdol) and a coarse crystalline dolomite (Cdol), both interpreted as the product of mesohaline water reflux. According to our interpretation, FMdol precipitated from concentrated brines in the very early stage of the reflux process, producing typical sedimentary features as dolomite caps. In the successive step of the process, the basin-ward 'latent' reflux precipitated Cdol from less concentrated brines. A peculiar feature of the studied succession is the great consistency between stratigraphic distribution of dolomite bodies and their geochemical signature. The completely dolomitized Hauterivian-Barremian interval, in fact, is characterized by geochemical values suggesting an origin from distinctly saltier brines. Considering that the observed near-surface dolomitization process is controlled by physical and chemical parameters reflecting the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during dolomite formation, we propose that the stratigraphically controlled dolomitization intensity reflects periodic fluctuations in the salinity of dolomitizing fluid, in turn controlled by long-term climate oscillations. The present work highlights that the stratigraphic distribution of early

  18. Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city. (United States)

    Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano


    Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable

  19. Damage caused by hydrological extremes in a region of southern Italy: comparison between the period 2002-2012 and the past century (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora


    The concept of extreme hydrological event should be seen in a relative way, depending on the region for which it is defined, the parameters and the type of data utilized to assess it, and mainly taking into account the length of the period basing on which it is assessed. Measured data concerning rainfall and river flow, which allow statistical analysis of numerical values and assessment of events frequency, can be available for different periods, according to both the study area and the country; nevertheless, the length of the measurement series rarely exceeds 100 years. Thus, the extrapolation to the future of events trend, frequency, seasonality are based on a relatively short and recent period and even the "magnitude" and the classification of "extreme events" can be biased by the length of the observation period. Thus these characteristics may substantially change if their assessment is based on a wider temporal window. Especially in un-gauged basins and concerning severest events, historical data cannot provide systematically measured parameters but they can supply proxy data which allow enlarging the observation period, permitting a better weighing of both recent and old events. The present research is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning phenomena as floods, flash floods and landslides triggered by extreme meteorological events in Calabria (Southern Italy) since 19th century. This database is made of approximately 11,000 records and it includes data coming from different sources as newspapers, archives of national and regional agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. The recent uploading of data concerning the effects caused in Calabria by these phenomena during the decade 2002-2012 allowed us to analyse a long and updated historical series of events. The aim is to compare -both in terms triggering rainfall and their

  20. Climate, environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence (United States)

    Sadori, Laura; Giraudi, Carlo; Masi, Alessia; Magny, Michel; Ortu, Elena; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Izdebski, Adam


    This paper examines the interrelationship between the natural and human history of Sicily over the last 2000 years. It presents a close comparison of the data from the key multi-proxy site of Lago di Pergusa - located inland in the eastern part of Sicily - with the existing archaeological and textual evidence on the socio-economic processes. The article also includes a review of the available natural proxy archives from the Central Mediterranean. On the basis of the isotope and pollen data from the Lago di Pergusa core PRG2, we identified two humid periods (ca. 450-750 AD and ca. 1400-1800 AD) as well as a dry one (ca. 1100-1350 AD); our evidence corresponds closely with other environmental palaeoclimate proxies from the Mediterranean region. In our synthesis of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence from southern Italy, we argue that during both periods of increased humidity - that is during the late antique-Byzantine times and during the late medieval and early modern periods - intense agricultural use of the Sicilian landscape developed on an unprecedented scale. This in turn contributed to the impressive demographic and economic expansion visible during these periods. A sudden period of aridity followed the first of these eras of humidity-related agricultural growth. This climatic shift, dated to around 750 AD, corresponds to a decrease in synanthropic taxa and a recovery of arboreal vegetation. We argue that in this case a climatic change contributed to socio-economic decline. Moreover, as this change occurred prior to the Arab invasion of Sicily in AD 827, the environmental processes may help to explain the collapse of Byzantine society on Sicily which, in turn made the Muslim conquest possible. After this event, there occurred a longer period of agricultural decline, lasting until around 1000 AD, after which we see the first signs of a slow recovery. Ongoing research in nearby archaeological sites will help defining if it was a local

  1. Exploring the potential for using210Pbexmeasurements within a re-sampling approach to document recent changes in soil redistribution rates within a small catchment in southern Italy. (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Desmond E; Cogliandro, Vanessa; Callegari, Giovanni


    In recent years, the fallout radionuclides caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and unsupported lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex) have been successfully used to document rates of soil erosion in many areas of the world, as an alternative to conventional measurements. By virtue of their different half-lives, these two radionuclides are capable of providing information related to different time windows. 137 Cs measurements are commonly used to generate information on mean annual erosion rates over the past ca. 50-60 years, whereas 210 Pb ex measurements are able to provide information relating to a longer period of up to ca. 100 years. However, the time-integrated nature of the estimates of soil redistribution provided by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements can be seen as a limitation, particularly when viewed in the context of global change and interest in the response of soil redistribution rates to contemporary climate change and land use change. Re-sampling techniques used with these two fallout radionuclides potentially provide a basis for providing information on recent changes in soil redistribution rates. By virtue of the effectively continuous fallout input, of 210 Pb, the response of the 210 Pb ex inventory of a soil profile to changing soil redistribution rates and thus its potential for use with the re-sampling approach differs from that of 137 Cs. Its greater sensitivity to recent changes in soil redistribution rates suggests that 210 Pb ex may have advantages over 137 Cs for use in the re-sampling approach. The potential for using 210 Pb ex measurements in re-sampling studies is explored further in this contribution. Attention focuses on a small (1.38 ha) forested catchment in southern Italy. The catchment was originally sampled for 210 Pb ex measurements in 2001 and equivalent samples were collected from points very close to the original sampling points again in 2013. This made it possible to compare the estimates of mean annual erosion related to two different time windows. This

  2. De “ciudadanos” a “sujetos”: los inmigrantes en el campo del sur de Italia (From citizens to subjects: immigrants in the country of Southern Italy

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    Carlo Colloca


    Full Text Available ResumenLas siguientes páginas ofrecen observaciones sobre la vulnerabilidad social y económica de los inmigrantes temporeros, en concreto los asentados en las zonas rurales del sur de Italia. A continuación, se expone un análisis sobre los fuertes conflictos entre los lugareños y los inmigrantes, prestando especial atención a las zonas rurales de Gioia Tauro y Rosarno. Esta última (con poco más de 15.000 habitantes cuenta con la presencia de inmigrantes desde principios de la década de los noventa, para la cosecha de cítricos. La mayoría de los inmigrantes provienen del África Subsahariana. Al principio, el presente artículo pretende realizar un análisis crítico de lo que arrojan los datos, centrado en la transformación de la mano de obra agrícola, el estilo de vida de los inmigrantes y algunos aspectos socioculturales típicos del medio social. Por último, examinaremos la cuestión del papel de la inmigración desde el punto de vista de un proceso-concepto a través del cual se puede analizar la relación entre la ciudad y el campo y el cambio socioterritorial en clave cosmopolita.AbstractThe following pages deal with remarks on social and economical vulnerability of seasonal immigrants, in particular the ones settled in rural areas of Southern Italy. An analysis concerning the strong conflicts between the natives and the immigrants follows, the main attention being given to Gioia Tauro zone and to Rosarno rural area. The latter (a bit over 15.000 inhabitants has included immigrants’ presence since the early 1990s, on citrus crop. Most immigrants are from South-Sahara region. At first, the paper aims at pointing out the critical analysis of what emerged from data, paying attention to rural labour transformation, to immigrants’ ways of life and to some social-cultural aspects, typical of the social environment. Finally, the question concerns immigration role from the point of view of concept-process through which it is

  3. An experience of knowledge co-production for setting up landslide risk management processes in a critical infrastructure: the case of Campania Region (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Roca Collell, Marta; Uzielli, Marco; Van Ruiten, Kees; Mercogliano, Paola; Ciervo, Fabio; Reder, Alfredo


    In Campania Region (Southern Italy), expected increases in heavy rainfall events under the effect of climate changes and demographic pressure could entail a growth of occurrence of weather induced landslides and associated damages. Indeed, already in recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling the slopes of a large part of the Region have been affected by numerous events often causing victims and damages to infrastructures serving the urban centers. Due to the strategic relevance of the area, landslide events affecting volcanic layers in Campania Region are one of the five case studies investigated in the FP7 European Project INTACT about the impacts of extreme weather on critical infrastructure. The main aim of INTACT project is to increase the resilience of critical infrastructures (CI) facing extreme weather events improving the awareness of stakeholders and asset managers about such phenomena and their potential variations due to Climate Changes and providing tools to support risk management strategies. A WIKI has been designed as a remote support for all stages of the risk process through brief theoretical explanations (in Wiki style) about tools and methods proposed and reports on the findings and hints returned by case studies investigations. In order to have a product tailored to the needs and background of CI owners, managers and policy makers, an intense effort of knowledge co-production between researchers and stakeholders have been carried out in different case studies through questionnaires, meetings, workshops and/or 1-to-1 interviews. This work presents the different tools and approaches adopted to facilitate the exchange with stakeholders in the Campanian case study such as the "Storytelling approach", aiming to stress the need for a comprehensive and overall approach to the issue between the different disaster management phases (mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery) and actors; the CIRCLE approach developed by Deltares, partner in INTACT

  4. Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern Italy (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco


    Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Southern Italy) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the Campi Flegrei area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented

  5. A critical analysis of the long-term impact (1936-2015) of grazing management on Land Degradation in a marginal, rural community of Southern Italy (United States)

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna; De Paola, Velia; Coluzzi, Rosa; Imbrenda, Vito; Simoniello, Tiziana


    Unsustainable grazing, one of the most diffused problem in land management at the global scale, is considered as a serious pressure on natural landscapes. Particularly in the Mediterranean agroforestry landscapes, unsustainable grazing is regarded as a key factor of degradation processes, mostly determined and exacerbated by evolving socioeconomic and environmental conditions at the local scale, revised agricultural policies and changing international market scenario. The Common Agricultural Policy set at the European level plays a powerful and twofold role in shaping the dynamics at local level. Measures adopted for Less Favoured Areas, for example, have stimulated grazing intensification based on financial supports whose effectiveness is shaped by the socioeconomic local context. At the same time, pasture-based livestock farming systems are considered priority habitats preserving traditional and high natural value farmlands in Mediterranean Europe. A sustainable management of pastures may also contribute to limit soil erosion and to mitigate land degradation. This paper critically analyses the drivers of change and the challenges facing a Mediterranean upland pastoralist systems in Southern Italy along a period of almost 80 years (1936-2015). The detailed case study highlights the linkages between the evolution of landscape, grazing management, locally adapted animal breeds and social capital. Historical forest maps, aerial imagery and satellite data at different spatial resolutions have been used to trace land use trajectories occurred during the investigated period within the study area. The integration in a GIS environment of the obtained results with diachronic detailed farm management surveys and semi-structured interviews, shows a strong link between land use changes and economic performances mainly connected to policy orientation. Along the time period considered, different adaptation strategies adopted by local actors are analysed leading to the present

  6. Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain - southern Italy) (United States)

    Ciro Aucelli, Pietro Patrizio; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Incontri, Pietro; Rizzo, Angela; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Benassai, Guido; Buonocore, Berardino; Pappone, Gerardo


    Interdisciplinary studies of the last years highlight that the Italian coasts are significantly subject to retreat and to inundation by sea ingression due to natural and anthropic causes. In this study, the effects of future relative sea level have been evaluated for the Volturno River Plain, one of the widest coastal plain in southern Italy. The plain is characterized by high economical and ecological value, for the presence of farm activities, tourist structures and wetland protected zones. The study area is potentially prone to coastal flooding due to its very low topography and because it is affected by a severe subsidence, which emphasize the local effect of sea level rise due to the ongoing climate changes. In accordance with the guidelines of the MEDFLOOD project, the areas prone to inundation in the years 2065 and 2100 have been evaluated by comparing the future topographical information and expected relative sea level scenarios. The local Vertical Ground Displacements have been derived by PS-InSAR processing data whilst the mean values of the scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 provided by the IPCC (2014) have been used as future sea level projections in 2065 and 2100. The PS-InSar data elaboration shows that the area affected by subsidence corresponds to 35% of the Volturno plain and that the annual rate of the phenomenon ranges between -1 and -25 mm/yr. The inundation analysis, based on the classification of the areas in four hazard classes, indicates that in 2065 the zones located below the sea level will increase approximately of 50% respect to the present conditions, while between 2065 and 2100 the increase can be at least of 60% (IPCC, RCP 8.5 scenarios). Considering the socio-economical and ecological exposure, evaluated following the EUROSION project guidelines, the coastal flooding risk maps have been produced. Almost 8.2 km2 and 14.4 km2 of the investigated area has to be considered subject to very high marine inundation risk in 2065 and 2100

  7. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography 3D applications for the deck evaluation of the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, Italy (United States)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Di Napoli, Rosario; Loperte, Antonio; Di Cesare, Antonio; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo


    An extensive experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to assess the status of the 'Ponte sul Basento' (1967-1976), in the town of Potenza (Basilicata region, southern Italy), better known as the Musmeci bridge. Architecturally, the bridge is a considerable reinforced 20th century concrete structure that was designed and built by the Italian architect Sergio Musmeci (1926-1981). Moreover, the bridge represents an important element of the infrastructural network, linking the city centre to the Potenza-Sicignano highway, crossing the Basento river and the railway close to the main train station of the city. Recently, due to ageing and continuous and significant traffic, the bridge started to be affected by several problems such as water infiltration. Within the presented study, a widespread ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey has been designed to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the bridge deck (Gerber saddles, internal stiffening walls, pillar supports) and detect the presence of defects or damage due to water infiltration and traffic fatigue. Concerning this, a 900 MHz 3D GPR survey has been performed along a zone of one of the lanes on the road surface. Moreover, a second 1500 MHz 3D survey has been carried out at the bottom of the bridge deck in order to gain detailed information about an important structural element of the bridge, the Gerber saddle. Both results have been processed following two approaches: the first a classical time-domain processing session based on commercial software and the use of migration; the second in microwave tomography, an advanced frequency domain automatic PC-based inversion algorithm. In this paper, we present a comparative interpretation of both kinds of processed results, and provide considerations about the investigated structures.

  8. Banking in southern Europe


    Lazarević Žarko


    The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begi...

  9. Marine ostracod turnover tracks orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition: the case study of the Valle di Manche section (Calabria, southern Italy) (United States)

    Rossi, Veronica; Scarponi, Daniele; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia


    Ostracods, small crustaceans living in almost every aquatic depositional setting, are widely used in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions due to their well-known ecological sensitivity. A close connection between the composition of ostracod fauna and the Milankovitch climate-eustatic variability has been documented in several Plio-Pleistocene marine sections of the Central Mediterranean area. The Valle di Manche section (VdM; Calabria, southern Italy), one of the suitable candidates to host the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ionian Stage-Middle Pleistocene, represents an ideal venue where to investigate ostracod turnover in relation to orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes, being firmly constrained in time and well documented by a number of independent climatic proxy. A high-resolution, quantitative analysis of the ostracod fauna has been undertaken on the middle part of the VdM, ca. 30 m-thick and showing two T-R cycles developed at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition (late MIS 21 to early MIS 18). Within each cycle, a relatively thin, fining-upward transgressive muddy unit is overlain by gradually coarsening upward and more expanded regressive silty to sand packages. A total of 40 samples have been selected to characterise the whole spectrum of lithofacies and detect high-frequency palaeoenvironmental variations especially within homogeneous clayey stratigraphic intervals. Taxa typical of circalittoral (>70/100 m) depths (e.g., Bosquetina dentata, Cytherella vulgatella, Cytheropteron monoceros, Pterygocythereis ceratoptera and Krithe species), commonly accompanied by the lower circalittoral-bathyal species Henryhowella sarsii, occur within the fine-grained units developed during the full interglacials of MIS 21 and MIS 19. Furthermore, ostracod assemblages document that the oxygen availability at the sea floor changed during MIS 19. In contrast, a less-diversified ostracod fauna dominated by Aurila convexa, a species preferring

  10. How can crop intra-specific biodiversity mitigate the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change? A case study on durum wheat in Southern Italy (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Lorenzi, Fracesca


    Climate evolution may lead to changes in the amount and distribution of precipitations and to reduced water availability, with constraints on the cultivation of some crops. Recently, foreseen crop responses to climate change raise a crucial question for the agricultural stakeholders: are the current production systems resilient to this change? An active debate is in progress about the definition of adaptation of agricultural systems, particularly about the integrated assessment of climate stressors, vulnerability and resilece towards the evaluation of climate impact on agricultural systems. Climate change represents a risk for rain-fed agricultural systems, where irrigations cannot compensate reductions in precipitations. The intra-specific biodiversity of crops can be a resource towards adaptation. The knowledge of the responses to environmental conditions (temperature and water availability) of different cultivars can allow to identify options for adaptation to future climate. Simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, driven by different climate scenarios, can describe present and foreseen soil water regime. The present work deals with a case-study on the adaptive capacity of durum wheat to climate change. The selected study area is a hilly region in Southern Italy (Fortore Beneventano, Campania Region). Two climate cases were studied: "reference" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was run to determine the water regime in some soil units, representative of the soil variability in the study area. From model output, the Relative Evapotranspiration Deficit (RETD) was determined as an indicator of hydrological conditions during the crop growing period for each year and climate case; and periods with higher frequencies of soil water deficits were identified. The timing of main crop development stages was calculated. The occurrence of water deficit at different

  11. Inter-Comparison of Carbon Content in PM2.5 and PM10 Collected at Five Measurement Sites in Southern Italy

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    Adelaide Dinoi


    Full Text Available A field campaign was performed simultaneously at five measurement sites, having different characteristics, to characterize the spatial distribution of the carbonaceous content in atmospheric aerosol in Southern Italy during the winter season. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC were measured at urban (Naples, suburban (Lecce, coastal/marine (Lamezia Terme and Capo Granitola, and remote (Monte Curcio locations. OC and EC mass concentrations were quantified by the thermal-optical transmission (TOT method, in 24-h PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected on quartz fiber filters, from 25 November 2015 to 1 January 2016. The different sites showed marked differences in the average concentrations of both carbonaceous species. Typically, OC average levels (±standard deviation were higher at the sites of Naples (12.8 ± 5.1 and 11.8 ± 4.6 μg/m3 and Lecce (10.7 ± 5.8 and 9.0 ± 4.7 μg/m3, followed by Lamezia Terme (4.3 ± 2.0 and 4.0 ± 1.9 μg/m3, Capo Granitola (2.3 ± 1.2 and 1.7 ± 1.1 μg/m3, and Monte Curcio (0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.3 μg/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Similarly, EC average levels (±standard deviation were higher at the urban sites of Naples (2.3 ± 1.1 and 1.8 ± 0.5 μg/m3 and Lecce (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 0.7 μg/m3, followed by Lamezia Terme (0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/m3, Capo Granitola (0.3 ± 0.3 and 0.3 ± 0.2 μg/m3, and Monte Curcio (0.06 ± 0.04 and 0.05 ± 0.03 μg/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. An opposite trend was observed for the OC/EC ratios ranging from 6.4 to 15.9 in PM10 and from 6.4 to 15.5 in PM2.5 with lower values in urban sites compared to remote sites. Different OC-EC correlations, 0.36 < R2 < 0.90, were found in four observation sites. This behavior suggests the contributions of similar sources and common atmospheric processes in both fractions. No correlations were observed between OC and EC at the site of Naples. The average secondary organic carbon (SOC concentrations, quantified

  12. A System Dynamic Analysis approach to deal with complexity in water resources management: the case of groundwater protection in the Apulia region (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Pluchinotta, Irene; Brugnach, Marcela; Pagano, Alessandro


    The increasing complexity and uncertainty of water resources management is claiming changes in the role of tools and methods aiming to support decision makers. Complexity due to the densely interconnected networks in which decision-actors operate. Uncertainty arises because of the fact that whatever action other decision agents involved in the network are going to do is largely unknown. In these complex and uncertain environments, it is very difficult to determine how effective a policy will be. Part of the difficulty resides in the fact that any action choice will influence and be influenced by the actions choices of the other actors. While these interactions among a diversity of actors may contribute to the development of beneficial adaptive behaviours, they can also result in dysfunctional dynamics, often leading to policy resistance. Action choices are not neutral, but commensurate with the problem frames held by the actors making the decisions. Our research hypothesis is that neglecting differences in problem framings leads decision makers to oversimplify the complexity of the interactions within the system to be managed, and to act as if the system is as simple as the decision makers presume it to be. Therefore, decision tools and methodologies should support the decision makers to become aware of the complexity of the interaction space, to disclose and analyse the existing interconnections, and to govern those interactions. In these circumstances, decision makers could take advantage from the interactional nature of the knowledge creation process. In order to demonstrate the research hypothesis, a methodology based on System Dynamic Modelling (SDM) was implemented in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy) to support the implementation of the groundwater (GW) protection policy. Due to the increasing of GW withdrawal for irrigation purposes, several phenomena are drastically reducing the quality of the GW resources. In order to protect the quality of GW, the

  13. A Europe-wide system for assessing the quality of rivers using macroinvertebrates: the AQEM Project* and its importance for southern Europe (with special emphasis on Italy

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    Joanna L. KEMP


    Full Text Available The AQEM Project aims to develop a Europe-wide system for monitoring the ecological quality of rivers using macroinvertebrates, to satisfy the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. Three main types of anthropogenic perturbation are being investigated: morphological degradation, water (organic pollution and acidification (the last is not under investigation in Italy. The selection of reference and impaired study sites is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the problems encountered when defining reference conditions. The initial stages of the project highlighted the lack of a Europe-wide definition of river types. The future development of such a typology from the AQEM database is discussed. The standard AQEM data gathering methods are presented, from background information about sites to the microhabitat-based macroinvertebrate sampling method. The extended fieldwork methods used in Italy are described. These included the separate analysis of the invertebrate assemblages from each replicate, the recording of additional microhabitat variables for each replicate and the completion of large-scale survey techniques for each site (including RHS. The extended method was designed to enhance the important ecological information available from the dataset, particularly relevant in Italy where significant gaps exist in the taxonomic and ecological knowledge of many macroinvertebrate taxa. Preliminary and expected findings are presented, including examples of the range and habitat selection of two species of Ephemeroptera endemic to Italy, as well as data relating to the number of taxa found at a site with increasing numbers of microhabitat replicates taken. The importance of the AQEM Project not only for biomonitoring, but also for ecology, taxonomy and conservation, in Italy and for the south of Europe in general, is emphasised.

  14. Presenza di una popolazione di Scoiattolo variabile Callosciurus sp. sulla costa occidentale della Basilicata

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    Gaetano Aloise


    Full Text Available Vengono presentati i primi dati relativi ad una popolazione di Scoiattolo variabile Callosciurus sp. presente sulla costa di Maratea (PZ. La popolazione, originatasi dal rilascio di pochissimi individui in un parco privato, appare in notevole espansione; e ciò comporta notevoli rischi per le biocenosi naturali, assume grande interesse considerata per le implicazioni ambientali che ne potrebbero derivare l?intensa attività di scortecciamento che questa specie esercita sulle essenze arboree e la potenziale competizione che si potrebbe verificare con l?autoctono Scoiattolo rosso Sciurus vulgaris meridionalis. Il rischio di impatto appare particolarmente concreto in considerazione della , vista la particolare conformazione urbanistica di Maratea, con poche abitazioni immerse nel verde che costituisce un continuum con l?ambiente naturale circostante. L?area dove è stata fino ad ora accertata la presenza della specie interessa praticamente tutta la fascia costiera della Basilicata, per un?ampiezza di qualche chilometro, e riguarda i boschi costieri di Leccio Quercus ilex e Pino d?Aleppo Pinus halepensis, oltre che tutto il verde urbano e le colture arboree, dove sono stati accertati estesi fenomeni di scortecciamento su tutte le specie arboree. È questa la seconda popolazione di Callosciurus nota per l?Italia, oltre a quella presente in un parco urbano di Acqui Terme (AL.

  15. Detection and correction of LiDAR raster data from the Italian national remote sensing programme and production of a suitable CHM to forest volume estimation in Calabria (southern Italy

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    Floris A


    Full Text Available Detection and correction of LiDAR raster data from the Italian national remote sensing programme and production of a suitable CHM to forest volume estimation in Calabria (southern Italy. The AlForLab project, a Public-Private Laboratory which is part of the Cluster MEA (Materials Energy Environment addressed to the Calabria Region (southern Italy, has gained great benefit by using LiDAR data acquired in the frame of a national remote sensing programme of the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea. This kind of LiDAR data, distributed in raster format and publicly available for research and non-profit purposes, have proved to be a suitable tool to support forest management. Their usage, however, has required the recognition and correction of non-forest elements included in the Digital Surface Model (DSM, like electric powerlines, wind turbines, sub-vertical rocks and viaducts. Such outliers, if remaining into the Canopy height Model (CHM, can generate potential errors in application of LiDAR-based prediction models. This paper proposes some semi-automatic pre-processing procedures, directly applicable on raster data, in order to obtain a CHM without non-forest elements. The methods described here have been developed in open-source environment (R and QGIS. The correction procedures carried out were tested in three municipalities having forest area between 1700 and 5400 ha, and characterized by different types of outliers. The performances of the methods were evaluated by comparing the estimated forest volume obtained before and after their application. Although low total volume changes were observed on the entire study areas (about 0.5%, corresponding to 1500 to 7200 m3, more significant effects, tens to hundreds cubic meters per hectare of overestimation, can occur in stands or forest compartments with a high presence of outliers. In conclusion, the proposed methods have proved to be suitable to achieve a reliable CHM for

  16. Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO strain associated with the olive quick decline syndrome in southern Italy belongs to a clonal complex of the subspecies pauca that evolved in Central America. (United States)

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco


    Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited bacterium transmitted by xylem-fluid-feeding Hemiptera insects, causes economic losses of both woody and herbaceous plant species. A Xyl. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain, namely CoDiRO, was recently found to be associated with the 'olive quick decline syndrome' in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia region). Recently, some Xyl. fastidiosa strains intercepted in France from Coffea spp. plant cuttings imported from Central and South America were characterized. The introduction of infected plant material from Central America in Apulia was also postulated even though an ad hoc study to confirm this hypothesis is lacking. In the present study, we assessed the complete and draft genome of 27 Xyl. fastidiosa strains. Through a genome-wide approach, we confirmed the occurrence of three subspecies within Xyl. fastidiosa, namely fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, and demonstrated the occurrence of a genetic clonal complex of four Xyl. fastidiosa strains belonging to subspecies pauca which evolved in Central America. The CoDiRO strain displayed 13 SNPs when compared with a strain isolated in Costa Rica from Coffea sp. and 32 SNPs when compared with two strains obtained from Nerium oleander in Costa Rica. These results support the close relationships of the two strains. The four strains in the clonal complex contain prophage-like genes in their genomes. This study strongly supports the possibility of the introduction of Xyl. fastidiosa in southern Italy via coffee plants grown in Central America. The data also stress how the current global circulation of agricultural commodities potentially threatens the agrosystems worldwide.

  17. Integrated geochronology of Acheulian sites from the southern Latium (central Italy): Insights on human-environment interaction and the technological innovations during the MIS 11-MIS 10 period (United States)

    Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sébastien; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Voinchet, Pierre; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Biddittu, Italo; Falguères, Christophe; Giaccio, Biagio; Manzi, Giorgio; Parenti, Fabio; Scardia, Giancarlo; Scao, Vincent; Sottili, Gianluca; Vietti, Amina


    We have explored the multimethod approach combining 40Ar/39Ar on single crystal, ESR on bleached quartz, and ESR/U-series on teeth to improve the age of four neighbours "Acheulian" sites of the Frosinone Province (Latium, Italy): Fontana Ranuccio, Cava Pompi (Pofi), Isoletta, and Lademagne. Ages obtained by the three methods are in mutual agreement and confirm the potential of dating with confidence Middle Pleistocene sites of Italy using these methods. At Fontana Ranuccio, the 40Ar/39Ar age (408 ± 10 ka, full external error at 2σ) obtained for the archaeological level (unit FR4) and geochemical analyses of glass shards performed on the Unit FR2a layer allow us to attribute the studied volcanic material to the Pozzolane Nere volcanic series, a well-known caldera-forming event originated from the Colli Albani volcanic district. These new data ascribe the Fontana Ranuccio site, as well as the eponym faunal unit, to the climatic optimum of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. Ages obtained for the Cava Pompi, Isoletta, and Lademagne sites cover a relatively short period of time between 408 ka and 375 ka, spanning MIS 11 climatic optimum to the MIS 11-10 transition. Analysis of small collections of lithic industries, bifacial tools, and small cores technologies from Isoletta, Lademagne, and the neighbour site of Ceprano-Campogrande shows common technical strategies for the period comprised between MIS 11 and MIS 9 (410-325 ka), such as the elaboration of flaked elephant bone industries found over the whole Latium region. However, some features found only in the Frosinone province area, like large-sized bifaces, suggest particular regional behaviours. The presence of one Levallois core in the oldest layer of Lademagne (i.e. > 405 ± 9 ka) suggests a punctual practice of this technology, also proposed as early as MIS 10/11 in the neighbour site of Guado San Nicola (Molise) in central Italy.

  18. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy.

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    Carlo Peretto

    Full Text Available Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II. The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42 was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583-561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium. In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42.


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    Full Text Available For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of the numerous geographical gaps in our current knowledge about Late Permian wildfires. 

  20. Agevolazioni fiscali e creditizie per lo sviluppo industriale dell'Italia meridionale. (Tax and credit aids to industrial development in Southern Italy

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    Full Text Available The large population and the limited resources of soil and climate appear to make industrialisation a necessary ingredient of any true solution to Italy’s “Southern problem”. Whether correct or not, this conclusion is embodied in Italian economic policy. The purpose of the present article is not to evaluate the whole program for industrialisation, but rather only one small part of it, the special aids in the fields of taxation and credit which attempt to provide rather specific additional profit incentives in favour of Southern as opposed to Northern industrial investment. After a brief description of these provisions, and a general analysis of their effects, the authors attempt, through a series of hypothetical but realistic examples, to assess their quantitative importance and to understand to what extent they affect the profit margins on potential Southern investment.JEL: L52, O14, O25, O52

  1. The current spectrum and prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Campania (region of southern Italy) and their relationship with migration from endemic countries. (United States)

    Belli, Alberta; Coppola, Maria Grazia; Petrullo, Luciana; Lettieri, Gennaro; Palumbo, Cristiana; Dell'Isola, Chiara; Smeraglia, Riccardo; Triassi, Maria; Spada, Enea; Amoroso, Pietro


    In Italy, the current clinical-epidemiological features of intestinal parasitosis and the impact of recent massive migration flows from endemic areas on their distribution are not very well known. An analysis was carried out involving 1766 patients (720 natives and 1046 immigrants) observed during the period 2009-2010 (the 'current group') and 771 native patients observed during the period 1996-1997 (the 'historical group'), a time at which immigration in the area was minimal. Patients were analyzed for intestinal parasitosis at four healthcare centres in Campania. A wide variety of intestinal parasites was detected in the study subjects. Immigrants had a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis and multiple simultaneous infections than natives in both groups. In both study groups of natives, the detection of at least one parasite was significantly associated with a history of travel to endemic areas. Among immigrants, we found an inverse correlation between the frequency of parasite detection and the amount of time spent in Italy. No circulation of parasites was found among contacts of parasitized patients. Intestinal parasites are still a cause of intestinal infection in Campania. Although immigrants have a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis than natives, this does not increase the risk of infection for that population. This is likely due to the lack of suitable biological conditions in our area. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions between climate and vegetation during the Lateglacial period as recorded by lake and mire sediment archives in Northern Italy and Southern Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vescovi, E.; Ravazzi, C.; Arpenti, E.; Finsinger, W.; Pini, R.; Valsecchi, V.; Wick, L.; Ammann, B.; Tinner, W.


    We reconstruct the vegetational history of the southern side of the Alps at 18,000–10,000 cal yr BP using previous and new AMS-dated stratigraphic records of pollen, stomata, and macrofossils. To address potential effects of climatic change on vegetation, we compare our results with independent

  3. Contribution of the calving interval to dairy farm profitability: results of a cluster analysis of FADN data for a major milk production area in southern Italy

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    G. Dono


    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the potential economic impact of good management of the calving interval on dairy farms. This involved the assessment of economics and production of a sample of farms, selected from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN, and located in Sardinia, Italy. Two farm models were derived from clustering the sample by k-means, which were validated by verifying their consistency in relation to nutritional needs, feed supply and milk production of the herds. Differences in indices of performance and dynamics were found (e.g. ROE is -0.8% vs 4.7%, with evident linkages between economic performance, greater efficiency, reproductive capacity, and potential turnover. The model better performing reflected greater economic feeding efficiency and a shorter calving interval. Hence, management, more than structural aspects, determined the economic results of the sampled farms.

  4. Etiology of hypercoagulable state in women with recurrent fetal loss without other causes of miscarriage from Southern Italy: new clinical target for antithrombotic therapy

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    Maristella D’Uva


    Full Text Available Maristella D’Uva1, Pierpaolo Di Micco2, Ida Strina1, Antonio Ranieri1, Carlo Alviggi1, Antonio Mollo1, Francesca Fabozzi1, Lucia Cacciapuoti1, Maria Teresa Scotto di Frega1, Mariateresa Iannuzzo2, Giuseppe De Placido11Dipartimento Universitario di Scienze Ostetriche Ginecologiche e Medicina della Riproduzione, Area Funzionale di Medicina della Riproduzione ed Endoscopia Ginecologica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Pansini 5 Building 9, 80131, Naples, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Fatebenefratelli Hospital of Naples, Naples, ItalyBackground: Recurrent fetal loss (RPL is one of the most common cause of sterility. Several studies identified thrombophilia as the principal cause of recurrent pregnancy loss. However, reported studies often do not evaluate other causes of miscarriages in their inclusion and exclusion criteria. So the aim of our study was to investigate the role of inherited thrombophilia in patients with RPL and without other causes of RPL.Patients and methods: Patients with 2 or more first trimester abortion or with 1 or more late pregnancy loss were considered for this study. In order to evaluate the causes of RPL we looked for chromosomal, endocrine, chronic inflammatory, and infectious alterations. 90 patients affected by unexplained RPL were enrolled and tested for hemostatic alterations. These women were tested for inherited and/or acquired thrombophilia by MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, factor V Leiden gene polymorphism, PTHRA20210G gene polymorphism, protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency, antithrombin III deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibodies Ig G and Ig M.Results: Acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia are strongly associated with RPL when other common causes of miscarriage were excluded. 78% of tested women showed hemostatic abnormalities. Several women with combined thrombophilic defects were also identified by our data.Conclusion: After a thorough evaluation of

  5. Measurement of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity on fractured rock outcrops near Altamura (Southern Italy) with an adjustable large ring infiltrometer (United States)

    Caputo, Maria C.; de Carlo, L.; Masciopinto, C.; Nimmo, J.R.


    Up to now, field studies set up to measure field-saturated hydraulic conductivity to evaluate contamination risks, have employed small cylinders that may not be representative of the scale of measurements in heterogeneous media. In this study, a large adjustable ring infiltrometer was designed to be installed on-site directly on rock to measure its field-saturated hydraulic conductivity. The proposed device is inexpensive and simple to implement, yet also very versatile, due to its large adjustable diameter that can be fixed on-site. It thus allows an improved representation of the natural system's heterogeneity, while also taking into consideration irregularities in the soil/rock surface. The new apparatus was tested on an outcrop of karstic fractured limestone overlying the deep Murge aquifer in the South of Italy, which has recently been affected by untreated sludge disposal, derived from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. The quasi-steady vertical flow into the unsaturated fractures was investigated by measuring water levels during infiltrometer tests. Simultaneously, subsurface electrical resistivity measurements were used to visualize the infiltration of water in the subsoil, due to unsaturated water flow in the fractures. The proposed experimental apparatus works well on rock outcrops, and allows the repetition of infiltration tests at many locations in order to reduce model uncertainties in heterogeneous media. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Integrated hierarchical geo-environmental survey strategy applied to the detection and investigation of an illegal landfill: A case study in the Campania Region (Southern Italy). (United States)

    Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Cavuoto, Giuseppe; Punzo, Michele; Tarallo, Daniela; Casazza, Marco; Guarriello, Silvio Marco; Lega, Massimiliano


    This paper describes an approach to detect and investigate the main characteristics of a solid waste landfill through the integration of geological, geographical and geophysical methods. In particular, a multi-temporal analysis of the landfill morphological evolution was carried out using aerial and satellite photos, since there were no geological and geophysical data referring to the study area. Subsequently, a surface geophysical prospection was performed through geoelectric and geomagnetic methods. In particular, the combination of electrical resistivity, induced polarization and magnetic measurements removed some of the uncertainties, generally associated with a separate utilization of these techniques. This approach was successfully tested to support the Prosecutor Office of Salerno (S Italy) during a specific investigation about an illegal landfill. All the collected field data supported the reconstruction of the site-specific history, while the real quarry geometry and site geology were defined. Key elements of novelty of this method are the combination and the integration of different methodological approaches, as the parallel and combined use of satellite, aerial and in-situ collected data, that were validated in a real investigation and that revealed the effectiveness of this strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adverse drug reactions reporting in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the four-year period 2011-2014: impact of a regional pharmacovigilance project in light of the new European Legislation. (United States)

    Leporini, Christian; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mumoli, Laura; Esposito, Stefania; Gallelli, Luca; Mangano, Giovanna; Brancati, Giacomino; De Francesco, Emanuela Adele; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista


    The number of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) yearly submitted to the Italian Network of Pharmacovigilance (RNF) has progressively increased after the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation (July 2012). These results have mostly reflected the agreements between Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) and Italian Regions, enabling the implementation of active pharmacovigilance projects. A project was funded by the AIFA in Calabria region (Southern Italy) in 2010 to increase ADRs reporting and promote a safer medicines' use. Based on this background, we investigated the trend of ADRs in Calabria in 2011-2014, trying to analyze the possible entailments of the new law. Quantitative and descriptive analysis of ADRs submitted by Calabrian healthcare professionals and patients to the RNF database between 2011 and 2014. A sharp rise in regional reporting rate was observed over study period. Calabrian Pharmacovigilance system completely fulfilled the World Health Organization gold standard for ADR reporting rate, both in 2013 and 2014. However, heterogeneity was observed regarding reporting health facilities, healthcare professionals and patients among the study years. These findings reflect the success of the project performed in Calabria. However, this initiative should go on in the next future to obtain better and more homogeneous reporting behavior.

  8. Characterization of plant diversity of pastures and volatile organic compound analysis in ewe’s milk from a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia national park (southern Italy: opportunities for a sustainable land use

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    Elena Ciani


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest of consumers in traditional dairy products whose origin from defined geographical areas is guaranteed. These products are appreciated for the distinctive sensorial characteristics, derived by extensive grazing system on natural and artificial pastures and traditional cheese-making techniques. Moreover, a considerable public interest is also attributed to typical dairy products for their role in stimulating the economy of rural areas and in preserving environment and biodiversity. Here we present the results of a survey on the botanical composition of Alta Murgia pastures, together with the analysis of VOCs (volatile organic compounds in milk from ewes reared under a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia National Park (Apulia region, southern Italy. Data from two less ordinary farm systems are also reported as external reference. The botanical composition of pastures was estimated by three modified Whittaker plots placed in the prevailing habitat types. Milk samples were analyzed for VOC compounds by head-space SPME/GC-MS. Consumer acceptance of cheese, made from each milk sample using homogeneous traditional cheese-making techniques, was evaluated. The study provides interesting insights on the floral composition of Alta Murgia pastures and the first characterization of VOC profiles in ewe’s raw milk from Alta Murgia.

  9. Lidar and in situ observations of aerosols, radiation fluxes, and meteorological parameters during the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse over southern Italy (United States)

    Perrone, M. R.; Burlizzi, P.; Romano, S.


    The effects of the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse on irradiance measurements, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height, meteorological and turbulence parameters, and near surface particle properties have been investigated at Lecce (40.3°N, 18.1°E, 30 m a.s.l.), southeastern Italy. Each solar eclipse represents always a unique event, since it is characterized by a particular time of the day, season, location, and synoptic conditions, and allows investigating the atmospheric processes driven by a fast decrease of the solar radiation. According to the astronomic data, the eclipse started at the study site at about 08:30 UTC and ended at 10:47 UTC, reaching the maximum obscuration of the solar disk (43.6%) at about 09:37 UTC. Short-wave irradiance measurements revealed that the eclipse direct radiative forcing at the surface was equal to -307 W m-2 at the maximum obscuration of the solar disk. A lidar system operating at the study site within the European Aerosol LIdar NETwork (EARLINET) was used to investigate both the atmospheric turbulence weakening driven by the eclipse cooling effect and the PBL height time evolution. It has been found that the PBL height that was equal to 300 +/- 30 m before the eclipse onset decreased up to 210 +/- 20 m after the eclipse full phase. Measurements from a micrometeorological station have instead been used to investigate the atmospheric turbulence weakening at the ground level by the changes of turbulent kinetic energy. Integrating nephelometer measurements revealed that the solar eclipse was also responsible for the increase of the near surface particle scattering coefficient, mainly because of the increase of the fine-mode particle concentration.

  10. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection in undocumented migrants and refugees in southern Italy, January 2012 to June 2013. (United States)

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Gualdieri, Luciano; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Sagnelli, Caterina; Caprio, Nunzio; Maffei, Rita; Starace, Mario; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Sagnelli, Evangelista


    Screening of undocumented migrants or refugees for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections has been offered free of charge and free from bureaucratic procedures since 2012 at four primary-level clinical centres in Naples and Caserta, Italy. Of 926 undocumented migrants and refugees visiting one of the primary-level clinical centres from January 2012 to June 2013, 882 (95%) were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and antibodies against HCV and HIV. Of the 882 individuals enrolled, 78 (9%) were HBsAg positive, 35 (4%) anti-HCV positive and 11 (1%) anti-HIV positive (single infections); seven (1%) had more than one infection (three were HBsAg positive). Of the 801 HBsAg-negative patients, 373 (47%) were anti-HBc positive. The HBsAg-positivity rate was high (14%; 62/444) in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and intermediate in those from eastern Europe (6%; 12/198), northern Africa (2%; 2/80) and Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (the 'India-Pakistan area') (3%; 4/126). Anti-HCV was detected in 9/126 (7%) individuals originating from the India-Pakistan area, in 12/198 (6%) from eastern Europe, in 17/444 (4%) from sub-Saharan and in 2/80 (2%) from northern Africa. The HBV, HCV and HIV infections in the undocumented migrants and refugees screened serve as a reminder to the Italian healthcare authorities to carry out extensive screening and educational programmes for these populations.

  11. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes) indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes) in southern Italy. (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D'Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J


    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  12. The sea-air exchange of mercury (Hg) in the marine boundary layer of the Augusta basin (southern Italy): concentrations and evasion flux. (United States)

    Bagnato, E; Sproveri, M; Barra, M; Bitetto, M; Bonsignore, M; Calabrese, S; Di Stefano, V; Oliveri, E; Parello, F; Mazzola, S


    The first attempt to systematically investigate the atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the MBL of the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, Italy) has been undertaken. In the past the basin was the receptor for Hg from an intense industrial activity which contaminated the bottom sediments of the Bay, making this area a potential source of pollution for the surrounding Mediterranean. Three oceanographic cruises have been thus performed in the basin during the winter and summer 2011/2012, where we estimated averaged Hgatm concentrations of about 1.5±0.4 (range 0.9-3.1) and 2.1±0.98 (range 1.1-3.1) ng m(-3) for the two seasons, respectively. These data are somewhat higher than the background Hg atm value measured over the land (range 1.1±0.3 ng m(-3)) at downtown Augusta, while are similar to those detected in other polluted regions elsewhere. Hg evasion fluxes estimated at the sea/air interface over the Bay range from 3.6±0.3 (unpolluted site) to 72±0.1 (polluted site of the basin) ng m(-2) h(-1). By extending these measurements to the entire area of the Augusta basin (~23.5 km(2)), we calculated a total sea-air Hg evasion flux of about 9.7±0.1 g d(-1) (~0.004 tyr(-1)), accounting for ~0.0002% of the global Hg oceanic evasion (2000 tyr(-1)). The new proposed data set offers a unique and original study on the potential outflow of Hg from the sea-air interface at the basin, and it represents an important step for a better comprehension of the processes occurring in the marine biogeochemical cycle of this element. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): lower prevalence in southern Italy than in the USA and the influence of criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS. (United States)

    Carmina, E; Napoli, N; Longo, R A; Rini, G B; Lobo, R A


    Metabolic syndrome (MBS) is a common disorder and is thought to be extremely prevalent in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In the USA the prevalence of MBS in PCOS has been reported to be as high as 43-46% using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria. Because of differences in diet, lifestyle and genetic factors, we postulated that the prevalence of MBS might not be as high in Italian women. This study sought to determine the prevalence of MBS in Italian women using both the ATP-III and the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and to determine whether the prevalence is influenced by the way in which PCOS is diagnosed. Assessment of the prevalence of MBS in 282 women with PCOS, aged 18-40 years, living in western Sicily. Eighty-five age- and weight-matched normal women served as controls. Patients were divided into those with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism (classic PCOS; n = 225) and others with hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries but who were ovulatory (ovulatory PCOS; n = 57). A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was carried out, as were lipid determinations; insulin resistance was assessed by the Quantitative Insulin-Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). We used ATP-III and WHO criteria to diagnose MBS. Using ATP-III criteria, the prevalence of MBS was 8.2% and using WHO criteria it was 16% in Italian women with PCOS. In controls, the prevalence was 2.4% using both methods. In classic PCOS patients, MBS was higher (8.9% by ATP-III, 17.3% by WHO) than in ovulatory PCOS (5% and 10.6% respectively). Body weight significantly modified prevalence rates. MBS is substantially higher in women with PCOS than in the general population, and the prevalence is higher in those women diagnosed by classic criteria. However, the prevalence of MBS in PCOS appears to be much lower in Italy than in the USA.

  14. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  15. New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins

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    Ennio Marsella


    Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

  16. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy) (United States)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.


    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  17. How much different are conifer forests? Comparison of Lepidoptera community in silver fir and black pine stands in Calabria (southern Italy

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    Infusino M


    Full Text Available The main coniferous forests of Calabria (Italy are certainly the Calabrian black pine (Pinus nigra calabrica forests of the Sila massif and the silver fir (Abies alba forests of the Serre Vibonesi. Despite these woodlands are of great importance both economically and from a conservationist point of view, biodiversity of moth has been investigated in a non occasional way only for the Sila Calabrian black pine forests, while the silver fir woods of the Serre have been only recently the subject of studies. Apart from increasing the knowledge on the biodiversity of the nocturnal Lepidoptera hosted by Calabrian coniferous forests, the aim of this study was to compare the sampled communities to find out the main differences and their causes. The sampling was conducted in 9 sites for each forest type, distributed so as to cover the different development stages of ecological succession, from open areas to mature woodlands. A light trap was monthly placed at each site from May to November 2015, for a total of 126 nights/trap. The two communities showed low similarity indices (Classic Jaccard = 0.396; Sorensen Classic = 0.568, due both to the component trophically linked to the dominant forest species and to the component linked to the herbaceous layer. In fact, the dominant species in the Calabrian black pine wood and in the silver fir wood (Thera firmata and Macaria liturata, respectively are absent or only occasionally present in the other forest type, and the community linked to the herbaceous layer is much better represented in the Calabrian black pine forest (29.7% of the total than in the silver fir forest (14.9%. The arrangement of the Sila landscape, where Calabrian black pine forests alternate with pastures, shrubs and cultivated fields, seems to be the cause of the increased presence of species related to non-forest vegetation layer, while the micro-climatic conditions of the silver fir forest, more humid and temperate, favor the presence of a

  18. Influence of Indigenous Starter Cultures on the Free Fatty Acids Content During Ripening in Artisan Sausages Produced in the Basilicata Region

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    Fabio Favati


    Full Text Available The influence of indigenous starter cultures on the free fatty acids content during ripening of »salsiccia«, a typical dry fermented sausage produced in the Basilicata region, was studied. Three batches of »salsiccia« were produced using different starter mixtures (Lactobacillus sakei G20 and Staphylococcus xylosus S81; L. sakei G20 and S. xylosus S142; L. sakei G20 and S. xylosus S206, while the control batch was produced without a starter. The amounts of free fatty acids present in the samples at the end of the ripening period were not significantly different, suggesting that the lipolytic enzymes naturally occurring in meat could play a predominant role in the free fatty acids release. Oleic and linoleic acids were present in the highest concentrations, while only small quantities of short chain fatty acids were detected, with acetic acid being the most representative one.

  19. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth" (United States)

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick


    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  20. Fluid transfer and vein thickness distribution in high and low temperature hydrothermal systems at shallow crustal level in southern Tuscany (Italy

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    Francesco Mazzarini


    Full Text Available Geometric analysis of vein systems hosted in upper crustal rocks and developed in high and low temperature hydrothermal systems is presented. The high temperature hydrothermal system consists of tourmaline-rich veins hosted within the contact aureole of the upper Miocene Porto Azzurro pluton in the eastern Elba Island. The low temperature hydrothermal system consists of calcite-rich veins hosted within the Oligocene sandstones of the Tuscan Nappe, exposed along the coast in southern Tuscany. Vein thickness distribution is here used as proxy for inferring some hydraulic properties (transmissivity of the fluid circulation at the time of veins’ formation. We derive estimations of average thickness of veins by using the observed distributions. In the case of power law thickness distributions, the lower the scaling exponent of the distribution the higher the overall transmissivity. Indeed, power law distributions characterised by high scaling exponents have transmissivity three order of magnitude lower than negative exponential thickness distribution. Simple observations of vein thickness may thus provides some clues on the transmissivity in hydrothermal systems.