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Sample records for basil ocimum gratissimum

  1. Estudo da atividade antioxidante do extrato e do óleo essencial obtidos das folhas de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. Study of the antioxidant activity and essential oil from wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de antioxidantes naturais, extraídos de plantas, contribuem para a descoberta de novas fontes de compostos químicos. A alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. é uma planta conhecida por seus aspectos medicinais e pelo uso na culinária. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial das folhas de alfavaca foi comprovada através do método do tiocianato férrico. A porcentagem de inibição da oxidação lipídica foi de 96,89% para o extrato bruto e de 92,44% para o óleo essencial, ambos na concentração de 0,02%. O extrato bruto foi purificado através da cromatografia em coluna com sílica-gel e fase móvel hexano:acetato de etila em diferentes proporções. Para a identificação, foram utilizadas análises espectrais (infravermelho, ressonância magnética de hidrogênio e carbono 13. A substância isolada foi o eugenol, que apresentou 86,56% de atividade antioxidante. Alguns constituintes do óleo essencial foram caracterizados por cromatografia de fase gasosa, sendo o eugenol o principal componente (53,90%. Desta forma, a alfavaca apresenta-se como uma nova fonte de eugenol e, conseqüentemente, de antioxidante natural.The isolation and identification of natural antioxidants from plants contribute to the discovery of new sources of chemical compounds. Wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. is used as a herbal medicine and also as a culinary spice. The antioxidant activity of wild basil leaf crude extract and essential oil was confirmed by the ferric thiocyanate method. The crude extract showed 96.89% inhibition of lipid oxidation, while the essential oil showed 92.44% inhibition, both in a 0.02% concentration. The crude extract was purified by column chromatography using silica gel and different proportions of hexane:ethyl acetate as an eluant. The plant’s chemical compounds were identified by spectral analyses using NMR (hydrogen and 13C and infrared spectroscopy. The isolated substance was

  2. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  3. Inativação bacteriana e sensorialidade em bebidas formuladas a partir de extrato reconstituído de Ocimum gratissimum L. (Alfavaca - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae Bacterial inactivation and sensory analysis in drink formulations prepared with Ocimum gratissimum L. ("African basil" - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae reconstituted extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gonzalez Passos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da formulação de quatro bebidas, duas alcoólicas e duas não alcoólicas, com e sem açúcar, respectivamente, e do extrato reconstituído (alcoolatura/planta verde de Ocimum gratisimum L. ("alfavacão", "alfavaca", "alfavaca-cravo" - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae em diferentes concentrações (5, 15 e 30%, foi determinada, através de testes de suspensão em sistema de tubos múltiplos, a intensidade de atividade de inativação bacteriana (IINAB/bactericidia, sobre Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 11076, bem como a aceitabilidade/preferência sensorial por escala hedônica destes quatro produtos. Todas as formulações apresentaram atividade bactericida para Salmonella Enteritidis, diretamente proporcional às concentrações do extrato e ao tempo de exposição da bactéria às bebidas, destacando-se, neste sentido, a formulação não alcoólica com açúcar. Na análise sensorial, a preferência aumentou com o decréscimo da concentração de extrato de Ocimum gratissimum na formulação. A bebida não alcoólica com açúcar, na concentração de 5% de extrato, destacou-se na preferência/aceitabilidade.The activity intensity of bacterial inactivation (IINAB/bactericidie on Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 11076 was determined in four drink formulations, two alcoholic and two no-alcoholic, with and without sugar, respectively, and in the reconstituted extract (alcoholature/green plant of Ocimum gratissimum L. (African basil - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae at different concentrations (5, 15, and 30% through suspension tests in multiple tube system. The acceptability/sensory preference of these four products was also determined using a hedonic scale. The bactericidal activity of all formulations against Salmonella Enteritidis was found to be directly proportional to the extract concentrations and the exposure time of the bacterium in the beverages, especially the non-alcoholic formulation with sugar. In the sensorial analysis, the preference increased

  4. Hypolipidaemic And Antioxidant Properties Of Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been shown that many minor components of food, such as some plant metabolites may possess hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, thus reducing the effects of oxidative stress on diabetic and other disease conditions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract from Ocimum gratissimum ...

  5. The Effects of Ocimum Gratissimum Leaf Extract on Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Ocimum gratissimum leaf, a local food spice and traditional herbal remedy, on cardiovascular and renal function were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were administered with crude ethanolic extract of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum, orally over five weeks. At the end of the period the blood pressure, ...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity Of Ocimum gratissimum Extract On Suya (An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  7. Pharmacological investigation of Ocimum gratissimum in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziba, P I; Bass, D; Elegbe, Y

    1999-08-01

    The pharmacological activities were screened of aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum in isolated rabbit jejunum (IRJ); rat stomach strip (RSS); and also its analgesic properties in mice. The extract caused a dose dependent inhibition of the rabbit jejunum spontaneous pendular movement. The blocking effect on acetylcholine induced contraction was non-competitive in the rat stomach strip since maximum contractions were suppressed and no parallel shift was observed in the curve. The result of the analgesic study showed that the extract evoked a prolongation of reaction time of 85% ( p < 0. 05) over 20 min observation time with no overt signs of toxicity. These results suggest the presence of analgesic and spasmolytic activities. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species.

  9. Determinação de óleos essenciais de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L., orégano (Origanum vulgare L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. Determination of essential oils of basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., oregano (Ocimum gratissimum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Borges

    2012-01-01

    apresentam potencial para o enriquecimento dos alimentos ou para a obtenção dos óleos essenciais.This study aimed to characterize commercial fresh and dry medicinal plants (basil, oregano and thyme, to obtain essential oil by the steam distillation method and to quantify chemical compounds by means of GC/MS. The fresh and dry plants were subjected to the following analyses moisture, ether extract, protein, crude fiber, ash, non-nitrogenous extract, caloric value, essential oil content and identification of major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Considering the obtained characterization, the following results on dry basis proved promising: protein and ash content in commercial dry basil with 17.34 g 100 g-1 and 8.12 g 100 g-1, respectively; crude fiber in commercial dry oregano with 15.65 g 100 g-1; ether extract, non-nitrogenous extract and caloric value in commercial dry thyme with 9.30 g 100 g-1, 52.72 g 100 g-1 and 356.74 Kcal 100 g-1, respectively. The highest essential oil yield was obtained for commercial dry basil with 1.02% and the lowest yield was obtained for fresh basil with only 0.13%. Chromatography indicated 87.38% eugenol and 6.27% thymol in fresh basil. For commercial dry basil, the chromatogram showed a reduction in eugenol (71.12% and an increase in thymol (13.28%. Four peaks were quantified for fresh oregano the γ-terpinene (33.45%, 4-terpineol (25.59%, thymol (14.21% and carvacrol (2.30%. For the essential oil of commercial dry oregano, there was a decrease in γ-terpinene (28.73% and an increase in 4-terpineol (27.58%, thymol (19.71% and carvacrol (3.67%. In the chromatogram of the essential oil of fresh thyme, three peaks were quantified: borneol (66.66%, thymol (13.41% and linalool (3.24%. On the other hand, in the chromatogram of the essential oil of commercial dry thyme, there was a decrease in borneol (37.90% and an increase in thymol (20.61% and linalool (10.34%. It can be concluded that commercial dry leaves of basil, oregano

  10. The Effect Of Ocimum Gratissimum (Ram Tulsi) On Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of Ocimum Gratissimum (Ram Tulsi) On Sexual Behaviour In Male Mice. ... The female Swiss Albino mice involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general ... Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  11. Effects of Ocimum Gratissimum on the Hematological Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum on some hematological parameters was studied in 32 albino Wistar rats weighing between 150 and 180 g. Increasing doses of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 ml of the extract were administered orally to different groups of rats for 30 days. Significant decreases were recorded in red blood ...

  12. In vitro multiplication of Ocimum gratissimum L. through direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid system for regeneration of the important medicinal plant, Ocimum gratissimum L, from nodal explant. Single node explants were inoculated on basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing 3% (w/v) sucrose, supplemented with different concentrations and ...

  13. Macropropagation of Ocimum gratissimum,/i> L: A multi purpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimum macropropagation method for Ocimum gratissimum, a multi purpose medicinal plant. The result showed that significant differences exist as influenced by seed sowing depth and type of soil. Seed sown at 1 cm depth in humus rich topsoil had 80% germination as against ...

  14. Histopathological studies on the toxicity of Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) at doses of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg was experimentally tested through oral administration twice weekly to rabbits, for four weeks. At the end of the fourth week, the animals were sacrificed after ether anesthesia and transection of the jugular vein. The livers, kidneys and the ...

  15. Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum as grain protectants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous leaf extracts of two naturally growing plants in Nigeria viz: Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum were admixed with maize grains infested with maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. in the laboratory at 30±30C and 75±2% relative humidity. The plant extracts showed efficiency against the test insect ...

  16. Antibacterial effect of Ocimum gratissimum against bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upsurge in the prevalence of side effects of many synthetic antimicrobial agents and incidence of multidrug resistant bacteria has spurred scientists on the research for plant based antimicrobial of therapeutic potentials. Ocimum gratissimum presents such potential of high medicinal value. This plant is used in Nigeria ...

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum and Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Garcinia kola on blood glucose concentration, lipid profile and liver enzymes activities of wistar albino rats was investigated. The study was carried out using fourty four (44) wistar albino rats, divided into eleven (11) groups with four (4) rats in each groups. The rats ...

  18. Utilization of Ocimum gratissimum and the calyx of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the utilization of Ocimum gratissimum and the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf meal in starter diets by broiler chicks, for a total period of 42 days between May-June 2011. Eighty (80) broiler chicks brooded together for 7 days with a mean body weight of 97gm were randomly ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of different extracts from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium, pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea. These extracts evaluated include cold water extract (CWE), hot water extract (HWE) and ...

  20. Effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2008-04-29

    Apr 29, 2008 ... The effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on hematological parameters of Wister rats was studied. Twenty five rats with weight ranging between 100-160g were used. The rats were divided into five groups; with group one as the control group. Increasing doses (0.2, 0.4,. 0.8, 1.6g kg-1 body ...

  1. Effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on hematological parameters of Wister rats was studied. Twenty five rats with weight ranging between 100-160g were used. The rats were divided into five groups; with group one as the control group. Increasing doses (0.2, 0.4,0.8, 1.6g kg-1 body weight) of the extract ...

  2. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Shigella flexineri, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus mirabilis were at concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 mg/ml. The endpoint was not reached for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>=24 mg/ml. The MICs of the reference drugs used in this study were similar to those presented in other reports. The minimum bactericidal concentration of EO was within a twofold dilution of the MIC for this organism. The compound that showed antibacterial activity in the EO of O. gratissimum was identified as eugenol and structural findings were further supported by gas chromatography/mass spectra retention time data. The structure was supported by spectroscopic methods.

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) extract against liver fibrosis-induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied in rats. Rats were allocated into five groups: Group I (control group); Group II [CCl4 group; rats were injected subcutaneously with CCl4 (1 ml/kg b.w.) twice weekly for 4 weeks ...

  4. Fumigant effect of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L) leaf essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fumigant effect of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L) leaf essential oil on the longevity and fecundity of adult cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) and on germination. ... There was however no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean percentage germination of treated and control seeds after 24 and 48 hours.

  5. Armazenamento de sementes de Alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    J.R Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Ocimum gratissimum L. é um subarbusto aromático, pertencente à família Lamiaceae, considerado como importante produtor de óleo essencial e largamente utilizado na medicina popular. Devido à escassez de informações sobre a conservação das sementes dessa espécie o presente estudo objetivou analisar a longevidade das sementes submetidas a diferentes condições de armazenamento, por 12 meses, através de avaliações do potencial germinativo e da capacidade de formação de plântulas normais. As sementes foram armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens: sacos de papel, sacos de papel aluminizado, e frascos de vidro, e nas seguintes condições ambientais: balcão de laboratório, geladeira, e câmara fria. Aos 6, 8, 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: umidade, porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e porcentagem de plântulas normais. Durante o período de armazenamento a manutenção da umidade nas sementes foi mantida, bem como a porcentagem de germinação e de plântulas normais em todos os tratamentos avaliados. As sementes armazenadas apresentaram maiores valores de IVG quando comparadas com as recém-colhidas.

  6. The effect of fresh leaf Ocimum gratissimum and dried buds Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... Abstract. The use of antibiotics has lead to antibiotic resistance and residual effects among others in fish tissue thus necessitate the advocate for alternative natural plants for ... Keywords: Antimicrobial, aquaculture, Eugenia caryophyllata, extracts, Ocimum gratissimum ...

  7. The antimicrobial properties of Ocimum gratissimum extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , flavonoids saponin, anthraquinone, cardiac glycoside, steroidal ring, steroidal terpens and carbohydrates at different concentrations. The findings from this study seem to provide the in vitro evidence that might justify O. gratissimum as a good ...

  8. Anesthetic properties of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil for juvenile matrinxã

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Allyson Soares; Batista, Erix dos Santos; Dairiki, Jony Koiji; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Inoue, Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The matrinxã fish is suitable for Amazonian aquaculture, exhibiting positive characteristics such as good growth and feed conversion ratio. However, it is a very active fish and must be anesthetized for handling. The present study evaluated the use of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil (EO) as anesthetic for juvenile matrinxãs. A first experiment assessed the induction time to anesthesia of 7 concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mg L-1 of O. gratissimum (EO). A second experim...

  9. Eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotypes of essential oil of species Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum campechianum Mill. from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Benitez, Nayive; Meléndez León, Erika M; Stashenko, Elena E

    2009-10-01

    Essential oils chemical constituents of leaves of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum of the Lamiaceae family, collected in Chocó of northwest Colombian, were obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 33 and 37 compounds were identified in the essential oil of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum, respectively. O. gratissimum's main essential oils were eugenol (43.2%), 1,8-cineole (12.8%) and beta-selinene (9.0%); in the O. campechianum essential oil, the main components were methyl eugenol (12.0%), germacrene D (10.1%), and eugenol (9.0%). Main distribution of compounds in these essential oils are 25.0% monoterpenes hydrocarbons, 15.0% monoterpenes oxygenated, 35.0% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, 7.5% other oxygenated components for O. gratissimum, 33.9% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, and 10.7% their respective oxygenated derivates; for O. campechianum, the distribution was 10.7% monoterpenes hydrocarbons and 7.1% their respective oxygenated derivates and 3.6% phenylpropanes. According to the essential oils chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum and O. campechianum, they are classified as eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotype, respectively.

  10. Effects of the methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum on cumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro effects of the methanol extract of O.gratissimum (MEOG) on DPPH and liver homogenate. All the assays wi t h DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) including the radical scavenging assay, indicated that MEOG has a notice able effect on scavenging the free radicals.

  11. Modulation of the norfloxacin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Matias, Edinardo F F; Santos, Karla K A; Santos, Francisco A V; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Souza, Teógenes M; Andrade, Jacqueline Cosmo; Souza, Celestina E S; Tintino, Saulo R; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Júnior, José P; Costa, José G M

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Staphylococcus are often recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections. This study is the first test of change in resistance of antibiotic activity by Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, the hexane and methanol extract of Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. was tested for antibacterial activity alone and in combination with norfloxacin against the strain SA1199B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the modulatory effect of extracts was assayed using microtitre assay. By the fact of the MIC observed was not clinically relevant (MIC= 512 to ≥1.024 µg/ml), the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin was enhanced when this antibiotic was combined with sub-inhibitory concentrations of extracts, mainly the hexane extracts. These results indicate that the assayed extracts present compounds that can be used as a putative efflux pump inhibitor, indicating that Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. can be a source of plant derived products with antibiotic modifier activity.

  12. Chemical Diversity in Basil (Ocimum sp. Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Santos da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to chemically characterize 31 accessions and seven cultivars of basil. The percentage composition of the essential oils of the accessions and cultivars was based on the 14 most abundant constituents: 1,8-cineole, linalool, methyl chavicol, neral, nerol, geraniol, geranial, methyl cinnamate, β-bourbonene, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, germacrene-D, epi-α-cadinol, and δ-cadinene. The genetic materials were classified into eight clusters according to the chemical composition of the essential oils: Cluster 1—mostly linalool and 1,8-cineole; Cluster 2—mostly linalool, geraniol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 3—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, and β-bourbonene; Cluster 4—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, epi-α-cadinol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 5—mainly linalool, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 6—mainly linalool, geraniol, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 7—mostly linalool and methyl chavicol; Cluster 8—mainly geranial and neral.

  13. Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... significant health benefit. The leaves of African varieties are said ... In addition to health benefit, basil is used widely as a condiment or spice and as a .... Glycemic change (%) = [(Glucose concentration (2, 4, 8 or 24) – fasting blood glucose) / Fasting blood glucose] x 100. Blood glucose levels of Wistar rats.

  14. Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypoglycemic effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratisimum was investigated in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. A single administration of the extract at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was done. The aqueous extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly lowered blood glucose level ...

  15. Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, J D; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M

    2008-07-01

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are widely used for their medicinal properties, and as food flavours and perfumes. Recently in a study in West Africa, these oils have been recommended to combat Fusarium verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin contamination in stored maize, but their toxicological profile was not investigated. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity as well as on gastric tolerance of these oils in rat. For this purpose, the oils were given by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for their general behaviour and survival, and their visceral organs such as stomach and liver were taken after sacrifice for histological analyses. A dose-dependent effect of the tested oils was observed during the study. Applied at doses generally higher than 1500 mg/kg body weight, the oils caused significant functional damages to stomach and liver of rat. Unlike the other oils, administration of O. gratissimum oil did not result in adverse effects in rat liver at the tested doses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the tested oils has been established. The three tested oils can be considered as safe to human when applied on stored maize at recommended concentrations.

  16. Levantamento de insetos associados à alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Rando, Jael Simões Santos; Lima, Cristina Batista; Mishfeldt, Laila Herta

    2014-01-01

    Espécies originárias de diferentes continentes são cultivadas e exploradas pelo conhecimento tradicional estabelecido em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.) produz metabólitos secundários utilizados na medicina, na indústria e na agricultura. O estabelecimento de diretrizes que visem regulamentar o cultivo, o manejo sustentado, a produção, a distribuição e o uso de plantas com esse potencial vem sendo estudado. Com o propósito de determinar a ...

  17. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro . The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS* + scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods. O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercitrin, and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). "Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner". O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC 50: 20.69 µg/mL) and ACE (IC 50: 29.44 µg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC 50: 52.14 µg/mL and IC 50: 64.99 µg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS* + more than O. basilicum . O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum .

  18. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. Materials and Methods: The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods. Results: O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercitrin, and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). “Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner”. O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 µg/mL) and ACE (IC50: 29.44 µg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 µg/mL and IC50: 64.99 µg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ more than O. basilicum. Conclusion: O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum. PMID:27757270

  19. Clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum on plaque and gingivitis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Oliveira, José Weslley Gonçalves; Angelo, Keyles Karla Sá Vieira; da Costa, Angela Maria Alves; Costa, Flávio

    2011-09-01

    The effect of Ocimum gratissimum (Og) on the reduction of dental plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the control group (n=10)-mouth rinse with no antiseptic agents; CLX group (n=10)-mouth rinse containing chlorhexidine digluconate or Og group (n=10)-mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum. Plaque (PLI) and bleeding (BI) indexes were assessed at days 0 and after 3 months. Subjects were asked to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice, three times a day, during a 90-day period. After each brushing they rinsed with one of the three mouth rinses during 1 minute. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in tests groups (p 0.05). Mouth rinse containing Og was effective as antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that chlorhexidine digluconate. Research in treatment of chronic oral diseases using natural agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range of chemotherapeutic treatment options.

  20. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (O. gratissimum on two key enzymes [pancreatic lipase (PL and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE] involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. Methods: The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified using high performance liquid chromatrography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; and DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using Spectrophotometric methods. Results: O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: rutin, quercetin and quercitrin (flavonoids; caffeic, chlorogenic and gallic acids (phenolic acids; while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: rutin, quercitrin and luteolin (flavonoids; ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids. Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; and scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner. O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 μg/mL and ACE (IC50: 29.44 μg/mL than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 μg/mL and IC50: 64.99 μg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively. O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ more than O. basilicum. Conclusion: O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 396-402

  1. Antileishmanial activity of Eugenol-rich essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Korehisa Maza, Paloma; Prado Dias Filho, Benedito; Aparício Garcia Cortez, Diógenes; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C S; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2006-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Here we demonstrate the leishmanicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum as well as its main constituent, eugenol. The eugenol-rich essential oil of O. gratissimum progressively inhibited Leishmania amazonensis growth at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1000 microg/ml. The IC50 (sub-inhibitory concentration) of the essential oil for promastigotes and amastigotes were respectively 135 and 100 microg/ml and the IC50 of eugenol was 80 microg/ml for promastigote forms. L. amazonensis exposed to essential oil at concentrations corresponding to IC50 for promastigotes and for amastigotes underwent considerable ultrastructural alterations, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Two or more nuclei or flagella were observed in 31% and 23.3% of treated amastigote and promastigote forms, respectively, suggesting interference in cell division. Considerable mitochondrial swelling was observed in essential oil-treated promastigotes and amastigotes, which had the inner mitochondrial membrane altered, with a significant increase in the number of cristae; in some amastigotes the mitochondrial matrix became less electron-dense. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both promastigotes and amastigotes was 150 microg/ml. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 100 and 150 microg/ml essential oil reduced the indices of association between promastigotes and the macrophages, followed by increased in nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. The essential oil showed no cytototoxic effects against mammalian cells. This set of results suggests that O. gratissimum essential oil and its compounds could be used as sources for new antileishmanial drugs.

  2. Light intensity on growth, leaf micromorphology and essential oil production of Ocimum gratissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Ferreira Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Light conditions can promote the growth and development of plants and contribute to increase the essential oil production of commercially cultivated medicinal and aromatic species. In view of the great importance of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, as an aromatic plant, the objective of this work was to determine the effect of light intensities (approximately 4, 7, 11 and 20 mol m-2 d-1 on growth, foliar micromorphology, essential oil content, yield and chemical composition of O. gratissimum. Biomass production of different organs, root:shoot ratio and leaf mass per area were found to linearly increase with increased light availability, whereas stem dry matter fraction, number of leaves, leaf area and plant height have increased up to 10 mol m-2 d-1 and decreased from this value. The tector trichomes density increased with increased light availability, but there was no effect of light treatments on the glandular trichomes density and essential oil content. Regardless of the light level, the major component of the essential oil was eugenol. The essential oil yield per plant increased linearly with light intensity as a direct effect of increased leaf biomass under similar conditions.

  3. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Ocimum Gratissimum, O. Sanctum and their Major Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of two Ocimum species viz., Ocimum gratissimum and O. sanctum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The principal constituent of O. gratissimum and O. sanctum was eugenol (75.1%) and methyl eugenol (92.4%), comprising 99.3 and 98.9% of the total oils, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major compounds eugenol and methyl eugenol were ...

  4. Herb yield and chemical composition of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major aroma constituents of basil were methyl cinnamate and linalool and the highest percentage was determined in open-field conditions for green basil. Conclusion: The lowest essential content obtained in open-field and between kiwi plantations for green and purple basil plants was even higher than the limit (%0.3) ...

  5. Organic versus conventional fertilization effects on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth in a greenhouse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an essential oil producing crop used in culinary and fragrance applications. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effects of organic and conventional fertilization, (applied at two nitrogen rates, 150 and 250 kg N/ha), on plant g...

  6. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  7. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  8. Effects of Basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) on the Haematology of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation into the effect of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on the hematologic indices was conducted using 180 broiler chicks experimentally infected with sporulated coccidial oocysts. The broiler chicks were divided into four groups of 45 birds each and further replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate.

  9. Effect of Plectranthus glandulosus and Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oils on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin B1 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung, CMF.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Plectranthus glandulosus leaves were extracted by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS, and their effects on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus were tested at five levels (i.e 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/l using SMKY agar medium. The main components of O. gratissimum were thymol (47.7% and -terpinene (14.3% whereas those of P. glandulosus were represented by -terpinene (30.8% and terpinolene (25.2%. After 8 days of incubation on essential oil-supplemented medium, growth of A. flavus was totally inhibited by 800 mg/l of O. gratissimum essential oil and by 1000 mg/l of P. glandulosus essential oil. The effect of essential oils on aflatoxin B1 synthesis was evaluated in SMKY broth. The medium supplemented with different essential oil concentrations, was inoculated with A. flavus mycelium and incubated at 25 °C. At 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the supernatant were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA. Results showed that aflatoxin B1 synthesis was inhibited by 1000 mg/l of both essential oils of O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus after 8 days of incubation. Results obtained in the present study indicate the possibility of exploiting O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus essential oils in the fight against strains of A. flavus responsible for biodeterioration of stored food products.

  10. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  11. Chicoric Acid Levels in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...

  12. Antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from Ocimum gratissimum L. (eugenol chemotype against phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus Faria

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of antifungal activity of the essential oil obtained by steam-distillation (1.1% w/w of the aerial parts of Ocimum gratissimum and of an ethanolic extract from the steam-distillation residue was carried out using the agar diffusion method. The results revealed that the essential oil inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including the phytopathogens, Botryosphaeria rhodina, Rhizoctonia sp. and two strains of Alternaria sp., while the extract from the residue was inactive. The essential oil was subjected to TLC bioautography used to detect fungitoxic constituents. The compound that showed antifungal activity was isolated and identified as eugenol. GC/MS analysis showed that eugenol was the main constituent of the essential oil studied. The antifungal activity of eugenol was evaluated against a species of Alternaria isolated from tomato (A1 and Penicillium chrysogenum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of eugenol were 0.16 and 0.31 mg/disc for Alternaria sp. (A1 and P. chrysogenum, respectively.O óleo essencial resultante da destilação por arraste a vapor das partes aéreas de Ocimum gratissimum e o extrato etanólico obtido do resíduo da destilação foram avaliados quanto à atividade antifúngica, utilizando-se o método de difusão em agar. O óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de todos os fungos testados, incluindo os fitopatogênicos Botryosphaeria rhodina e duas espécies de Alternaria sp, enquanto que o extrato do resíduo da destilação não apresentou atividade. O óleo essencial foi, então, submetido ao método de bioautografia em TLC para detecção do composto ativo. O componente ativo foi isolado e identificado através da análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas como o eugenol, constituinte majoritário do óleo estudado. Ensaios de atividade antifúngica revelaram a atividade do eugenol contra Alternaria isolada de tomate (A1 e Penicillium chrysogenum. As concentra

  13. Essential oil composition from twelve varieties of basil (Ocimum spp grown in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viña Amparo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil compositions of aerial parts from twelve basil cultivars (Ocimum spp were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Ten of them were characterized by the presence of a high percentage of methyl cinnamate (35-80%, which defined the chemotype for these varieties. Only one presented the caryophyllene chemotype and another, the linalool chemotype. Three of the basils, "purple ruffles", "little virgin" and "purple virgin" exhibited the methyl cinnamate > linalool subtype. "White compact" and "white ruffles" showed the methyl cinnamate > linalool > 1,8-cineole subtype. Methyl cinnamate > methyl eugenol was the subtype for "purple castle". The variety "large green leaves" exhibited the linalool > methyl cinnamate subtype. Caryophyllene > methyl eugenol subtype was determined for "clove basil". The rest of the basils "cinnamon", "purple lovingly", "sweet castle" and "purple long-legged", belonged to the methyl cinnamate chemotype in which methyl cinnamate constituted more than 62% of the total essential oil content.

  14. Modulation of the norfloxacin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. Modulación de la resistencia a norfloxacina de Staphylococcus aureus por Croton A. campestris y Ocimum gratissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Siqueira-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Some species of Staphylococcus are often recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections. This study is the first test of change in resistance of
    antibiotic activity by Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Objective: In this study, the hexane and methanol extract of Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. was tested for antibacterial activity alone and in combination with norfloxacin against the strain SA1199B.
    Materials and methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the modulatory effect of extracts was assayed using microtitre assay.
    Results: By the fact of the MIC observed was not clinically relevant (MIC= 512 to ≥1.024 μg/ml, the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin was enhanced when this antibiotic was combined with sub-inhibitory concentrations of extracts, mainly the hexane extracts.
    Conclusions: These results indicate that the assayed extracts present compounds that can be used as a putative efflux pump inhibitor, indicating that Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. can be a source of plant derived products with antibiotic modifier activity.

    Introducción. Algunas especies de Staphylococcus suelen ser reconocidas como agentes etiológicos de muchas infecciones oportunistas en animales y em humanos. Este estudio es la primera prueba del
    cambio en la resistencia de la actividad antibiótica por Croton campestris A. y Ocimum gratissimum L. contra cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus.
    Objetivo. Ensayar la actividad antibacteriana de los extractos hexánicos y metanólicos de Croton campestris A. y Ocimum gratissimum L. sola y en combinación con norfloxacina sobre la cepa SA1199B.
    Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM y el efecto modulador de los extractos usando el ensayo de microtitulaci

  15. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...... activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils...... from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9...

  16. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application.

  17. Effect of methyl jasmonate on secondary metabolites of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2006-03-22

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in terms of its induction of inherent bioactive chemicals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was evaluated after MeJA was sprayed on healthy basil plants. The total phenolic content of the sweet basil significantly increased after 0.1 and 0.5 mM MeJA treatments compared with the control not subjected to MeJA. Two phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), were identified as strong antioxidant constituents of the sweet basil. Their amounts also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, eugenol and linalool increased 56 and 43%, respectively, by the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Due to the accumulation of RA, CA, and eugenol, which possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging activities, the antioxidant activity of the sweet basil extract was 2.3-fold greater than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. In the DPPH* assay, the EC50 values of RA, CA, and eugenol were determined as 23, 46, and 59 microM, respectively, which indicated they were 6-, 3-, and 2.4-fold more efficient than BHT (140 microM). Besides, an unidentified HPLC peak in the methanolic extract of the sweet basil was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment.

  18. Antifungal activities of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 29.27%, respectively) whereas other investigated Fusarium species exhibited much lower sensitivity. The basil extract completely inhibited the growth of investigated Fusarium spp. at the concentration of 1.50% (v/v). Higher concentrations (0.35 and 0.70% (v/v)) reduced growth of aerial mycelium in all tested species.

  19. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  20. Aroma active compounds in milk from goat fed basil (Ocimum basilicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Šípalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the addition of basil (Ocimum basilicum green tops into goat feeding ratio and with the effect of this addition on aroma active compounds in milk. The experiment comprised 8 goats crossbreed of White Goat and Brown Mountain Goat. These goats, which were on the second lactation, were divided into two groups – control (n = 4 and experimental (n = 4. The addition of 0.1 kg of basil green tops into goat feeding ration had no statistically significant effect on differences in total solid, fat or total nitrogen substances in milk during basil green tops feeding. However, the content of aroma active compounds (1-octanol, 1-undecanol, 2-nonanone, which were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and determined with usage GC-MS, reached statistically significant differences in days of basil green tops feeding. The amount of 1-octanol, 1-undecanol and 2-nonanone rose from 18.24 ± 0.019, 4.48 ± 0.019 and 5.37 ± 0.032 μl/100 ml of milk in days without basil green tops in feeding ration to 24.15 ± 10.398, 9.60 ± 0.118 and 23.29 ± 0.408 μl/100 ml of milk in the first day of basil green tops feeding when the increase was mostly the highest. In the next days of experiment the amount of 1-octanol, 1-undecanol and 2-nonanone was falling despite of readily goats’ acceptation of basil green tops.

  1. Identification of chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic agent from Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in a biomonitoring in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Livia Marques; da Silva, Daniel; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Camargo, Luiza Maria de Magalhães; Celestrini, Deborah de Moura; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2014-03-01

    Ocimum gratissimum L. is popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic activity of this medicinal species has been confirmed by in vivo studies. The present study conducted a chemical investigation of a leaf decoction (10% p/v) of O. gratissimum monitored by in vivo hypoglycemic activity assays. Four phenolic substances were identified: L-caftaric acid (1), L-chicoric acid (2), eugenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and vicenin-2 (4). The acute hypoglycemic activity of the O. gratissimum decoction fractions Og1-S (300 mg/kg), Og1-A (240 mg/kg) and Og1-B (80 mg/kg) was evaluated intraperitoneally in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. They reduced glycemia by 63%, 76% and 60% (in 120 min), respectively, in the diabetic mice. Subfractions of Og1-A were also evaluated under the same conditions: Og1-AS (200 mg/kg) and Og1-AP (40 mg/kg) produced a decrease of only 37% and 39%, respectively. Among the major phenolic substances, only chicoric acid (2; 3 mg/kg) reduced significantly the glycemic levels of diabetic mice by 53%, 120 min after treatment. This is the first study describing the hypoglycemic activity of chicoric acid in an animal model of diabetes mellitus. In addition, we suggest that there may be other substances contributing to this activity. Thus, for the first time, a correlation is established between the hypoglycemic activity of O. gratissimum and its chemical composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of traditional green and purple "Napoletano" basil cultivars (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Campania region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Izzo, Luana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-09-01

    The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 'Napoletano' green and purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) varieties. The results obtained revealed that the basil sample extracts were characterised by a generally higher polyphenolic concentration than those reported elsewhere for other more conventional and geographically different basil varieties. Napoletano purple basil revealed higher radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing capacities than the green one probably due to its relevant anthocyanin content. As regards the antimicrobial properties, both basil varieties exhibited activity against a broad spectrum of food-borne and human pathogenic micro-organisms, revealing not only a moderate to high natural preserving capacity, but also potentially beneficial influence on human health. Results indicated Napoletano green and purple basils as a good source of antioxidants of potential nutraceutical interest.

  3. Essential-Oil Variability in a Collection of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Roscigno, Graziana; Bruno, Maurizio; De Falco, Enrica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant of great tradition in the Mediterranean area. Its economic importance is growing up determining an expansion of cultivation. This paper evaluated the morphological traits, the chemical profiles, and antibacterial activity of 21 cultivars of basil belonging to 'Genovese', 'Napoletano', and 'Purple basil' types. The cultivars were characterized by different growth rate and morphological traits. The chemical composition of the oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS analysis, supported by the PCA analysis, underlined the strong influence of chemotype. It is noteworthy that estragole, never present in Genovese and purple basil types, occurred in Napoletano type. The high presence of eugenol, methyl eugenol, and linalool in the majority of cultivars, belonging both to Genovese and to Napoletano types was registered. Of great interest resulted the composition of the purple basil 'Opal'. All the samples tested exhibited similar antibiotic profiles with moderate antibacterial activity. The results enhanced the importance of determination of essential-oil profile in the selection of cultivars characterized by diverse morphological traits and are useful for different purposes. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  4. Phytochemical investigation of dichloromethanic fraction on Ocimum gratissimum L. extract/ Estudo químico da fração diclorometânica do extrato de Ocimum gratissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited growth of Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizoctonia sp, Aspergillus niger and Alternaria sp, isolated from tomato and carrot. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical constituents of Ocimum gratissim. Aerial parts of the plant were treated with hexane-dichloromethane-ethanol mixture (1:3:1 at room temperature. The obtained extract was chromatographed on silica gel column eluted with hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol. Fractions eluted with dichloromethane were rechromatographed on a column of silica gel to yield alyphatic hydrocarbon mixture (C31, C33, C34 e C35, eugenol, caryophyllene oxide and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol. The structures of the compounds were deduced by spectral data analysis and by comparison with literature values. Recent studies showed that eugenol is probably one of the responsibles for antifungal activity of O. gratissimum.Ensaios anteriores de atividade antifúngica do extrato etanólico de Ocimum gratissimum, utilizando a técnica de difusão em meio sólido, evidenciaram a inibição do crescimento de Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizoctonia sp, Aspergillus niger e de duas espécies de Alternaria sp isoladas de tomate e de cenoura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os possíveis constituintes químicos responsáveis pela atividade antifúngica da planta, por meio de estudo químico do extrato hexano-diclorometano-etanol (1:3:1 das partes aéreas de O. gratissimum. O extrato foi cromatografado em coluna de sílica gel, eluída com hexano, diclorometano e etanol. A purificação em coluna cromatográfica de sílica gel das frações eluídas com diclorometano (5,9g resultou na obtenção de quatro constituintes: uma mistura de hidrocarbonetos saturados de cadeia longa (C31, C33, C34 e C35, eugenol, óxido de cariofileno e uma mistura de estigmasterolsitosterol. Os constituintes foram identificados através das an

  5. Growth, yield, plant quality and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under soilless agricultural systems

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    Subhrajit Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agricultural systems are challenged by globally declining resources resulting from climate change and growing population. Alternative agricultural practices such as aquaponics (includes crop plant and aquatic species and hydroponics (includes crop plant only have the potential to generate high yield per unit area using limited land, water, and no soil. A soilless agricultural study was conducted at the Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA from August to November, 2015. The growth, yield, quality, and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cultivar Aroma 2, were compared between aquaponic and hydroponic systems using crayfish (Procambarus spp. as the aquatic species. Non-circulating floating raft systems were designed using 95 L polyethylene tanks. Equal amounts of start-up fertilizer dose were applied to both systems. The objective was to understand how the additional nutritional dynamics associated with crayfish influence the basil crop. Both fresh and dry basil plant weights were collected after harvest, followed by leaf nutrient analysis. Leaf chlorophyll content, water pH, nitrogen and temperature were measured periodically. Aquaponic basil (AqB showed 14%, 56%, and 65% more height, fresh weight, and dry weight, respectively, compared to hydroponic basil (HyB. It is logical to assume that crayfish waste (excreta and unconsumed feed has supplied the additional nutrients to AqB, resulting in greater growth and yield. The chlorophyll content (plant quality or leaf nutrients, however, did not differ between AqB and HyB. Further research is needed to investigate aquaponic crayfish yield, overall nutritional dynamics, cost-benefit ratio, and other plant characteristics under soilless systems.

  6. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  7. Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

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    Santanu Kar Mahapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present study was to evaluate the immune functions and immune responses in nicotine-induced (10 mM macrophages and concurrently establish the immunomodulatory role of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Ae-Og and ascorbic acid. In this study, nitrite generations and some phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. Beside that, release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. Ae-Og, at a dose of 10 μg/mL, significantly reduced the nicotine-induced NO generation and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed with supplementation of ascorbic acid (0.01 mM. The administration of Ae-Og and ascorbic acid increased the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine-treated macrophages. Ae-Og and ascorbic acid were found to protect the murine peritoneal macrophages through downregulation of Th1 cytokines in nicotine-treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions and provide additional rationale for application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by O. gratissimum and ascorbic acid for different inflammatory disease prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity.

  8. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in Florida

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    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been recently detected in tomato, pepper, hoya and vinca in Florida. Observations of additional crops in 2016 and 2017 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Florida: sweet basil (Ocimum basilicu...

  9. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations.

  10. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

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    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  11. Yield and oil composition of 38 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions grown in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Callahan, Amber; Cantrell, Charles L

    2008-01-09

    A field experiment was conducted to assess yield, oil content, and composition of 38 genotypes of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Overall, biomass yields were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. However, basil genotypes differed significantly with respect to oil content and composition. Oil content of the tested accessions varied from 0.07% to 1.92% in dry herbage. On the basis of the oil composition, basil accessions were divided into seven groups: (1) high-linalool chemotype [19-73% (-)-linalool], (2) linalool-eugenol chemotype [six chemotypes with 28-66% (-)-linalool and 5-29% eugenol], (3) methyl chavicol chemotype [six accessions with 20-72% methyl chavicol and no (-)-linalool], (4) methyl chavicol-linalool chemotype [six accessions with 8-29% methyl chavicol and 8-53% (-)-linalool], (5) methyl eugenol-linalool chemotype [two accessions with 37% and 91% methyl eugenol and 60% and 15% (-)-linalool], (6) methyl cinnamate-linalool chemotype [one accession with 9.7% methyl cinnamate and 31% (-)-linalool], and (7) bergamotene chemotype [one accession with bergamotene as major constituent, 5% eucalyptol, and eugenol, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, or methyl eugenol.

  12. HYDROPONIC AND AQUAPONIC PRODUCTION OF SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum AND GIANT RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Marisol Ronzón Ortega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable aquaculture in production units and to take care of the water resource is needed to integrate biotechnology tools to the activity, as is the aquaponics. In the present study we evaluated the production efficiency of a crop of basil (Ocimum basilicum in a hydroponic system (SH vs. acuaponic system (SA associated with the semi-intensive culture of Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The production of basil was conducted in two geomembrane plastic rectangular tanks (4.0 m long x 0.80 m wide and 0.30 m high, divided into two sections: in the first section setting of the seedlings were done in a substrate of silica sand and volcanic rock , whereas in the second were seeded into plastic containers using the same substrate. SH plants got their nutrients from the metabolites derived from the cultivation of 800 postlarval shrimp in two circular tanks of 25 m3 (16 organisms m-2 (Pond 1: initial weight 0.13 g, Pond 2: 2.19 g; while in the SH was used a commercial nutrient solution (1.5 g L. The results indicate that SH plants initially had higher survival (90%, height and number of leaves per plant (p

  13. Biological effects of Ocimum gratissimum L. are due to synergic action among multiple compounds present in essential oil.

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    Galindo, Luciane Almeida; Pultrini, Aline de Moraes; Costa, Mirtes

    2010-10-01

    Species of genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae) are economically important due to their essential oils and utilization as medicine for many disorders, including the central nervous system. A previous study showed seasonal variations in chemical profile and in central nervous system activities of essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum L. The preparation obtained in spring was able to protect the animals against tonic episodes induced by electroshock while those obtained in other seasons were effective in increasing barbiturate-induced sleeping time. The chemical analysis of essential oils showed eugenol and 1,8-cineole as principal compounds and trans-caryophyllene as a sesquiterpene in higher proportion. In the present study these three compounds were evaluated, separately or mixed in the same proportion detected in spring, in the open-field and rota-rod tests, against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 60 mg/kg, subcutaneously, s.c.) or maximal electroshock (MES; 50 mA, 0.11 s) and in sodium pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, i.p.)-induced sleeping time. The compounds, isolated or in association, did not show efficaciousness in altering convulsive episodes, and only when in association were able to increase sleeping time duration. The absence of similar essential oil activity in the isolated compounds contributes to the idea that the major compounds are not always responsible for a biological effect observed in medicinal plant preparations. This view reinforces the concept of a multitargeted approach as a therapeutic strategy, contributing to an integrated understanding of the phenomena related to experimental activity of a complex herbal mixture.

  14. Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum.

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    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Saroj, Arvind; Samad, Abdul; Khaliq, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The composition of hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemovariants), O. tenuiflorum L., O. gratissimum L., and O. kilimandscharicum Guerke were analyzed and compared by using capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phenyl propanoids (upto 87.0%) and monoterpenoids (upto 83.3%) were prevalent constituents distributed in the studied Ocimum taxa. The major constituents of the four distinct chemovariants of O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (86.3%), methyl chavicol (61.5%)/linalool (28.6%), citral (65.9%); and linalool (36.1%)/citral (28.8%). Eugenol (66.5% and 78.0%) was the major constituent of O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum. Eugenol (34.0%), β-bisabolene (15.4%), (E)-α-bisabolene (10.9%), methyl chavicol (10.2%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%) were the major constituents of O. kilimandscharicum. In order to explore the potential for industrial use, the extracted essential oils were assessed for their antifungal potential through poison food technique against two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum, which cause root and wet rot diseases in various crops. O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, and O. kilimandscharicum exhibited complete growth inhibition against R. solani and C. cucurbitarum after 24 and 48 h of treatment. O. basilicum chemotypes showed variable levels of growth inhibition (63.0%-100%) against these two phytopathogens.

  15. Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars.

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    Avetisyan, Arpi; Markosian, Anahit; Petrosyan, Margarit; Sahakyan, Naira; Babayan, Anush; Aloyan, Samvel; Trchounian, Armen

    2017-01-19

    The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.

  16. Effects of various organic and chemical fertilizers on growth indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop the high intensive agriculture, more chemical fertilizers are applied to the soil that resulting in soil degradation and environment deterioration. Application of organic manure is an important approach for maintaining and improving the soil fertility and increasing fertilizer use efficiency. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizer on growth indices and biological yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2008-2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, vermicompost, chemical NPK fertilizers and control (no fertilizer. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers significantly increased seed and biological yield of basil compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The maximum and the minimum dry weights were observed at 105 days after planting, in sheep and cow manures, respectively. Gradually during the period of plant growth and development to reproduction phase percent of stem decreased and dry weight of inflorescence increased. The highest and the lowest leaf area index were observed at 90 days after planting, in cow manure and control, respectively, and then decreased in all treatments. The maximum crop growth rate in most of treatments at 90 days after planting was obtained, except the control which plant growth rate was lowest. Net assimilation rate (NAR in most treatments increased until 75 days after planting and then declined. While the highest and the lowest NAR were observed at 75 days after planting in chicken manure and chemical treatment, respectively.

  17. Potencial da otencial planta medicinal Ocimum gratissimum no controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana em sementes de trigo = Potential of Ocimum gratissimum medicinal plant on Bipolaris sorokiniana control in the wheat seeds

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    Érica dos Anjos Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito, in vitro, do extrato bruto (EB, autoclavado e esterilizado por filtração, da planta medicinal Ocimum gratissimum e do fungicida iprodione+thiram no crescimento micelial e na esporulação de Bipolaris sorokiniana. Além disso, sementes de trigo naturalmente infectadas com B. sorokiniana foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: 1 fumigação com óleo essencial, 2 imersão em EB autoclavado e 3 não-autoclavado em diferentes concentrações (1%,5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% e 50% m/v, 4 polvilhamento com folhas secas e com fungicida iprodione+thiram. O EB autoclavado proporcionou maior inibição, ainda que parcial, do crescimento micelial em todas as concentrações testadas (1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 50% m/v, quando comparado ao EB esterilizado por filtração. Em casa-de-vegetação, as sementes fumigadas por 7 dias apresentaram velocidade de emergência (VE estatisticamente igual à da testemunha (água. Com relação ao tratamento por imersão, não houve diferença estatística entre os parâmetros analisados (VE, porcentagem de emergência, altura, massa fresca e seca e taxa de transmissão (Tt e a testemunha. Sementes tratadas com pó de folhas secas não diferiram estatisticamente do controle químico, em relação aos parâmetros anteriores, mas apresentaram maior Tt do patógeno. Em laboratório, as sementes submetidas à fumigação apresentaram maior número de sementes sadias doque a testemunha, enquanto os tratamentos com imersão em EB e polvilhamento não diferiram em relação ao mesmo parâmetro.The in vitro effect of Ocimum gratissimum medicinal plant CE(autoclaved and sterilized by filtration as well as the iprodione+thiram fungicide on the mycelial growth and sporulation of B. sorokiniana was evaluated. Besides, wheat seeds naturally infected with B. sorokiniana were submitted to the following treatments: 1 fumigation with essential oil; 2 immersion with autoclaved CE and; 3 non autoclaved CE at different

  18. Chloroplast DNA Phylogeography of Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum in Indian Subcontinent

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    Felix Bast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil “Tulsi”, is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5×10-4. However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km2 encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting.

  19. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

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    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  20. Effect of Salt Stress and Irrigation Water on Growth and Development of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Caliskan Omer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of different salinity and irrigation water treatments on the growth and development of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. Five salinity levels (0.4, 1.00, 2.50, 4.00 and 8.00 dSm-1 and three different irrigation water regimes (80, 100, 120% of full irrigation were applied in a factorial design with three replications. Dry root weight, aerial part dry weight and aerial part/root ratio were determined and evaluated as experimental parameters at the end of growing period. Results revealed significant decreases in yields with increasing salinity levels. However, basil managed to survive high salt stress. With increasing salinity levels, decreases in growth were higher in roots than in leaves. Changes in the amount of irrigation water also significantly affected the evaluated parameters.

  1. α-Linalool - a marker compound of forged/synthetic sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is known to occur as several chemotypes or cultivars that differ in their essential oil composition. The surprising discovery of 3,7-dimethylocta-1,7-dien-3-ol, the rare α isomer of the well-known monoterpene alcohol β-linalool (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol), in samples of Serbian basil oil provoked an investigation of the origin of α-linalool in these samples. Three scenarios were considered, namely (a) the existence of a new natural chemotype, (b) an artefactual formation during the isolation procedure and (c) the case of a synthetic/forged oil. Noteworthy amounts (15.1-16.9%) of pure α-linalool were isolated from a commercial sample of basil oil, and detailed spectral analyses (MS, IR, (1) H and (13) C NMR) unequivocally confirmed its identity. The analysis by GC and GC/MS of an additional 20 samples of different O. basilicum oils commercially available on the Serbian market or isolated from plant material cultivated in Serbia resulted in the identification of 149 compounds. The obtained compositional data were compared using multivariate statistical analysis to reveal the possible existence of a new basil chemotype. The results of the chemical and statistical analyses give more pro arguments for the synthetic/forged oil hypothesis and suggest that α-linalool could be used as a marker compound of such O. basilicum oils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Supercritical CO2 Extracts and Volatile Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Comparison with Conventional Methods

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    José Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in new products from aromatic plants as medical and nutritional compounds is increasing. The aim of this work was to apply different extraction methods, including the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and to test the antioxidant activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. In vitro efficacy assessments were performed using enzymatic assays. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and volatile oil obtained from supercritical fluid extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify components. The total phenolic content in the extracts ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 85.3 ± 8.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content ranged from 35.5 ± 2.9 to 93.3 ± 3.9 micromole catechin equivalents per gram of dry weight of extract. All the extracts showed an antioxidant activity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and the reducing power test. Extracts obtained from methanol had a higher antioxidant capacity per the DPPH test results (IC50 = 3.05 ± 0.36 mg/mL and the reducing power test assay 306.8 ± 21.8 μmol of trolox equivalents per gram of extract (TE/g compared with ethanolic or supercritical fluid extracts. However, using the ABTS assay, the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction had a higher antioxidant capacity with an IC50 of 1.74 ± 0.05 mg/mL. Finally, the examined extracts showed practically no acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory capacity and a slight inhibitory activity against tyrosinase.

  3. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  4. Response of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to Type and Amount of Organic Fertilizer Applications in Intercropping with Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

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    Alaleh Mottaghian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of organic fertilizer applications on yield and competition indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in different combinations of intercropping with sesame (Sesamum indicum L., an experiment was carried out in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2011. The main plots were six fertilizer treatments consisted of 20 and 40 Mg ha-1 of vermicompost and sewage sludge plus 50% recommended chemical fertilizer, chemical fertilizer alone (100 kg ha-1 of urea, triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate and control (no fertilizer application. Subplots were different planting ratios (sole cropping of basil and sesame, 75% + 25%, 50% + 50 %, 25% + 75% of basil+sesame. In this experiment, the 25% basil+75% sesame and 50% basil + 50%sesame under40 Mg. ha-1 of enriched sewage sludge application had the highest economical yield (up to 3097.47 kg ha-1 with a land equivalent ratio (up to 1.24. According to the aggressivity coefficient estimates of two plant species basil incombination of 25% basil + 75% sesame and sesame in 50% basil + 50% sesame and 75% basil + 25% sesame under organic fertilizer application would be dominant species competitave in ranges of 0.12 to 0.30 and 0.11 to 0.57, respectively.

  5. Horário de colheita e tempo de secagem da alfavaca-cravo Harvest moment and drying period of Ocimum gratissimum L

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    José Magno Q Luz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o tempo adequado de secagem e o horário ideal de colheita da alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. em Pentecoste (CE, observando sua influência nas características do óleo essencial e os principais componentes durante o processo. No primeiro experimento foram testados cinco tempos de secagem (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16 dias, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se as variáveis umidade, teor de óleo essencial e seus principais constituintes. Para o segundo experimento utilizaram-se cinco horários de colheita (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 13:00 e 15:00 h, com quatro repetições, sendo cada bloco considerado como um dia. Foram analisados a umidade, massa fresca, massa seca, teor de óleo essencial e seus principais constituintes. Os resultados do primeiro experimento sugerem que a alfavaca-cravo não deve ser submetida ao processo de secagem, devendo ser processada rapidamente para evitar perdas do princípio ativo de interesse, o eugenol. Os diferentes horários de colheita testados não influenciaram no teor de óleo essencial, nem de seus principais constituintes (eugenol e 1,8 cineol.The appropriate drying period and the ideal harvest moment of Ocimum gratissimum L. were determined in Pentecoste, Brazil, observing the influence on the essential oil and its main components during this process. In the first experiment five drying periods were tested, represented by the number of days that the material was submitted to the process: control treatment (zero day of drying, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, with four replicates in each treatment. The percentage of humidity, essential oil content and its main components were evaluated. The second experiment consisted of five different harvest moment (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00 hours, with four replications, where days were considered as blocks. In this experiment humidity, fresh mass, dry mass, essential oil content and its main components were analyzed. The results of the first experiment suggest that Ocimum

  6. Antibacterial Activities of Green Basil (Ocimum Violaceum Essential Oil and Derivatives By MAOS (Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis Against Staphyllococus Aureus and Escherichia Coli

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    Dwiarso Rubiyanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green basil (Ocimum violaceum , Linn. plantis part of the varieties of basil (Ocimum basilicum, Linn.. Green basil essential oil (GBEO contain chemical compounds that have an anti- bacterial activities . Methyl eugenol and methyl chavikol are in green basil oil has the potential to be used as a material which is biologically active. Conversion reaction of the compounds in GBEO with MAOS methods (microwave assisted organic synthesis aims to obtain properties of the main chemical component in a wider sweet basil oil, and are also useful in an attempt to gain more valuable compounds for commercial and higher. The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions on the conversion reaction of compounds in GBEO with MAOS method with ethylene glycol as a solvent is 10 % KF/Al2O3as catalyst and reaction time 3 minutes , while the solvent is glycerol 10 % KF/Al2O3as catalyst and reaction time 2 minutes . Comparison of anti-bacterial activity resulting from this research are : the inhibitory activity to the growth of S. aureus bacteria have the following order : GBEO > green basilEG10-3 > green basil G10-2> amoxicillin with each inhibition zone diameter amounted to 30.7 mm, 21.1 mm, 18.2 mm and 13.4 mm. While the inhibitory activity to the growth of E.coli bacteria are : GBEO> green basil G10-2 >green basil EG10-3 > amoxicillin with each inhibition zone diameter of 21.1 mm, 15.6 mm , 15.2 mm and 7.9 mm . GBEO and its derivatives have minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1.25 %. From the results of the study found that the main derivates obtained are p-methoxy anisaldehyde , caryophyllene oxide , 3-methoxy cinnamaldehyde , humulena oxide and delta cadinol

  7. Effects of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., Lippia sidoides Cham., and Ocimum gratissimum L. on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q

    2009-04-01

    The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.

  8. Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L. (0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75 and 6.00 mg.g-1 were evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using the DPPH● radical methodology. From the IC50 obtained data, the concentrations of 0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75; 6.00 and 12.00 mg.mL-1 were applied directly to the product and these were sensorially evaluated by the test of control difference. The concentrations related to the highest acceptability (0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 were tested for antioxidant activity in the internal part of Italian type salami - during the processing and after 30 days of storage, in terms of lipid and protein oxidation. The oxidation of lipids was determined using the method of TBARS. The method of carbonyl compounds was employed for proteins oxidation. Five different formulations of salami were elaborated: blank (without the use of antioxidant; control (using sodium eritorbate as antioxidant; and adding 0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil. The product was kept between 25 ºC and 18 ºC and UR between 95% and 70%, for 28 days. Analyses were carried out on the processing day and after 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and also following 30 days of storage. The basil essential oil in vitro presented an antioxidant activity of IC50 12 mg.mL-1. In the internal part of the Italian type salami the commercial antioxidant (control and the formulation containing 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil presented antioxidant activity in relation to the lipids, but not to the proteins - during processing and storage.

  9. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

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    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  10. Effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Pejić Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments showing the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were conducted at the experimental field of the Alternative Crops Department, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration (ETd was computed from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficient (kc in May, June, July and August of 0.5, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. ETo was calculated using Hargreaves equation. The irrigation depth was restricted to the soil depth of 0.3 m. In other words, irrigation started when readily available water in the soil layer of 0.3 m was completely depleted by plants. The irrigation rate was 30 mm (30 l m-2 while the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 140 mm. Basil sensitivity to water stress was determined using a yield response factor (Ky. According to the results, the yield of fresh herb of basil under irrigation (32.015 t ha-1 was higher by 9% compared to non-irrigated, control variant (29.364 t ha-1. Worthy of note, basil essential oil yield was significantly affected by irrigation (35.329/28.766 kg ha-1. The content of essential oil was significantly higher in irrigated (6.45 g kg-1 than in non-irrigated variant (5.33 g kg-1 in the first harvest, while no significant difference between irrigated and non-irrigated variants was obtained in the second harvest (6.83 and 6.62 g kg-1 , respectively. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions (ETm was 431 mm and 270 mm in non-irrigated, control variant (ETa. The values of irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were 1.89 kg m-3 and 1.65 kg m-3 respectively. Ky value (0.22 exhibits all essential characteristics of climate conditions of 2016 rainy year. These preliminary results could be used as a good platform for basil growers in the

  11. The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to the application of growth stimulators and forecrops

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    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing sweet basil was carried out in the period 2008-2010 in Fajsławice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. The study evaluated the biometric traits of the plants, yield, the qualitative parameters of herbal raw material and weed infestation of the crop in dependence on growth simulators (Asahi SL, Bio-algeen, Titanit and the forecrop (winter wheat or spring barley + white mustard cover crop. Plots without foliar application of the growth stimulators were the control treatment. Tillage, mineral NPK fertilization as well as mechanical and chemical weed control were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for herbal plant protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of growth stimulators would have a positive effect on basil productivity, raw material quality and weed infestation of the basil crop. It was also assumed that the phytosanitary and fertilizing effects of the cover crop would result in higher and qualitatively better yield compared to the cereal forecrop alone (winter wheat. The best quantitative parameters of sweet basil raw material and the highest reduction in air-dry weight of weeds in the crop were observed after the application of the growth stimulators. The forecrop - spring barley + a white mustard cover crop that is ploughed in - also had a beneficial effect on yield and weed infestation of the plant in question. The traditional crop protection method used in the basil crop, without the application of the growth stimulators, resulted in a lower plant height and a smaller number of shoots per plant. This caused higher weed infestation of the crop and a decrease in yield. The positive side of the non-application of growth stimulators was a better chemical composition of basil raw material. Asahi SL and Tytanit yielded the best growth and productivity of the basil plants.

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Edible Film from Basil Leaves Extract (Ocimum americanum L. as Mouth Freshener

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    Fifi Harmely

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A research on formulation of edible film from basil leaves extract as mouth freshener has been done. The extract of basil leaves were used in various concentrations which are 2.5%, 5% and 7.5%. The products were evaluated for some parameters such as organoleptic, friability, drying shrinkage, pH, thickness, flavonoid contents and respondents preference. The results of evaluation showed that edible filmsfrom basil leaves extract meet requirements as required by Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI and have such quality as product in the market. Statistical analysis using Kruskal Wallis test showed that respondents preferred for the F0 formulation in term of their appearance and taste while as mouth freshener, respondents preferred the F3 formulation.

  13. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Abhay Kumar Pandey; Pooja Singh; Nijendra Nath Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum mi...

  14. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  15. Ocimum basilicum but not Ocimum gratissimum present cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, inducing apoptosis and triggering mTOR/Akt/p70S6K pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Renan Gianoti; Casanova, Livia; Carvalho, Julia; Marcondes, Mariah Celestino; Costa, Sonia Soares; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Zancan, Patricia

    2018-03-28

    Breast cancer is the major cause of death by cancer in women worldwide and in spite of the many drugs for its treatment, there is still the need for novel therapies for its control. Ocimum species have been used by traditional medicine to control several diseases, including cancer. We have previously characterized the antidiabetic properties of the unfractionated aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (OB) and Ocimum gratissimum (OG), modulating glucose metabolism in diabetic mice. Since glucose metabolism is primordial for cancer cells survival, we hypothesized that these extracts are effective against cancer cells. The unfractionated aqueous leaf extracts of OB and OG were chemically characterized and tested for their cytotoxic, cytostatic and anti-proliferative properties against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Both extracts presented cytostatic effects with an 80% decrease in MCF-7 cell growth at 1 mg/mL. However, only OB promoted cytotoxic effects, interfering with the cell viability even after interruption of the treatment. Moreover, OB but not OG affected the cell proliferation and metabolism, evaluated in terms of lactate production and intracellular ATP content. After 24 h of treatment, OB treated cells presented an apoptotic profile, while OG treated cells were more necrotic. The treatment with both extracts also activated AMPK, but OB was much more efficient than OG in promoting this. The activation of mTOR signaling, another survival pathway was promoted by OB, whereas OG failed to activate it. In the end, we conclude that OB extract is efficient against the human breast cancer cell line.

  16. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae

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    Jelačić Slavica Ć.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 and deposited in the Plant Genes Bank at Serbia and at the Institute for Crop Sciences of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade. Essential oils of all tested basil populations were light yellow and had a specific aromatic scent. The composition of essential oil in the dry herb of the tested populations ranged from 0.87 to 1.84%. The results of gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils in tested basil populations pointed to their complex chemical composition and to the fact that they belong to the most appreciated European chemotype. In total thirty three components have been identified in the essential oils. The most common fraction of components in all tested oils was terpenoides. The predominant component in all essential oils is monoterpen linalol, ranging from 51.52 to 74.73%. Phenylpropranoid methylchavicol ranged from 2.49 to 18.97%. Essential oils of populations T-6, T-7, T-8 and T-10 were characterized by elevated 1.8-cineol (4.44, 3.70, 4.01 and 3.43%, respectively. Populations T-3 and T-4 in essential oil contained higher percent of geraniol (4.27 and 3.31%, respectively. In all ten essential oils sesquiterpen fraction consisted of greater number of components, with germacrene having special significance as it was found in high percentage in all populations. The highest content of germacrene was registered in population T-9 (4.30%, T-10 (4.18%, while in others it ranged from 2.17 to 3.69%. Basil populations traditionally grown in Serbia have

  17. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Ocinum gratissimum (African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum gratissimum is a local plant used traditionally in Nigeria to treat ailments such as diarrheoa, pneumonia, fever etc. The antibacterial properties of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae were investigated using agar well/cup plate diffusion ...

  18. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Barrios, Ana C; Armendariz, Raul; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zink, Jeffrey I; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO 2 kg -1 soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively. Compared with control, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 significantly reduced seed germination by 41% and 59%, respectively, while unmodified and hydrophobic nano-TiO 2 significantly decreased shoot biomass by 31% and 37%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Roots exposed to hydrophobic particles at 750 mg kg -1 had 87% and 40% more Ti than the pristine and hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 ; however, no differences were found in shoots. The three types of particles affected the homeostasis of essential elements: at 500 mg kg - 1 , unmodified particles increased Cu (104%) and Fe (90%); hydrophilic increased Fe (90%); while hydrophobic increased Mn (339%) but reduced Ca (71%), Cu (58%), and P (40%). However, only hydrophobic particles significantly reduced root elongation by 53%. Unmodified, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic particles significantly reduced total sugar by 39%, 38%, and 66%, respectively, compared with control. Moreover, unmodified particles significantly decreased reducing sugar (34%), while hydrophobic particles significantly reduced starch (35%). Although the three particles affected basil plants, coated particles impacted the most its nutritional quality, since they altered more essential elements, starch, and reducing sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Influence of Cultivars and Phenological Phases on the Accumulation of Nevadensin and Salvigenin in Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Botond; Bernáth, Jenő; Gere, Attila; Kókai, Zoltán; Komáromi, Bonifác; Tavaszi-Sárosi, Szilvia; Varga, László; Sipos, László; Szabó, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    According to the earlier literature the optimum harvest time for basil is at the full flowering stage if accumulation of essential oil is taken into account. In this research we have investigated our gene-bank stored basil accessions to determine whether the harvest timing is variety specific or not considering their flavonoid accumulation pattern. In our work we have determined by HPLC the content of two main flavonoid compounds, salvigenin and nevadensin, of eight different gene bank accessions from 2013 of Ocimum basilicum L. Data were analysed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Multiple pairwise comparisons were made using the Conover-Iman procedure where the significance level was 5%. We have observed that the optimum harvest time is at the full flowering stage in the case of accessions 'Genovese' and 'Piros', but this was not verified for the others. The result of our experiment has shown that the maximum salvigenin and nevadensin content was detected both at the full- and early flowering period. Almost in all phenological phases the accession 'M. Grünes' accumulated the highest level of nevadensin, while accession 'Lengyel' produced the lowest results in all phenological phases. Generally it could be observed that compared with nevadensin more salvigenin is accumulated, and it is independent of the phenological phases. In the case of salvigenin, 'M. Grünes' accession produced the largest quantity and accession 'Dark Opal' showed the lowest values. Our analyses demonstrated that harvest at different phenological phases may result in different amounts of active agents according to the cultivar.

  20. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaf Nazir; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40?91??C); extraction time (1.6?3.3?h) and water/seed ratio (18:1?77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5?g/100?g. Extraction yield was significantly (P?

  1. Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a sustainable agriculture it is necessary to use environmental friendly inputs to improve ecological aspects of environment. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a medicinal and vegetable crop which is cultivated in different parts of the world. An experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in year 2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: control (no fertilizer, cow manure, sheep manure, hen manure, vermin-compost and NPK fertilizers. Results showed that all studied organic manures were high in measured characters in compare with chemical fertilizer. The highest plant height, leaf yield, fresh and dry matter were obtained at vermicompost. Treatments have no significant affect on Essential oil percentage. The highest essential oil yield was obtained in cow manure treatments. Third cut and the first cut had the maximum and the minimum of leaf yield, fresh and dry shoot yield, respectively. Essential oil percentage in the first cut was significantly more than other cuts, but essential oil yield, were the highest in third cut because this cut produced highest leaf yield. There was no significant difference between chemical fertilizers and control treatment in all characters except green area index and fresh and dry leaf weight in a plant.

  2. Efficiency of n-octyl-acetate, 2-heptanone and citronellal in repelling bees from basil (Ocimum sellowii - Labiatae

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    Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test repellent substances for honey bees, Apis mellifera, for basil, Ocimum sellowii, and to study the most frequent insects in this crop as well as its behaviors. The frequency of honey bees did not decrease with the application of n.octyl.acetate, citronellal and 2.heptanone, used as repellents, in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% diluted in water. However, when the products (20% were diluted in water (75% and glycerine (5% were effective in repelling those bees of the basil flowers for a period of 20 minutes. The flower lasted, on average, 30 h from the bud phase until the flower withered. The flowers number opened by inflorescence was, on average, 5.65 flowers, and the inflorescence presented, on average, 160 flowers-buds. The basil was visited mainly for the honey bee (98.0%, followed by Augochloropsis electra bee - Halictidae (2.0% and visits sporadics of Diptera and Lepidoptera, collected only nectar. The honey bee frequency increased during the day to 14:00, decreasing soon after, accompanying the curve of the temperature sets registered in the experiment days.O objetivo do experimento foi estudar a polinização em manjericão (Ocimum sellowii, a fim de verificar sua atratividade para as abelhas Apis mellifera, os insetos mais freqüentes, bem como seus comportamentos e testar substâncias repelentes para as abelhas A. mellifera. A flor durou, em média, 30 horas, desde sua abertura até o murchamento. O número de flores abertas por inflorescência foi, em média, 5,65 flores, sendo que a inflorescência possuía, em média, 160 botões florais. O manjericão foi visitado quase que exclusivamente pela abelha A. mellifera africanizada (98,0%, seguida pela abelha Augochloropsis electra-Halictidae (2,0% e visitas esporádicas de dípteros e lepidópteros, sendo que todos coletavam apenas néctar. A freqüência da abelha africanizada aumentou no decorrer do dia até às 14 horas, diminuindo em

  3. Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basilicum Under Salinity Stress

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    Manizheh Kalteh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanofertilizers is one of the promising methods for increasing resources use efficiency and reducing environmental pollutions. Uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has caused many problems to human health and domestic animals. Nanofertilizers application could be a suitable way to reduce these problems. Accordingly, in order to assess the silicon nanoparticles effect on some vegetative features of basil under salinity stress, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse condition. Treatments included different levels of silicon fertilizer (without silicon, normal silicon fertilizer and silicon nanoparticles and salinity stress (1, 3 and 6 ds/m. Physiological traits (chlorophyll and proline content of leaves and morphological traits (shoot fresh weight and dry weight were investigated in this study. Results showed a significant reduction in growth and development indices due to the salinity stress.  Leaf dry and fresh weight reduced by increment in NaCl concentration while significantly (P≤0.01 increased with silicon nanoparticles application. The chlorophyll content reduced in salinity stress, but increased by silicon nanoparticles treatment. Proline content increased under salinity stress which was a response to stress. Moreover, proline increased by silicon nanoparticles which was due to tolerance induction in plant. Silicon nanoparticles application reduced the pollution effects originated from salinity in Basil.

  4. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

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    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.

  5. The effect of essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on UV-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojević, Jasna; Berić, Tanja; Opačić, Biljana; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Simić, Draga; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena

    2008-01-01

    The antimutagenic potential of essential oil (EO) of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its major constituent linalool were studied with the E. coli K12 and S. cerevisiae D7 assays. In the E. coli assay, EO and linalool inhibited UV-induced mutagenesis in a repair-proficient strain, but had no effect on spontaneous mutagenesis in repair-proficient, nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and mismatch-deficient strains. By testing participation of different mechanisms involved in antimutagenesis, it was concluded that the antimutagenic effect against UV-induced mutagenesis involved decrease of protein synthesis and cell proliferation which led to increased efficiency of nucleotide excision repair. An antimutagenic effect of basil derivatives in S. cerevisiae was not detected. (author)

  6. Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil

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    José Luiz S. Carvalho Filho

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil with high concentration of linalool is valuable in international business. O. basilicum essential oil is widely used as seasoning and in cosmetic industry. To assure proper essential oil yield and quality, it is crucial to determine which environmental and processing factors are affecting its composition. The goal of our work is to evaluate the effects of harvesting time, temperature, and drying period on the yield and chemical composition of O. basilicum essential oil. Harvestings were performed 40 and 93 days after seedling transplantation. Harvesting performed at 8:00 h and 12:00 h provided higher essential oil yield. After five days drying, the concentration of linalool raised from 45.18% to 86.80%. O. basilicum should be harvested during morning and the biomass dried at 40ºC for five days to obtain linalool rich essential oil.

  7. Composição química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.

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    Lenise L. Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94% e γ-muuroleno (12,58%. O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0 µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5 µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94% and γ-muurolene (12.58%. Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L. test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0 µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5 µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control.

  8. Justification for the use of Ocimum gratissimum L in herbal medicine and its interaction with disc antibiotics

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    Nweze Emeka I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ocimium gratisimum L. (Lamiaceae, used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as urinary tract, wound, skin and gastrointestinal infections, was evaluated for its antibacterial properties against four clinical bacteria isolates namely: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the antifungal properties using a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. A typed bacterium of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 and another typed fungal strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 were also included. The study also intended to verify if the concomitant administration of conventional antibiotics with Ocimium gratisimum which is normally taken as food (spice will negatively affect its activity. Methods The agar diffusion method was used to test the in vitro activity of the plant extract. The interaction of the plant extract with some disc antibiotics namely: ciprofloxacin, septrin, streptomycin, ampicillin, nystatin and ketoconazole was tested using the agar overlay inoculum susceptibility disc method. Phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed following established methods. Results The extract showed good but varying in vitro activities against all the isolates tested. While ampicillin showed synergistic interaction with the plant extract against clinical isolates of E. coli and P. mirabilis, septrin was synergistic against the clinical isolate of E. coli only. Similarly, the activity of the extract against C. albicans isolate was synergistic with ketoconazole and nystatin. Conclusion The study has validated the folkloric use of O. gratissimum in traditional medicinal practice and goes further to show that the use of this plant material as food spice may not really threaten the efficacy of some conventional antibiotics that may have been taken concomitantly with it as is the popular belief in the practice of herbal medicine in

  9. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. seeds using response surface methodology

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    Sadaf Nazir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40–91 °C; extraction time (1.6–3.3 h and water/seed ratio (18:1–77:1 was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by all the variables. Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  10. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicumL.) seeds using response surface methodology.

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    Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly ( P  ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  11. Regulation of Floral Terpenoid Emission and Biosynthesis in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

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    Jiang, Yifan; Ye, Jiayan; Li, Shuai; Niinemets, Ülo

    2018-01-01

    Past studies have focused on the composition of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum leaves, but data on composition and regulation of its aerial emissions, especially floral volatile emissions are scarce. We studied the chemical profile, within-flower spatial distribution (sepals, petals, pistils with stamina and pedicels), diurnal emission kinetics and effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application on the emission of floral volatiles by dynamic headspace collection and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). We observed more abundant floral emissions from flowers compared with leaves. Sepals were the main emitters of floral volatiles among the flower parts studied. The emissions of lipoxygenase compounds (LOX) and monoterpenoids, but not sesquiterpene emissions, displayed a diurnal variation driven by light. Response to exogenous MeJA treatment of flowers consisted of a rapid stress response and a longer-term acclimation response. The initial response was associated with enhanced emissions of fatty acid derivatives, monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids without variation of the composition of individual compounds. The longer-term response was associated with enhanced monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid emissions with profound changes in the emission spectrum. According to correlated patterns of terpenoid emission changes upon stress, highlighted by a hierarchical cluster analysis, candidate terpenoid synthases responsible for observed diversity and complexity of released terpenoid blends were postulated. We conclude that flower volatile emissions differ quantitatively and qualitatively from leaf emissions, and overall contribute importantly to O. basilicum flavor, especially under stress conditions. PMID:29367803

  12. Biosynthesis of estragole and methyl-eugenol in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L). Developmental and chemotypic association of allylphenol O-methyltransferase activities.

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    Lewinsohn, E; Ziv-Raz, I; Dudai, N; Tadmor, Y; Lastochkin, E; Larkov, O; Chaimovitsh, D; Ravid, U; Putievsky, E; Pichersky, E; Shoham, Y

    2000-12-07

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae) is a common herb, used for culinary and medicinal purposes. The essential oils of different sweet basil chemotypes contain various proportions of the allyl phenol derivatives estragole (methyl chavicol), eugenol, and methyl eugenol, as well as the monoterpene alcohol linalool. To monitor the developmental regulation of estragole biosynthesis in sweet basil, an enzymatic assay for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM):chavicol O-methyltransferase activity was developed. Young leaves display high levels of chavicol O-methyltransferase activity, but the activity was negligible in older leaves, indicating that the O-methylation of chavicol primarily occurs early during leaf development. The O-methyltransferase activities detected in different sweet basil genotypes differed in their substrate specificities towards the methyl acceptor substrate. In the high-estragole-containing chemotype R3, the O-methyltransferase activity was highly specific for chavicol, while eugenol was virtually not O-methylated. In contrast, chemotype 147/97, that contains equal levels of estragole and methyl eugenol, displayed O-methyltransferase activities that accepted both chavicol and eugenol as substrates, generating estragole and methyl eugenol, respectively. Chemotype SW that contains high levels of eugenol, but lacks both estragole and methyl eugenol, had apparently no allylphenol dependent O-methyltransferase activities. These results indicate the presence of at least two types of allylphenol-specific O-methyltransferase activities in sweet basil chemotypes, one highly specific for chavicol; and a different one that can accept eugenol as a substrate. The relative availability and substrate specificities of these O-methyltransferase activities biochemically rationalizes the variation in the composition of the essential oils of these chemotypes.

  13. Effect of different concentrations of cadmium growth and morphological changes in basil (ocimum basilicum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarian, M.; Amouzgar, D.; Sedghianzadeh, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on four treatments (0, 3, 5 and 10 milligrams per liter of cadmium nitrate solution) and three replications in a completely randomized design. The morphological characteristics including fresh weight, dry weight, stem length, root length, leaf weight ratio, measuring index of the imposed stress, specific leaf area and water availability per unit leaf area, and the amount of cadmium in stems and roots were measured. By increasing cadmium treatment at 10 ppm concentration, the root growth varied between 3.47 and 1.93 cm and the lowest root growth belonged to the treatment at 10 ppm concentration measured 1.93 ± 0.4 cm. The rising stem growth was also indicated. Fresh and dry weight analysis indicates their descending growth. The growth reduction was observed by increasing cadmium treatment at 10 ppm concentration in the study of the trait of weight and specific leaf area. Relative water content (RWC) of the leaves varies between 81 to 89 percent which represents the greatest amount of stress in the treatment at 10 ppm concentration. A notable decline in transport from the root to stem and a significant reduction in plant tolerance index were observed through the analysis of transfer factor and tolerance index in plants. The process of reducing metal transition from the root to stem has become slower by increasing the substance concentration. Basil can absorb and accumulate cadmium and its root is able to accumulate more quantity of the metal than its stem. The morphological signs of cadmium toxicity are remarkable through discolored roots, shortening the distance between nodes, creating an amorphous spots on the leaves, reducing the leaves extent and a slight pallor of the leaves. (author)

  14. Essential oil composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in symbiotic relationship with Piriformospora indica and paclobutrazol application under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Sara; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Babaeizad, Valliollah; Dehestani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Essential oil content and oil composition of paclobutrazol treated sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plant inoculated with Piriformospora indica under salt stress were investigated by GC-MS. The results show a slight increase in essential oil content when basil plants subjected to moderate salinity stress (3 dS m -1 of NaCl). It decreased signifiicantly with increasing salinity level to 9 dS m -1 . The findings revealed that leaf area, above ground and leaf dry weights, essential oil content and yield were significantly affected by P. indica inoculation, however paclobutrazol application significantly influenced essential oil yield but not content. Fungal symbiosis as well as paclobutrazol application ameliorated the negative effects of salinity on dry matter and essential oil yield. The main constituents found in the volatile oil of O. basilicum in control treatment were Geranial (26.03%), Neral (24.88%) and Estragole (24.78%). The compounds concentrations showed some differences in P. indica and paclobutrazol treatments. The results demonstrate that micorrhiza-like fungi concomitantly increase essential oil production and biomass in sweet basil, a medicinal herb rich in commercially valuable essential oils.

  15. Avaliação das estruturas secretoras de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae após extração dos constituintes voláteis Evaluation of secretory structures of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae after extraction of volatile compounds

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    A.S. Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O impacto provocado nas estruturas secretoras de folhas adultas de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum após extração dos componentes voláteis utilizando-se diferentes métodos de extração foi investigado através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Secções transversais do ápice, da nervura central, e da margem mostraram superfície com cutícula estriada, estômatos diacíticos, tricomas tectores simples, filiformes, e glandulares peltados. Os peltados, com estrutura envolta por uma cutícula contendo o exsudado celular, variaram de 60 a 80µm de diâmetro sendo formados por uma porção apical multicelular com disposição radial formada por dois círculos concêntricos com 9 a 16 células. Na região central do ápice do tricoma peltado se identificou a presença de 4 células em forma de vértice dispostas sobre o pedúnculo, sendo esta a região mais externa formada por número variável de células. Os componentes voláteis das folhas adultas foram extraídos por hidrodestilação (HD, destilação-extração simultânea (DES, e solvente (SO. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o maior impacto nas estruturas secretoras ocorreu após extração por hidrodestilação quando comparado aos outros métodos utilizados. A porcentagem dos principais constituintes químicos, timol e γ-terpineno variaram de acordo com o método de extração: timol (HD = 25,4%, SO = 18,2%, DES = 54,8% e γ-terpineno (HD = 38,2%, SO = ausente, DES = 13,7%.The impact on the secretory structures of mature leaves of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum, after extraction of the volatile compounds using different extraction methods, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cross-sections of the apex, the midrib and the margin showed surface with striated cuticle, diacitic stomata, single tector, filiform and glandular peltate trichomes. The peltate trichomes with a structure surrounded by cuticle containing the celllular exudate ranged from

  16. Investigation the Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Borage (Borago officinalis L. and Cover Crops in Competition with Weeds

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    zeinab shirzadi margavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Distribution of leaf area and dry matter are the effective factors that influence on absorption the radiation, evaporation and transpiration of canopy and eventually dry matter accumulation and grain yield in plants. Plant canopy is the spatial arrangement of shoots in a plant population. In plant canopy, leaves are responsible for radiation absorption and gas exchange with the outside. Stem and branches arrange photosynthetic organs somehow, which gas exchange and light distribution best done. The effect of canopy structure on gas exchange and absorption of radiation in plant communities caused detailed study of the canopy structure to be more important. Materials and methods In order to investigate the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of borage and sweet basil in competition with weeds by cover crops treatments, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari in 2013. Treatments were cover crops mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. in the rows between the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L.. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cover crops to control weeds, pure stand of sweet basil and borage in terms of weeding and no weed controls per replicates were used. Each plot was included 5 rows of medicinal plants. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Estimation of leaf area and dry matter of each plant in different canopy layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 80.100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm were done after 75 planting days, with 1 m × 1 m quadrate per plot. For this purpose a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants (crops, cover crops and weeds into 20-cm strata increments (Mosier & Oliver, 1995. All samples were transferred to the

  17. Avaliação fitoquímica e atividade antioxidan e, antimutagênica e toxicológica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    D.C Gontijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Ocimum gratissimum L., popularmente conhecida como alfavaca, é uma planta muito usada na medicina tradicional brasileira, à qual são atribuídas diversas atividades terapêuticas quando usada na forma de infuso de suas folhas. Neste estudo foi realizada a caracterização fitoquímica, a avaliação da ação antioxidante e a investigação dos efeitos antimutagênico e antigenotóxico, além do efeito mutagênico e genotóxico potencial do extrato aquoso liofilizado a parir das folhas de O. gratissimum (EAOG. O conteúdo de polifenóis totais no extrato foi determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, sendo encontrado 11,3 µg EAG/mg de EAOG. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo teste do 1,1-difenil-2-picril hidrazil (DPPH•, apresentando IC50 de 83,0 µg/mL. A antimutagenicidade e mutagenicidade foram avaliadas em cepas de Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 e TA100 utilizando o teste Salmonella/microssoma (Salmonella typhimurium/microssomas em diferentes concentrações. EAOG induziu a atividade antimutagênica para a cepa TA98. A mutagenicidade não foi observada para o extrato em ambas as linhagens. Adicionalmente, a ação antigenotoxica avaliada pelo teste de clivagem do DNA-plasmidial também foi observada para EAOG. Os resultados também demonstraram que o extrato não foi capaz de induzir a genotoxicidade pelo teste empregado. Este estudo relata, pela primeira vez, as propriedades antimutagênica e antigenotóxica do extrato aquoso de O. gratissimum.

  18. Effect of indigenous Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains on morphological and main chemical growth parameters of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Stanojković-Sebić Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains of P. chlororaphis (Q16 and B25 on morphological (plant height; root length; number of leaves, buds and lateral branches and main chemical (contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg growth parameters of two basil cultivars (Italiano classico and SRX 1920. The experiment was conducted in pots under glasshouse conditions from March to July 2014. Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometer, potassium by flame emission photometry, nitrogen by using elemental CNS analyzer Vario EL III, while calcium and magnesium were determined by AAS. The obtained results showed that the treatment of basil cultivars with both P. chlororaphis strains had positive effect on all studied growth basil parameters in relation to the control, whereby the strain B25 was more effective than Q16. Concluding, tested P. chlororaphis strains have high potential in promoting the morphological and main chemical growth parameters of basil.

  19. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  20. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L. leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time

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    ALESSANDRA C. PEDRO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  1. A first linkage map and downy mildew resistance QTL discovery for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) facilitated by double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Robert; Honig, Josh; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Koroch, Adolfina; Wyenandt, Christian; Bonos, Stacy; Simon, James

    2017-01-01

    Limited understanding of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) genetics and genome structure has reduced efficiency of breeding strategies. This is evidenced by the rapid, worldwide dissemination of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in the absence of resistant cultivars. In an effort to improve available genetic resources, expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and used to genotype the MRI x SB22 F2 mapping population, which segregates for response to downy mildew. SNP markers were generated from genomic sequences derived from double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq). Disomic segregation was observed in both SNP and EST-SSR markers providing evidence of an O. basilicum allotetraploid genome structure and allowing for subsequent analysis of the mapping population as a diploid intercross. A dense linkage map was constructed using 42 EST-SSR and 1,847 SNP markers spanning 3,030.9 cM. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) model (MQM) analysis identified three QTL that explained 37-55% of phenotypic variance associated with downy mildew response across three environments. A single major QTL, dm11.1 explained 21-28% of phenotypic variance and demonstrated dominant gene action. Two minor QTL dm9.1 and dm14.1 explained 5-16% and 4-18% of phenotypic variance, respectively. Evidence is provided for an additive effect between the two minor QTL and the major QTL dm11.1 increasing downy mildew susceptibility. Results indicate that ddRADseq-facilitated SNP and SSR marker genotyping is an effective approach for mapping the sweet basil genome.

  2. Analysis of Caffeic Acid Extraction From Ocimum gratissimum Linn. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and its Effects on a Cervical Cancer Cell Line

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    Je-Chiuan Ye

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: This paper shows that high performance liquid chromatography is a suitable analytical method for determining caffeic acid levels in O. gratissimum, Ju ZenTa, and several vegetable oils. Caffeic acid can suppress the proliferation of HeLa cells.

  3. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m2 and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC and total phenolic content (TPC were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m2 increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold, catechin (0.85-fold, kaempferol (0.65-fold rutin (0.68-fold and luteolin (1.00-fold content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid was observed in the 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B irradiation. UV

  4. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

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    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-09-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  5. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Khalid M. Elhindi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affecting the majority of arable lands worldwide, limiting the crop productivity of most of the economically important crops. Sweet basil (Osmium basilicum plants were grown in a non-saline soil (EC = 0.64 dS m−1, in low saline soil (EC = 5 dS m−1, and in a high saline soil (EC = 10 dS m−1. There were differences between arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus deserticola colonized plants (+AMF and non-colonized plants (−AMF. Mycorrhiza mitigated the reduction of K, P and Ca uptake due to salinity. The balance between K/Na and between Ca/Na was improved in +AMF plants. Growth enhancement by mycorrhiza was independent from plant phosphorus content under high salinity levels. Different growth parameters, salt stress tolerance and accumulation of proline content were investigated, these results showed that the use of mycorrhizal inoculum (AMF was able to enhance the productivity of sweet basil plants under salinity conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and water use efficiency under salinity stress. The sweet basil plants appeared to have high dependency on AMF which improved plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, gas exchange and water use efficiency under salinity stress. In this study, there was evidence that colonization with AMF can alleviate the detrimental salinity stress influence on the growth and productivity of sweet basil plants.

  6. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum Basilicum L. (Basil Against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

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    Hamid Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI.Methods: The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normalcontrol, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI.Results: Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%.Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both inthe serum and the myocardium.Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  7. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

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    Fathiazad Fatemeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%. Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  8. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil) on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36%) and flavonoids (1.86%). Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities. PMID:23351503

  9. Changes in visual quality, physiological and biochemical parameters assessed during the postharvest storage at chilling or non-chilling temperatures of three sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars.

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    Fratianni, Florinda; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Cozzolino, Rosaria; De Giulio, Beatrice; Cozzolino, Autilia; d'Acierno, Antonio; Coppola, Raffaele; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2017-08-15

    Leaves of three different sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars (Italico a foglia larga, Cammeo, and Italiano classico) packed in macro-perforated polyethylene bags were stored at chilling (4°C) or non-chilling temperature (12°C) for 9days. During storage, visual quality, physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production, ammonium content) and chemical (antioxidant activity, total polyphenols and polyphenol profile) parameters were measured. Detached leaves stored at chilling temperature showed visual symptoms related to chilling injury, while ethylene production and ammonium content resulted associated to cultivar sensibility to damage at low temperature. Storage at 4°C caused a depletion in polyphenols content and antioxidant capability, which was preserved at 12°C. Regarding the polyphenols profile, stressful storage conditions did not enhance the phenolic metabolism. However, leaves stored at 12°C did not loss a significant amount of metabolites respect to fresh leaves, suggesting the possibility to extend the storability after the expiration date, for a possible recovery of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

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    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  11. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.

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    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  12. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

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    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino

    2012-11-15

    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

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    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Superação de dormência em sementes de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    H.T.R. Amaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de tratamentos pré-germinativos na superação da dormência de sementes de manjericão, produzidas no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Unimontes, em fevereiro de 2011. Foram realizadas as seguintes determinações para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes: teor de água, germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência de plântulas e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 50 sementes por tratamento, sendo T1- testemunha; T2 - pré esfriamento das sementes em câmara tipo BOD sob temperatura de 10ºC por 4 dias; T3 - embebição das sementes em água destilada por 24 horas; T4 - embebição das sementes em solução contendo KNO3 a 0,2 % por 5 minutos e T5 - sementes submetidas em água destilada a temperatura de 70ºC por 5 minutos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste Scott - Knott a 5% de probabilidade. O tratamento pré esfriamento em câmara tipo BOD a 10ºC por 4 dias reduz a dormência e promove incrementos na qualidade fisiológica das sementes do manjericão.Aiming in order to assess the effectiveness of treatments to overcome dormancy in seeds of basil, an experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis of Unimontes. Following determinations were performed to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds, water content, germination, first count germination, seedling emergence and emergence speed index. The experimental design was completely randomized design with four replications of 50 seeds per treatment, which consisted of: T1 - control, T2 - pre-cooling of the seed chamber BOD at a temperature of 10ºC for 4 days, T3 - soaking the seeds in water distilled for 24 hours, T4 - soaking the seeds in a solution containing 0,2% for 5 minutes and T5 - submitted seeds in distilled water at 70ºC for 5 minutes. Data

  15. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

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    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  16. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and essential oil components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Eyvazpour, Elham; Ghadimzadeh, Morteza

    2017-07-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, is used in traditional medicine; its essential oil is a rich source of phenylpropanoids. Methylchavicol and methyleugenol are the most important constituents of basil essential oil. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the essential oil composition and expression levels of the genes involved in its biosynthesis. In the current investigation, an experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications was conducted in the greenhouse to study the effect of drought stress on the expression level of four genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in O. basilicum c.v. Keshkeni luvelou. The genes studied were chavicol O-methyl transferase (CVOMT), eugenol O-methyl transferase (EOMT), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate coA ligase (4CL), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effect of drought stress on the essential oil compounds and their relationship with the expression levels of the studied genes were also investigated. Plants were subjected to levels of 100%, 75%, and 50% of field capacity (FC) at the 6-8 leaf stage. Essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at flowering stage and the levels of gene expression were determind by real time PCR in plant leaves at the same stage. Results showed that drought stress increased the amount of methylchavicol, methyleugenol, β-Myrcene and α-bergamotene. The maximum amount of these compounds was observed at 50% FC. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that severe drought stress (50% FC) increased the expression level of CVOMT and EOMT by about 6.46 and 46.33 times, respectively, whereas those of CAD relatively remained unchanged. The expression level of 4CL and C4H reduced under drought stress conditions. Our results also demonstrated that changes in the expression levels of CVOMT and EOMT are significantly correlated with methylchavicol (r = 0.94, P ≤ 0

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25538349

  19. Kinetics of drying of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L. in the infrared Cinética de secagem de folhas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. via infravermelho

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    Renata C. dos Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to model the drying curves of the leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in the infrared at temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 ºC and to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on the color of dried leaves. Drying was conducted in infrared dryer with temperature and greenhouse air circulation. Experimental data were fitted to eight mathematical models. The magnitude of the coefficient of determination (R², the mean relative error (P, the estimated mean error (SE and chisquare test (χ2 were used to verify the degree of fitness of the models. From the study it was concluded that: a the behavior of the drying curves of basil leaves was similar to most agricultural products, the drying times in the infrared were less than the drying times in an oven with air circulation, b the mathematical drying model proposed by Midilli et al. (2002 was the one which best adjusted to the experimental data, c the diffusion coefficient ranged from 9.10 x 10-12 to 2.92 x 10-11 m² s-1 and d the color of the samples was highly influenced by drying, becoming darker due to loss of chlorophyll with increasing temperature.Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar, modelar as curvas de secagem das folhas de Manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. por infravermelho nas temperaturas de 50, 60, 70 e 80 ºC e avaliar a influência das temperaturas de secagem na cor das folhas desidratadas. A secagem foi conduzida em secador infravermelho com controle de temperatura e em estufa com circulação de ar. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados oito modelos matemáticos. As magnitudes do coeficiente de determinação (R², do erro médio relativo (P, do erro médio estimado (SE e do teste do qui-quadrado (χ² foram utilizadas para verificar o grau de ajuste dos modelos. Do estudo concluiu-se que: a o comportamento das curva s de secagem das folhas de manjericão foi semelhante ao da maioria dos produtos agrícolas; os tempos de secagem no infravermelho

  20. Evaluation of Some Morphological Characteristics, Water Use Efficiency and Essential Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum var. keshkeni luvelou under Application of Malva Leaves and Superabsorbent Polymer

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    S. Beigi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants are rich in active substances and primarily have been used in the manufacture of many drugs. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is one of the important medicinal plants whichbelongs to the Lamiaceae family. Basil essential oil content (between 0.5 to 1.5 percent varies according to climatic conditions of habitat location. Basilneeds a lot of water during growth period and it is very sensitive to water stress and shows wilting symptoms very soon after water shortage. Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid region which has little precipitation that is not enough for crop water requirements. Nowadays, the use of superabsorbent polymers is one of the ways to create sustainable agriculture and increase irrigation efficiency. They can store high water or aqueous solutions in root zone of plants and to reduce negative effects of drought stress. So, improvement of plant growth, increasing of irrigation intervals, reducing water loss and costs of irrigation is due to the application of superabsorbent polymers. Mucilages are also the herbal polysaccharides, soluble in water, and commonly include carbohydrates and can be used as hydrophilic polymers. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of hydrophilic polymers on water use efficiency, morphological characteristics (dry matter, leaf area, and leaf number, essential oil quantity and yield of basil to harden plant to drought stress and to evaluate its potential to cultivate in arid regions. In addition, taking steps forward towards sustainable agriculture, by reducing the cost of agricultural production, helps protecting the environment. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a pot experiment at the department of Horticultural Science‚ college of Agricultural‚ Ferdowsi University of Mashhad‚ Iran, during 2012-2013.The research was set out in a factorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized block design with three replications

  1. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Molecular characterisation and similarity relationships among iranian basil (Ocimum basilicum L. accessions using inter simple sequence repeat markers Caracterização molecular de acessos de Ocimum basilicum L. por meio de marcadores ISSR

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    Mohammad Aghaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of genetic relationships is a prerequisite for plant breeding activities as well as for conservation of genetic resources. In the present study, genetic diversity among 50 Iranian basil (Ocimum basilicum L. accessions was determined using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Thirty-eight alleles were generated at 12 ISSR loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 3.17. The maximum number of alleles was observed at the A7, 818, 825 and 849 loci, and their size ranged from 300 to 2500 bp. A similarity matrix based on Jaccard's coefficient for all 50 basil accessions gave values from 1.00-0.60. The maximum similarity (1.00 was observed between the "Urmia" and "Shahr-e-Rey II" accessions as well as between the "Urmia" and "Qazvin II" accessions. The lowest similarity (0.60 was observed between the "Tuyserkan I" and "Gom II" accessions. The unweighted pair- group method using arithmetique average UPGMA clustering algorithm classified the studied accessions into three distinct groups. All of the basil accessions, with the exception of "Babol III", "Ahvaz II", "Yazd II" and "Ardebil I", were placed in groups I and II. Leaf colour was a specific characteristic that influenced the clustering of Iranian basil accessions. Because of this relationship, the results of the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA approximately corresponded to those obtained through cluster analysis. Our results revealed that the geographical distribution of genotypes could not be used as a basis for crossing parents to obtain high heterosis, and therefore, it must be carried out by genetic studies.O estudo das relações genéticas é um pré-requisito para atividades em reprodução de plantas assim como para conservação de recursos genéticos. Neste trabalho a diversidade genética entre 50 acessos de Manejericão Iraniano (Ocimum basilicum L. foram determinadas usando marcadores de Seqüência Simples Repetida Interna (ISSR

  3. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  4. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Alves, Sydney H.; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL−1) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL−1) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  5. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil and monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís F. Kubiça

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV. The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay; b pre-treatment of the cells; or c post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation. The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration, IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50. Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 µgmL-1 and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 µgmL-1 showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05 in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  6. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, Paolo F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Minafra, Angelantonio; Trotti, Pasquale; Ambrico, Marianna; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor.

  7. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  8. Ocinum gratissimum Linn., Cadmium and testicular structure of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... a significant stimulation/increase (p less than 0.05) in basal serum phosphatase levels, which was positively correlated with a dose-dependent destruction of the testes and sperm cell histology/structure. ... Keywords: Histology; Sperm cell; Ocimum gratissimum leaf, testes ...

  9. Murcha do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum no Brasil: agente causal, círculo de plantas hospedeiras e transmissão via semente Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum wilt in Brazil: causal agent, host range and seed transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2007-06-01

    representam o mais provável veículo de introdução e potencial disseminação deste patógeno no Brasil.Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L is one of the most important vegetable crops in the family Lamiaceae, being employed mainly as a source of essential oils for the pharmaceutical industry. Samples of plants showing symptoms of wilt, stem blight and collar root rot were collected during the 2005 hot rainy season in the rural area of Brazlândia (Federal District in central Brazil. Two other samples displaying identical symptoms were collected under greenhouse and field conditions in Ponte Alta (DF. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum was consistently isolated in all samples. Pathogenicity tests were conducted using seedlings and stem cuttings of the O. basilicum cultivars 'Dark Opal' and 'Italian Large Leaf' as well as accessions of the species O. americanum L, O. campechianum Mill., Origanum manjorana L., O. vulgare L., Mentha arvensis L., Coleus blumei Benth., Leonorus sibiricus L. and Leonotis nepetaefolia (L. W.T. Aiton. All isolates were highly virulent on O. basilicum cultivars, whereas O. campechianum and O. americanum cultivars reacted with a slight vascular browning and with a very mild reduction in plant growth rate. All isolates were considered avirulent to O. manjorana, O. vulgaris, M. arvensis, C. blumei, L. sibiricus and L. nepetaefolia accessions. The experimental data indicated that the causal agent of this disease is the fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici. This is the first formal report of this pathogen in Brazil. The remaining seeds from commercial lots that were sowed in the areas where the pathogen was first described were evaluated for the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici. This fungus was detected in four out of six seed lots and the seed-derived isolates were able to induce similar set of symptoms in the same group of plant accessions. This result strongly suggests that this new disease in Brazil was most likely introduced into the country via

  10. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical composition of Hyptis suaveolens and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four medicinal plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae were chemically screened for their chemical constituents including alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phenols. The medicinal plants investigated were Hyptis suaveloens and three putative hybrids of Ocimum gratissimum (Hybrid A, B and C). All the plants ...

  12. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  13. Quality of four basil types after storage at 3 to 10 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) has global culinary use as a fresh herb. Basil can also be dried and extracted for its essential oils and grows extremely well in the warm climate of Oklahoma. Several cultivars of sweet basil are known to be chill sensitive when stored below 7 C. In this study, fou...

  14. Characterization of Peronospora belbahrii on basil under light and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum spp.) downy mildew caused by Peronsoora belbahrii is a major yield-limiting disease of sweet basil (O. basilicum) production worldwide. In this study, sweet basil was grown in a soilless potting mix in plant growth chambers and inoculated with sporangia of P. belbahrii harvested from p...

  15. Evaluation of Some Agroecological Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. as Affected by Simultaneous Application of Water-Saving Superabsorbent Hydrogel in Soil and Foliar Application of Humic Acid under Different Irrigation Intervals in a Low Inp

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    M. Jahan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to lamiaceae family. This plant is native of India country and other countries in south of Asia. Nowadays, the use of water superabsorbent polymers is increased in agriculture and their role in reducing the drought stress and increasing the crops production has been demonstrated in many researches. Superabsorbent polymers can absorb lots of water and keep it in their structure and give it to plant under drought stress conditions (9. Humic substances are a group of heterogeneous molecules that are bonded together by weak forces, therefore they have high chemical stability. Humic acid comprise 65 to 80 percent of total soil organic matter (6. According to medicinal importance of Basil and its roles in the food and pharmaceutical industries, beside the limited water resources and need to increase water use efficiency through using ecological inputs, this study designed and conducted aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of Basil as affected by application of water-saving superabsorbent and humic acid under irrigation intervals. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effects of different amounts of water-saving superabsorbent and foliar application of humic acid and irrigation intervals on some quantitative characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., a split strip plot experiment was conducted based on RCBD design with three replications at The Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2012-13. Experimental factors included three levels of water-saving superabsorbent (0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 as the main plot factor, two levels of humic acid (0 and 3 kg ha-1 as the sub plot factor and two levels of irrigation interval (5 and 10 days as the strip plot factor. Studied traits were seed number and weight per plant, plant height, number of lateral branches per plant, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index

  16. Microbiological analysis of pre-packed sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) leaves for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbeke, Stefanie; Ceuppens, Siele; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-09-02

    Enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli, have been detected and associated with food borne outbreaks from (imported) fresh leafy herbs. Screening on imported herbs from South East Asian countries has been described. However, limited information on prevalence of these pathogens is available from other sourcing regions. Therefore, fresh pre-packed basil and coriander leaves from a Belgian trading company were investigated for the presence of Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), generic E. coli and coliforms. In total 592 samples were collected originating from Belgium, Israel and Cyprus during 2013-2014. Multiplex PCR followed by further culture confirmation was used for the detection of Salmonella spp. and STEC, whereas the Petrifilm Select E. coli and VRBL-agar were used, respectively, for the enumeration of E. coli and coliforms. Salmonella was detected in 10 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.7%; 5 from basil and 5 from coriander), of which two samples were sourced from Israel and eight from Cyprus. The presence of STEC was suspected in 11 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.9%; 3 basil and 8 coriander), due to the detection of stx and eae genes, of which one sample originated from Belgium, four from Israel and six from Cyprus. No STEC was isolated by culture techniques, but in three samples a serotype (O26, O103 or O111) with its most likely associated eae-variant (β or θ) was detected by PCR. Generic E. coli was enumerated in 108 out of 592 samples, whereby 55, 32 and 13 samples respectively between 10-100, 100-1000 and 1000-10,000cfu/g and 8 samples exceeding 10,000cfu/g. Coliforms were enumerated in all herb samples at variable levels ranging from 1.6 to 7.5logcfu/g. Further statistics indicate that the E. coli class (categorized by level) was significantly correlated with the presence of Salmonella (p<0.001) or STEC (p=0.019), while coliform counts were significant correlated with Salmonella (p<0.001), but not with

  17. Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M B; Brunton, N P; Martin-Diana, A B; Barry-Ryan, C

    2010-12-01

    The present study optimized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions using Dionex ASE® 200, USA to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] and total polyphenol content (TP) of the extracts from three spices of Lamiaceae family (sage, basil and thyme). Optimal conditions with regard to extraction temperature (66-129 °C) and solvent concentration (32-88% methanol) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). For all three spices, results showed that 129 °C was the optimum temperature with regard to antioxidant activity. Optimal methanol concentrations with respect to the antioxidant activity of sage and basil extracts were 58% and 60% respectively. Thyme showed a different trend with regard to methanol concentration and was optimally extracted at 33%. Antioxidant activity yields of the optimal PLE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for both total phenol (TP) and FRAP values in all the spices with high regression coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.651 to 0.999.

  18. Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on antioxidant status and photosynthetic pigments in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on antioxidant activity and photosynthetic pigments were studied in basil plants. A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2010 growing season. The experiment laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of water stress W1 = 80 (control, W2 = 60 and W3 = 40% of the field capacity (FC as main plots and four levels of bacterial species consisting of S1 = Pseudomonades sp., S2 = Bacillus lentus, S3 = Azospirillum brasilens, S4 = combination of three bacterial species and S5 = control (without use of bacterial as sub plots. The results revealed that water stress caused a significant change in the antioxidant activity. The highest concentration CAT and GPX activity were in W3 treatments. By increasing water stress from control to W3, chlorophyll content in leaves was increased but Fv/Fm and APX activity decreased. Application of rhizobacteria under water stress improved the antioxidant and photosynthetic pigments in basil plants. S1 = Pseudomonades sp. under water stress, significantly increased the CAT enzyme activity, but the highest GPX and APX activity and chlorophyll content in leaves under water stress were in S4 = combination of three bacterial species.

  19. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk....../kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced...... colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/ hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g...

  20. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience, Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum, Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn., Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic agents.

  1. Antioxidant potential of oregano (Oreganum vulgare L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.: application of oleoresins in vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been carried out in order to increase the stability of vegetable oils due to economic and health protection reasons. There is a growing interest in the addition of natural antioxidants; especially herbs and spices. For this reason, this study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant potential of the oleoresins of oregano, basil, and thyme, as well as their behavior when applied to soybean oil under various concentrations. Firstly, the antioxidant activity was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and by the quantification of total phenolic compounds. Next, different concentrations of oleoresins (500 to 3000 mg.kg-1 were added to the soybean oil, and its antioxidant potential was analyzed using the oxidative stability through a Rancimat equipment. The value of 3000 mg.kg-1 of thyme and oregano oleoresins was the concentration that presented the greatest oxidative stability to soybean oil making them a natural alternative to vegetable oil conservation.

  2. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

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    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  3. Influência da temperatura e velocidade do ar na secagem de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. com relação aos teores de óleos essenciais e de linalol Influence of drying temperature and air velocity related to essential oil and linalol contents of the basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilvaynia Dantas Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a influência de quatro temperaturas de ar de secagem (40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC, em camada fina, e duas velocidades do ar (0,9 e 1,9 m/s sobre o teor de linalol do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. Utilizou-se um secador de bandejas especialmente desenvolvido, no laboratório de Secagem da UESB, Campus de Itapetinga-BA. Foram feitas quatro repetições, com 100 g de folhas frescas em cada uma das cinco bandejas da câmara de secagem. Na extração do óleo essencial, utilizou-se um sistema de destilação por arraste a vapor e a análise do óleo essencial foi realizada em um cromatógrafo conectado a um e espectrômetro de massa (CG-MS. Os maiores rendimentos de óleos essenciais de manjericão foram obtidos no processo de secagem com temperatura do ar igual a 40 ºC e 1,9 m/s de velocidade do ar. Os maiores rendimentos de linalol foram obtidos com temperatura do ar de secagem na faixa de 50 a 60 ºC e 1,9 m/s de velocidade do ar (2,23 e 2,47 ppm, respectivamente. Por análise de regressão, estimou-se que a temperatura de 54,4 ºC e a velocidade de 1,9 m/s forneceriam o maior rendimento de linalol. Concluiu-se que a composição química do óleo essencial do manjericão é afetada tanto pela temperatura como pela velocidade do ar de secagem.This work aimed to study the influence of four thin layer drying temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 ºC and two air velocities (0.9 and 1.9 m/s in the content of linalol of the Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. It was used a tray dryer specially built for this experiment in the drying laboratory of the UESB at the "Campus de Itapetinga-Ba". There were made four repetitions with 100 g of fresh leaves in each one of the five trays in the dry chamber In the extraction of the essential oil, a vapor hauling system was used and the oil analysis was made in a gas chromatographer that was connected to a mass spectrometer (CG-MS. The greatest extracted profits of basil's essential oil were

  4. Variation in the volatile terpenoids of two industrially important basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars during plant ontogeny in two different cropping seasons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit

    2012-02-01

    Two Ocimum basilicum cultivars, 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Saumya', grown in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya were evaluated for their essential oil yield and composition at different stages of plant growth during two distinct cropping seasons (spring-summer and rain-autumn). The highest yield of essential oil was obtained at full bloom stage in both cultivars in both cropping seasons. The essential oils obtained from different stages in two cropping seasons were analysed by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major component of cultivar 'Vikarsudha' was methyl chavicol (84.3-94.3%), while for cultivar 'CIM-Saumya' the main components were methyl chavicol (62.5-77.6%) and linalool (14.4-34.1%). This study clearly indicated that cultivar, cropping season, plant ontogeny and plant part had significant effects on the yield and quality of the essential oil of O. basilicum. Further, the amount of methyl chavicol in the cultivars grown in this region was higher than in cultivars from other parts of India. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Evaluation the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on morphological traits, yield and yield components of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    S. M.K Tahhami Zarandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic manure and biofertilizers containing beneficial microorganisms instead of chemical fertilizers are known to improve plant growth through supply of plant nutrients and can help sustain environmental health and soil productivity. Because of special priority of the medicinal plants production in sustainable agricultural systems and lack of studies on assessment of different sources of fertilizer on basil plants, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2009. A complete randomize block design with ten treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: 1cow manure, 2sheep manure, 3hen manure, 4compost 5vermicompost, 6biological fertilizer nitroxin (consisting of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, 7biological fertilizer consisting of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (Pseudomonas and Bacillus, 8mixture of biological fertilizer nitroxin and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria 9NPK fertilizers, and 10control (no fertilizer. Results showed plant height in sheep manure was higher than other treatments. Number of branches in vermicompost and number of inflorescence in cow manure were significantly higher than other treatments. The number of whorled flowers in compost, sheep and cow manure were more than other treatments. Highest leaf and green area index was observed in nitroxin treatment and biological yield in sheep manure have significant difference with other treatments (except cow manure. The highest seed yield were obtained from plants treated with compost (1945 kg/h and the lowest of that observed in NPK fertilizer and control treatments. In all measured traits (except number of inflorescence NPK fertilizer and control treatment did not have any significant difference.

  6. The Effect of Biofertilizers and Winter Cover Crops on Essential Oil Production and Some Agroecological Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    M Jahan

    2013-04-01

    basil in an ecological production system framework.

  7. Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ravit; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ

    2011-05-11

    The aroma in sweet basil is a factor affecting the commercial value of the crop. In previous studies leaf age was considered to be a factor that influences the composition of essential oil (EO). In this study it was hypothesized that a single observation of the EO content in leaves from different positions on the main stem (young vs old) could predict the developmental changes in the plant during its life cycle. Plants harvested at week 16 demonstrated an exponential increase (R(2) = 0.92) in EO concentration in leaves on the main stem and lateral shoots, indicating higher EO concentrations in younger than in older leaves. Eugenol and methyleugenol predominated (28-77%) in the extract. Eugenol levels were higher in younger leaves (∼53%), and methyl-eugenol levels predominated in older leaves (∼68%). Linalool was lower in mature leaves than in younger leaves. This suggested that eugenol converted into methyleugenol and linalool decreased as leaf mature. However, in weekly monitored plants, the levels of these compounds in the EO had limited variation in the maturing leaf regardless of its position on the stem. This proposed that the EO composition in an individual leaf is mostly affected by the leaf position on the stem and not by its maturation process. Because leaf position is related to plant development, it is probable that the plant's physiological age at the time of leaf formation from the primordial tissue is the factor affecting the EO composition. It was concluded that interpretation of scientific observations should be carried out with caution and that hypotheses should be tested utilizing multifaceted approaches.

  8. Neurodegenerative Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings show that the acute use of AeOG caused neuronal fragmentation and central chromatolysis which are response to axonal injuries and may leads to onset of neurodegenerative diseases and affect cognitive and executive functions of the prefrontal cortex. Keywords: Ocimum gratissimum, Acid Phosphatase ...

  9. Wound healing properties of ointment formulations of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present work evaluated the phyto-constituents and wound healing properties of ointments formulated with the n-hexane crude bark extract of a plant used folklorically in wound healing, Ocimum gratissimum. The excision wound model was employed in the wound healing studies. The air-dried, size-reduced barks were ...

  10. Basil oil fumigation increases radiation sensitivity in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil was tested against the stored product pest rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae(L.). Adult weevils were exposed to seven different concentrations of basil oil ranging from 0.12 µl/ml-0.60 µl/ml in Petri dishes and mortality was assessed at 3,4 and...

  11. Yield, Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of the Essential Oil of Sweet Basil and Holy Basil as Influenced by Distillation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwakoti, Santosh; Saleh, Osama; Poudyal, Shital; Barka, Abdulssamad; Qian, Yanping; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2017-04-01

    The profile and bioactivity of essential oil (EO) depends on genetic, environmental, and other factors. We hypothesized that the basil EO may be influenced by the distillation methods. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) extraction method on the yield, composition, and bioactivity of EO of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum). In both basil species, the EO yield (content) was significantly higher from SD than from HD. There were significant differences in the compounds' concentrations of EO obtained from SD and HD as well, however, the same compounds were identified in the EO from HD and SD. In the EO of O. basilicum, the concentration of 74% of the identified compounds were higher in SD than HD, whereas in the EO of O. tenuiflorum, the concentration of 84% of identified compounds were higher in SD than in HD. However, the concentrations of two of the major compounds of O. basilicum EO (estragole and methyl cinnamate) and a major compound of O. tenuiflorum EO (methyl eugenol) were significantly higher in HD than in SD. The type of distillation did not affect the antioxidant capacity of basil EO within the species. This study demonstrated that the type of distillation may significantly affect oil yield and composition but not the antioxidant capacity of the EO from sweet and holy basil. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Formulasi Pasta Gigi yang Mengandung Minyak Kemangi (Ocimum Americanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nastiti Widanty, Nastiti Widanty

    2016-01-01

    In the field of oral health, one of the problems often encountered is bad breath due to dental plaque. Brushing teeth is a plaque control. Deodorizer is one of important parts of the toothpaste because it affects the consumer preference. One of herbs that can be used as a deodorizer is basil (Ocimum americanum L.). Basil oil has a distinctive aroma and can inhibit the growth of oral microorganisms that can be used to freshen bad breath. Goals of this research were to find out whether basil oi...

  13. Anti-diabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-diabetic potential of aqueous extracts of leaves of both Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina were investigated in rabbits. Ten female rabbits were grouped into five groups (1-5) of two rabbits each. Group 1 is the control. Groups (2-5) was alloxan induced diabetic. Group 3 was then treated with 200mg/kg ...

  14. Acaricidal Effect of Foam Soap Containing Essential Oil of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acaricidal effect of foam soap containing essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves was tested on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in western highland of Cameroon. Five doses of essential oil (0.00; 0.04; 0.06; 0.08; 0.10 μl/g) with four replications for each dose were tested in vitro. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in Petri dish ...

  15. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  16. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Summary: We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and ...

  17. Treatment with methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leaf reversibly normalizes urine protein-creatinine ratio in Wistar rat model of gentamicin-induced kidney injury. ... Histopathological examination showed glomerular atrophy, formation of densely eosinophilic/ colloid cast within the tubules and severe loss of cellular constituents in the medullary interstitium. When compared ...

  18. A comparative study of therestorative effects of Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microbial properties and the plants are widely used in Ayurveda. The oxidative stress induced by ethanol consumption had been implicated the changes in the structure and functions of liver cells especially the membrane phospholipids leading to ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum l. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of 13 populations of different silvicultural zones were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aereus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Samonella typhi, ...

  20. Treatment with methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... proteinuria.[5]. For an apparently healthy individual or one with stable kidney injury, creatinine excretion is constant. Hence, UPC (a quantitative test), allows for effective monitoring of the progression of ... condition as it trends the level of proteinuria.[5,6] ... months and 2 weeks old (weighing 120-150g).

  1. The antimicrobial properties of Ocimum gratissimum extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... The plant is extensively cultivated in and around town and villages in Nigeria, tropical regions of Asia, Africa, central and South America (Bailey, 1924). ..... ritual aspects of traditional therapy using drugs dried from human body. Chinese Science. Exploration of an Ancient Tradition, Shigeru. Makayoma and ...

  2. Establishing a preliminary basis for the use of Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory, analgesic and muscle relaxant properties following reports of its use in the traditional management of haemorrhoids. The isolated rabbit jejunum and phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations were used to screen for smooth and skeletal muscle ...

  3. Prebiotic effects of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces were identified as resident bacteria in the rabbit gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Consumption of Vernonia amygdalina extract selectively and significantly (p < 0.05) increased the numbers of Enterococcus and Actinomyces species ...

  4. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Group III received 750 mg/kg bwt of the extract and 54 mg/kg bwt of NaNO2, Group IV received 375 mg/kg bwt of the extract and 54 g/kg bwt of NaNO2, Group V received 54 mg/kg bwt of NaNO2 and 2 ml/kg bwt of olive oil, and Group VI received 2 ml/kg bwt of olive oil. The administration was by oral route and lasted for 21 ...

  5. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bajopas.v6i2.30 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  6. Characterization of the volatile pattern and antioxidant capacity of essential oils from different species of the genus Ocimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Vasconcelos Silva, Maria Goretti; Pfundstein, Beate; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Owen, Robert Wyn

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of essential oils obtained by steam hydrodistillation from five species of the genus Ocimum, namely Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum micranthum, and Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum), were evaluated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and the DPPH assays. The yield of oils from the leaves of the five species was variable with the greater amount obtained from Ocimum gratissimum (3.5%) and the least from Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (0.5%). In the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, strong antioxidant capacity was evident in all the oils but the greater was shown by that obtained from Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) (IC50 = 0.46 microL/mL) compared to Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (IC50 = 1.84 microL/mL). Antioxidant capacity was positively correlated (r = 0.92, p 0.1) with other major volatiles was observed. These correlations were confirmed to a large extent in the DPPH assay. The results of a 24 h experiment with Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) shows that the antioxidant capacity factor (amount of essential oil obtained x free radical scavenging capacity; mg x %/100) reaches a threshold between 10 and 12.00 h, corresponding to maximum sunlight intensity in Brasil and furthermore exhibits a clear diurnal variation. The data generated with Ocimum species indicates that essential oils obtained from various herbs and spices may have an important role to play in cancer chemoprevention, functional foods, and in the preservation of pharmacologic products.

  7. The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahroodi, Shadi; Esmaeili, Somayyeh; Mikaili, Peyman; Hemmati, Zahra; Saberi, Yousof

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids.

  8. The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahroodi, Shadi; Esmaeili, Somayyeh; Mikaili, Peyman; Hemmati, Zahra; Saberi, Yousof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids. PMID:23661866

  9. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  10. Utilization of Basil Extract as a Radioprotector in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Man is exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation-induced biochemical alteration depends mostly on oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the radioprotective activity of basil in albino rats. The effect of basil aqueous extract (BAE) was evaluated on hepatic marker enzymes, sex hormones, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The results showed that - rays caused a significant increase in serum level of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (ALT, AST, ALP and GT), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum was observed, compared with control group. Moreover, - rays induced a significant drop in the serum sex hormones levels testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The BAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings showed that basil would exert a radioprotective properties.

  11. In-vivo study for anti-hyperglycemic potential of aqueous extract of Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum Linn) and its influence on biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes and haematological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sachin; Semwal, Amit; Kumar, Hitesh; Verma, Harish Chandra; Kumar, Amit

    2016-12-01

    The study introduced anti-hyperglycemic influence of aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum seeds (AEOBS) in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats and estimating its potential to ameliorate altered level of biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes level and haematological indices along with its effect on body weight of treated rats. The albino rats were selected to observe oral glucose tolerance test by oral intake of aq. glucose solution (4g/kg, body weight) in normal rats and estimation of blood glucose level after administration of AEOBS at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and standard drug glibenclamide at 0.6mg/kg, body weight. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated in chronic study models by STZ induced diabetes in rats followed by blood glucose estimation. Chronic study model was selected to carry out further studies to evaluate the effect of AEOBS at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and standard drug on body weight, alterations in biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and total protein, alterations in serum electrolytes like Na + , K + , Cl - , HCO 3 - along with estimation of haematological indices like red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. AEOBS significantly reduced the blood glucose level of diabetic rats at both doses. Body weight was also improved significantly. Similarly, the levels of biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes, and haematological indices were significantly ameliorated at both doses of AEOBS. The histopathological results revealed reconstitution of pancreatic islets towards normal cellular architecture in rats treated with AEOBS. The results illustrated that AEOBS have eminent antidiabetic potential in STZ effectuated diabetes in rats and can be extensively used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus-II and its associated complications including anaemia, diabetic nephropathy, liver dysfunction, and immunosuppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  12. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

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    Selene M. Morais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%. This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  13. Variation of ursolic acid content in eight Ocimum species from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M Goretti V; Vieira, Icaro G P; Mendes, Francisca N P; Albuquerque, Irineu L; dos Santos, Rogério N; Silva, Fábio O; Morais, Selene M

    2008-10-14

    Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA) content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%). This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  14. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Goretti V.; Vieira, Icaro G. P.; Mendes, Francisca N. P.; Albuquerque, Irineu L.; Santos, Rogério N. Dos; Silva, Fábio O.; Morais, Selene M.

    2008-01-01

    Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA) content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocim...

  15. Essential basil oil effect (Ocimum basilicum L. on cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in in vitro experimentsEfeito do óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus em ensaios in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of acaricidal products induces environmental and human contamination, whereas there is also the selection of resistant tick’s strains. Most of the chemical acaricides available in the market have low efficacy due intensive use and inadequate management of treatments. Thus, ecologically viable alternatives for the tick’s control is a promising area of research. Herbal medicine has as fundamental issue the study of medicinal plants and their use in the control and treatment of human and animal diseases. This experiment has evaluated the in vitro efficacy of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on engorded teleogines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Six concentrations of the oil (1; 5; 10; 25, 50; 100% were tested, diluted in distilled water, using the engorged female immersion test. The inhibition of oviposition were 10; 26; 26; 33; 100 and 100%, the egg hatch were 75; 60; 80; 45; 0 and 0%, and the effectiveness of treatment 28; 38; 36; 62; 100 and 100%, respectively. The statistic evaluation was done by the linear regression test, and it was observed a significant association between the concentration of the oil and the inhibition of oviposition, egg hatch and effectiveness. The oil at 25% had higher than 50% of effectiveness, and at 50 and 100% had total inhibition of oviposition with maximum efficiency. According to the results, it is possible to conclude that the Ocimum basilicum oil had in vitro acaricidal action on R. (B microplus teleogines, obtaining partial control of this parasite. O uso excessivo de acaricidas predispõe a contaminação do meio ambiente, do homem e estimula a seleção de cepas de carrapatos resistentes. A maioria dos acaricidas químicos disponíveis no mercado apresenta eficácia reduzida devido ao intenso uso e manejo inadequado dos tratamentos. Sendo assim, alternativas ecologicamente viáveis utilizadas no controle dos carrapatos é uma área de pesquisa promissora. A fitoterapia tem como

  16. Phenolic composition of basil plants is differentially altered by plant nutrient status and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four cultivars of basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Cinnamon’, ‘Siam Queen’, ‘Sweet Dani’, and ‘Red Rubin’) were inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Rhizophagus intraradices, and grown with a fertilizer containing either 64 mg/l P (low-P) or 128 mg/l P (high-P) to assess whether (...

  17. Basil Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii): Discoveries and Challenges Relative to Its Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyenandt, Christian A; Simon, James E; Pyne, Robert M; Homa, Kathryn; McGrath, Margaret T; Zhang, Shouan; Raid, Richard N; Ma, Li-Jun; Wick, Robert; Guo, Li; Madeiras, Angela

    2015-07-01

    Basil (Ocimum spp.) is one of the most economically important and widely grown herbs in the world. Basil downy mildew, caused by Peronospora belbahrii, has become an important disease in sweet basil (O. basilicum) production worldwide in the past decade. Global sweet basil production is at significant risk to basil downy mildew because of the lack of genetic resistance and the ability of the pathogen to be distributed on infested seed. Controlling the disease is challenging and consequently many crops have been lost. In the past few years, plant breeding efforts have been made to identify germplasm that can be used to introduce downy mildew resistance genes into commercial sweet basils while ensuring that resistant plants have the correct phenotype, aroma, and tastes needed for market acceptability. Fungicide efficacy studies have been conducted to evaluate current and newly developed conventional and organic fungicides for its management with limited success. This review explores the current efforts and progress being made in understanding basil downy mildew and its control.

  18. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K. [Synthetic and Surface Science Laboratory, Ajmer (India)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E{sub B}), ocimum canum (E{sub C}) and ocimum sanctum (E{sub S}). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E{sub B} is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution.

  19. Evaluation of anti-amnesic effect of extracts of selected Ocimum species using in-vitro and in-vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varinder; Kahol, Aditi; Singh, Inder Pal; Saraf, Isha; Shri, Richa

    2016-12-04

    Ocimum species are traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety, nerve pain, convulsions and a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-amnesic effect of O. basilicum L., O. sanctum L. and O. gratissimum L. extracts using in-vitro and in-vivo models. In-vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydro-methanol extracts of plants were evaluated using Ellman and DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The most active extract i.e. O. basilicum extract (OBE) was further explored for the possible anti-amnesic activity in mouse model of scopolamine induced amnesia using behavioral models (elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance task). Brain AChE activity, oxidative profile and histopathological studies were assessed to outline the anti-amnesic mechanism of the extract. Significant antioxidant and AChE inhibition activity was observed with all prepared extracts and however, OBE showed most marked free radical scavenging, reducing power and AChE inhibition (IC 50 0.65±0.15mg/ml) activity. Basil leaves were standardized with respect to content of 7 phenolic acids using a HPLC-PDA method. A TLC densitometric method was employed to determine the quercetin content in the leaves. The in-vivo studies showed that OBE pre-treatment (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the memory deficit induced by scopolamine in mice, evident by significant (pbasilicum which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This can be developed as an effective anti-amnesic drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1964 Honorary. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams. Date of birth: 3 July 1901. Date of death: 24 February 1984. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  1. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1964 Honorary. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams. Date of birth: 3 July 1901. Date of death: 24 February 1984. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on ...

  2. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and γ-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin

  3. Salt exclusion and mycorrhizal symbiosis increase tolerance to NaCl and CaCl2 salinity in ‘Siam Queen’ basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution and exposed to no, low, or moderate levels of salinity from NaCl or CaCl2. Plants in the control and moderate salinity tre...

  4. Morphological and chemical variability of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of 17 sweet basil cultivars as well as essential oil content and composition were determined. The study clearly indicated great variability of Ocimum basilicumL. The content of essential oil in the dried herb was high and varied from 0.75% (O. basilicumvar. piperita to 1.89% (O. basilicumvar. cinnamon. Based of the primary components, three chemotypes were distinguished: citral (‘Lime’, ‘Lemon’ and var. citriodorum, E-methyl cinnamate/linalool (‘Licorice’, var. cinnamon and methyl chavicol (‘Tai’.

  5. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. The effects of different UV-B radiation intensities on morphological and biochemical characteristics in Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalauskaitė, Jurga; Viskelis, Pranas; Dambrauskienė, Edita; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Urbonavičienė, Dalia

    2013-04-01

    The effects of short-term ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Cinnamon) plants at the 3-4 leaf pair and flowering stages were examined in controlled environment growth chambers. Plants were exposed to 0 (reference), 2 and 4 kJ UV-B m(-2) day(-1) over 7 days. Exposure of basil plants to supplementary UV-B light resulted in increased assimilating leaf area, fresh biomass and dry biomass. Stimulation of physiological functions in young basil plants under either applied UV-B dose resulted in increased total chlorophyll content but no marked variation in carotenoid content. At the flowering stage the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of basil were affected by supplementary UV-B radiation, decreasing with enhanced UV-B exposure. Both total antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay) and total phenolic compound content were increased by UV-B light supplementation. Young and mature basil plants differed in their ascorbic acid content, which was dependent on UV-B dose and plant age. UV-B radiation resulted in decreased nitrate content in young basil plants (3-4 leaf pair stage). These results indicate that the application of short-exposure UV-B radiation beneficially influenced both growth parameters and biochemical constituents in young and mature basil plants. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum africanum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Bunwijit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum africanum Lour. (hairy basil, hoary basil or lemon basil is an aromatic herb in Asian and Thai cuisine that has been used as a carminative, a digestion enhancement and remedy for gastrointestinal disturbance in Thai traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of O.africanum leaf extract in acid/alcohol-induced gastric lesion in rats. Pretreatment of the plant extract can prevent the gastric damage in a dose-dependent manner. At 125 mg/kg of body weight, the plant extract attenuated the inflammation with % ulcer index of 5.08±1.41, whereas at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, the gastric lesion was completely prevented in the manner similar to what was observed in omeprazole pretreated animals (% ulcer index of 1.0±61.94, 0.1±10.45 and 0.00±0.00, respectively. The protective effect of the plant extract against acid/alcohol-induced gastric damage relates to its high antioxidative property and the ability to enhance the activities of three antioxidative enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Preliminary phytochemical investigation demonstrated that certain phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and vanillic acid might take part in the protective effects.

  8. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-central of Iran (Isfahan province were investigated. The hydro-distillated oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yields were obtained from the aerial of Purple with 0.56 ml/100 g dry matter and the aerial of Green with 0.48 ml/100 g dry matter. Results indicated significant differences (p < 0.01 among the aerial for the main constituents in the essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial of Purple landrace were methyl chavicol or estragol (63.32% and linalool (7.96%. The main compositions of the essential oil from the aerial of Green landrace were methyl chavicol (31.82%, geranial (24.60% and neral (22.65%. Genarlly, a comparison of our results with the previous reports suggests differences in the essential oil compositions and oil yield of the plant material could be attributed to genetic diversity in two Iranian landraces of sweet basil.

  9. Quantification of character-impacting compounds in Ocimum basilicum and 'Pesto alla Genovese' with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, Gianluca; Ross, Brian M

    2012-02-15

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an important flavourant plant which constitutes the major ingredient of the pasta sauce 'Pesto alla Genovese'. The characteristic smell of basil stems mainly from a handful of terpenoids (methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol, linalool and estragole), the concentration of which varies according to basil cultivars. The simple and rapid analysis of the terpenoid constituents of basil would be useful as a means to optimise harvesting times and to act as a quality control process for basil-containing foodstuffs. Classical analytical techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are, however, slow, technically demanding and therefore less suitable for routine analysis. A new chemical ionisation technique which allows real-time quantification of traces gases, Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS), was therefore utilised to determine its usefulness for the assay of terpenoid concentrations in basil and pesto sauce headspace. Trace gas analysis was performed using the NO(+) precursor ion which minimised interference from other compounds. Character-impacting compound concentration was measured in basil headspace with good reproducibility and statistically significant differences were observed between cultivars. Quantification of linalool in pesto sauce headspace proved more difficult due to the presence of interfering compounds. This was resolved by careful selection of reaction product ions which allowed us to detect differences between various commercial brands of pesto. We conclude that SIFT-MS may be a valid tool for the fast and reproducible analysis of flavourant terpenoids in basil and basil-derived foodstuffs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mosquito Repellent Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Essential Oils From Striga hermonthica, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum basilicum Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gabi Baba; A.O. Lawal; Hauwa B. Sharif

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals and compare the mosquito repellent activities of essential oils from Hyptis spicigera, Striga hermonthica and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. The global threat of malaria to human race and the need to control its advances is on the focus. Mosquito is the target being the primary host in the spread of malaria. Alkaloids, saponnins, steroids, tannins and terpenoi...

  11. Sorghum bicolor; Cinnamomum zeylanicum; Ocimum gratissimum; Alternative control; Germination and seed pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Duarte Cardoso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of seeds of B. brizantha has increased, however, the physiological quality of seeds available to the producer is still a limiting factor for a good performance culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by chemical scarification, different periods of aging and priming on physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha cv. MG-5 Victory. The seeds were subjected to chemical scarification – H2SO4 (presence and absence, artificial aging periods (zero, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours at 41 ° C and priming using the 0,2 KNO3 % (presence and absence for two hours at 25 º C, creating a completely randomized design in factorial 2x8x2, with four repetitions. The seeds were evaluated by testing germination and vigor. Chemical scarification is an effective method for breaking dormancy, but decreases the physiological seed. Overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha occurs with the use of artificial aging for non-scarified and scarified seeds. Priming generally has no effect on the physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha, however, it provides less loss of cellular constituents.

  12. Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Basil and Spearmint Against Two Major Pyralid Pests of Stored Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Hassiotis, C N; Andreadis, S S; Porichi, A-E E

    2015-04-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. and spearmint Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) were tested against two major stored products pests Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Various oil doses (0.5, 2.5, 5, 50, 250, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µl/liter air), for an exposure period of 24 h, were tested. The essential oils were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed that the major compounds were for spearmint oil carvone (67.1%) and limonene (+1,8 cineole; 14.3%) and for basil oil linalool (45.9%), 1,8 cineole (16.7%) and eugenol (10.3%). Apart from a few exceptions, no significant differences in insecticidal action were observed between basil and spearmint oil. Both oils were highly effective against adult moths, given that notable mortality (>80%) was recorded after exposure to low doses such as 2.5 µl/liter. Noteworthy, egg mortality was also recorded, reaching 73-79% for basil and 56-60% for spearmint. Toxicity data indicated that larvae and pupae were the most tolerant stages in all cases. Larval mortality never exceeded 21 and 18%, for basil and spearmint, respectively, irrespective of moth species. Basil and spearmint oils displayed mortalities as high as 38 and 28% in pupae. Lethal doses (LD50 and LD99) values were estimated via probit analysis. Developmental stage proved to be a significant factor, whereas the effect of oil species on insect mortality was insignificant. With the exception of adult individuals, basil and spearmint oils did not show satisfactory overall insecticidal activity against E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooh, Hanna Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  14. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad MIJANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this survey were to determine the effect of temperature on germination and seedling growth of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae family as well as comparing species regarding germination behavior and growth characteristics. Seeds were germinated on a temperature-gradient bar varying between 5 and 40 °C (with 5 °C intervals. Results indicated that the highest germination percentage of hyssop (92-98%, sweet basil (86-90% and oregano (74-77% occurred at 20-30 °C, 25-30 °C and 20-30 °C, respectively; therefore, moderate and warm temperatures are proper for germination of all species. In all species the maximum germination rate obtained at 30 °C. Among all species, Day 10 % of Sweet basil Germination had the lowest value, which indicates faster germination. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling or maximum were estimated by the segmented model. Base temperature (Tb was calculated for hyssop, sweet basil and oregano as 3.42, 5.70 and 5.46 °C, respectively. Optimal temperature (To calculated for all species was approximately 30°C, So warmer temperatures are much more proper for them. The species showed different maximum temperatures (Tm from 42.91 (Oregano to 48.05 °C (Hyssop. In Hyssop and Sweet basil optimum growth of seedlings were observed at 30°C while Oregano reached its best growth at 25°C. The difference between maximum and minimum temperatures of germination knowing as temperature range (TR index could show adaptation capability to broad sites for planting and domestication. Regarding this index Hyssop stood in the first place.

  15. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Diversity of the genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae through morpho-molecular (RAPD and chemical (GC–MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Chowdhury

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we have described the diversity of nine Ocimum genotypes naturally grown in the Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India. Their diversity was determined on the basis of morphological, chemical and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD to determine the level of variation present in the genus Ocimum. Among nine Ocimum genotypes six (O. americanum, O. × africanum, O. basilicum, O. gratissimum, O. kilimandscharicum and O. tenuiflorum are found to be different Ocimum species and the rest are as varieties. A total of 18 qualitative and 17 quantitative morphological traits and chemical compositions were evaluated. Significant variations were observed in the morphological traits except O. × africanum and O. basilicum species. Cluster generated from the morphological data showed two different groups viz. basilicum group and sanctum group. Chemical analysis did not show much variation between morphologically similar species viz. O. × africanum and O. basilicum. However, RAPD analyses clearly showed that O. × africanum and O. basilicum are different species. Thus the combined analyses of morphological traits, chemical and molecular markers represent the best possible approach to confirm taxonomic delineation. Moreover, we are reporting O. × africanum for the first time from this region as well as from West Bengal, India.

  17. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Santos da Costa; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira da Silva; Mércia Freitas Alves; Darlisson de Alexandria Santos; Péricles Barreto Alves; Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component an...

  18. The Study on Diurnal Changes in Leaf Gas Exchange of Lemon Balm, Catnip, Holy Basil and Sweet basil in Ahvaz

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    Mohammad Mahmoodi Sourestani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mediterranean climate conditions induce several stresses that plants have to cope with, especially during summer months when high temperature and radiation levels along with low water availability in the soil prevail for long periods. Variation in physiological traits such as photosynthesis and plant water status and their association with morphological characters can play an important role in the adaptability of the species to environmental constraints. The previous studies show that scorching weather not only affects the rate of gas exchange, but also results in diurnal changes in activity. Thus, the impact of environmental stresses on plants growing in these conditions should be assessed by examining the evolution of their diurnal variations on leaf gas exchange. Aromatic plants represent a renewable source of valuable compounds that can be used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical industry. Among these plants, sweet basil (Ocimumbasilicum, holy basil (Ocimum sanctum, lemon balm (Melissa officinalisL. and catnip (Nepetacataria are very important for different industries. Studies on environmental physiology of medicinal plants are relatively scarce and very few information is available concerning the physiological basis of medicinal plant response to heat stress that is one of the most important factors limiting production of medicinal plants in Khuzestan province. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the diurnal fluctuation of gas exchange of mentioned plants, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a site characterized by a semidry and scorching weather during late spring and summer. The experiment was arranged based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications and 4×8 factorial scheme (Four plants including lemon balm, catnip, holy basil and basil; and

  19. Production of anti-cancer triterpene (betulinic acid) from callus cultures of different Ocimum species and its elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harshita; Pandey, Pallavi; Singh, Sailendra; Gupta, Ruby; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is gaining unmatched attention owing to its unique anti-cancer activity with selective melanoma growth inhibition without damaging normal cells. It is also well-known for its multifaceted pharmacokinetics, entailing antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-HIV and antioxidant merits. Considering the escalating demand with diminishing bioresource of this molecule, the present study was undertaken that revealed the untapped potentials of Ocimum calli, contrasting to that in the in vitro derived leaves, as effective production alternative of BA in three out of four tested species (i.e. Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Ocimum sanctum excluding Ocimum grattisimum). Callus inductions were obtained in all the four species with different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) concentrations with kinetin. Notably, 2,4-D favoured maximum callus growth in all whereas NAA proved beneficial for the highest metabolite yield in the calli of each BA-producing species. The O. basilicum calli demonstrated the maximum growth (growth index (GI) 678.7 ± 24.47) and BA yield (2.59 ± 0.55 % dry weight [DW]), whereas those in O. kilimandscharicum (GI 533.33 ± 15.87; BA 1.87 ± 0.6 % DW) and O. sanctum (GI 448 ± 16.07; BA 0.39 ± 0.12 % DW) followed a descending order. The O. gratissimum calli revealed minimum growth (GI 159 ± 13.25) with no BA accumulation. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at 200-μM concentration after 48-h exposure doubled the BA yield (5.10 ± 0.18 % DW) in NAA-grown O. basilicum calli compared to that in the untreated counterpart (2.61 ± 0.19 % DW), which further enthused its future application.

  20. Chemical composition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil Ocimum sanctum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatović Damir V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae sin. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or Tulsi basil is a plant originating from tropical and subtropical areas of India. It is used in both the traditional and official medicine in India. Tulsi is a type of basil that is insufficiently explored and studied in Europe. The goal of this paper is to determine the chemical composition, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil Ocimum sanctum L. grown in Serbia. The quantity of essential oil in 100 g of herb (v/w is 0.68%, with 41 components identified in the tested essential oil. The most represented chemical group are sesquiturpene hydrocarbonates with 80.47%. Other groups were much less represented. Sesquiturpene hydrocarbonate β-cariophyllene is a predominant component in the essential oil with 63.80%. The quantity of tested essential oil needed to achieve 50% of inhibition of DPPH radicals is 0.35 μg/ml, and it has high potential to neutralize free radicals. The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity to all tested strains of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative. It affected all strains in an inhibitory way in the interval 0.34-41.50 μl/ml, and in a bactericide way within the range 22.50-124.5 μl/ml. The most sensitive strains of bacteria are Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, while Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococus faecalis showed greatest resistance. The essential oil exhibited antifugal activity on all tested fungi. It affected all tested fungi in an inhibitory way in the interval 4.42-8.83 μl/ml, and in a microbicide way within the range 10.00-50.00 μl/ml. The most sensitive fungi are: Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicilium funiculosum, while the most resistent one is Aspergillus niger. The tested basil essential oil Ocimum sanctum demonstrated significant antioxidative and antimicrobial effect and may be used as a raw material in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  1. Anti-acetylcholinesterase potential and metabolome classification of 4 Ocimum species as determined via UPLC/qTOF/MS and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M A; Ezzat, S M; Salama, M M; Tadros, M G

    2016-06-05

    Ocimum (sweet basil) is a plant of considerable commercial importance in traditional medicine worldwide as well as for the flavor and food industry. The goal of this study was to examine Ocimum extracts anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and to correlate the activity with their secondary metabolites profiles via a metabolome based ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) approach coupled to chemometrics. The metabolomic differences in phenolics from leaves derived from 4 Ocimum species: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum americanum and Ocimum minimum were assessed. Under optimized conditions, 81 metabolites were identified including 21 hydroxy cinnamic acids, 4 benzoic acid conjugates, 14C/O flavonoid conjugates, 2 alcohols, 5 acyl sugars, 4 triterpenes and 12 fatty acids. Several salviolanic acid derivatives including salviolanic acid A, B, C & I found in Salvia, were found in Ocimum herein for the first time. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were further used for comparing and classification of samples. A clear separation among the four investigated Ocimum species was revealed, with O. africanum samples found most enriched in hydroxy cinnamates conjugates (HC) and flavonoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for compositional differences among Ocimum leaves via a metabolomic approach revealing that among examined species O. africanum leaves present a better source of Ocimum bioactive metabolites. The anticholinesrase activity of examined species was further assessed with a potent IC50 values for O. americanum, O. africanum, O. basilicum ranging from 2.5 to 6.6mg/ml, whereas O. minimum was least active with IC50 of 31.4mg/ml. Furthermore, major HC i.e., caftaric, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids identified in extracts via UPLC-MS analysis exhibited IC50 values of 24, 0.5 and 7.9mg/ml respectively

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

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    Koffi Koba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 80 to 150 µl.l-1 and from 200 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200 µl.l-1 to 400 µl.l-1 and from 250 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of The Ancient Herb, Holy Basil in CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusam, Yuvaraj; Louis, Therasilin; Madhavachandran, V; Kumar, Suresh; Thoprani, Neelam; Hamblin, Michael R; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy

    2015-11-01

    An herbal preparation called "holy basil plus herbal powder" (HBPP) containing Ocimum santum, Withania somnifera, Pongamia pinnata, Plumbago indica, Emblica officinalis and Curcuma longa was investigated as an antioxidant and hepatoprotect ive agent. The antioxidant activity of HBPP was investigated in rats with liver injury induced by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride:olive oil (1:1). HBPP was administered orally at 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days before. HBPP exhibited statistically significant antioxidant activity, as shown by increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and decreased level of lipid peroxidation (LPO). HBPP performed equally well as silymarin, a well-established antioxidant preparation used to protect against liver injury.

  4. Potential of Ocimum basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N

    2016-08-29

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

  5. Content, composition, and bioactivity of the essential oils of three basil genotypes as a function of harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Tekwani, Babu; Khan, Shabana I

    2008-01-23

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cut on biomass productivity, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of Ocimum basilicum L. (cvs. German and Mesten) and Ocimum sanctum L. (syn. O. tenuiflorum L.) (cv. Local) in Mississippi. Yields of basil herbage and essential oil were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. Essential oil content of O. basilicum cv. German varied from 0.40 to 0.75%, the oil content of cv. Mesten varied from 0.50 to 0.72%, and the oil content of cv. Local (of O. sanctum) ranged from 0.17 to 0.50% in air-dried basil. Herbage and essential oil yields of cvs. German and Mesten of O. basilicum increased with the second and then again with the third cut, whereas herbage and oil yields of cv. Local of O. sanctum increased with the third cut relative to the previous cuts. Overall, essential oil yields were 115, 123, and 51 kg/ha for the cvs. German, Mesten, and Local, respectively. The major oil constituents of cvs. German and Mesten (of O. basilicum) were (-)-linalool (30-40%) and eugenol (8-30%), whereas the major oil constituents of cv. Local (of O. sanctum) were eugenol (8-43%) and methylchavicol (15-27%). Essential oils from both species grown in Mississippi showed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 37.3-49.6 microg/mL), which was comparable to the activity of commercial oil (IC50 = 40-50 microg/mL). Minor basil oil constituents (+)-delta-cadinene, 3-carene, alpha-humulene, citral, and (-)- trans-caryophyllene had antileishmanial activity, whereas other constituents were ineffective. None of the oil was cytotoxic to mammalian cells.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhance Basil Tolerance to Salt Stress through Improved Physiological and Nutritional Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salwa, A.; Abeer, H.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Abdullah, E.F.; Egamberdieva, D.

    2016-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of salinity on some physio-biochemical traits in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars with contrasting salt stress tolerance and to determine the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ameliorating the salt stress in plant. Salt stress (250 mM NaCl) reduced the colonization potential of AMF and inhibited photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll and carotenoids in plant tissue. AMF inoculated plants contained higher level of chlorophyll pigments. Salt stressed plants showed increased lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities like superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD). Plants inoculated with AMF showed lower lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, the content of lipids, proline, and soluble sugars in basil plants was improved with AMF inoculation. AMF inoculation reduced accumulation of Na+ and improved nutrient acquisition. In conclusion, AMF were capable to reduce oxidative stress via supporting of the antioxidant system. Salt tolerant cultivar showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and accumulation of osmolytes. (author)

  7. Fumigant toxicity of basil oil compounds and related compounds to Thrips palmi and Orius strigicollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Ho; Yi, Chang-Geun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Soon Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Kim, Jun-Ran

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the fumigant toxicity to adult Thrips palmi (a serious insect pest) and Orius strigicollis (a beneficial predator insect) of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil compounds and structurally related compounds using vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Against adult T. palmi, linalool (LD50 0.0055 mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant and was 15.2-fold more effective than dichlorvos (0.0837 mg cm(-3) ). Strong fumigant toxicity was also observed in pulegone (0.0095 mg cm(-3) ), (±)-camphor (0.0097 mg cm(-3) ) and 1,8-cineole (0.0167 mg cm(-3) ). Moderate toxicity was produced by camphene, 3-carene, (-)-menthone, (+)-α-pinene, (+)-β-pinene, α-terpineol and (-)-α-thujone (0.0215-0.0388 mg cm(-3) ). Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LD50 9.0 × 10(-10) mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LD50 values of these compounds ranged from 0.0127 to >0.23 mg cm(-3) . Based upon the selective toxicity ratio, the compounds described are more selective than dichlorvos. The basil oil compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides for control of T. palmi in greenhouses because of their generally lower toxicity to O. strigicollis and their greater activity as a fumigant than dichlorvos. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Basil, tea tree and clove essential oils as analgesics and anaesthetics in Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830

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    A. M. Correia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration, previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution. Control (only seawater and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.

  9. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

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    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  10. A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Cahill, David M; Conlan, Xavier A; Adholeya, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Plants are an important source for medicinal compounds. Chemical screening and selection is critical for identification of compounds of interest. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a rich source of polyphenolics and exhibits high diversity, therefore bioprospecting of a suitable cultivar is a necessity. This study reports on the development of a true to type novel "in vitro system" and its comparison with a conventional system for screening and selection of cultivars for high total phenolics, individual polyphenolics, and antioxidant content. We have shown for the first time using online acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence that extracts from Ocimum basilicum showed antioxidant potential. The current study identified the cultivar specific composition of polyphenolics and their antioxidant properties. Further, a distinct relationship between plant morphotype and polyphenolic content was also found. Of the 15 cultivars examined, "Holy Green", "Red Rubin", and "Basil Genovese" were identified as high polyphenolic producing cultivars while "Subja" was determined to be a low producer. The "in vitro system" enabled differentiation of the cultivars in their morphology, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activity and is a cheap and efficient method for bioprospecting studies.

  11. Technoeconomic evaluation of urban plant factories: The case of basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaros, Stelios; Botsis, Konstantinos; Xydis, George

    2016-06-01

    Greece is currently in a turmoil, experiencing the effects of more than half a decade of economic crisis. Public health and welfare, jobs and wages, labor market concerning employment as long as employability of the work force, inequality, life satisfaction and housing, tourism and environment, economic and energy poverty are heavily impacted by Greece's disadvantageous economic situation. Real estate market could not have gotten away from the financial commotion, being currently in a halt after years of rapid decline. Fired from the present situation of Greece's real estate market, the present study is concerned with the investigation of alternative ways to support the local real estate market. With respect to sustainable development's ethics, the development, implementation, installation and operation of small, inexpensive plant factories within the urban environment is evaluated. Installations such are those, will encourage the penetration of a new market for the untapped buildings' resource, advancing new investing opportunities, promoting economic growth and productivity while creating a new labor market. The study will rely on the basic principles of Life Cycle Costing Assessment and develop a methodology upon which different scenarios will be evaluated against the "Do Nothing" scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioactivity of basil ( Ocimum basicilum L.) on control of the spider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential plant oils contain biopesticides that could be used to control many crop pests. Tetranychus spp. are mites that cause damage to several crops and are primarily controlled by synthetic pesticides. Literature showed that mites can be controlled with essential oils of plants containing eugenol. In this work, we ...

  13. New studies on basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.) seed gum: Part II-Emulsifying and foaming characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji-Tabasi, Sara; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-20

    BSG is composed of two major fractions with different molecular weight: PER-BSG (5980kgmol(-1)) and SUPER-BSG (1045kgmol(-1)). In the present work, the emulsifying and foaming properties of BSG and its fractions were investigated as a function of molecular weight, chain flexibility and physicochemical features (protein and acid uronic content). BSG prevented creaming of emulsion for 4 weeks. This high stabilization may be related to formation a solid-like structure and viscoelastic film of BSG around oil droplets which protected oil droplets against aggregation. The low molecular weight fraction (SUPER-BSG) created more stable emulsion than high molecular weight fraction (PER-BSG). The foam capacity and stability of albumin solution increased by adding BSG. The highest foam stability was observed at the highest gum concentration (0.3% w/v). Removing protein moieties of BSG led to emulsion and foam stabilization properties of BSG weakened, which presents the importance of protein in emulsifying and foaming properties of BSG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process regarding the antioxidant activity

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    Vidović Senka S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of input variables (temperature and extraction solvent that optimize a particular response (total phenols content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process were determined by the response surface methodology (RSM. The influence of theextraction temperature on extraction process was investigated in the range from 33.8ºC to 76.2ºC, as well as of extraction solvent ethanol, in the range of concentrations from 21.7% to 78.3%. For the preparation of basil dry extract, characterized with minimal IC50 value, the calculated optimal values of temperature and ethanol concentration were: 75.33ºC and 73.66% (w/w. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  15. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  16. Multivariable parameter optimization for the endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 from Ocimum gratissimum seed

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    Mithu Das

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction effects of the physico-chemical parameters on the endoglucanase (CMCase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 on a cellulosic agro-residue by the solid-state fermentation (SSF and to determine their optimum values by the EVOP factorial design technique. The best combination of physical parameters for the maximum production of the endoglucanase (CMCase was 28ºC temperature, 79% relative humidity and 4.8 pH of the medium. The best combination of the chemical parameters was (mg/L nicotinic acid 15, naphthalene acetic acid 7, ferric chloride 5 and Tween-80 6. With the application of this technique, the yield of the CMCase increased by ~ 2.3 fold.

  17. Chemical composition and antibiofilm activity of Petroselinum crispum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils against Vibrio spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Mejdi; Dehmani, Ameni; Noumi, Emira; Flamini, Guido; Papetti, Adele

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of parsley and basilic essential oils tested against Vibrio strains and their abilities to inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm using the XTT assay. Petroselinum crispum essential oil was characterized by 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (24.2%), β-phellandrene (22.8%), apiol (13.2%), myristicin (12.6%) and terpinolene (10.3%) as a major constituents. While, in the basilic oil, linalool (42.1%), (E)-methylcinnamate (16.9%) and 1-8 cineole (7.6%) were the main ones. These two essential oils exhibit high anti-Vibrio spp. activity with varying magnitudes. All microorganisms were strongly affected indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of basilic with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 8.67 to 23.33 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from (0.023-0.047 mg/ml) and (>3->24 mg/ml), respectively. The two essential oils can inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm formed on polystyrene surface even at low concentrations, with high magnitude for Ocimum basilicum essential oil. This study gives a better insight into the anti-Vibrio activity of parsley and basilc oils and the possibility of their use to prevent and eradicate contamination of sea products by these strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-08-16

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  19. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Fitsiou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Pimpinella anisum (anise and Fortunella margarita (kumquat. GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4% in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9% in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1% in anise, and limonene (93.8% in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  20. Karakterisasi Fraksi Aktif Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Etanol Biji Kemangi (Ocimum Basilicum L.

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    Dede Sukandar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of antioxidant compounds from the seeds of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. has been done. Extraction is done by maceration method using ethanol solvent, fractionation by TLC and column chromatography, antioxidants test using DPPH method, and characterization of antioxidant compound using GCMS. Ethanol extract and results of fractionation ethanol extract of basil seeds using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol-water extracts show that n-butanol extract has the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values ​​of 41.90 ppm. Results of column chromatography n-butanol extract using n-hexane : ethyl acetate (1:9 as mobile phase yielded 5 fractions with fraction 4 (F4 isolate has dominant stain of active antioxidants after being sprayed DPPH reagent, it had IC50 values ​​of 39,70 ppm and total phenolic content of 0,003 mg/g. Isolate F4 suspected contains two active compounds as antioxidant which is terpenoid and phenolic compound group, namely squalene and 1,4-di-tert-buthyl-phenol identified by GCMS.DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3598

  1. The effects of alcoholic leaf extract Ocimum basilicum on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane

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    Niazi Fateme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiogenesis is an important biological processes of new blood vessels in many pathological stages of development and embryo development occurs and a complex and dynamic phenomenon that is needed for development and other physiological processes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alcoholic Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on angiogenesis chick chorioallantoic membrane is done. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 Ross fertilized eggs were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham-exposed and experimental groups were divided. The second day of incubation the eggs window was opened. Eighth day of the alcoholic extract of basil doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg on chick chorioallantoic membrane was injected. On day 12, embryos length and weight and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM was photographed by photostereomicroscope Then the numbers and lengths of vessels in special area on CAM were measured with Image J. analyzed through by t-test and ANOVA (P<0.05. Results: The data does not show significant difference between embryos length and weight in sham compare to all experimental groups. In the study vessels number just with 150 mg/kg observed significant. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of basil is an increase in the number of vessels and in this sense the healing and growth processes associated with them as well as effective.

  2. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of edible spices, Ocimum canum and Xylopia aethiopica.

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    Vyry Wouatsa, N A; Misra, Laxminarain; Venkatesh Kumar, R

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils of 2 Cameroonian spices, namely, Xylopia aethiopica and Ocimum canum, were chemically investigated and screened for their antibacterial activity. The essential oils were analyzed by means of GC, GC/MS, and NMR. X. aethiopica oil contained myrtenol (12%), a monoterpenoid in highest concentration. The essential oil of O. canum belonged to the known linalool (44%) rich chemotype. The results of the antibacterial screening against the food spoiling bacteria revealed a significant and broad spectrum of activity for these essential oils. The present material of X. aethiopica, which is having myrtenol in relatively higher concentration, has shown moderate antibacterial activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of Ocimum canum oil through flash chromatography showed that minor compounds, namely, α-terpineol, chavicol, chavibetol, and trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-ol, significantly contributed for the overall activity observed. Hence, these results evidenced the possible potential of the essential oil of O. canum as a suitable antibacterial for controlling food-borne pathogens whereas the X. aethiopica oil has moderate possibility. There is a strong global demand for the microbe-free, safe, and healthy foods. In this study, we showed that the essential oil of O. canum (wild basil) can be used as antibacterial for food items. Also, we showed that a value addition in the antibacterial potential of O. canum oil can be done by processing the essential oil through flash chromatographic separations. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Ocimum basilicum: Antibacterial activity and association study with antibiotics against bacteria of clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Silva, Viviane; Pereira da Sousa, Janiere; de Luna Freire Pessôa, Hilzeth; Fernanda Ramos de Freitas, Andrea; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Beuttenmuller Nogueira Alves, Larissa; Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as basil, is part of a group of medicinal plants widely used in cooking and known for its beneficial health properties, possessing significant antioxidant effects, antinociceptive, and others. The objective of this study is to determine the pharmacological effects produced on the bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when standard antibiotics and O. basilicum essential oil are combined. The extraction of O. basilicum (leaves) components was done by steam distillation. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated using microdilution technique, where the oil concentrations varied from 2 to 1024 μg/mL. The combinations of O. basilicum oil with ciprofloxacin or imipenem were analyzed by the checkerboard method where fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated. Ocimum basilicum essential oil, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin showed respective MIC antibacterial activities of 1024, 4, and 2 μg/mL, against S. aureus. In S. aureus, the oil with imipenem association showed synergistic effect (FIC = 0.0625), while the oil with ciprofloxacin showed antagonism (FIC value = 4.25). In P. aeruginosa, the imipenem/oil association showed additive effect for ATCC strains, and synergism for the clinical strain (FIC values = 0.75 and 0.0625). The association of O. basilicum essential oil with ciprofloxacin showed synergism for clinical strains (FIC value = 0.09). Ocimum basilicum essential oil associated with existing standard antibiotics may increase their antibacterial activity, resulting in a synergistic activity against bacterial strains of clinical importance. The antibacterial activity of O. basilicum essential oil may be associated with linalool.

  4. Characterization of Essential Oil Composition in Different Basil Species and Pot Cultures by a GC-MS Method

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    Andrea Muráriková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum L. species are used as medicinal plants due to their essential oils exhibiting specific biological activity. The present work demonstrated that both the variety and season/conditions of cultivation had a significant effect on (i the produced amount (extraction yield, (ii qualitative, as well as (iii quantitative profile of basil essential oil. Among studied basil varieties, a new variety, ‘Mánes’, was characterized for the first time. Based on our quantitative evaluation of GC-MS profiles, the following chemotypes and average concentrations of a main component were detected in the studied basil varieties: ‘Ohře’, ‘Lettuce Leaf’, ‘Purple Opaal’, ‘Dark Green’ (linalool, 5.99, 2.49, 2.34, 2.01 mg/mL, respectively, and ‘Mammolo Genovese’, ‘Mánes’, ‘Red Rubin’ (eucalyptol, 1.34, 0.96, 0.76 mg/mL, respectively. At the same time, when considering other compounds identified in GC-MS profiles, all the studied varieties, except from ‘Lettuce Leaf’, were methyl eugenol-rich with a strong dependence of the eugenol:methyl eugenol ratio on the seasonal changes (mainly solar irradiation, but also temperature and relative humidity. More complex and/or variable (depending on the season and cultivation chemotypes were observed with ‘Lettuce Leaf’ (plus estragole, 2.27 mg/mL, ‘Dark Green’ (plus eucalyptol, 1.36 mg/mL, ‘Mammolo Genovese’ (plus eugenol, 1.19 mg/mL, ‘Red Rubin’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.46 and 0.56 mg/mL, respectively, and ‘Mánes’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.58 and 0.40 mg/mL, respectively. When considering superior extraction yield (ca. 17 mL·kg−1, i.e., two to five times higher than other examined varieties and consistent amounts (yields of essential oil when comparing inter-seasonal or inter-year data (RSD and inter-year difference in mean yield values ˂2.5%, this new basil variety is very promising for use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.

  5. Changes in the content of total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in the basil herb depending on the cultivar and nitrogen nutrition

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    Katarzyna Dzida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among fundamental nutrients, nitrogen fertilization is considered one of the most effective factors affecting both the yield and the quality of plant material. Nitrogen form used for fertilizing is also of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen nutrition (calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and urea as well as (green, purple, and‘Fino Verde’ on the chemical composition and yielding of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.. After drying the plant material at a temperature of 60°C and milling, total nitrogen was determined by means of Kjeldahl method, while mineral nitrogen content (N-NH 4, N-NO 3 was analyzed in 2% acetic acid extract. Yield of fresh basil matter depended significantly on the variety grown. The highest yields were obtained from a cultivar of ‘Fino Verde’ fertilized with ammonium nitrate. The purple variety plants fertilized with urea were characterized by a largest amount of total nitrogen. The‘Fino Verde’cultivar fertilized with urea accumulated the least quantities of nitrates in the basil herb.

  6. The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of basil from Thailand using retention indices and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

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    Pripdeevech Patcharee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora (1.39 % dry weight and Ocimum basilicum (0.61 % were analyzed by GC-MS. Seventy-three constituents representing 99.64 % of the chromatographic peak area were obtained in the O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil, whereas 80 constituents representing 91.11 % observed in the essential oil of O. basilicum were obtained. Methyl chavicol (81.82 %, β-(E-ocimene (2.93 % and α-(E- bergamotene (2.45 % were found to be the dominant constituents in O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil while O. basilicum contained predominantly linalool (43.78 %, eugenol (13.66 % and 1,8-cineole (10.18 %. The clear separation of the volatiles in all samples, demonstrated by the application of GC×GC, resulted in significantly different fingerprints for the two types of basil. The O. basilicum oil showed strong antioxidant activity while the oil of O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora exhibited very low activity, which was attributed to the significant differences in linalool and eugenol contents in these essential oils.

  7. Morfología básica de 17 introducciones del género Ocimum en el departamento del Valle

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    Estrada Edgar Iván

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron establecer un jardín de introducciones de albahaca y contribuir en la caracterización botánica de las cultivariedades introducidas al banco de germoplasma. La colección se realizó en el departamento del Valle en campos de cultivo, áreas de vegetación natural, huertos caseros y mercados locales. En 6 zonas se recolectaron 17 introducciones, pertenecientes a 5 especies del genero Ocimum tres cultivadas (O. basilicum L., O. americanum Jacq Host y 0. minimum L. y dos ornamentales (O. gratissimum Hook y O. micranthum Willd. Se determinó visualmente alta variación para características fenotípicas tales como arquitectura de plantas, presencia de pubescencia, tipo de inflorescencia, flores, hojas y frutos.The objetives of this work were the collection and stablishment of a garden of albahaca and a contribution to the botanical characteristic of the cultivars introduced in the germoplasm bank .The collection was gathered at cultivated fields, natural vegetation areas, house gardens and local markets. Seventeen (17 species were collected, all belonging to the generous Ocimum from six different zones of Valle del Cauca. Three species are cultivated (O. basilium L., O. americanum Jack Host y O. minimum L. and two are considered ornamentals (O. gratissimum Hook y O. micranthum Willd. Phenotipicaly, high variety was observed in the plant architecture, in its pubescence presence, in the type of inflorescence and in flowers, leaves and fruits.

  8. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Brain Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage by Electromagnetic Field in Rat: Ultrastructural Study by Transmission Electron Microscopy

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    Khaki Arash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Basil herb (Ocimum basilicum has long been used in human nutrition. Nowadays antioxidant role of this herb is known more. The aim of this study was to study the anti-oxidative property of sweet basil to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic field (EMF and its affective sequences. Materials and Methods: Forty Albino male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups, 10 rats per each. Group 1 received normal diet (control group, group 2 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF for 8 weeks (EMF group. Group 3 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF and fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks (treatment group and group 4 was fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks and named as herbal group. At the end of eighth week 5 mL blood was taken from all rats for biochemical analysis and for ultra structural study of brain neuron samples was taken. Results: The results showed level of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH peroxidase and catalase activity (CAT were significantly increased in herbal and treatment groups as compared to EMF group (P < 0.05. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased in treatment group as compare to EMF group (P < 0.05. Ultra structural evaluation of EMF group showed brain nucleus has a lot of heterochromatic changes and mitochondria have been ovulated and have swelling figure this changes were less in treatment group. Conclusion: Antioxidant capacity of basil extract can cause to decrease oxidative effects of EMF on brain tissue and in rats.

  9. Investigação da Atividade Antimicrobiana do Ocimum basilicum (Manjericão sobre Staphylococcus aureus Investigation of the Ocimum basilicum Antimicrobial Activity on Staphylococcus aureus

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    Robson Luís Assunção dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar a atividade antimicrobiana do Ocimum basilicum (manjericão sobre o microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus. Materiais e Métodos: As cepas de S. aureus foram obtidas do Banco de Microrganismos do Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá e o teste de observação de ausência ou presença de crescimento das amostras nas placas foi realizado pelo método preconizado pelo CLSI (M7-A6. Foram analisadas 70 cepas de S. aureus pelo método de Kirby-Bauer para diferentes concentrações de extratos de manjericão (10, 20, 30, 40 e 50%, nos dois tipos de extratos (Extrato Alcoólico e Extrato Bruto. Resultados: Houve inibição de crescimento do S. aureus de 41,4% para o Extrato Alcoólico (EA na concentração a 10%; 87,1% de inibição na concentração de 20%; 92,86% de inibição para EA a 30% e 100% para os extratos alcoólicos a 40 e 50%. Com relação aos extratos brutos (EB, obteve-se uma inibição de crescimento do S. aureus de 42,9% para o EB a 10%; 94,3% de inibição para EB a 20 e 30% e 100% de inibição para os Extratos Brutos a 40 e 50%. Ainda, das 70 amostras analisadas, 49 (70% eram Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à Meticilina (MRSA, e destas, 15 (30,6% foram inibidas por Extrato Alcoólico e Extrato Bruto a 10%. Conclusão: Embora os resultados obtidos tenham sido satisfatórios, estudos posteriores fazem-se necessários, no intuito de obter-se o constituinte ativo presente no extrato do Ocimum basilicum (Manjericão. Objective: Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum basilicum (basil on Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and methods: The data for topographic analysis were obtained in the Microbiology Laboratory Database and the observation test for absence or presence of growth of samples on plates was carried out by the recommended method by CLSI (M7-A6. Results: From those 70 viable strains of S. aureus isolated in this period, the Kirby-Bauer method for different

  10. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  11. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  12. Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum grattissimum leaf extracts in the control of yam rot. ... Fusarium oxysporium, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicilluim notatum and Aspergillus niger were isolated from the rotted yams. Both fresh and dry extracts of the leaves had significant effects ...

  13. Unexpected roles for ancient proteins: flavone 8-hydroxylase in sweet basil trichomes is a Rieske-type, PAO-family oxygenase.

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    Berim, Anna; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R

    2014-11-01

    Most elucidated hydroxylations in plant secondary metabolism are catalyzed by oxoglutarate- or cytochrome P450-dependent oxygenases. Numerous hydroxylations still evade clarification, suggesting that they might be performed by alternative enzyme types. Here, we report the identification of the flavone 8-hydroxylase (F8H) in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) trichomes as a Rieske-type oxygenase. Several features of the F8H activity in trichome protein extracts helped to differentiate it from a cytochrome P450-catalyzed reaction and identify candidate genes in the basil trichome EST database. The encoded ObF8H proteins share approximately 50% identity with Rieske-type protochlorophyllide a oxygenases (PTC52) from higher plants. Homology cloning and DNA blotting revealed the presence of several PTC52-like genes in the basil genome. The transcripts of the candidate gene designated ObF8H-1 are strongly enriched in trichomes compared to whole young leaves, indicating trichome-specific expression. The full-length ObF8H-1 protein possesses a predicted N-terminal transit peptide, which directs green fluorescent protein at least in part to chloroplasts. The F8H activity in crude trichome protein extracts correlates well with the abundance of ObF8H peptides. The purified recombinant ObF8H-1 displays high affinity for salvigenin and is inactive with other tested flavones except cirsimaritin, which is 8-hydroxylated with less than 0.2% relative activity. The efficiency of in vivo 8-hydroxylation by engineered yeast was improved by manipulation of protein subcellular targeting. blast searches showed that occurrence of several PTC52-like genes is rather common in sequenced plant genomes. The discovery of ObF8H suggests that Rieske-type oxygenases may represent overlooked candidate catalysts for oxygenations in specialized plant metabolism. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Two CYP716A subfamily cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of sweet basil play similar but nonredundant roles in ursane- and oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis.

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    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sharma, Shubha; Sandeep; Garg, Anchal; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2017-04-01

    The medicinal plant sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) accumulates bioactive ursane- and oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenes (PCTs), ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, respectively, in a spatio-temporal manner; however, the biosynthetic enzymes and their contributions towards PCT biosynthesis remain to be elucidated. Two CYP716A subfamily cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP716A252 and CYP716A253) are identified from a methyl jasmonate-responsive expression sequence tag collection and functionally characterized, employing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expression platform and adapting virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in sweet basil. CYP716A252 and CYP716A253 catalyzed sequential three-step oxidation at the C-28 position of α-amyrin and β-amyrin to produce ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, respectively. Although CYP716A253 was more efficient than CYP716A252 for amyrin C-28 oxidation in yeast, VIGS revealed essential roles for both of these CYP716As in constitutive biosynthesis of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in sweet basil leaves. However, CYP716A253 played a major role in elicitor-induced biosynthesis of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Overall, the results suggest similar as well as distinct roles of CYP716A252 and CYP716A253 for the spatio-temporal biosynthesis of PCTs. CYP716A252 and CYP716A253 might be useful for the alternative and sustainable production of PCTs in microbial host, besides increasing plant metabolite content through genetic modification. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. In-silico identification of miRNAs and their regulating target functions in Ocimum basilicum.

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    Singh, Noopur; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    microRNA is known to play an important role in growth and development of the plants and also in environmental stress. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a well known herb for its medicinal properties. In this study, we used in-silico approaches to identify miRNAs and their targets regulating different functions in O. basilicum using EST approach. Additionally, functional annotation, gene ontology and pathway analysis of identified target transcripts were also done. Seven miRNA families were identified. Meaningful regulations of target transcript by identified miRNAs were computationally evaluated. Four miRNA families have been reported by us for the first time from the Lamiaceae. Our results further confirmed that uracil was the predominant base in the first positions of identified mature miRNA sequence, while adenine and uracil were predominant in pre-miRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the relation between O. basilicum and other plant pre-miRNAs. Thirteen potential targets were evaluated for 4 miRNA families. Majority of the identified target transcripts regulated by miRNAs showed response to stress. miRNA 5021 was also indicated for playing an important role in the amino acid metabolism and co-factor metabolism in this plant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first in silico study describing miRNAs and their regulation in different metabolic pathways of O. basilicum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Specificity of Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase modified by its expression in different heterologous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marc J C; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Perrin, Mireille; Ginglinger, Jean François; Gertz, Claude; Masson, Jean E; Werck-Reinhardt, Danièle; Hugueney, Philippe; Karst, Francis

    2013-01-10

    Numerous aromatic plant species produce high levels of monoterpenols, using geranyl diphosphate (GPP) as a precursor. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) geraniol synthase (GES) was used to evaluate the monoterpenol profiles arising from heterologous expressions in various plant models. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) calli were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefasciens and the plants were regenerated. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was transformed using the floral dip method. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves were agro-infiltrated for transient expression. Although, as expected, geraniol was the main product detected in the leaves, different minor products were observed in these plants (V. vinifera: citronellol and nerol; N. benthamiana: linalool and nerol; A. thaliana: none). O. basilicum GES expression was also carried out with microbial system yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the functional properties of a monoterpenol synthase depend not only on the enzyme's amino-acidic sequence, but also on the cellular background. They also suggest that some plant species or microbial expression systems could induce the simultaneous formation of several carbocations, and could thus have a natural tendency to produce a wider spectrum of monoterpenols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Andréa Santos da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”. Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey’s test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid “Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita” exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita,” such as canfora and (E-caryophyllene; (E-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon”; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  18. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid “Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita” exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita,” such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon”; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  19. VOLATILE LEAF OIL CONSTITUENTS OF OCIMUM AMERICANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum americanum L. growing in Western Kenya were analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 36 compounds, representing a total of 88.51% of the total oil, were identified. The oil was classified as terpinen-4-ol-type according to the terpinen-4-ol content (43.21%). To the best ...

  20. Identification of the chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatope, Majekodunmi O; Marwah, Ruchi G; Al Hadhrami, Nabil M; Onifade, Anthony K; Williams, John R

    2008-11-01

    The chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. growing wild in Oman have been established by (13)C-NMR analyses of the vegetative and floral oils of the plants. The chemotypes, estragole for O. forskolei and linalool for O. basilicum, suggested by (13)C-NMR fingerprinting were also confirmed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil of O. forskolei demonstrated better activities against bacteria and dermatophytes. The significance of the presence of estragole and linalool in the volatile oils of plants whose fragrances are traditionally inhaled, added to food, or rubbed on the skin are discussed.

  1. An efficient system for in vitro multiplication of Ocimum basilicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system for in vitro multiplication of Ocimum basilicum through node culture. MA Shahzad, M Faisal, N Ahmad, M Anis, A Alatar, AA Hend. Abstract. An efficient in vitro micropropagation system was developed for direct shoot growth of Ocimum basilicum, an important medicinal plant, using nodal explants.

  2. Comparative reproduction mechanisms of three species of Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Oziegbe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum species have a combination of reproductive system which varies with the locality and cultivar. We have studied here the reproductive mechanisms of five variants of three Ocimum species in Nigeria, namely: Ocimum canum Sims., O. basilicum L., and O. americanum L. Flowers from each variant were subjected to open and bagged pollination treatments of hand self-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination and emasculation. All open treatments of the five Ocimum variants produced more fruit and seed than the corresponding bagged treatments. The two O. canum variants and O. basilicum ‘b1’ produced high fruit and seed set in the open and bagged treatments of spontaneous self-pollination. Ocimum basilicum ‘b2’ and O. americanum produced higher fruit and seed set in the self-pollination open treatment but significantly lower fruit and seed set in the bagged treatment. Fewer fruit and seeds were produced in the emasculated open treatments but none in the emasculated bagged treatments of the five Ocimum variants. The floral foragers comprising of bees, wasps and butterflies visited the Ocimum species to collect pollen or nectar in the open treatments. The two O. canum variants and O. basilicum ‘b1’ variant reproduced mainly through autogamy but O. basilicum ‘b2’ and O. americanum showed mixed reproduction of autogamy and outcrosssing. Insect visitation to the flowers enhanced pollination resulting in higher fruit and seed set in all the Ocimum species studied.

  3. In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aristo_team

    1Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Islamic university, ... regeneration protocol for Ocimum sanctum L. Shoot tips as well as nodal segments were subjected to numerous shoots ..... Activities of Ocimum sanctum L. Essential Oils at Different Harvest. Stages.

  4. The Rule of Saint Basil the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pietrow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rules of monasticism were collected and published in a single work entitled Asketikon by Saint Basil the Great. It is arranged in the form of questions and answers to create one coherent work. It has two different publications.The first publication named The Small Asketikon dates to 370-370. It is the fruit of the Saint’s work among Pontic communities and consists of 203 questions and answers. The orignial Greek manuscript has not survived and it is available only in two translations: the Latin Rufin and fragments in Syrian language. The second publication named The Great Asketikon appeard in about 377 and presents the most mature step of cenobitic monasticismin Basil’s elaboration. The Great Asketikon was created by adding new questions to The Small Asketikon and consists of two parts called the The Longer Rules and The Shorter Rules. The Longer Rules are primarily a set of questions and answers. It includes a wide range of rules and norms of the overall life in community. It refers to the fundamental rules of spirituality, such as love, sacrifice, obedience and rudimental problems connected withcommunity organization, cenobitic monasticism and the role of the superior, work and prayer. The second part of The Great Asketikon consists of shorter rules. Two publications are known: the first one originated in Pont andincludes 286 questions and answers and second arose in Cezarei and includes 318 questions and answers. In this work, the Hierarch explains in detail issues regarding community life and solves difficult problems connected with conscience. He writes about behavior towards brothers and explains the significance of weaknesses and virtues.

  5. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site. PMID:28927018

  6. Effects of salicylic acid foliar application on germination, growth and antioxidant potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karalija, Erna; Parić, Adisa

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid is one of endogenous plant growth regulators that plays a key role in many physiological processes. The present study analysed the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, ad 1.0 mM) of salicylic acid on morphological parameters, photosynthetic pigments, protein, proline, total carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites content as well as peroxidase activity. One month after sowing seedlings were replanted in new pots, and salicylic acid was applied in form of a foliar s...

  7. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrico, P. F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, M.; De Miccolis Angelini, R.M.; Minafra, A.; Trotti, P.; Ambrico, M.; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 30 (2017), č. článku 305401. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) * bio-decontamination * etching * polymers * biomolecules * spores * surface treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa77c8

  8. Basil Willey, Sixty Years after (October 22, 2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    On the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the foundation of the Danish Association of English Teachers' newsletter, Anglo Files, the essay reconsiders the contents of the first issue from December 1947, Cambridge professor Basil Willey's address to the Association on October 22, 1947, 'Poetry...

  9. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extracts of ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activities of Aqueous extract of Occimum. Gratissimum leaves in rats were evaluated. These studies were carried out to determine the folkoric medicinal values of the plant leaves. Extraction of crude extract was done using standard method. LD50 was determined using the Locke Dietrich Method.

  10. Densitometric Validation and Optimisation of Polyphenols in Ocimum sanctum Linn by High Performance Thin-layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U K, Ilyas; Katare, Deepshikha P; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn (Sanskrit: Tulasi; family: Libiaceae), popularly known as holy basil or Ocimum teinufolium, is found throughout the semitropical and tropical parts of India. In Ayurveda, Tulasi has been well known for its therapeutic potentials. To optimise and develop a standard method to quantify seven polyphenols simultaneously by HPTLC. A three-level factor Box-Behnken statistical design was used for optimisation, where extraction time (min), temperature (°C) and methanol:water ratio (% v/v) are the independent variables with polyphenols as the dependent variable. The separation was archived on a silica-gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate using toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid:methanol (3:3:0.8:0.2 v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of polyphenols was carried out in the absorbance mode at 366 nm. The quantification of polyphenols was carried out based on peak area with a linear calibration curve at concentration ranges of 60-240, 20-200, 100-1600, 40-200, 200-1400, 10-160, 200-1400, 100-5000 ng/band for caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, kaempferol, catechin, quercetin, eupalitin and epicatechin respectively. The method was validated for peak purity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). Method specificity was confirmed using the retention factor value and visible spectra correlation of marker compounds. A validated HPTLC method was newly developed for simultaneous quantification of seven polyphenols in an Ayurvedic preparation of O. sanctum. The proposed method is simple, precise, specific, accurate, cost-effective, less time consuming and has the ability to separate the polyphenols from other constituents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih)

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Dhianawaty; Ramdan Panigoro; Samsudin Surialaga; Pricilla Purushothman

    2012-01-01

    A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Me...

  12. Microextracción en fase sólida de compuestos volátiles en albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. Microextracción en fase sólida de compuestos volátiles en albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Andrade-González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were extracted with solid phase microextraction(SPME and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. TwoSPME fiber coatings, Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB, 65 μm and Carbowax/Divinylbenzene (CW/DVB, 65 μm were evaluated in order to compare the extraction ofcomponents. Among the 25 volatile compounds detected were phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes, esters, and aldehydes. There were significant (P Los compuestos volátiles de la albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. fueron extraídos mediante la microextracción en fase sólida (SPME y analizados con cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se evaluaron dos fibras, Polidimetilsiloxano/Divinilbenceno (PDMS/DVB, 65 μm y Carbowax/Divinilbenceno (CW/DVB, 65 μm, para comparar la extracción de componentes. Entre los 25 compuestos volátiles recuperados en la albahaca, se identificaron fenilpropanoides, monoterpenos, sesquiterpenos, ésteres, y aldehídos. Hubieron diferencias significativas (P Cuantitativamente, el componente más importante fue el cinamato de metilo, seguido por el linalol.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-09-15

    The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  14. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irshad Ahmad; Awasthi, Praveen; Mahajan, Vidushi; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants and are grouped into 17 families (PR-1 to PR-17). PR-5 family includes proteins related to thaumatin and osmotin, with several members possessing antimicrobial properties. In this study, a PR-5 gene showing a high degree of homology with osmotin-like protein was isolated from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). A complete open reading frame consisting of 675 nucleotides, coding for a precursor protein, was obtained by PCR amplification. Based on sequence comparisons with tobacco osmotin and other osmotin-like proteins (OLPs), this protein was named ObOLP. The predicted mature protein is 225 amino acids in length and contains 16 cysteine residues that may potentially form eight disulfide bonds, a signature common to most PR-5 proteins. Among the various abiotic stress treatments tested, including high salt, mechanical wounding and exogenous phytohormone/elicitor treatments; methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and mechanical wounding significantly induced the expression of ObOLP gene. The coding sequence of ObOLP was cloned and expressed in a bacterial host resulting in a 25kDa recombinant-HIS tagged protein, displaying antifungal activity. The ObOLP protein sequence appears to contain an N-terminal signal peptide with signatures of secretory pathway. Further, our experimental data shows that ObOLP expression is regulated transcriptionally and in silico analysis suggests that it may be post-transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated through microRNAs and post-translational protein modifications, respectively. This study appears to be the first report of isolation and characterization of osmotin-like protein gene from O. basilicum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hădărugă, Daniel I; Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Costescu, Corina I; David, Ioan; Gruia, Alexandra T

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed-uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC-MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole) was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  18. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Hădărugă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed–uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC–MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production. PMID:27275253

  20. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Costescu, Corina I; David, Ioan; Gruia, Alexandra T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed–uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC–MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole) was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated. PMID:25550747

  1. Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD BAGHER HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 vs. 19.4 % and monoterpenes (27.7 vs. 22.1 %. Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 vs. 18.9 % were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 vs. 15.9 % were the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 vs. 56.7 % was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 vs. 13.1 % was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 vs. 3 %, germacrene D (6.1 vs. 2.7 % and 1,8-cineole (2.4 vs. 3.5 %. There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  2. Efficiency of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogum flexuosus in the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, José D Limma; Oliveira, Rebeca S M; Copatti, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum) (EOOB) and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus) (EOCF) in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively) and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both), 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saeedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Ocimum basilicum L. (family Lamiaceae was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Basil mucilage was extracted and several tablets were formulated. The effect of mucilage on drug release rate was evaluated in comparison with tablets containing two kinds of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M as standard polymer. The release data were fitted to several models for kinetic evaluation. The results showed that hardness decreased and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased. The rate of release of propranolol HCl from O. basilicm mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug: mucilage ratio. Drug release was slower from the HPMC K4M and HPMCK100M containing tablets compared to the mucilage containing matrices than the drug release from matrices containing O. basilicum seed mucilage in similar ratios.  Formulations containing O. basilicm mucilage were found to exhibit suitable release pattern. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in tablets containing O. basilicm mucilage the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets.

  4. Efficiency of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogum flexuosus in the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ D. LIMMA NETTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum (EOOB and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus (EOCF in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively. In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both, 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum (Lamiacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Kafeel; Khalil, Ali Talha; Khan, Jangrez; Khan, Yusra Ali; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Umar, Muhamad Naveed; Ahmad, Hilal

    2015-06-01

    To collect and screen for ethnopharmacological properties (antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine lethality assays) of medicinal plan Ocimum basilicum from Peshawar region (34.008 latitude and 71.57 altitudes). In the present study a general antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica strair was carried out. The antibacterial potential of the plant was performed against 06 gram positiv and 06 gram negative bacteria. Brine shrimp cyto- toxicity assay at different concentrations were investigated. The anti-promastigotes profile of the plant showed good antileishmanial activity exhibited LC50 value 21.67 µg/mL. The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O. basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from 20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86 ± 0.80 for Clostridium perfringens type C and Bacillus subtitilis, respectively, as compared to the gentamycin (27.36 ± 0.55 and 21.80 ± 0.72, respectively). For gram negative bacteria good activity was observed. A highest zone of inhibition was recorded for Pseudomonas aeroginosa (28.83 ± 0.28) at the highest concentration (10 mg/ mL). The LC50 value obtained for brine shrimp lethality assay was 91.56 µg/mL. The herb basil possesses effective cidal activities which make this plant a good candidate for the isolation of antiprotozoal and antibacterial compounds which may lead to the development of novel drug.

  6. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sudhansu S; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Kollipara, Padmasree; Tetali, Sarada D

    2014-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum (OS), commonly known as Holy basil/Tulsi, has been traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and manage general cardiac health. The present study is designed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of O. sanctum and its phenolic compound and eugenol (EUG) in human monocytic (THP-1) cells and validate its traditional use for treating cardiovascular diseases. The phytochemical analysis of alcoholic and water extracts of OS-dry leaves (OSAE and OSWE) was done using LC-QTOF-MS. A phenolic compound, EUG was quantified in both OSAE and OSWE by an LC-MS technique using a mass hunter work station software quantitative analysis system. The effect of both OSAE, OSWE, pure compound EUG and positive control imatinib (IMT) was investigated in THP-1 cells by studying the following markers: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion by ELISA, gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α and MCP-1) by real time PCR and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by confocol microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts, EUG and IMT, was studied on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4. The LC-MS analysis of OSAE and OSWE revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds including eugenol. Quantitative analysis revealed that OSAE and OSWE had EUG of 12 ng/mgdwt and 19 ng/mgdwt respectively. OSAE, OSWE (1 mg dwt/mL) pure compound EUG (60 µg/mL) and positive control IMT (20 µg/mL) showed marked inhibition on LPS induced TNF-α secretion by THP-1 cells. At the selected concentration, the plant extracts, EUG and IMT inhibited gene expression of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1) and translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nuclei. In addition, they showed significant inhibition on PMA induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and the gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4

  7. Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

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    Jeferson C. Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e

  9. Saint Basil of Poiana Mărului. Biographic milestones

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    Ion Marian CROITORU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While, in the 19th century, many servants of the monastic settlements left Wallachia and Moldova, because of the measures taken there, the situation was nevertheless different in the 18th century, when monks from different areas inhabited by Orthodox Christians came to the Romanian Countries, where they encountered an uninterrupted reality of hesychastic renewal started by Saint Gregory of Sinai (1255-1346, due to the fact that the Romanians had known another cultural continuity, different from what had happened, until that century, in the Greek Byzantine or in the Slav world. This reality explains why the revitalization of the hesychastic and spiritual life in the areas north of the Danube is related, in the 18th century, to the Saints Basil of Poiana Mărului (1692-1767 and Paisius Velichkovsky or Wieliczkowski of Neamţ (1722-1794, both of them arrived from the Slav world in the Romanian extra-Carpathian territories. Saint Basil founded many hermitages and trained many disciples in the practice of the prayer of the mind or of the heart, becoming known as a great teacher of this prayer, in the modern times. Just as the Holy Fathers of Mount Sinai (Gregory, Philotheos, Hesychios, but also from other parts of the Byzantine world (Saint Symeon the New Theologian, Saint Gregory Palamas etc., once again, he draws the attention not just of the monks but also of the lay people on the prayer of the heart, so that in the 19th century it was not the teaching of Saint Paisius on the practice of the prayer of the heart that prevailed, but the teaching of Saint Basil, followed especially in the Romanian and in the Russian tradition. Regarding the monastic life, the activity of Starets Basil can be characterized by the ecumenicity of the Orthodox faith, due to the fact that, on the one hand, he brought together monks from the Romanian and the Slav area, and, on the other hand, he contributed to the enrichment of the Romanian monasticism through the

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Basil, Oregano, and Thyme Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2017-03-28

    For centuries, plants have been used for a wide variety of purposes, from treating infectious diseases to food preservation and perfume production. Presently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to currently used antimicrobials in combination with the appearance of emerging diseases requires the urgent development of new, more effective drugs. Plants, due to the large biological and structural diversity of their components, constitute a unique and renewable source for the discovery of new antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic compounds. In the present paper, the history, composition, and antimicrobial activities of the basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils are reviewed.

  11. The anticancer effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves

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    Lam, S.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Malaysia. Ocimum tenuiflorum L., (O. tenuiflorum commonly known as ruku in Malaysia, is usually cultivated as a garden ornamental plant because of its small purplish and some yellowish flower. The specific objective of this research is to investigate the anticancer of O. tenuiflorum against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblast cell line (HS-27. In addition, another objective is to determine the mineral and heavy metal determination of O. tenuiflorum. O. tenuiflorum exhibited anticancer activity against MCF-7 (a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line. The viability of MCF-7 cells decreased significantly after treatment with various concentrations of methanolic plant extracts (25 and 100 μg/mL, as shown via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The crude extracts show the lower IC50 (less than 100 μg/mL value against the cancer cell lines and show no effect on HS-27. The high content of calcium in the leaves of O. tenuiflorum may play a role in decreasing the risk of certain cancer. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb and As detected in O. tenuiflorum are safe for consumption.

  12. Comportamento fenotípico e genotípico de populações de manjericão Phenotypic and genotypic behavior of basil populations

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    Arie F Blank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Genótipos de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. apresentam diferentes teores, rendimentos e composições químicas de óleos essenciais. Fatores influenciam na produção do óleo essencial de manjericão, como a cultivar plantada e o método de cultivo. O estudo dos parâmetros genéticos tem sido ferramenta útil na identificação de genótipos superiores. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estimar alguns parâmetros genéticos associados ao comportamento produtivo de seis populações de manjericão nos anos agrícola 2004/05 e 2005/06. As características massa seca de folha + inflorescência e rendimento de óleo essencial apresentaram grande variabilidade por forte influência dos anos estudados. Já o teor de linalol manteve sua produtividade estável ao longo dos dois anos. Teor e rendimento de óleo essencial e teor de linalol no óleo essencial apresentaram herdabilidades altas na análise conjunta, indicando controle genético e grande possibilidade de serem transmitidas para as gerações futuras. Na análise conjunta as populações PI 197442-S3-bulk 3, PI 197442-S3-bulk 5 e PI 197442-S3-bulk 8 apresentaram os maiores teores e rendimentos de óleo essencial. Quanto ao constituinte químico majoritário do óleo essencial, o linalol, todas as populações apresentaram teores semelhantes, diferindo apenas na presença de alguns constituintes químicos minoritários.Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. genotypes present different contents, yields and chemical constituents in its essential oils. Factors influence the essential oil production of basil, such as cultivar and cultivation method. The study of genetic parameters is a useful tool to identify superior genotypes. In this work we estimated some genetic parameters associated to the production behavior of six basil populations cultivated in 2004/05 and 2005/06. The variables dry weight of leaves + inflorescences and essential oil yield presented high variability because of strong influence of

  13. Sclerotinia Rot on Basil Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea

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    Soo Sang Hahm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During growing season of 2011 to 2013, Sclerotinia rot symptoms consistently have been observed on basil in Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do in Korea. The typical symptom formed initially brownish spot on leaf and stem, and then advancing margins, wilting the whole plant and blighting, eventually died. On the surface of diseased lesions was observed cottony, white, dense mat of mycelial growth, and sclerotia (30–100 µm diameter formed on stem and leaf. Morphological and cultural characteristic on potato dextrose agar, color of colony was white and colorless chocolate, sclerotium of irregular shape of the oval was black and 5–50 µm diameter in size. In pathogenicity test, necrosis and wilt of the inoculated stem were observed in all plants and the pathogen was reisolated from stems. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis, this fungus was identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of Sclerotinia rot on basil caused by S. sclerotiorum in Korea.

  14. Phytochemical and nutrient compositions of the leaves of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluko Bukola

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... The phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed high concentrations of flavonoids. (10.00%), saponins and tannins, ... Key words: Ocimum canum, phytochemicals, proximate, mineral and nutrient composition. INTRODUCTION .... extract (1 mg/ml) of the dry O. canum leaves and various concentrations of ...

  15. Essential oil of Ocimum grattissimum (Labiatae) as Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum grattissimum L. (Labiatae) leaves are widely eaten as a vegetable in Nigeria, and in the eastern parts, are traditionally used in post-harvest protection and relieving stomach aches. The effect of the essential oil of O. grattissimum leaves on Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed ...

  16. In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embracing micro-propagation method for large scale production of plantlets and also for protection of appropriate germplasm is a prerequisite that needs to be undertaken in order to develop a rapid in vitro regeneration protocol for Ocimum sanctum L. Shoot tips as well as nodal segments were subjected to numerous ...

  17. short communication the effect of ocimum sanctum and ledum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. THE EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM AND LEDUM PALUSTRE ON SERUM URIC. ACID LEVEL IN PATIENTS ... It is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of uric acid in the blood. The pain and swelling due to gout can be sudden and may appear and disappear over ...

  18. Enhancing antidiabetic and antimicrobial performance of Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum sanctum (L.) using silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapermal, Veshara; Botha, Izel; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu; Mbatha, Joyce Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-01

    The role of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) is an attractive proposition for advancing modern diabetes therapies and applied science. Stable AgNps with a size range of 3-25 nm were synthesized using aqueous leaf extracts from Ocimum basilicum , Ocimum sanctum , and in combination. The concentration of the extracts facilitated the reduction of silver nitrate that led to the rapid formation of AgNps at room temperature, indicating a higher reaction rate as opposed to harsh chemical methods, and high conversion energy usually involved in the synthesis. The size, shape and elemental analysis were carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential whilst, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) supported by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to identify the type of capping agents. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes retards the rate of carbohydrate digestion, thereby provides an alternative and a less evasive strategy of reducing postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients. The AgNps derived from O. sanctum and O. basilicum , respectively displayed an inhibitory effect at 89.31 ± 5.32%, and 79.74 ± 9.51%, respectively, against Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase enzyme model, indicating an enhanced biocatalytic potential compared to their respective crude extracts and the control. Furthermore, the emerging rate of infections in diabetic patients validates the need for the discovery of dual diabetes therapies. As a result, the bioderived AgNps displayed antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacillus subtilis , and Salmonella species.

  19. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of the Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae

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    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum genus (Lamiaceae presents essential oils used in the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetics and culinary industries. The aim of this paper was to study the fl oral biology and breeding mechanisms of Ocimum canum Sims. in relation to improved plant breeding. Ocimum canum has inflorescences with white, protandrous and hermaphoditic flowers. The osmophores are located at the anthers and stigma. Anthesis occurs between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. The main fl oral visitors were bees of the Apis and Augochloropsis genuses. Ocimum canum presents a breeding system with a predominance of outcrossing that possibly demonstrates the wide reproductive flexibility of this species.

  20. Caracterização morfológica e agronômica de acessos de manjericão e alfavaca Morphologic and agronomic characterization of basil accessions

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    Arie F. Blank

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. pode ser considerado cultura anual ou perene, conforme o local de cultivo. Existem diversas finalidades para seu uso na culinária, como planta ornamental, medicinal e aromática, sendo o seu oleo essencial valorizado no mercado internacional pelo teor de linalol. Caracterizou-se morfológica e agronômicamente, acessos de Ocimum sp. visando a seleção de genótipos com alto rendimento de óleo essencial rico em linalol. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com duas repetições, avaliando 55 genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma de Ocimum da UFS. Avaliou-se a altura de plantas, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, teor e rendimento de óleo essencial. Observou-se grande diversidade entre os genótipos para todas as variáveis morfológicas e agronômicas avaliadas. Houve grande amplitude entre os genótipos quanto ao teor de óleo essencial, variando de 0,202 a 2,536 ml/100g e para o rendimento de óleo essencial, variando de 1,103 a 21,817 l/ha. Avaliando as variáveis teor e rendimento de óleo essencial de O. basilicum pode-se selecionar os genótipos NSL6421, PI197442, PI358464, PI414194, PI531396 e 'Fino Verde' para o programa de melhoramento genético que visa a obtenção de novas cultivares de manjericão com alto rendimento de óleo essencial rico em linalol.The sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., can be an annual or a perennial plant depending on the place where it is grown. This plant has several culinary, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic uses. The value of its essential oil in the international market depends on the percentage of linalool. We characterized the morphologic and agronomic qualities of the Ocimum accessions, to select genotypes with higher yield of essential oil rich in linalool. Experiment design consisted of randomized blocks with two replications, evaluating 55 genotypes of the Germplasm Bank of Ocimum from the Universidade Federal do Sergipe, Brazil. The plant

  1. Basil conservation affected by cropping season, harvest time and storage period Armazenamento e conservação de manjericão após diferentes épocas e horários de colheita

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    Franceli da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is used in food, phytotherapic industry, and in traditional therapeutic, due to its essential oil content and composition. Nevertheless basil can not be kept for long periods after harvest and its quality can be reduced. This work aimed to assess the influence of the season and harvest time in the postharvest conservation of basil stored for different periods. Basil was harvested at 8 am and 4 pm both in August/1999 and January/2000. Cuttings were conditioned in PVC packages and stored for 3, 6, and 9 days. During storage, chlorophyll content, essential oil content and composition were determined as well as microbiological analyses were carried out. Harvest season and the days of storage influenced the final content of essential oil. There was a linear decrease in the content of essential oil, in the chlorophyll content and in the number of mold and yeast colonies during storage. There was no effect of cropping season or harvest hour on essential oil composition, but the eugenol and linalool content increased during storage. Coliforms were under 0.3 MPN g-1 and the number of Staphylococcus aureus was under 1.0x10² UFC g-1.O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é empregado tanto na indústria culinária quanto fitoterápica e na medicina tradicional, devido ao teor e composição de seu óleo essencial. No entanto, o manjericão não pode ser conservado por longo período após a colheita e sua qualidade pode ser prejudicada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da época e do horário de colheita sobre a conservação de manjericão armazenado por diferentes períodos. O manjericão foi colhido às 8h e às 16h em agosto/1999 e em janeiro/2000. Os ramos foram acondicionados em filmes de PVC e armazenados por 3, 6 e 9 dias. Durante o armazenamento, o teor de clorofila, e o teor e a composição do óleo essencial foram determinados e foram conduzidas análises microbiológicas. A época de colheita

  2. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

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    Zahra FAKHAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  3. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih

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    Diah Dhianawaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Medical Chemistry laboratory Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in 2005. Flavonoids were extracted continually by 95% ethanol, were isolated with paper chromatography/cellulose TLC and 2% acetic acid, then continued with elucidation reagents: n-butanol–acetic acid–water, chloroform–acetic acid–water, forestall, 5%, 15%, 35% and 50% acetic acids. Flavonoids were identified with diagnostic reagents and ultraviolet light. Isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively gave two spots of flavonoids as flavon, FOAc-1 had Rf=0.69 and FOAc-2 had Rf=0.57. The other elucidation reagents gave one spot of flavonoid. In conclusion, isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively and identification with diagnostic reagent and ultraviolet light is a rapid method for identification of flavonoids content in Ocimum sanctum

  4. Enraizamento de manjericão em diferentes substratos e doses de cinzas Stem rooting of basil in different substrates and doses of ash

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    I.M. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de doses de cinzas em diferentes substratos no enraizamento de estacas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum. O experimento foi conduzido em área do Núcleo de Capacitação e Pesquisa da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, em Belém. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, constituído pelas combinações entre os fatores substratos (casca de arroz carbonizada e casca de castanha triturada e acréscimo de cinzas (5 mL e 10 mL de cinza de casca de arroz, 5 mL e 10 mL de cinza de casca de castanha e sem cinza com 4 repetições. Cada unidade experimental foi constituída por 10 estacas, num total de 400 estacas. Foram avaliadas as características percentual de enraizamento de estacas, número e comprimento de raízes. Não houve interações significativas entre os fatores avaliados (substrato e cinzas. Entre as características avaliadas o substrato casca de arroz carbonizada apresentou diferenças apenas no comprimento da raiz e no número de raízes, enquanto as dosagens de cinzas apresentaram diferenças apenas no percentual de enraizamento. O trabalho permitiu concluir que as dosagens de cinzas apresentaram efeito positivo sobre o enraizamento das estacas de manjericão, assim como o substrato a base de casca de arroz carbonizada propiciou melhores condições para o desenvolvimento das raízes. Assim, a casca de arroz é uma alternativa totalmente viável, pois além de apresentar características apropriadas para o enraizamento também possui baixo custo de aquisição, estando ao alcance de muitos produtores.The study aimed to evaluate the influence of ash doses on different substrates on the stem rooting of basil (Ocimum basilicum. The experiment was conducted in the area of core training and research at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, in Belém, used a completely randomized design, factorial scheme 2 x 5 consisting

  5. Can Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in vitro culture be a potential source of secondary metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, Karuppiah; Gokulanathan, Ananda; Jayanthi, Malayandi; Govindasamy, Vaithiyanathan; Milella, Luigi; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok Chun; Girija, Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    In this study Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (OT) in vitro culture standardisation for increasing eugenol distribution, in comparison to their respective field grown parts was carried out. Eugenol was quantified using an optimised HPLC method and its relation with the total phenolic content (TPC) was measured. In vitro grown leaves and somatic embryos, of both OB and OT were found to contain similar quantities of eugenol (85μg/g approximately), higher than OB and OT field-grown leaves (30.2μg/g and 25.1μg/g respectively). It was also determined that in vitro grown leaves were richer in TPC than the field-grown intact organs. Results demonstrated the prominence of in vitro cultures for eugenol extraction. This study underlines that important food flavouring metabolites (e.g. vanillin, vanillic acids) might be produced, via the eugenol pathway, in Ocimum species that may be a good potential source of eugenol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The renaissance man of burn surgery: Basil A. Pruitt Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Karel D; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Clayton, R Patrick; Sljivich, Michaela; Voigt, Charles D; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Porter, Craig; Guillory, Ashley; Herndon, David N

    2017-07-08

    Dr. Basil A. Pruitt Jr., a consummate clinical and translational surgeon-scientist, has been spent over half a century at the forefront of an advancing standard of burn care. Commanding the US Army Institute for Surgical Research in San Antonio, he trained generations of leading burn clinicians and allied scientists. At his direction, there were forged discoveries in resuscitation from shock, treatment of inhalation injury, control of burn-related infections, prevention of iatrogenic complications, and understanding the sympathetic, endocrine, and immune responses to burn injury. Most consequentially, this team was among the first recognize and define alterations in the basal metabolic rate and thermoregulation consequent to burn injury. These investigations prompted groundbreaking insights into the coordinated nervous, autonomic, endocrine, immune, and metabolic outflows that a severely-burned patient uses to remain alive and restore homeostasis. Marking his scientific consequence, many of his reports continue bear fruit when viewed through a contemporary lens. This paper summarizes some of the major findings of his career thus far, and is intended to complement a Festschrift recently held in his honor. Not applicable.

  7. Basile J. Luyet and the beginnings of transfusion cryobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Paul J

    2006-07-01

    The first president of the Society for Cryobiology was a Roman Catholic priest born in a mountain village in Switzerland. Basile J. Luyet immigrated to the United States in 1929 with doctorates in biology and in physics and then devoted his life to studies described best by the title of his early monograph "Life and Death at Low Temperatures." Established in the faculty at St. Louis University, he pursued studies on living matter in the cold that in midcareer led to efforts to vitrify red cells by ultrarapid cooling. As a purist who wanted to vitrify living matter without the assistance of cryoprotectant additives, he did not succeed with red cells. However, his 40 years of exploration of the biology of the cold joined physical chemistry with biology and made cryobiology into a new branch of scientific thought. A very formal man, he served both his God and his science with the dictum that "truth does not contradict truth." His contributions are preserved in the knowledge and wisdom that he created and in the memory of the people of the Alpine village of his birth.

  8. Vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation effects of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Gadi, Dounia; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Aziz, Mohammed; Martin-Nizard, Françoise; Bosca, Lisardo

    2009-08-17

    In this work the endothelium-dependant vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation activities of an aqueous extract from Ocimum basilicum were studied. The vasorelaxant effect was undertaken in thoracic aorta from three experimental groups of rats: one of them (NCG) fed with standard diet, the second (HCG) with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) and the third (BTG) with hypercholesterolemic diet together with an intragastric administration of Ocimum basilicum extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for a period of 10 weeks. The in vitro anti-platelet aggregation of Ocimum basilicum extract was studied using thrombin (0.5 U/ml) and ADP (5 microM) as agonists. The results show that the HCD statistically decreases vascular relaxation in HCG compared to NCG (pOcimum basilicum extract exerts a significant vasorelaxant effect at 10(-5) M (pOcimum basilicum as medicinal plant could be beneficial for cardiovascular system.

  9. Preparation of basil seed mucilage aerogels loaded with paclitaxel nanoparticles by the combination of phase inversion technique and gas antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ghoreishi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(S: In this work, paclitaxel (PX, a promising anticancer drug, was loaded in the basil seed mucilage (BSM aerogels by implementation of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 technology. Then, the effects of operating conditions were studied on the PX mean particle size (MPS, particle size distribution (PSD and drug loading efficiency (DLE. Methods: The employed SC-CO2 process in this research is the combination of phase inversion technique and gas antisolvent (GAS process. The effect of DMSO/water ratio (4 and 6 (v/v, pressure (10-20 MPa, CO2 addition rate (1–3 mL/min and ethanol concentration (5-10% were studied on MPS, PSD and DLE. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer were used for particle analysis. DLE was investigated by utilizing the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: Nanoparticles of paclitaxel (MPS of 82–131 nm depending on process variables with narrow PSD were successfully loaded in BSM aerogel with DLE of 28–52%. Experimental results indicated that higher DMSO/water ratio, ethanol concentration, pressure and CO2 addition rate reduced MPS and DLE. Conclusions: A modified semi batch SC-CO2 process based on the combination of gas antisolvent process and phase inversion methods using DMSO as co-solvent and ethanol as a secondary solvent was developed for the loading of an anticancer drug, PX, in ocimum basilicum mucilage aerogel. The experimental results determined that the mean particle size, particle size distribution, and drug loading efficiency be controlled with operating conditions.

  10. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  11. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  12. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  13. INFLUENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON OCIMUM BASILICUM L. DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Talmaciu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities and role of phenolic compounds in the plant kingdom are well known. They are especially recognized for their function as plant growth regulators, but also for the important role in the biosynthesis process. Based on that, the aim of this work is to establish the influence of polyphenolic compounds, on the main physiological processes involved in basil cultivation under controlled conditions. Studies were carried out on sweet basil seeds (Ocimumbasilicum L. treated with different spruce bark polyphenolic extracts (aqueous extract and ultrasound assisted aqueous extract on several concentrations. The germination energy and germination capacity, plants vegetative organelles development and photoassimilatory pigments content were investigated. The results show that the Picea abies extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, have an influence on the global development of plantlets. An increased value for the growth parameters and pigments concentration was observed, compare with a control sample. Also it was shown that the effect of phenolic compounds on plants development significantly depends on their concentration.

  14. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect. Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.

  15. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect). Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.

  16. Basil Bernstein's Theory of the Pedagogic Device and Formal Music Schooling: Putting the Theory into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth; Froehlich, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Basil Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device as applied to school music instruction. Showing that educational practices are not personal choices alone, but the result of socio-political mandates, the article traces how education functions as a vehicle for social reproduction. Bernstein called this process the…

  17. High pressure-temperature processing as an alternative for preserving basil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebbers, B.; Matser, A.; Koets, M.; Bartels, P.; Berg, van den R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effect of sterilisation by high pressure (HP) on the quality of basil was compared to conventional processing techniques. By means of freezing, or blanching followed by drying, microbial reduction of spores was maximal one-log. Pulsed HP-temperature treatment yielded a reduction of

  18. Basil Bernstein and Emile Durkheim: Two Theories of Change in Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Mohamed

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to draw out parallels and differences between Emile Durkheim's and Basil Bernstein's theories of educational systems and highlights Bernstein's reformulation of certain features of Durkheim's thought. Focuses on the role of the school, curriculum change, and social conflict. (Author/RK)

  19. Phytochemical characterization of essential oil from Ocimum selloi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIA A.S. MORAES

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth, a native plant of Brazil, has medicinal uses as anti-diarrheic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory product. The yield of essential oils of the inflorescences, containing flowers and seeds, was 0.6%, and the yield of leaves, collected in two different seasons, was 0.25% (June 2000 and 0.20% (January 2001, respectively. The essential oils of the inflorescences and leaves presented as major constituents trans-anethol (41.34%, 45.42%, 58.59% and methyl chavicol (27.10%, 24.14%, 29.96%.Ocimum selloi Benth, planta nativa do Brasil de uso medicinal, tem sido utilizada como antidiarréico, antiespasmódico e antiinflamatório. O rendimento dos óleos essenciais das inflorescências, contendo flores e sementes, foi de 0,6% e das folhas, coletadas em duas épocas do ano, foi de 0,25% (junho/00 e 0,20% (janeiro/01, respectivamente. Os óleos essenciais das inflorescências e folhas apresentaram como constituintes majoritários o trans-anethol (41,34%, 45,42%, 58,59% e methyl chavicol (27,10%, 24,14%, 29,96%.

  20. Microbiological Status and Food Safety Compliance of Commercial Basil Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Willeke; Otto, Denise; Korsten, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Basil has been implicated in a number of microbe-associated foodborne illnesses across the world, and the source of contamination has often been traced back to the production and/or processing stages of the supply chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of fresh basil from the point of production to the retail outlet in the Gauteng and Northwest Provinces of South Africa. A total of 463 samples were collected over a 3-month period from two large-scale commercial herb producing and processing companies and three retail outlets. The microbiological quality of the samples was assessed based on the presence or absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium and the levels of the indicator bacteria E. coli and total coliforms. Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on four basil samples (0.9%) arriving at the processing facility and at dispatch, but no E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the study. Total coliform counts were 0.4 to 4.1 CFU/g for basil, 1.9 to 3.4 log CFU/ml for water, and 0.2 to 1.7 log CFU/cm(2) for contact surfaces, whereas E. coli was detected in the water samples and only once on basil. The Colilert-18 and membrane filter methods were used to analyze water samples, and a comparison of results revealed that the Colilert-18 method was more sensitive. Strong evidence suggests that high numbers of coliforms do not necessarily indicate the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium. The study results highlight the importance of effective implementation of food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry.

  1. Evaluation du potentiel insecticide de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation du potentiel insecticide de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum canum Sims sur Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera : Aphididae) au Togo. PK Akantetou, K Koba, AY Nenonene, WP Poutouli, C Raynaud, K Sanda ...

  2. Imunno-modulatory effect of Ocimum sanctum against endosulfan induced immunotoxicity in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath B.K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was designed to make a systematic study of experimentally induced immunotoxicity of endosulfan and its amelioration with Ocimum sanctum in male Wistar rats at 6, 3 and 1.5 mg / Kg b.wt to groups II, III and IV by mixing in ground nut oil for 6 weeks. To the groups V, VI and VII in addition to endosulfan as above mentioned dose, Ocimum sanctum was given at 200 mg / kg b.wt daily per orally for the same duration to study immuno modulatory effect. Group I served as oil control and Group VIII as Ocimum sanctum control. Significant reduction in the both HA titer and DNCB contact sensitivity score was observed in the endosulfan treated groups indicates endosulfan has immunotoxic effect. But significant improvement in the immunity was observed in the Ocimum sanctum treated groups indicates the immuno modulatory property. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 25-27

  3. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: Chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: Chemical constituents of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum , Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon giganteus inhibited lipoxygenase L-1 and cyclooxygenase of PGHS.

  4. Chemical profiling of Ocimum americanum using external flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Roberto F; Grayer, Renée J; Paton, Alan J

    2003-07-01

    A HPLC survey was undertaken of the external flavonoids in 111 herbarium specimens of Ocimum americanum L. (O. canum Sims), which were largely collected from their natural habitats throughout Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to establish the flavonoid profiles of this species over the full range of its geographic distribution in order to use these for authentication purposes. Six different external flavonoid chemotypes were found. The major chemotype, present in circa 80% of the specimens of both var. americanum and var. pilosum collected throughout the distribution area of the species, was characterised by very high levels of nevadensin, slightly lower levels of salvigenin and much lower levels of up to 15 other external flavones. Of the remaining five chemotypes, two were found in var. americanum and three in var. pilosum. All specimens belonging to these chemotypes were collected in South or East Africa and represented by only a few specimens. These samples contained much smaller levels of flavones than present in the major chemotype of O. americanum and all lacked nevadensin. Xanthomicrol, a compound absent from the main chemotype, was the dominant flavone in two of the minor chemotypes. The external flavonoid profiles found in the six chemotypes of O. americanum were compared with those of O. x citriodorum (11 herbarium specimens studied) and seven other closely related species of Ocimum. The main nevadensin/salvigenin pattern present in O. americanum was also found in O. x citriodorum, O. basilicum and some specimens of O. minimum, but there were strong quantitative differences in external flavonoids among these taxa. The other chemotypes of O. americanum showed some similarities in their external flavone profiles to those found in the closely related East African species O. fischeri, O. forskolei, O. kenyense and O. kilimandscharicum, which occur in the same geographic areas. This suggests that the uncommon chemotypes of O. americanum may have

  5. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarai Tabrizi; H. Babazadeh; M. Homaee; F. Kaveh Kaveh; M. Parsinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil respon...

  6. Evaluation of holy basil mouthwash as an adjunctive plaque control agent in a four day plaque regrowth model

    OpenAIRE

    Hosamane, Manasa; Acharya, Anirudh B.; Vij, Chhavi; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Setty, Swati B; Thakur, Srinath L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various antibacterial and antiplaque agents are used in chemical plaque control but none are without their shortcomings. Chlorhexidine considered a gold standard, also has an array of side effects. To overcome these, numerous herbal extracts have been tried and tested and one among them is holy basil. The present study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of holy basil in vitro against some periodontopathogens and its antiplaque effect in vivo. Study Design: Thirty periodontally h...

  7. Essential oil yield and quality of methyl eugenol rich Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f. (syn. O. sanctum L.) grown in south India as influenced by method of harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, S K; Bhattacharya, A K; Ramesh, S

    2004-10-29

    A field experiment carried out during 2001--2002 under semi-arid conditions of Hyderabad, India investigated the effect of three different methods of harvesting at full bloom stage, on essential oil yield and quality of methyl eugenol rich sacred/holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f.; Lamiaceae). The harvest methods were: harvesting of primary branches, secondary branches and shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground level. Four harvests at 102, 192, 287 and 360 days after transplanting of the crop were taken in 1 year in each method of harvest. Harvesting of secondary branches led to maximum plant height and number of secondary branches per plant compared to harvesting of primary branches or shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground during second, third and fourth harvests. On the contrary, secondary branch harvest gave least biomass yield in all the four harvests. But due to higher essential oil content, secondary branch harvest gave 25.2 and 15.4% higher total (sum total of all four harvests) essential oil yield (kg/ha per year) over primary branches and shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground methods of harvesting, respectively. A similar treatment difference was observed in respect of oil composition studied in the first harvest. Harvesting shoot biomass at 30 cm above ground produced oil containing highest amount of methyl eugenol. The content of methyl eugenol decreased in the order of shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground > primary branch > secondary branch treatments. A reverse trend was observed, however, in respect of (E)-cinnamyl acetate, eugenol and beta-elemene constituents of the oil. Little variability was, however, observed among the treatments in respect of 24 other constituents of the oils.

  8. Evaluation of holy basil mouthwash as an adjunctive plaque control agent in a four day plaque regrowth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamane, Manasa; Acharya, Anirudh B; Vij, Chhavi; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Setty, Swati B; Thakur, Srinath L

    2014-12-01

    Various antibacterial and antiplaque agents are used in chemical plaque control but none are without their shortcomings. Chlorhexidine considered a gold standard, also has an array of side effects. To overcome these, numerous herbal extracts have been tried and tested and one among them is holy basil. The present study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of holy basil in vitro against some periodontopathogens and its antiplaque effect in vivo. Thirty periodontally healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups and refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene measures for 4 days and used one of the randomly assigned mouthwash (1- chlorhexidine; 2- holy basil; and 3- sterile water [placebo]) twice daily. The Plaque Index (PI) was assessed at days 0 and 5. Aqueous extract of holy basil was tested against Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F.nucleatum). Holy basil extract showed inhibition of both the tested periodontopathogens (P.intermedia and F.nucleatum) at various concentrations. In all groups, the PI increased from baseline to day 5. There was a statistically significant difference (p agent, basil, Fusobacterium nucleatum, mouthwashes, Prevotella intermedia.

  9. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Naturally Present on Commercially Grown Basil Leaves: Evaluation of Sample Preparation Prior to Culture-Independent Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Delbeke, Stefanie; De Coninck, Dieter; Boussemaere, Jolien; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Fresh herbs such as basil constitute an important food commodity worldwide. Basil provides considerable culinary and health benefits, but has also been implicated in foodborne illnesses. The naturally occurring bacterial community on basil leaves is currently unknown, so the epiphytic bacterial community was investigated using the culture-independent techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Sample preparation had a major influence on the results from DGGE and NGS: Novosphingobium was the dominant genus for three different basil batches obtained by maceration of basil leaves, while washing of the leaves yielded lower numbers but more variable dominant bacterial genera including Klebsiella, Pantoea, Flavobacterium, Sphingobacterium and Pseudomonas. During storage of basil, bacterial growth and shifts in the bacterial community were observed with DGGE and NGS. Spoilage was not associated with specific bacterial groups and presumably caused by physiological tissue deterioration and visual defects, rather than by bacterial growth. PMID:26308033

  10. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Naturally Present on Commercially Grown Basil Leaves: Evaluation of Sample Preparation Prior to Culture-Independent Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siele Ceuppens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh herbs such as basil constitute an important food commodity worldwide. Basil provides considerable culinary and health benefits, but has also been implicated in foodborne illnesses. The naturally occurring bacterial community on basil leaves is currently unknown, so the epiphytic bacterial community was investigated using the culture-independent techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and next-generation sequencing (NGS. Sample preparation had a major influence on the results from DGGE and NGS: Novosphingobium was the dominant genus for three different basil batches obtained by maceration of basil leaves, while washing of the leaves yielded lower numbers but more variable dominant bacterial genera including Klebsiella, Pantoea, Flavobacterium, Sphingobacterium and Pseudomonas. During storage of basil, bacterial growth and shifts in the bacterial community were observed with DGGE and NGS. Spoilage was not associated with specific bacterial groups and presumably caused by physiological tissue deterioration and visual defects, rather than by bacterial growth.

  11. [Investigation of the in vitro effects of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oils on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellani].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergüden, Ceren; Özkoç, Soykan; Öztürk, Bintuğ; Bayram Delibaş, Songül

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free living amoeba found widely all over the world. They are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), an infection which is especially seen in contact lens users and after minor corneal traumas, that may lead blindness. At present, antifungals and antiseptics are used for the treatment of AK cases, however, some problems such as long treatment periods and the occurrence of side effects, resistance of cyst forms against drugs, emphasize the need for new drugs. There are some published studies that pointed out the effectiveness of plant extracts and essential oils on Acanthamoeba spp. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of essential oils of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint), Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) and Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) belonging to Lamiaceae family, on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The strain used in our study, namely A. castellanii T4 genotype, is the most frequently isolated amoeba from environment and also the causative agent of AK and granulomatous amebic encephalitis. For the determination of amebicidal activity, essential oils obtained from Mentha x priperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L. by Neo-Clevenger type of distillation apparatus have been used. In vitro experiments were performed by using 96-well microplates. Cyst and trophozoite solutions were added on the essential oil dilutions to obtain the last concentrations of 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 µg/ml for the cysts, and 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.313 µg/ml for the trophozoites. After the incubation of microplates at 30oC for 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours, the viability of parasitic forms were evaluated under the light microscope followed by staining trypan blue. It was found that, each essential oil showed amebicidal effect on A.castellani cysts and trophozoites dependent on dosage and time, when compared with the control group, The maximum lethal effect occured with Melissa

  12. Efficacy of leaf extracts from some higher plants against sclerotium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Clausena anisata, Cymbopogon citratus, Hyptis suaveolens, Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum gratissimum for their ability to control the growth of S. rolfsii and to establish the required doses of their extracts. Three concentrations, 5 %, 10 % ...

  13. Cama-de-frango em mono e policultivo de fáfia com cravo-de-defunto e manjericão Poultry manure in mono and intercrop of Brazilian ginseng with marigold and basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenise C Barboza

    2010-09-01

    os policultivos foram efetivos.This study was carried out in field of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, in Dourados, Brazil, during the period from March 2005 to September 2006. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen yield under monocropping system or intercropped with Tagetes erecta L. and Ocimum basilicum L, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol, using semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM. The study objects were Brazilian ginseng (BG, marigold (M and basil (B under monocropping and the intercropping of two Brazilian ginseng, three marigold (BG2M3 and three basil (BG2B3 lines, all of them with or without semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM as fertilizer. Ten treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design, with four replications. Fresh and dry weight production from shoot of Brazilian ginseng were higher (13.22 t ha-1 and 4.39 t ha-1, respectively under monocropping, independently of the use of poultry manure. Nevertheless, none of experimental designs influenced the dry and fresh weight production or root number of Brazilian ginseng which produced average values of 10.02 and 2.07 t ha-1 and 417,916 roots ha-1, respectively. Root diameter was higher (23.5 mm under intercropping system with basil. Dry and fresh weight of marigold flowers were higher (14.28 t ha-1and 1.278 t ha-1, respectively when intercropped with Brazilian ginseng, but only fresh weight of the flowers was increased (14.17 t ha-1 by poultry manure application. Basil shoot production was higher (52.91 t ha-1 when intercropped, independently of the used species; however, they were not influenced by the use of poultry manure. Land equivalent ration (LER for the Brazilian ginseng intercropped with marigold was 2.15 under poultry manure application and 1.99 without it, and for the basil 2.44 under poultry manure application and 3.08 without it. Values higher than 1.0 indicate that the intercropping systems were effective.

  14. Minimally invasive basilic vein transposition in the arm or forearm for autogenous haemodialysis access: A less morbid alternative to the conventional technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Jairath

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Minimally invasive dissection of the basilic vein for vascular access transposition is a safe, reliable procedure with patency and functional outcomes comparable with those of conventional BVT.

  15. Teor, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de manjericão sob doses de cama de frango Content, yield and chemical composition of the essential basil oil under chicken manure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Q Luz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. com alta concentração de linalol é valorizado no mercado internacional e amplamente usado nas indústrias de condimentos e cosméticos. Há poucas informações a respeito do cultivo de manjericão e, portanto o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o teor, o rendimento e a qualidade de óleo essencial de genótipos de manjericão em função de níveis de adubação orgânica com cama de frango nas condições de inverno sob irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental do Glória, pertencente à Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Foram testados cinco níveis de adubação, sendo 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10 kg de cama de frango por m². O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Foram semeados os genótipos Manjericão PI 197442-S3 (G1 e Manjericão NSL 6421-S3 (G2. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilações com aparelho tipo Clevenger modificado. Avaliou-se a altura da planta; comprimento e largura de folha; relação comprimento/largura (C/L; teor e rendimento de óleo essencial, e teor de linalol no óleo essencial extraído de folhas e inflorescências frescas e secas. As doses de adubo influenciaram significativamente o teor de linalol do óleo essencial destilado a partir de parte aérea fresca e seca dos genótipos 1 e 2. As outras variáveis não apresentaram diferenças significativas.Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., essential oil with high linalool content, is appreciated in the international market and widely used in spice and cosmetics industries. There are few informations available for basil cultivation, and therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the content, yield and quality of the essential oil of basil genotypes depending on organic fertilizer levels in the winter and using irrigation. The experiment was carried out in the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Five

  16. Toposes of another world in "the Life of Basil the Younger"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergacheva I.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available "Life of Basil theYounger," assimilated in the translation of the original Greek into the Church Slavonic language, has had a direct influence on the formation of ancient Russian eschatological concepts, as well as iconographic canons, in particular, on the composition of the Last Judgement. His emotional and figurative description of a topos of Another world helped to convert Christians to assimilate moral standards and Christian doctrines

  17. Different species of basil need different ammonium to nitrate ratio in hydroponics' system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAADATIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a very important medicinal plant and culinary spice, and is marketed fresh, dried or frozen. In crop nutrition, nitrogen is essential for plant growth and as a macro-element, is part of the proteins’ structure and participates in the metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and energy transfer. It has been shown that a balance between ammonium and nitrate favors plant growth and that the degree of benefit varies among crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth of two varieties of basil in function of four nutrient solutions containing different NH4+/NO3- ratios. Results showed that different variety response differently to nutrient solution. Although the highest yield in both varieties (sweet and purple was obtained when fed by nutrient solution without ammonium but their response on quality indices were different due to nitrate ammonium ratio in nutrient solutions. The highest total phenol content of sweet and purple basil was 92 and 100 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight respectively, while the highest antioxidant capacity was obtained in purple variety grown in nutrient solution 2 (NH4+:1/NO3:4 and the lowest value were related to sweet variety with the same nutrient solution. Moderate content of total nitrogen can be suitable for sweet variety while for purple variety nutrient solution with low amount of ammonium can be more suitable.

  18. Higher Potassium Concentration in Shoots Reduces Gray Mold in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermiyahu, Uri; Israeli, Lior; David, Dalia Rav; Faingold, Inna; Elad, Yigal

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional elements can affect plant susceptibility to plant pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea. We tested the effect of potassium (K) fertilization on gray mold in sweet basil grown in pots, containers, and soil. Increased K in the irrigation water and in the sweet basil tissue resulted in an exponential decrease in gray mold severity. Potassium supplied to plants by foliar application resulted in a significant decrease in gray mold in plants grown with a low rate of K fertigation. Lower K fertigation resulted in a significant increase in B. cinerea infection under semi-commercial conditions. Gray mold severity in harvested shoots was significantly negatively correlated with K concentration in the irrigation solution, revealing resistance to B. cinerea infection as a result of high K concentration in sweet basil tissue. Gray mold was reduced following K foliar application of the plants. In general, there was no synergy between the fertigation and foliar spray treatments. Proper K fertilization can replace some of the required chemical fungicide treatments and it may be integrated into gray mold management for improved disease suppression.

  19. Efeito da adição de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgar e Ocimum gratissimum L. no perfil lipídico da gordura de palma usada em fritura de batata tipo chips

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Jessica Trautwein Diniz

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante do óleo essencial de orégano e alfavacão no perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura de palma, utilizada em processo industrial de batata frita tipo chips, em diferentes etapas do processamento, visando reduzir o estado oxidativo da mesma. O óleo essencial foi obtido do resíduo do orégano da indústria de condimentos, e analisou-se também óleo essencial de orégano comercial. A atividade antioxidante do óleo essencial de orégano foi fe...

  20. Nouveau chémotype de l'huile essentielle de basilic acclimaté au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'extrait volatile obtenu par hydrodistillation à partir des feuilles fraîches de Ocimum basilicum a été analysé par chromatographie en phase gazeuse et par couplage avec la spectrométrie de masse (GC-MS). Au total, 28 composés représentant plus de 99% de l'huile essentielle ont été identifiés. L'huile essentielle contient ...

  1. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Comparative functional characterization of eugenol synthase from four different Ocimum species: Implications on eugenol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Atul; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Beedkar, Supriya D; Singh, Priyanka A; Joshi, Rakesh S; Mulani, Fayaj A; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Punekar, Sachin A; Gade, Wasudeo N; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-11-01

    Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids are the major secondary metabolite constituents in Ocimum genus. Though enzymes from phenylpropanoid pathway have been characterized from few plants, limited information exists on how they modulate levels of secondary metabolites. Here, we performed phenylpropanoid profiling in different tissues from five Ocimum species, which revealed significant variations in secondary metabolites including eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, estragole and methyl cinnamate levels. Expression analysis of eugenol synthase (EGS) gene showed higher transcript levels especially in young leaves and inflorescence; and were positively correlated with eugenol contents. Additionally, transcript levels of coniferyl alcohol acyl transferase, a key enzyme diverting pool of substrate to phenylpropanoids, were in accordance with their abundance in respective species. In particular, eugenol methyl transferase expression positively correlated with higher levels of eugenol methyl ether in Ocimum tenuiflorum. Further, EGSs were functionally characterized from four Ocimum species varying in their eugenol contents. Kinetic and expression analyses indicated, higher enzyme turnover and transcripts levels, in species accumulating more eugenol. Moreover, biochemical and bioinformatics studies demonstrated that coniferyl acetate was the preferred substrate over coumaryl acetate when used, individually or together, in the enzyme assay. Overall, this study revealed the preliminary evidence for varied accumulation of eugenol and its abundance over chavicol in these Ocimum species. Current findings could potentially provide novel insights for metabolic modulations in medicinal and aromatic plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. IN STRESS INDUCED GASTRIC ULCERS IN RATS

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    Ayesha Vaseem, Ghulam Subhani, Khuteja Afshan, Mazher Ali, Md. Mohiuddin A Khan, Mujtaba T Rumana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Ocimum sanctum L. popularly known as Tulsi is a medicinal plant that has been used for curing various diseases since ages. In the present study we used leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum for its anti-ulcer property by inducing stress ulcers on rats. Materials and Method: Albino rats were randomly allocated to different experimental groups and aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum was given for 7 days. Stress ulcers were induced by restraint and ethanol administered methods and results were compared with standard drug ranitidine. After that animal was sacrificed and stomach was dissected out and stomachs were observed for the ulceration with the help of magnifying lens and studied its external, internal surface and ulcer index was evaluated according to the severity of ulcers. The stomach were stored and fixed in 5% formalin and studied for histopathological changes. Results: The ulcer index was high in control group. Animal pretreated with Ocimum sanctum at the dose 100 & 200 mg/kg showed few signs of mucosal injury and the percentage of damage were less compared to control group. Conclusion: In the present study pretreatment with Ocimum sanctum at dose 100-200 mg/kg caused a significant anti-ulcer effect in rats in comparison with control group and its effect is comparable to the standard drug ranitidine, as evidenced by the reduction in the ulcer scores.

  4. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshilanda, Dorothée Dinangayi; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Onyamboko, Damase Nguwo Vele; Mbala, Blaise Mavinga; Ngbolua, Koto-Te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha Tshibey; Bokolo, Matthieu Kokengo; Taba, Kalulu Muzele; Kasonga, Teddy Kabeya

    2014-05-01

    To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.

  6. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshilanda, Dorothée Dinangayi; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Onyamboko, Damase Nguwo Vele; Mbala, Blaise Mavinga; Ngbolua, Koto-te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha Tshibey; Bokolo, Matthieu Kokengo; Taba, Kalulu Muzele; Kasonga, Teddy Kabeya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Methods The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusions The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying. PMID:25182725

  7. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  8. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cobzac, Simona Codruta, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: {alpha} and {beta}-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  9. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa on intestinal transit were determined in experimental rats The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were oven dried and then pulverized. The dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were also pulverized. 10% extracts of both ...

  10. Evaluation of Anti-Diarrhoeal Property of Crude Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of defecation and consistency of faeces in albino rats. The protective role of Ocimum gratissimum extract at 100mg/kg body weight was comparable to that of the reference drug, diphenoxylate (50mg/kg body weight). Ocimum gratissimum extract mimicked the action of adrenaline and noradrenaline on isolated guinea pig ...

  11. Enrichment, development, and assessment of Indian basil oil based antiseptic cream formulation utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Pandey, Neelam; Luqman, Suaib; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Chanda, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    The present work was aimed to develop an antiseptic cream formulation of Indian basil oil utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach. In order to determine the required-hydrophilic lipophilic balance (rHLB) of basil oil, emulsions of basil oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80, and Span 80. Formulated emulsions were assessed for creaming (BE9; 9.8, BE10; 10.2), droplet size (BE18; 3.22 ± 0.09 μ m), and turbidity (BE18; 86.12 ± 2.1%). To ensure correctness of the applied methodology, rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined. After rHLB determination, basil oil creams were prepared with two different combinations of surfactants, namely, GMS : Tween 80 (1 : 3.45) and SLS : GMS (1 : 3.68), and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity, skin irritation test, viscosity and consistency. The rHLB of basil oil and light liquid paraffin were found to be 13.36 ± 0.36 and 11.5 ± 0.35, respectively. Viscosity, and consistency parameters of cream was found to be consistent over 90 days. Cream formulations showed net zone of growth inhibition in the range of 5.0-11.3 mm against bacteria and 4.3-7.6 mm against fungi. Primary irritation index was found to be between 0.38 and1.05. Conclusively stable, consistent, non-irritant, enriched antiseptic basil oil cream formulations were developed utilizing HLB approach.

  12. Leaf sodium accumulation facilitates salt stress adaptation and preserves photosystem functionality in salt stressed Ocimum basilicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancarella, S.; Orsini, F.; Oosten, van M.J.; Sanoubar, R.; Stanghellini, C.; Kondo, S.; Gianquinto, G.; Maggio, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, plant growth, water relations, ABA levels, ion accumulation patterns and chlorophyll fluorescence were functionally linked to salt stress tolerance of two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with different stress sensitivity levels. Plants were treated with salty water at 0,

  13. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  14. Pollen grain morphology of three species and a variety of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen grains from fresh anthers of three species and a variety of Ocimum occurring in South-western Nigeria were collected and acetolysed. This was in an attempt to use the pollen charac-teristics to delimit, classify and trace probable evolutionary relationships among the taxa. The structural morphology of the pollen ...

  15. pollen grain morphology of three species and a variety of ocimum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    extensively used in perfumery, flavouring and pharmaceutical products (Khosla, 1993). Many species of Ocimum have been grown by local people as medicinal plants, culinary herbs and insect controlling agents (Grayer et al., 1996). Pollen characteristics have been used consid- erably in the taxonomy of angiosperms and ...

  16. Exploring the potential effect of Ocimum sanctum in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggi Amteshwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Peripheral neuropathy was induced in rats by administration of vincristine sulfate (50 μg/kg i.p. for 10 consecutive days. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Vincristine administration was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia. Furthermore, vincristine administration was also associated with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated vincristine-induced neuropathic pain along with decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating chemotherapy induced-painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. Furthermore, saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum may be responsible for its noted beneficial effect in neuropathic pain in rats.

  17. Anti-diabetic action of the aqueous extract of Ocimum suave in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2012-04-16

    Apr 16, 2012 ... Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system. .... Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum suave on serum lipid profile, urea as well as AST and ALT activities of normal and alloxan-induced .... Hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of four Korean medicinal plants in alloxan.

  18. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the following characteristics: seed health (Blotter test, germination, first count of germination and germination speed index. The design was a DIC in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, two oils or two extracts with four concentrations, independent testing. Several fungal species were associated with the seed, and the genus Curvularia the most prevalent. The aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and clove essential oil of basil (Ocimum gratissimum have shown promise for the treatment of seeds, reducing fungal infestation, especially Curvularia, however have phytotoxic effect reducing the viability and vigor of sorghum seeds.

  19. Mechanisms of resistance to linalool in Salmonella Senftenberg and their role in survival on basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalily, Emmanuel; Hollander, Amit; Korin, Ben; Cymerman, Itamar; Yaron, Sima

    2016-11-01

    Fresh produce contaminated with human pathogens raises vital and ecological questions about bacterial survival strategies. Such occurrence was basil harboring Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg that caused an outbreak in 2007. This host was unanticipated due to its production of antibacterial substances, including linalool. We show that linalool perforates bacterial membranes, resulting in increased permeability and leakage of vital molecules. It also inhibits cell motility and causes bacterial aggregation. Linalool-resistance was investigated by identification and characterization of S. Senftenberg mutants that perform altered resistance. Resistance mechanisms include selective permeability, regulated efflux/influx and chemotaxis-controlled motility. Moreover, survival of S. Senftenberg on basil leaves was substantially affected by McpL, a putative chemotaxis-related receptor, and RfaG, a component of the lipopolysaccharide production pathway, both have a role in resistance to linalool. Results reveal that adaptation to linalool occurs in nature by concurrent mechanisms. This adaption raises concerns about pathogens adaptation to new hosts including antimicrobial-compound-producing plants. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A novel technique of axillary vein puncture involving peripherally inserted central venous catheters for a small basilic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Fumito; Odaka, Yoshinobu; Mutoh, Mitsuhisa; Katayose, Yu; Tokumura, Hiromi

    2018-03-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters are some of the most useful devices for vascular access used globally. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters have a low rate of fatal mechanical complications when compared to non-tunnel central venous catheters. However, as peripherally inserted central venous catheter access requires a smaller vein, there is a high risk of thrombosis. The axillary vein (confluence of the basilic and brachial veins) can serve as an access for cannulation. Moreover, as this vein is larger than the basilic or brachial vein, it might be a superior option for preventing thrombosis. The risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection should be considered when the puncture site is at the axillary fossa. The aim of this study was to present our new protocol involving peripherally inserted central venous catheters (non-tunneled/tunneled) and a tunneling technique and assess its feasibility and safety for improving cannulation and preventing thrombosis and infection. The study included 20 patients. The axillary vein in the upper arm was used for peripherally inserted central venous catheters in patients with a small-diameter basilic vein (venous catheter. The observed catheter duration was 645 days (median ± standard deviation, 26 ± 22.22 days). Catheterization was successful in all cases, however, two accidental dislodgements were identified. No fatal or serious complications were observed after catheterization. Our new protocol for axillary peripherally inserted central venous catheters/tunneled axillary peripherally inserted central venous catheters use for a small-diameter basilic vein is safe and feasible.

  1. Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic and basil essential oil supplementation on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYYED REZA RIYAZI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the probiotic ‘Protexin', basil essential oil and the antibiotic growth promoter ‘Avilamycin' were studied on the ileum microbial flora of broilers when these substances are used as broiler feed additives. A total of six hundred Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments have been performed with a plant essential oil at 3 levels (200, 400 and 600 ppm, the probiotic ‘Protexin' (150 ppm, the antibiotic ‘Avilamycin' (150 ppm and a control group with no additives. Birds in different treatments received the same diets during the experimental period. The results showed that the probiotic treatment significantly decreased the total bacteria counts (P0.05. The lowest and highest lactic acid bacteria in ileum were obtained in the control group and in birds receiving 400 ppm basil essential oil, respectively. Moreover, addition of 600 ppm of basil essential oil into diet decreased the number of E. coli colonies as compared to other treatments (P< 0.05. It could be speculated that the basil essential oil and ‘Protexin' could replace the antibiotics, which have been banned to use as growth promoter in animal feeds.

  2. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  3. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the field in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, An. gambiae ss (Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET, a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. Results In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence. Conclusion This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting

  4. Diverse Geological Applications For Basil: A 2d Finite-deformation Computational Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, Gregory A.; Barr, Terence D.; Evans, Lynn

    Geological processes are often characterised by large finite-deformation continuum strains, on the order of 100% or greater. Microstructural processes cause deformation that may be represented by a viscous constitutive mechanism, with viscosity that may depend on temperature, pressure, or strain-rate. We have developed an effective com- putational algorithm for the evaluation of 2D deformation fields produced by Newto- nian or non-Newtonian viscous flow. With the implementation of this algorithm as a computer program, Basil, we have applied it to a range of diverse applications in Earth Sciences. Viscous flow fields in 2D may be defined for the thin-sheet case or, using a velocity-pressure formulation, for the plane-strain case. Flow fields are represented using 2D triangular elements with quadratic interpolation for velocity components and linear for pressure. The main matrix equation is solved by an efficient and compact conjugate gradient algorithm with iteration for non-Newtonian viscosity. Regular grids may be used, or grids based on a random distribution of points. Definition of the prob- lem requires that velocities, tractions, or some combination of the two, are specified on all external boundary nodes. Compliant boundaries may also be defined, based on the idea that traction is opposed to and proportional to boundary displacement rate. In- ternal boundary segments, allowing fault-like displacements within a viscous medium have also been developed, and we find that the computed displacement field around the fault tip is accurately represented for Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosities, in spite of the stress singularity at the fault tip. Basil has been applied by us and colleagues to problems that include: thin sheet calculations of continental collision, Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the continental mantle lithosphere, deformation fields around fault terminations at the outcrop scale, stress and deformation fields in and around porphyroblasts, and

  5. Antibacterial properties of biologically formed chitosan nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rasaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitoan with anionic compounds of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract. Materials and Methods: After addition of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract to chitosan solution, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by Field Emission Scanning Electron microscope (FESEM, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD Pattern, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. The antibacterial activity of CNPs was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Results: The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be nearly spherical shape with size in the range of 135-729 nm. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of polyphenolic; proteins and alkaloids compounds act as effective agents for converting chitosan to CNPs. Moreover, the synthesized nanoparticles showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: These results reveal that natural sources of materials such as plants could be used for preparation of CNPs instead of use of chemical substances.

  6. Radioprotective effects of ocimum flavonoids on leukocyte oxidants and antioxidants in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshma, K.; Rao, A.V.; Dinesh, M.; Vasudevan, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidants (NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase) and antioxidants (GSH, GSH peroxidase, SOD and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, that provides NADPH for antioxidants) were assayed in the neutrophils from oral cancer patients, in three stages viz, baseline samples, 15 days after radiation and 30 days following radiation. These samples were obtained from 2 groups of patients. Group A that received radiation alone and Group B that received radiation and ocimum flavonoids, a radioprotector. The results showed a significant fall in the SOD levels in the second follow up of group B. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase showed significant increase only in the first follow up of patients who received Ocimum flavonoids. Except for these findings all other parameters remained statistically nonsignificant. (author)

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  8. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug.

  9. Phytoremediatory effect and growth of two species of Ocimum in endosulfan polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sandoval, M; Melchor-Partida, G N; Muñiz-Hernández, S; Girón-Pérez, M I; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Díaz, I M; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Velázquez-Fernández, J B

    2011-08-15

    Endosulfan is a hazardous organochlorine pesticide banned or restricted in several countries. However, it has been found in the environment and in animal samples. To study a potential way to bioremediate soils contaminated with this pesticide, two plant species of the genus Ocimum were studied: Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum minimum L., since they are economically feasible and well adapted to the climatic conditions of the Nayarit zone (Mexican pacific coast). Young plants were transplanted into soil experimentally polluted with endosulfan. Growth of both species was not affected by endosulfan, the plants grew, flourished, and produced seeds; 30 days later, endosulfan concentration was lower in the soil with O. basilicum than in the soil without plants. On day 90, no differences in endosulfan concentrations were found between soil with or without O. minimum. At day 1, plants in the polluted soil showed lipoperoxidation, as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS). Interestingly, a higher TBARS value was observed at day 3 in transplanted plants as compared to non-transplanted plants. In conclusion, both species can endure endosulfan pollution (as high as 1 g kg(-1)) in soils. O. basilicum seems to be an adequate candidate for bioremediation of soils polluted with endosulfan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiosteoporotic effect of Petroselinum crispum, Ocimum basilicum and Cichorium intybus L. in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozayen, Walaa G; El-Desouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hanan A; Ahmed, Rasha R; Khaliefa, Amal K

    2016-06-02

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is one of the serious side effects which have become the most common secondary osteoporosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of parsley, basil and chicory on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats. Fifty Female rats were divided into five groups and treated for 8 weeks as follow: group 1 served as control; group (2) subcutaneously injected with 0.1 mg/kg b. wt. dexamethasone dissolved in saline; group 3 received similar dose of dexamethasone together with aqueous parsley extract in a dose of 2 g/kg b. wt.; group 4 received similar dose of dexamethasone together with 400 mg/kg b. wt. aqueous basil extract and group 5 received similar dose of dexamethasone together with 100 mg/kg b. wt. aqueous chicory extract. The dexamethasone group showed a significant decrease in serum E2, Ca, P levels and significant decrease in total BMD, BMC and a significant increase in serum PTH, ALP and ACP. Bone TBARs was significantly increased while GSH, antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased. These changes were attenuated by parsley, basil and chicory extracts in the group 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Aqueous extracts of parsley, basil and chicory showed bone protection against glucocorticoid-induced in rats. From our results, we concluded that chicory has a potent protective effect more than parsley and basil due to containing flavonoids and inulin.

  11. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. © P. Akono Ntonga et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  12. The Impact of Location and Growing Medium on Harvest Yield and Flavor of Basil and Squash Microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J.; Ventura, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to discover the most efficient, feasible way to produce a high yield of flavorful microgreens within the best growing medium and building location at the Stanford Educational Farm. In recent years, microgreens, young, small edible greens utilized as flavor garnishes for fine dining, have evolved into an immensely profitable market that will continue to expand and prosper. To capitalize on such opportunities, the primary metrics focused upon are harvest yield and flavor of basil and squash microgreens, as they develop in different concentrations of quick root and compost while located in either a greenhouse or lath house. It was hypothesized that if basil and squash microgreens were grown in a mixture of 50% compost and 50% quick root in the greenhouse, then they would produce the greatest harvest yield and maximum amount of flavor. The general experimental protocol includes monitoring the growth of the microgreens, then harvesting directly after the first true leaves begin to emerge. Upon harvest, each set of microgreens are separated into different clear glass jars to place on a small scale for weighing to determine the yield and tasting the leaves to analyze the flavor content. The highest yield of basil (63 grams) developed in a tray of 100% quick root in the lath house, while the greatest yield of squash (51 grams) succeeded in 100% quick root in the greenhouse. Overall however, the basil grew fastest in the greenhouse but tasted stronger in the lath house. Additionally, because the harvest yield and flavor results were so poor in all other locations and growing mediums for squash during the first trial, it cannot be considered a viable microgreen. In the future, more trials should be conducted for greater numbers of trays of microgreens to collect more data. The nutritional value of microgreens should also be explored further to obtain a holistic approach to the value of these plants from seed to harvest to consumption.

  13. Physical properties of chitosan-basil essential oil edible films as affected by oil content and homogenization conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Jeannine; Vargas, Maria; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This work studies the influence of basil essential oil, its content and the homogenization treatment on the physical properties of chitosan-based edible films. Two homogenization treatments were applied, without (H1) and with (H2) microfluidization (MF). Composite films were softer, less rigid and more stretchable than pure CH films. MF intensified these changes. H2 films showed microcracks due to the weak interactions between chitosan and oil, which affected their mechanical behaviour. ...

  14. Investigation of Pesticide Penetration and Persistence on Harvested and Live Basil Leaves Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-05-03

    Understanding pesticide behavior in plants is important for effectively applying pesticides and in reducing pesticide exposures from ingestion. This study aimed to investigate the penetration and persistence of pesticides applied on harvested and live basil leaves. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping was applied for in situ and real-time tracking of pesticides over time using gold nanoparticles as probes. The results showed that, after surface exposure of 30 min to 48 h, pesticides (10 mg/L) penetrated more rapidly and deeply into the live leaves than the harvested leaves. The systemic pesticide thiabendazole and the nonsystemic pesticide ferbam can penetrate into the live leaves with depths of 225 and 130 μm, respectively, and the harvested leaves with depths of 180 and 18 μm, respectively, after 48 h of exposure. The effects of leaf integrity and age on thiabendazole penetration were also evaluated on live basil leaves after 24 h of exposure. Thiabendazole (10 mg/L) when applied onto intact leaves penetrated deeper (170 μm) than when applied onto damaged leaves (80 μm) prepared with 20 scrapes on the top surface of the leaves. Older leaves with a wet mass of 0.204 ± 0.019 g per leaf (45 days after leaf out) allowed more rapid and deeper penetration of pesticides (depth of 165 μm) than younger leaves with a wet mass of 0.053 ± 0.007 g per leaf (15 days after leaf out, depth of 95 μm). The degradation of thiabendazole on live leaves was detected after 1 week, whereas the apparent degradation of ferbam was detected after 2 weeks. In addition, the removal of pesticides from basil was more efficient when compared with other fresh produce possibly due to the specific gland structure of basil leaves. The information obtained here provides a better understanding of the behavior and biological fate of pesticides on plants.

  15. Thyme and basil essential oils included in edible coatings as a natural preserving method of oilseed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Cecilia G; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2016-01-15

    Sunflower seeds are susceptible to developing rancidity and off-flavours through lipid oxidation. Edible coatings and essential oils have proven antioxidant properties in different food products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of using an edible coating and thyme and basil essential oils to preserve the chemical and sensory quality parameters of roasted sunflower seeds during storage. 50% DPPH inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.278 and 0.0997 µg mL(-1) were observed for thyme and basil, respectively. On storage day 40, peroxide values were 80.68, 70.28, 68.43, 49.31 and 33.87 mEq O2 kg(-1) in roasted sunflower seeds (RS), roasted sunflower seeds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (RS-CMC), roasted sunflower seeds coated with CMC added with basil (RS-CMC-A), thyme (RS-CMC-T) and butylated hydroxytoluene (RS-CMC-BHT), respectively. RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-BHT presented the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and p-anisidine values during storage. RS-CMC-BHT, RS-CMC-T, and RS-CMC-A showed the lowest oxidized and cardboard flavour intensity ratings. On storage day 40, roasted sunflower flavour intensity ratings were higher in RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-A. Thyme and basil essential oils added to the CMC coating improved the sensory stability of this product during storage, but only thyme essential oil increased their chemical stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Investigating the effect of aqueous extracts of basil and savory on antioxidant activity, microbial and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiyani, Zohreh Ghaleh; Pourahmad, Rezvan; Eshaghi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The low viability of probiotics causes the short shelf life of fermented products. Therefore compounds which prolong the viability of probiotic bacteria can increase or at least maintain the health- benefiting properties of these products. On the other hand, the addition of antioxidants is one of the methods to increase the shelf life of food products which has recently become more prevalent. In this respect, herbal extracts which are a good source of antioxidants can be appropriate alternative. The aim of this study was  to evaluate the effect of adding basil and savory extracts on antioxidant activity, and on the microbial and organoleptic characteristics of probiotic yogurt. The effect of adding basil extract (8% and 10%) and savory extract (6% and 8%) separately to low fat yogurt (1.5% fat) containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei was investigated. The samples were stored at 4°C. The viability of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, antioxidant activ- ity and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt were evaluated on the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days. Basil and savory extracts significantly increased the viability of probiotic bacteria (p 0.05). During storage, there was no significant difference between the organoleptic scores of the samples (p > 0.05), but the taste score did increase significantly (p yogurt.

  17. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharavi, K; Reddy, A Gopala; Rao, G S; Reddy, A Rajasekhara; Rao, S V Rama

    2010-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roots and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder administration at the rate of 0.1% through feed reversed the antioxidant enzyme of RBC, i.e., CAT and SOD, nonenzymatic antioxidants GSH and lipid peroxidation marker TBARS of liver and kidney. Liver and kidney tissue repair and normal function was assessed by alanine aminotransaminase for liver and creatinine and blood urea nitrogen for kidney. In conclusion, oral administration of Withania somnifera root and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder prevented cadmium-induced peroxidation of tissues.

  18. Characterization of basil seed gum-based edible films incorporated with Zataria multiflora essential oil nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Gahruie, Hadi; Ziaee, Esmaeil; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem

    2017-06-15

    Direct introduction of essential oils (EOs) into biopolymer-based packaging materials faces various challenges such as insolubility and loss of activity. The aim of this study was increasing the bioactivity of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZMEO) through first making a nanoemulsion and then immobilizing within basil seed gum (BSG)-based film network. ZMEO (nano)emulsions were prepared using high intensity ultrasound approach at 150W and various sonication times (0, 2.5, 5 and 10min). An increase in the antibacterial activity of ZMEO nanoemulsion was observed by decreasing the nanoemulsion droplet size. Increasing nanoemulsion concentration in BSG film matrix improved the mechanical properties. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the presence of ZMEO nanoemulsions resulted in significant changes in the microstructure of BSG films. Antimicrobial films were effective against potential foodborne pathogens. This innovative incorporation of EOs into biopolymer-based films may have implications in extending the shelf life of food products through retarding the release of volatile constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Basil seed mucilage as a new source for electrospinning: Production and physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurd, Forouzan; Fathi, Milad; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar

    2017-02-01

    In this study nanofibers were prepared via the electrospinning technique by basil seed mucilage (BSM) as a new source of hydrocolloid. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used as an aiding agent. Viscosity and electrical conductivity of BSM/PVA solutions of different volume ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100) were in the range of 790-1300cP and 745-2140μS/cm, respectively. Morphology of nanofibers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that showed an average diameter range of 179-390nm. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies were used to analysis chemical composition, crystalline structure and thermal characteristics of nanofibers. The characteristic picks of basis seed mucilage were found in BSM/PVA nanofibers. The crystalline index of BSM, PVA and BSM/PVA nanofibers were 54, 35 and 43%, respectively. The BSM based nanofibers can be used for different applications such as bioactive encapsulation and packaging film production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Can Ocimum basilicum relieve chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression in mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Firgany, Alaa El-Din L; El-Mansy, Ahmed A; Ali, Soad

    2017-10-01

    Depression is one of the important world-wide health problems. This study aimed to assess the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil on the behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes resulted from exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). It also aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism in an animal model of depression. Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (n=10): control, CUMS (exposed to CUMS for 4weeks), CUMS plus fluoxetine, and CUMS plus OB. At the end of the experiment, behavioral changes, serum corticosterone level, protein and gene expressions of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the hippocampus was all assessed. Immunoexpression of surface makers of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, Caspase-3, BDNF and GR in the hippocampus were estimated. Data were analyzed by using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). OB alleviated both behavioral and biochemical changes recorded in mice after exposure to CUMS. It also reduced neuronal atrophy observed in the hippocampal region III cornu ammonis (CA3) and dentate gyrus and restored back astrocyte number. OB decreased apoptosis in both neurons and glial cells and increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a pattern comparable to that of fluoxetine. Increased BDNF and GR gene and protein expressions seems to be behind the antidepressant-like effect of OB. Ocimum basilicum ameliorates the changes induced after exposure to the chronic stress. Assessing Ocimum basilicum efficacy on human as antidepressant is recommended in further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  2. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can

  3. FENOLOGÍA DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimum basilicum L.) CULTIVADA EN DIFERENTES FECHAS DE SIEMBRA

    OpenAIRE

    L. Barroso; E. Jerez

    2002-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), con el objetivo de estudiar la fenología de la albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L.) en diferentes fechas de siembra. Para ello las semillas se sembraron en enero y abril en recipientes de seis litros, con un sustrato de suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado y materia orgánica del tipo cachaza, en una relación 3:1 v/v. Del análisis de las observaciones se obtuvo que, entre las fechas estudiadas, se alcanzan d...

  4. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE VARIEDADES DE ALBAHACA (Ocimum basilicum L.) EN CONDICIONES DE SALINIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Murillo Amador; Alejandra Nieto Garibay; Enrique Troyo Diéguez; Inés María Reynaldo Escobar; Edgar Omar Rueda Puente; Jairo Leonardo Cuervo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) presenta amplia variabilidad en cuanto a la tolerancia al estrés salino, sin embargo es sensible durante el crecimiento inicial. El establecimiento de indicadores morfométricos que indiquen tolerancia a la salinidad por parte del cultivo es importante para recomendar a los agricultores la variedad más productiva en esas condiciones. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto del NaCl en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de albahaca. Se e...

  5. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grant Wyllie; Dimitrios Zabaras

    2001-01-01

    The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor) exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8%) and linalool (+2.5%) were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the post-wounding response...

  6. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarai Tabrizi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil response to salinity and to evaluate the effectiveness of available mathematical models for the yield estimation of the Basil . Materials and Methods: The extensive experiments were conducted with 13 natural saline water treatments including 1.2, 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 dSm-1. Water salinity treatments were prepared by mixing Shoor River water with fresh water. In order to quantify the salinity effect on Basil yield, seven mathematical models including Maas and Hoffman (1977, van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984, Dirksen and Augustijn (1988, and Homaee et al., (2002 were used. One of the relatively recent methods for soil water content measurements is theta probes instrument. Theta probes instrument consists of four probes with 60 mm long and 3 mm diameter, a water proof container (probe structure, and a cable that links input and output signals to the data logger display. The advantages that have been attributed to this method are high precision and direct and rapid measurements in the field and greenhouse. The range of measurements is not limited like tensiometer and is from saturation to wilting point. In this study, Theta probes instrument was calibrated by weighing method for exact irrigation scheduling. Relative transpiration was calculated using daily soil water content changes. A coarse sand layer with 2 centimeters thick was used to decrease evaporation from the surface soil of the pots. Quantity comparison of the used models was done

  7. Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of the effects of different concentrations of Copper on the chemical composition and biological activity of basil essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Ayub, Muhammad Adnan; Ishtiaq, Faiqa; Kanwal, Nazish; Rashid, Nosheen; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2017-10-01

    The present study is performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Cu as fertilizer on the chemical composition of basil essential oil and its biological activity including antioxidant and antifungal activities by employing Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of Cu is also determined on the vegetative growth and essential oil yield. Both, antifungal and antioxidant activities were found to be maximum with essential oils obtained at 0.04 mg/l concentration of Cu fertilizer. The results of the GC-MS and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that the linalool and estragole are found to be as a major chemical compound in basil essential oil. The Raman spectral changes associated with these biological components lead to the conclusion that estragole seems to have dominating effect in the biological activities of the basil essential oil as compared to linalool although the latter is observed in greater concentration.

  8. Supercritical CO2 generation of nanometric structure from Ocimum basilicum mucilage prepared for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Iman; Ghoreishi, Seyyed M; Habibi, Neda

    2015-04-01

    Plant-derived polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their emollient, lack of toxicity, and irritating nature and low cost. In this work, basil seed mucilage was dried using supercritical carbon dioxide phase inversion technique to form a nanometric structure. The obtained polymeric structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and compared with the oven-derived sample group. It was demonstrated that the product morphology could be controlled by altering the composition of methanol which functioned as the co-solvent in the nonsolvent stream. The most homogeneous product (60-nm mean pore size diameter, 78 m(2)/g BET surface area with no agglomeration) was obtained with 2.5% methanol. The FTIR data showed that the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups suggested the bioadhesive property of basil seed mucilage was good and many active pharmaceutical compounds might be loaded to the resultant nanometric structure to enhance drug release. Furthermore, the FTIR analyses indicated that the nature of the final product did not change during the supercritical drying procedure.

  9. Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantis, Filippos; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of two Ocimum basilicum cultivars (Lettuce Leaf, and Red Rubin-mountain Athos hybrid) under artificial lighting were investigated. Four LED light treatments [AP673L (high red and high red:far-red), G2 (high red and low red:far-red), AP67

  10. A Study of the Heart, as the Meeting Place of God and According to the Teaching of St. Basil the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kuderski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Heart” is one of the most common words, which often appears in the writings of St. Basil of Caesarea. In his point of view, the heart is the main organ of the human being. It constitutes the centre of emotions and physical strength of life. It is also a symbol of a person’s entire internal life. The fullness of spiritual life, which encompasses the whole human being with his thoughts, words and actions is found in the heart. According to the teaching of St. Basil, God enters in a spiritual relationship with man through the heart.

  11. O pai dos contos: "Lo cunto de li cunti. O trattenimiente de li peccerille (Pentamerone" de Giambattista Basile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lombardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Em seu prefácio à coletânea Fábulas italianas, Calvino toma os contos dos irmãos Grimm (1812 como modelo, mas critica seu caráter violento e “sanguinário”. Ele imita rigorosamente a coletânea dos autores alemães, selecionando o mesmo número de fábulas (200 e também decide traduzir todos os textos, escritos originalmente em dialeto, para a língua italiana, adaptando arbitrariamente enredos e nomes. Em relação a Giambattista Basile [BASILE: 1999 e 2000], autor de Lu cunto de li cunti (ou Pentamerone, uma coletânea de 50 contos, redigidos em napolitano em 1646, um autor celebrado, imitado e traduzido pelos irmãos Grimm, Calvino foi francamente omisso. Trata-se de um autor proto-expressionista, que apresenta em sua obra as versões mais antigas de muitos contos conhecidos (Cinderela, Branca de Neve, O Gato de botas, A bela adormecida entre outros foi traduzido para o italiano pelo filósofo Benedetto Croce somente em 1925. O assim-chamado Pentamerone (por associação ao Decameron de Boccaccio, teve uma surpreendente tradução para o alemão, publicada em 1846, graças ao estímulo dos irmãos Grimm, que veneravam o autor italiano como grande mestre do conto maravilhoso. O triângulo virtual que se forma entre Calvino, os irmãos Grimm e Basile, tem num de seus ângulos a denegação calviniana do autor napolitano e no outro, a obra maior deste autor, a qual reforça a importância, vivacidade e consistência dos dialetos na tradição literária italiana. Entre Calvino e Basile, os irmãos Grimm parecem representar uma mediação singular e típica entre a cultura alemã e a italiana.

  12. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Karim, Bushra; Jain, Ankita; Singh, Rajeshwar; Karim, Wahaja

    2014-04-01

    Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo). A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1) Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36); (2) Chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 36); (3) normal saline (negative control) (n = 36). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine.

  13. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo. Materials and Methods: A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1 Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36; (2 Chlorhexidine (active control (n = 36; (3 normal saline (negative control (n = 36. Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine.

  14. Oviposition deterrence induced by Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum suave extracts to gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most of the past decades, mosquito control has been done by the use of indoor residual spray and insecticides-treated bed nets. The control of mosquitoes by targeting the breeding sites (larval habitat has not been given priority. Disrupting the oviposition sensory detection of mosquitoes by introducing deterrents of plant origin, which are cheap resources, might be add value to integrated vector control. Such knowledge is required in order to successfully manipulate the behavior of mosquitoes for monitoring or control. Materials and Methods: Twenty gravid mosquitoes were placed in a cage measuring 30 Χ 30 Χ 30 cm for oviposition. The oviposition media were made of different materials. Experiments were set up at 6:00 pm, and eggs were collected for counting at 7:30 am. Mosquitoes were observed until they died. The comparisons of the number of eggs were made between the different treatments. Results: There was significant difference in the number of eggs found in control cups when compared with the number of eggs found in water treated with Ocimum kilimandscharicum (OK (P=0.02 or Ocimum suave (OS (P=0.000 and that found in water with debris treated with OK (P=0.011 or OS (P=0.002. There was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid in treated water and the number of eggs laid in water with debris treated either with OK (P=0.105 or OS (P=0.176. Oviposition activity index for both OS and OK experiments lay in a negative side and ranged from −0.19% to −1%. The results show that OS and OK deter oviposition in An.gambiae s.s. Conclusions: Further research needs to be done on the effect of secondary metabolites of these plant extracts as they decompose in the breeding sites. In the event of favorable results, the potential of these plant extracts can be harnessed on a larger scale.

  15. Simultaneous detection of the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in food matrices and their persistence on basil leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohweyer, Jeanne; Cazeaux, Catherine; Travaillé, Emmanuelle; Languet, Emilie; Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Terryn, Christine; Dubey, Jitender P; Azas, Nadine; Houssin, Maryline; Loïc, Favennec; Villena, Isabelle; La Carbona, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis are emerging pathogen parasites in the food domain. However, without standardized methods for their detection in food matrices, parasitic foodborne outbreaks remain neglected. In this study, a new immunomagnetic separation assay (IMS Toxo) targeting the oocyst's wall of T. gondii was developed using a specific purified monoclonal antibody. Performance of this IMS Toxo coupled to microscopic and qPCR analyses was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and recovery rate (RR) on: i) simple matrix (LOD = 5 oocysts; RR between 5 and 56%); ii) raspberries and basil (LOD = 33 oocysts/g; RR between 0.2 and 35%). Finally, to simultaneously extract the three protozoa from these food matrices, T. gondii oocysts were directly concentrated (without IMS Toxo) from the supernatant of the IMS of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. This strategy associated to qPCR detection led to LOD <1 to 3 (oo)cysts/g and RR between 2 and 35%. This procedure was coupled to RT-qPCR analyses and showed that the three protozoa persisted on the leaves of basil and remained viable following storage at 4 °C for 8 days. These data strengthen the need to consider these protozoa in food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 2078-IJBCS-Article-Abiola Ogni

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    paradoxa, Asparagus flagellaris, Ceratotheca sesamoides, Elaeis guineensis, Launaea taraxacifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Tridax. Procumbens, Annona senegalensis, Bambusa vulgaris, Clausena anisata, Jatropha curcas,. Olax subscorpioidea,. Vitex doniana,. Momordica charantia et Senna alata pour traiter la gale.

  17. Vitamins and phytochemical contents in four leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin and phytochemical contents of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Gnetum africanum, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum subjected to different processing methods were investigated. Processing treatments employed include fresh milling, sun drying, oven drying, steaming and a combination of these.

  18. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bedisag@yahoo.fr. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM,. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS INHIBITED. LIPOXYGENASE L-1 AND CYCLOOXYGENASE OF ...

  19. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    ) of 13 populations of different silvicultural zones ... The present work reports the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L., and the chemical ..... 'Some Medicinal Forest Plants of Africa and Latin America.' 7. Harjula, H.

  20. Antimycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants in Niger state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten Nigerian medicinal plants Abrus precatorius, Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Crateva adansonii, Detarium microcarpum, Faba spp, Neocarya macrophylla, Ocimum gratissimum, Securidaca longpenduculata and Terminalia avicennioides used by traditional medicine practitioners for the management of ...

  1. Comparaison de l'efficacite Antifongique de l'huile Essentielle d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparaison de l'efficacite Antifongique de l'huile Essentielle d' Ocimum Gratissimum L. et du Fongicide de Synthese Mancozebe Contre le Mycopathogene Tellurique, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Radicis-lycopersici en Cultures de Tomate (

  2. Evaluation de la toxicité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la toxicité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon nardus (L) et Ocimum gratissimum (L) contre Sitophilus zeamais Motsch et Rhyzopertha dominica F, les principaux insectes nuisibles au maïs en stockage...

  3. Adubação orgânica na produção, rendimento e composição do óleo essencial da alfavaca quimiotipo eugenol Organic fertilization in the production, yield and chemical composition of basil chemotype eugenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Biasi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na UFPR, município de Pinhais-PR, de outubro de 2005 a junho de 2006. Avaliou-se a resposta do Ocimum gratissimum à adubação orgânica com composto de esterco de carneiro, verificando a viabilidade dessa prática para o aumento no rendimento de biomassa, na quantidade e qualidade de seu óleo essencial. As mudas foram plantadas com espaçamento de 0,5 m entre plantas dentro das parcelas e 1 m entre as parcelas. Testaram-se 3 doses de adubação com composto orgânico (4; 8 e 12 kg m-2 e uma testemunha, com 5 repetições e 8 plantas por parcela. As colheitas foram realizadas aos 150 e 226 dias após o plantio, sendo avaliado o rendimento de massa fresca e massa seca total e de folhas, flores e caule, o teor de óleo essencial das folhas e flores e a sua composição por cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a um detector de massas (CG-MS. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos, quanto ao rendimento de biomassa na primeira colheita, onde o tratamento com 8 kg m-2 de composto orgânico foi superior à testemunha sem adubação, para a massa fresca de flores por planta e massa seca total e de flores por planta, mas não diferiu dos outros níveis de adubação. Na segunda colheita não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. Quanto ao rendimento de óleo essencial não houve diferença entre os tratamentos nas duas colheitas. Também não foram observadas grandes variações nos componentes do óleo essencial decorrente dos tratamentos aplicados. Entretanto, ocorreram variações na composição do óleo essencial quando extraído das folhas e das flores, sendo o teor médio de eugenol de 90,4% nas folhas e 80,8% nas flores, na colheita em março. Já na colheita em junho, houve uma redução do teor de eugenol nas folhas e uma elevação dos teores, principalmente de alfa trans trans farneseno, beta bisaboleno, beta cariofileno, germacrene D e alfa selineno.This work was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Parana

  4. Identification and quantification of a major anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic compound found in basil, lemon, thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, lemon thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme are in the mint family of plants that are used as culinary herbs world-wide. These herbs contain phenolic compounds that are believed to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the major phenolic compounds fr...

  5. Basilic vein transposition versus biosynthetic prosthesis as vascular access for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosetti, Massimo; Cipriani, Silvia; Dominijanni, Sara; Pisani, Giovanni; Frattarelli, Daniele; Bruno, Fabrizio

    2011-12-01

    Vascular access (VA) complications account for a significant number of hospital admissions in dialysis and have substantial costs. A native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannot be successfully obtained in all patients. At our center, we established an autogenous brachial-basilic AVF (BBAVF) in the upper arm in patients with a failed forearm fistula or with superficial vessels that were unsuitable for preparing a good site for VA. In most of these patients, we resort to prosthetic materials for creating a functioning VA as the last strategy. The present study compared the outcomes of BBAVF and AV graft (AVG) in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis in whom there was no other possibility of creating a VA. We analyzed 57 complex patients, 27 randomized to receive AVG and 30 randomized to BBAVF, between 2002 and 2008. The Omniflow II Vascular Prosthesis (Bio Nova International Pty Ltd, North Melbourne, VIC, Australia), the latest-generation collagen-polyester composite, was used to create the prosthetic VA. Primary patency (PP) and secondary patency (SP) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier test. The log-rank test was used to compare PP and SP rates of the single VA. Length of hospital admission time, total intervention time, and mean interval to the first venipuncture for dialysis were longer for BBAVF. In the early postoperative period, patients who received BBAVF had a complication rate similar to those who received AVG; however, patients who received AVG showed a higher rate of long-term adverse events. PP and SP rates were higher for BBAVF than for AVG, although this was not statistically significant for SP. Our results show that BBAVF should be the first choice in patients with a good life expectancy and who can rely on an available temporary VA. However, given the shorter time to use, AVG could be an alternative in patients with compromised clinical conditions and in whom a temporary VA is not reliable, considering that the long-term outcome may be

  6. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  7. Effect of fertilizer treatment on the antimicrobial activity of the leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... The effect of fertilizer treatment on the antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum (L) and G. latifolium were applied with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg/ha treatment levels in.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Garima; Bhavesh, Riju; Kasariya, Kunal; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Singh, Rajendra Pal

    2011-07-01

    Development of green nanotechnology is generating interest of researchers toward ecofriendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was done using Tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability of bioreduced silver nanoparticles was analyzed using UV-vis absorption spectra, and their antimicrobial activity was screened against both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. It was observed that O. sanctum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 8 min of reaction time. Thus, this method can be used for rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles of size range 4-30 nm possessing antimicrobial activity suggesting their possible application in medical industry.

  9. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.; Kazi, G.H.; Kazi, T.; Hafeez-u-Raman Shaikh; Memon, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  10. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grant Wyllie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8% and linalool (+2.5% were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the post-wounding response to be independent from the pre-wounding levels of the particular compounds expressing the response and from the overall leaf oil-composition.

  11. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  12. Evaluation of the antimycobacterium activity of the constituents from Ocimum basilicum against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Bhatti, Huma A; Begum, Sabira; Perwaiz, Sobiya

    2012-10-31

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to the genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae). Many species of this genus including O. basilicum have been traditionally used for the treatment of a variety of diseases including respiratory diseases and symptoms of tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of pure constituents of O. basilicum, a plant used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases including symptoms of tuberculosis, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The crude methanolic extract from the aerial parts (leaves, fruits and flowers) of the plant was separated into EtOAc and water subextracts and the EtOAc subextract was further divided into acidic and neutral fractions. Each of these was subjected to fractionation through column chromatography followed by prep. TLC. Several pure compounds were thus isolated and their activity was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv using MABA assay. Nine compounds were assayed for antituberculosis activity which exhibited upto 49% inhibition of M. tuberculosis H37Rv at 6.25 μg/mL. These include one new compound bacilicin, the structure of which was elucidated based on 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY) and Ms spectral analysis. The known compounds were identified on the basis of comparison of their spectral data with those reported earlier. Inhibition of M. tuberculosis by pure compounds from O. basilicum supports the use of this plant in ethnomedicine as a remedy for symptoms of tuberculosis. The results also suggest that the activity of the plant may be due to a synergistic effect of active compounds including those investigated in the present studies, and hence this plant is a potential candidate for obtaining further new antituberculosis natural products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relaxant effects of Ocimum basilicum on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s

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    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effects of Ocimum basilicum on respiratory diseases especially dyspnea have been reported in Iranian ancient medical books. In the present study, the relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were evaluated. The relaxant effects of 4 cumulative concentrations of macerated and soxhlet extracts (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 W/V in comparison with saline as negative control and 4 cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mM as positive control were examined on precontracted tracheal chains of two groups of 6 guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 µM methacholine (group 2. Decrease in contractile tone of tracheal chains was considered as relaxant effect. In group 1 experiments only the last two higher concentrations of theophylline showed significant relaxant effect compared to that of saline (p<0.001 for both concentrations, which were significantly greater than those of macerated and soxhlet extracts (p<0.001 for all cases and in group 2 experiments both macerated and soxhlet extracts showed concentrationdependent relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001 for both extracts. There were significant differences between the relaxant effects of both extracts with those of theophylline in group 2 experiments (p<0.01 to p<0.001. The relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts in group 1 were significantly lower than those of groups 2. These results showed a potent relaxant effect of Ocimum basilicum on tracheal chains of guinea pigs which were lower than theophylline at concentrations used.

  14. Design and evaluation of in vivo formulations based on orange (Citrus sinensis and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L, essential oils and acetic acid Diseño y evaluación in vivo de formulaciones para acné basadas en aceites esenciales de naranja (Citrus sinensis, albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L y ácido acético

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    Jennifer Herazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently, the antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains involved in the development of acne is a reality, it is necessary to find alternatives to antibiotic treatment.
    Objectives. Designing gel formulations based on essential oils and acetic acid and evaluate its effectiveness in volunteers patients affected by acne.
    Materials and methods. Masked simple experimental study of three gel formulations on four groups of seven patients. Treatments antibacterial (essential oils, keratolytic and mixed (acetic acid, were applied daily for eight weeks. Weekly checks were conducted to evaluate the improvement in patients.
    Results. All groups reported improvement of acne condition, which ranged between 43% and 75% clearance of lesions, with little discomfort or side effects after application of treatments, which disappeared within minutes.
    Conclusions. The formulations prepared were found to be chemically and physically stable during application of treatments, which was demonstrated by gas chromatography, where no evidence no change neither the composition profiles of essential oils nor in acetic acid. The results were ranked good to excellent, particularly for acetic acid, which achieved improvements of over 75%, a result of their joint activity antiseptic and keratolytic. Side effects (burning and redness disappeared within a few minutes of completing the application, therefore, did not prevent adherence to treatment.
    Introducción. Actualmente la resistencia a los antimicrobianos de las cepas bacterianas involucradas en el desarrollo del acné es una realidad, se hace necesario buscar alternativas terapéuticas para su tratamiento.
    Objetivos. Diseñar formulaciones tipo gel con base en aceites esenciales y ácido acético y evaluar su efectividad en pacientes voluntarios afectados por acné.
    Materiales y métodos. Estudio experimental simple enmascarado de tres formulaciones tipo gel sobre cuatro grupos de siete pacientes. Los tratamientos antibacteriano (aceites esenciales, queratolítico y mixto (ácido acético, se aplicaron diariamente por espacio de ocho semanas. Se realizaron controles semanales para evaluar la evolución de los pacientes.
    Resultados. Todos los grupos reportaron mejoría (desaparición de las lesiones de la condición del acné, las cuales oscilaron entre el 43% y el 75%, con leves efectos secundarios transitorios relacionados a la aplicación de los tratamientos utilizados
    Conclusiones. Las formulaciones estudiadas mostraron ser estables química y físicamente durante la aplicación de los tratamientos, lo cual se demostró mediante análisis de cromatografía de gases, en donde no se evidenció ningún cambio en los perfiles de composición de los aceites esenciales ni en el del ácido acético. Los resultados se catalogaron entre buenos y excelentes, en particular el del ácido acético, que logró mejorías superiores al 75%, dada su actividad mixta antiséptica y queratolítica. Los efectos secundarios (ardor y enrojecimiento desaparecieron a los pocos minutos de realizada la aplicación, y no impidieron la adherencia a los tratamientos.

  15. Blue and Red LED Illumination Improves Growth and Bioactive Compounds Contents in Acyanic and Cyanic Ocimum basilicum L. Microgreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobiuc, Andrei; Vasilache, Viorica; Pintilie, Olga; Stoleru, Toma; Burducea, Marian; Oroian, Mircea; Zamfirache, Maria-Magdalena

    2017-11-30

    Microgreens are an excellent source of health-maintaining compounds, and the accumulation of these compounds in plant tissues may be stimulated by exogenous stimuli. While light quality effects on green basil microgreens are known, the present paper aims at improving the quality of acyanic (green) and cyanic (red) basil microgreens with different ratios of LED blue and red illumination. Growth, assimilatory and anthocyanin pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, total phenolic, flavonoids, selected phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity were assessed in microgreens grown for 17 days. Growth of microgreens was enhanced with predominantly blue illumination, larger cotyledon area and higher fresh mass. The same treatment elevated chlorophyll a and anthocyanin pigments contents. Colored light treatments decreased chlorophyll fluorescence ΦPSII values significantly in the green cultivar. Stimulation of phenolic synthesis and free radical scavenging activity were improved by predominantly red light in the green cultivar (up to 1.87 fold) and by predominantly blue light in the red cultivar (up to 1.73 fold). Rosmarinic and gallic acid synthesis was higher (up to 15- and 4-fold, respectively, compared to white treatment) in predominantly blue illumination. Red and blue LED ratios can be tailored to induce superior growth and phenolic contents in both red and green basil microgreens, as a convenient tool for producing higher quality foods.

  16. Blue and Red LED Illumination Improves Growth and Bioactive Compounds Contents in Acyanic and Cyanic Ocimum basilicum L. Microgreens

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    Andrei Lobiuc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgreens are an excellent source of health-maintaining compounds, and the accumulation of these compounds in plant tissues may be stimulated by exogenous stimuli. While light quality effects on green basil microgreens are known, the present paper aims at improving the quality of acyanic (green and cyanic (red basil microgreens with different ratios of LED blue and red illumination. Growth, assimilatory and anthocyanin pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, total phenolic, flavonoids, selected phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity were assessed in microgreens grown for 17 days. Growth of microgreens was enhanced with predominantly blue illumination, larger cotyledon area and higher fresh mass. The same treatment elevated chlorophyll a and anthocyanin pigments contents. Colored light treatments decreased chlorophyll fluorescence ΦPSII values significantly in the green cultivar. Stimulation of phenolic synthesis and free radical scavenging activity were improved by predominantly red light in the green cultivar (up to 1.87 fold and by predominantly blue light in the red cultivar (up to 1.73 fold. Rosmarinic and gallic acid synthesis was higher (up to 15- and 4-fold, respectively, compared to white treatment in predominantly blue illumination. Red and blue LED ratios can be tailored to induce superior growth and phenolic contents in both red and green basil microgreens, as a convenient tool for producing higher quality foods.

  17. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Devanand Gupta; Dara John Bhaskar; Rajendra Kumar Gupta; Bushra Karim; Ankita Jain; Rajeshwar Singh; Wahaja Karim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed...

  18. Comparative Study on the Effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum Seeds on Anthropometric Measures in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarian, Shahab-Aldin; Asgary, Sedigheh; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. Methods: All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They ran...

  19. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum

    OpenAIRE

    Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G. S.; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara; Rao, S. V. Rama

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roo...

  20. Hypolipidaemic activity of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in acute hyperlipidaemia induced by triton WR-1339 in rats and its antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Bouanani, Nour El Houda; Aziz, Mohammed; Caid, Hana Serghini; Manfredini, Stefano; Besco, Elena; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena

    2006-12-01

    Hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerosis and related diseases are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Ocimum basilicum is one of the medicinal plants widely used in Morocco to reduce plasma cholesterol and to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the reported hypolipidaemic effect of this plant have not been investigated. This study evaluates the lipid lowering effect of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Hyperlipidaemia was developed in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg). After injection of Triton the animals were divided into three treatment groups: hyperlipidaemic, hyperlipidaemic plus herb extract and hyperlipidaemic plus fenofibrate treated rats. At 7 h after the Triton injection, levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol in rats treated also with the Ocimum basilicum extract (0.5 g/100 g body weight) were, respectively, 50%, 83% and 79% lower than Triton-treated rats and HDL-cholesterol was 129% higher than in rats given Triton alone. At 24 h following Ocimum basilicum administration, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased by 56%, 63% and 68%, respectively, in comparison with the Triton treated group and HDL-cholesterol was not increased significantly. The hypolipidaemic effect exerted by Ocimum basilicum extract was markedly stronger than the effect induced by fenofibrate treatments. Further it was demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum aqueous extract displayed a very high antioxidant power. These results indicate that Ocimum basilicum extract may contain hypolipidaemic and antioxidant substances and its use as a therapeutic tool in hyperlipidaemic subjects may be of benefit and encourage further investigation in this field.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of sweet basil and thyme against salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in egg-based pasta

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    Stojiljković Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is known as one of the most common pathogenic bacteria causing salmonellosis in humans. Raw materials of animal origin (eggs, chicken meat are frequent vectors that transmit this bacterium. Since eggs are used for the production of pasta, due to insufficient thermal treatment during pasta drying, they can be a potential risk to consumer health. Different essential oils of herbs can be used to reduce present pathogenic microorganisms. This paper compares a decrease in the number of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (D ATCC 13076 and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks of salmonellosis in egg-based pasta under the influence of thyme and sweet basil essential oils. The results indicate that the utilized oils were more effective against the epidemic strain than the ATCC strain. In addition, thyme oil caused a more significant inhibition of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis during the production process.

  2. Atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum Potentially allelophatic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum

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    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais são reconhecidos pelas suas diversificadas ações biológicas. A biodiversidade amazônica é rica em espécies de plantas produtoras de óleos essenciais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum (estoraque e determinar seus efeitos sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de duas espécies de plantas daninhas. O óleo essencial foi testado em concentrações variando de 100 a 2.000 mg L-1, considerando seus efeitos sobre a germinação de sementes (25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 12 horas e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo (25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 24 horas das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Fatores relacionados a concentração, especificidade das plantas receptoras e parâmetros analisados foram decisivos para os efeitos obtidos. A tendência geral foi de relação positiva entre concentração e efeito inibitório. Malícia foi mais sensível aos efeitos do que mata-pasto. Comparativamente, a germinação, seguida do desenvolvimento da radícula, foi afetada pelo óleo essencial em maior magnitude, ficando o desenvolvimento do hipocótilo como o de menor sensibilidade. Os efeitos observados podem ser atribuídos à presença, no óleo essencial, de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados, sesquiterpenos, alifáticos e fenilpropanoides, com destaque para os constituintes com atividade alelopática já comprovada, como o limoneno, a cânfora e o linalol.Essential oils are known for their several biological activities. The biodiversity of the Amazon region is rich in essential-oil producing plants.The aim of this work was to study the potentially allelopathic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum and to determine its effects on seed germination and growth of two weed species. Solutions of the essential oil were tested

  3. Comparative effectiveness of one-stage versus two-stage basilic vein transposition arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Amir A; Griffin, Claire L; Kraiss, Larry W; Sarfati, Mark R; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2018-02-01

    Basilic vein transposition (BVT) fistulas may be performed as either a one-stage or two-stage operation, although there is debate as to which technique is superior. This study was designed to evaluate the comparative clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of one-stage vs two-stage BVT. We identified all patients at a single large academic hospital who had undergone creation of either a one-stage or two-stage BVT between January 2007 and January 2015. Data evaluated included patient demographics, comorbidities, medication use, reasons for abandonment, and interventions performed to maintain patency. Costs were derived from the literature, and effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We analyzed primary and secondary functional patency outcomes as well as survival during follow-up between one-stage and two-stage BVT procedures using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to determine cost savings. We identified 131 patients in whom 57 (44%) one-stage BVT and 74 (56%) two-stage BVT fistulas were created among 8 different vascular surgeons during the study period that each performed both procedures. There was no significant difference in the mean age, male gender, white race, diabetes, coronary disease, or medication profile among patients undergoing one- vs two-stage BVT. After fistula transposition, the median follow-up time was 8.3 months (interquartile range, 3-21 months). Primary patency rates of one-stage BVT were 56% at 12-month follow-up, whereas primary patency rates of two-stage BVT were 72% at 12-month follow-up. Patients undergoing two-stage BVT also had significantly higher rates of secondary functional patency at 12 months (57% for one-stage BVT vs 80% for two-stage BVT) and 24 months (44% for one-stage BVT vs 73% for two-stage BVT) of follow-up (P < .001 using log-rank test). However, there was no significant difference

  4. Stavropigiyskiy Institute and the Society of St. Basil the Great: the history of the establishment, activities, relationships

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    N. M. Svitlyk

    2017-06-01

    New materials concerning cultural cooperation problems of mentioned societies have been introduced into the scientific circulation in this publication. First of all, it is related to the signed agreement between Stavropigiyskiy Institute and the Society of St. Basil the Great, which is dedicated to sales process of church and secular literature. Epistolary communication between superiors of the societies has also been analyzed. Private letters is an important source for researchers. They have great scientific value. They are especially valuable for studying the heritage of famous historical figures, as in such letters different thoughts, which sometimes were not embodied in the scientific works, were often described. A description of correspondence between scientists, its subjects, importance for the implementation of private co-operation and cultural development has been offered by the author of the essay. The archives are the subject of the special scientific value. The authors of the studied letters discussed extremely important issues, such as magyarization of the intelligentsia of Transcarpathia, the influence of polonization on public life in Galicia and, as the consequence, the rapid spread of russophile sentiments there. In the analyzed letters a lot of information has been found, which proves the existence of close contacts on both sides of the Carpathians. The correspondence between people of Transcarpathia and Galicia to certain extent revived culture and education in the Region. Based on the processed material, conclusions of the study about the role of Stavropigiysky Institute in Lviv and the Society of St. Basil in Uzhgorod on the cultural development of Ukrainian lands in general have been made, and also about the importance of their mutual cooperation for inter-regional unity of Ukrainian lands. This fact is especially important in modern situation in Ukraine.

  5. Formulation and in Vivo Evaluation for Anti-Aging Effects of an Emulsion Containing Basil Extract Using non- Invasive Biophysical Techniques

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    N. Akhtar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Skin aging is a complex process induced by constant exposure to ultraviolet (UV irradiation and damages human skin. UV generates reactive oxygen species leading to collagen deficiency and eventually skin wrinkling. Basil contains a number of phenolics and favonoids which possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to formulate and investigate the antiaging potential of a cream containing Basil extract. Methods: A single blinded study was conducted using non-invasive methods. Formulation containing 3% of the concentrated extract of Basil was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both creams were stored at different storage conditions of 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C+ 75% relative humidity to predict their stabilities. The formulation and base were evaluated for their effects on various skin parameters i.e., moisture and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL, volume, energy and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS. Results: Significant effects (p≤0.05 were observed for both creams in the case of TEWL. The base showed insignificant (p≤0.05 while formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture. Volume, SELS SEr (skin roughness, SEsc (skin scaliness, SEsm (skin smoothness, SEw (skin wrinkles parameter showed significant decline while texture parameter of ‘Energy' showed significant increase. Conclusion: The results statistically indicated that the active formulation containg extract of Basil exert antiaging effects when applied topically.

  6. [Comparison of Chemical Components of Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum Extracted by Supercritical CO2 Fluid and Steam Distillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-yu; Zheng, Jia-huan; Shi, Sheng-ying; Luo, Zhi-xiong; Ni, Shun-yu; Lin, Jing-ming

    2015-11-01

    To compare the chemical components of essential oil prepared by steam distillation extraction (SD) and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2) from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum whole plant. The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum were extracted by SD and SFE-CO2. The chemical components of essential oil were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). Their relative contents were determined by normalization of peak area. 40 and 42 compounds were detected in the essential oil prepared by SD and SFE-CO2 respectively. 25 compounds were common. Thereare significant differences of the chemical components between the Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum essential oil prepared by SD and thatby SFE-CO2. Different methods showed different extraction efficiency with a special compound. It might be a good idea to unite several methods in the modern traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  7. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Pranati; Devaraj, C G; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-03-01

    Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control was 25mm and no zone of inhibition was observed

  8. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  9. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  10. Fungitoxicity of organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum on growth and morphogenesis of Bipolaris species (teleomorph Cochliobolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherbiny, E A; Safwat, N A; Elaasser, M M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of various organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum against some species of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. The ethyl acetate extract consisted of methyl cinnamate as the most abundant component, while butylated hydroxytoluene was the major component in the methanol extract. Pyrogallol and chlorogenic acid were major phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Complete growth inhibition of all fungi except Cochliobolus australiensis was observed by ethyl acetate extract, and on Bipolaris hawaiensis, Bipolaris spicifera and Cochliobolus cynodontis by methanol extract. Spore germination was completely inhibited for Bipolaris hawaiensis by ethyl acetate extract. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the organic extracts cause considerable morphological changes of the fungal hyphae such as mycelial asymmetry, hyphal swelling, sunken, curling, distorted and broken hyphae. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of O. basilicum can result in an effective suppression of mycelial growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species. The organic extracts of O. basilicum are potential and promising natural tools for controlling Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species, economically important plant and human fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The antidepressant-like effect of Ocimum basilicum in an animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S S; Abd El Wahab, M G; Ayuob, N N; Suliaman, M

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oils for treating depression related behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes caused by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice and to explore the mechanism underlying the pathology. Male albino mice were divided into four groups: controls; CUMS; CUMS plus fluoxetine, the antidepressant administered for pharmacological validation of OB; and CUMS plus OB. Behavioral tests included the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT); these tests were performed at the end of the experiment. We assessed serum corticosterone level, protein, gene and immunoexpression of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) as well as immunoexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3 in the hippocampus. CUMS caused depression in the mice as evidenced by prolonged immobility in the FST, prolonged time spent in the open arms during the EPM test and reduction of open field activity in the OFT. OB ameliorated the CUMS induced depressive status. OB significantly reduced the corticosterone level and up-regulated protein and gene expressions of BDNF and GR. OB reduced CUMS induced hippocampal neuron atrophy and apoptosis, and increased the number of the astrocytes and new nerve cells. OB significantly increased GFAP-positive cells as well as BDNF and GR immunoexpression in the hippocampus.

  12. In vitro evaluation of anti-diabetic activity and cytotoxicity of chemically analysed Ocimum basilicum extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the anti-diabetic effects of methanol, hexane and dichloromethane extracts of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (OB) and to analyze their phytochemical composition. Phytochemical analysis of the three extracts by GC/MS using the silylation derivatization technique revealed 53 compounds, 17 of them were found for the first time in OB. Cytotoxic and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts were evaluated using L6-GLUT4myc muscle cells stably expressing myc epitope at the exofacial loop (GLUT4). No cytotoxic effects were observed in treated cells up to 0.25 mg/ml extract as measured with MTT and LDH-leakage assays. GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane was elevated by 3.5 and 7 folds (-/+ insulin) after treatment with OB extracts for 20 h. Our findings suggest that the observed anti-diabetic properties of OB extracts are possibly mediated in part through one or more of the 17 new identified compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of bioactivity of linalool-rich essential oils from Ocimum basilucum and Coriandrum sativum varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Ahmet D; Telci, Isa; Dayisoylu, Kenan S; Digrak, Metin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Alma, Mehmet H

    2010-06-01

    Essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. and Coriandrum sativum L. varieties originating from Turkey were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effects of the oil varieties were evaluated by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against eight bacteria and three fungi. The compositions of the essential oils were analyzed and identified by GC and GC-MS. O. basilicum, C. sativum var. macrocarpum and var. microcarpum oils revealed the presence of linalool (54.4%), eugenol (9.6%), methyl eugenol (7.6%); linalool (78.8%), gamma-terpinene (6.0%), nerol acetate (3.5%); and linalool (90.6%), and nerol acetate (3.3%) as the major components, respectively. The oils exhibited antibacterial activity ranging from 1.25 to 10 microL disc(-1) against the test organisms with inhibition zones of 9.5-39.0 mm and minimal inhibitory concentrations values in the range 0.5- > or =1 microL/L. Linalool, eugenol, and methyl eugenol at 1.25 microL disc(-1) had antimicrobial effects on all microorganisms, giving inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 19 mm.

  14. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURPREET KAUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimumsanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimumsanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

  15. Ocimum basilicum essential oil combined with deltamethrin to improve the management of Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Sérgio Macedo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For an important and expensive crop such as corn, the resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith to various pesticides has led to research throughout the world for a potential insecticide from a natural source. For the management of pest resistance, natural compounds associated with synthetic insecticides can be a promising tool because they can reduce the application of the synthetics molecules while maintaining their effectiveness and promoting the control of the pests. Linalool is a potential insecticide that is easily obtained because it is found in high concentrations in the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of this essential oil and its combination with deltamethrin to control S. frugiperda. Through dose response assays, the acute toxicities (LD50 of the essential oil and deltamethrin were estimated. Additionally, the combination of these materials was also assessed, attaining a reduction of 80% of the LD50 of deltamethrin while obtaining the same result as when the pyrethroid was administered alone. From these results, it is expected that the combination of natural compounds and synthetic insecticides will be a promising practice, helping to manage resistance while reducing the environmental impact of toxic compounds.

  16. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE VARIEDADES DE ALBAHACA (Ocimum basilicum L. EN CONDICIONES DE SALINIDAD

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    Juan José Reyes Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. presenta amplia variabilidad en cuanto a la tolerancia al estrés salino, sin embargo es sensible durante el crecimiento inicial. El establecimiento de indicadores morfométricos que indiquen tolerancia a la salinidad por parte del cultivo es importante para recomendar a los agricultores la variedad más productiva en esas condiciones. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto del NaCl en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de albahaca. Se evaluaron veinte variedades, en condiciones de malla sombra, con los tratamientos, 0, 50 y 100 mM de NaCl. Se estableció un experimento factorial con arreglo completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones, considerando las veinte variedades de albahaca como factor A y los tratamientos salinos como factor B. Las variables que se midieron fueron longitud de tallo (cm, longitud de raíz (cm, biomasa fresca y seca de raíz, tallo, hoja (g y área foliar (cm2. Los resultados mostraron el efecto de las sales en el crecimiento de las variedades Sweet Dani y Dolly las cuales presentaron mayor longitud de tallo y raíz, mientras que Napoletano mostró mayor biomasa fresca y seca de raíz, tallo, y hoja. La variedad Sweet Dani presentó mayor área foliar.

  17. Rhizospheric Microflora Escalating Aroma Constituents and Yield Attributes in Ocimum tenuiflorum (L. cv. CIM-Ayu

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    Shilpi Khare Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of rhizospheric microbial flora for crop yield enhancement is well established. Rhizospheric microbes influence the plant physiology by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, Nitrogen fixation, increased nutrient uptake, and secondary metabolites production on their host plants. The present study investigates the response of Bacillus megaterium ATCC No. 13525, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC No. 14581, and Trichoderma viride MTCC No. 167 in alone and combined treatments for their effect on growth and yield parameters in a commercially important Ocimum tenuiflorum L. cv. CIM-Ayu. The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. The combination treatments, T7 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens and T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride, showed maximum enhancement (27.27% of percentage essential oil as compared to untreated control. Nutrient uptake especially N2 content was significantly increased (43% with the treatment T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride. Amongst major essential oil constituents, eugenol content was maximally increased by 58.5% as compared to 42.9% (control indicating a cumulative role of microbial inoculants for crop yield boost-up.

  18. In vitro antifungal activity of Ocimum selloi essential oil and methylchavicol against phytopathogenic fungi1

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    Larissa Corrêa Bomfim Costa

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Ocimum selloi essential oil was evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spores germination Moniliophthora perniciosa. Six compounds (99.89% of the total oil were identified by GC-MS, of which methyl chavicol, methyl eugenol, β-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, bicyclogermacrene and spathulenol. Essential oil was tested for antifungal activity, which was determined by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination methods. Application of the oil reduced mycelial growth in a dose dependent manner, with maximum inhibition being observed at concentration of 1,000 ppm. Such antifungal activity could be attributed to methyl chavicol since the pure compound was shown to be similarly effective against Moniliophthora perniciosa at 1,000 ppm. The oil when applied at a concentration of 1,000 ppm, reduced the spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and M. perniciosa by 93 and 87%, respectively, but had no effect on the Alternaria alternata. It is concluded that the oil from O. selloi and its major constituent, methyl chavicol, are efficient in inhibiting M. perniciosa, but less effective against C. gloeosporioides and A. alternata. The results obtained from this work may contribute to the development of alternative anti-fungal agents to protect the cacao crop from fungal disease.

  19. Chemical constituents, physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of leaves essential oil of Ocimum urticifolium

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    Ketema Alemayehu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine chemical compositions, physicochemical properties and evaluating antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Ocimum urticifolium (O. urticifolium. Methods: Essential oil of O. urticifolium was extracted by hydrodistillation technique. A number of phytochemical screening tests were applied to identify the classes of compounds in the leaves extract of O. urticifolium. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to characterize the chemical components in the essential oil. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity as per of standard procedure. Results: Phytochemical screening of crude extract revealed that the presence of tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phenols. The obtained oil yield is (0.33 ± 0.11 % (v/w. Analysis of oil using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry showed a total of 22 components, the abundance of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes (98.99%. The percentage composition of monoterpene in the oil was α-pinene (22.105%, eugenol (21.099%, while sesquiterpenes α-cubebene (11.341%, α-bisabolene (9.945%, α-caryophyllene (7.709%, α-caryophyllene oxide (5.754%, and copaene (3.594%. The oil inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while no activity was shown to Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: The O. urticifolium is a rich source of various classes of chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity of the oil could be attributed mainly to these compounds.

  20. Comparative antioxidant activity, total phenol and total flavonoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidants are compounds which act as a major defense against oxidative stress caused by free radicals. In this study, a comparative evaluation of the antioxidant properties, phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn and Ocimum canum Sims was carried out. Crude extracts of ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De Don

    Abstract. Antioxidants are compounds which act as a major defense against oxidative stress caused by free radicals. In this study, a comparative evaluation of the antioxidant properties, phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn and Ocimum canum Sims was carried out.

  2. Atividade repelente do óleo essencial de Ocimum selloi Benth. (variedade eugenol) contra o anopheles braziliensis chagas

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Josiane P.; Farago, Paulo V.; Checchia, Lizianne E. M.; Hirose, Karla M.; Ribas, Joao L.

    2004-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma planta herbácea nativa do Brasil. Seu óleo essencial tem sido utilizado como flavorizante em comidas e em produtos orais e como componente de fragrâncias. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade repelente de mosquitos do óleo essencial de O. selloi (variedade eugenol) em humanos. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas da espécie. Em estudo de campo, no qual seis voluntários (cada qual como seu próprio contr...

  3. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Colivet; Glenny Marcano; Genette Belloso; Diagnora Brito; Ely Gómez

    2011-01-01

    La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae), muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obt...

  4. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.; Khan, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  5. Undergraduate Sustainable Learning: Effects of Sustainable Soilless Media on Production and Sensory Evaluation of Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, and Lettuce

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    Victoria Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse production has been ~100% reliant on fossil fuels for all inputs (glazing, heating, fertilization, lighting, post-harvest. Recent innovations may reduce fossil fuel dependence but their effectiveness may not be thoroughly tested. To promote education in sustainable production, undergraduate students in Greenhouse Management class (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota tested the effectiveness of two organic or ‘sustainable’ soilless media (Sunshine Natural and Organic Growing Mix, Sungro Metro-Mix Special Blend with a control (Sunshine LC8 Professional for crop production (height, leaf/flower number, yield and sensory evaluations (appearance, texture, taste, purchase of cucumbers (‘Big Burpless Hybrid’, ‘Sweet Burpless Hybrid’, basil (‘Opal Purple’, ‘Redleaf’, parsley (‘Green River’, ‘Extra Curled Dwarf’, ‘Hamburg’, and lettuce (Flying Saucer ‘Green’, ‘Red’. Significant differences between sustainable vs. control soils occurred for plant growth, depending on vegetative or reproductive traits, crops, and cultivars. These differences occasionally disappeared for sensory evaluation of edible components. In most crops, however, cultivars were highly significant factors. Undergraduate research can be used to provide directionality for future vegetable and herb plant breeding to focus on creating cultivars with increased yield and high consumer acceptance when grown in sustainable greenhouse soilless mixes.

  6. Effect of salicylic acid on Concentration of nutrients, protein and antioxidant enzymes of basil under lead stress

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    Ali Padash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, phenolic compounds and plant growth regulator has been proposed, to reduce the negative effects of stress. Salicylic acid is a substance that causes plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. This experiment was conducted in Zabol University during 2013 as factorial randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Factors included 4 levels of lead nitrate; 0 (control, 100, 200 and 300 mg per kg of soil and foliar application of salicylic acid at 3 levels of 0, 50 and 100 ppm. Addition of lead significantly reduced concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous and nitrogen and increased concentrations of sodium, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. In addition, salicylic acid spraying had a significant influence on all traits, and salicylic acid spraying at 100 mL/L increased concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen and decreased concentrations of polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. In this study the interaction between salicylic acid and lead on potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, sodium and catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were significant, and salicylic acid play moderating role and reducing the negative effects of lead toxicity. The results suggested salicylic acid application in basil can increase uptake of macro and micro nutrients required for plant growth and reduce the negative effects of stress lead-induced oxidative damage.

  7. Selected terpenes from leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. induce hemoglobin accumulation in human K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordana, Feriotto; Nicola, Marchetti; Valentina, Costa; Torricelli, Piera; Beninati, Simone; Tagliati, Federico; Mischiati, Carlo

    2018-02-13

    Re-expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) was proposed as a possible therapeutic strategy for β-haemoglobinopathies. Although several inducers of HbF were tested in clinical trials, only hydroxyurea (HU) received FDA approval. Despite it produced adequate HbF levels only in half of HU-treated SCD patients, and was ineffective at all in β-thalassemia patients, beneficial effects of this approach suggested to continue in this direction identifying further molecules capable of inducing HbF. We tested the potential of essential oil isolated from Ocimum basilicum L. leaves (ObEO) in inducing hemoglobin biosynthesis. Initially, dose-dependent effect and kinetics of hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells after treatment with ObEO were evaluated. ObEO induced dose-dependent hemoglobin accumulation superior to hydroxyurea and rapamycin and a strongest γ-globin mRNA expression. Terpenes composition of ObEO was studied by GC-MS. Three main constituents, linalool, eugenol and eucalyptol, represented about 75% of total. A blend of these three terpenes fully replicated the ObEO's biological effect, thus indicating that one of them or all together could be the active ingredients. When terpenes were tested individually, eugenol was the only one inducing stable hemoglobin accumulation, while eucalyptol and linalool produced only a small transient response. However, eugenol potential was strongly enhanced in the presence of eucalyptol and linalool, suggesting a synergistic effect on hemoglobin accumulation. By these results, the discovery of a new inducer and the interesting activity of a blend of major terpenes from ObOE on Hb accumulation could have positive fallouts on β-thalassemia and sickle cells anemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz Eldin, Hayam Mohamed; Badawy, Abeer Fathy

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis; a cosmopolitan sexually transmitted disease. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for T. vaginalis infections. The increase in metronidazole resistant parasites and undesirable side effects of this drug makes the search for an alternative a priority for the management of trichomoniasis. Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum oil are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal effects. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil on T. vaginalis trophozoites. The effects of different concentrations of P. lentiscus mastic (15, 10 and 5 mg/ml) and different concentrations of O. basilicum oil (30, 20 and 10 μg/ml) on multiplication of trophozoites at different time points (after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) were determined, also morphological changes were reported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that both plants caused an inhibition of growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites. The minimal lethal concentration of P. lentiscus mastic was 15 mg/ml after 24 h incubation, 10 mg/ml after 48 h and 5 mg/ml after 96 h. The minimal lethal concentration of O. basilicum oil was 30 μg/ml after 24 h incubation, 20 μg/ml after 48 h and 10 μg/ml after 96 h. TEM study of trophozoites treated by P. lentiscus mastic or by O. basilicum oil showed considerable damage of the membrane system of the trophozoites, and extensive vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These results highly suggest that P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil may be promising phytotherapeutic agents for trichomoniasis treatment.

  9. Safety Assessment of Ocimum Basilicum Hydroalcoholic Extract in Wistar Rats: Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Mehri, Soghra; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Aslani, Majid; Tanbakoosazan, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Ocimum basilicum L. is widely used in folk medicine of many countries including . Both O. basilicum and its oil extract have received considerable attention for their potential medicinal properties, but there are a few reports about possible toxicity of this plant. Therefore, in the present study, acute and subchronic toxicity of O. basilicum hydroalcohlic extract have been evaluated in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods For the acute toxicity assessment, five groups of 10 animals (5 male, 5 female) received four different single dose of extract orally, the animals were, then, kept under observation for 14 days. For subchronic toxicity, the animals were divided into four groups (5 male, 5 female) and were gavaged daily by 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg of extract. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during the study period. On the 45th day, animals were sacrificed and gross findings, weight of liver and left kidney and liver histological markers were assessed. Results The results of acute study indicated that LD50 of O. basilicum is higher than 5 mg/kg. In subchronic study, no adverse effects were observed on serum parameters in male and female rats. The hematological results showed a reduction in the hematocrit, platelets and RBC in both sexes. No abnormalities were observed in other parameters. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, present data suggest that hematologic system could serve as a target organ in oral toxicity of this plant. PMID:23493182

  10. Cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia and Ocimum basilicum against human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Khalil H; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Alkhalaf, Moussa

    2013-12-01

    Labiatae family is represented in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the present study was to go insight to investigate the anticancer activity and antioxidative potentials of methanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia L. (ML) and Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) that grown in Madina province, western region, Saudi Arabia. OB exhibited the greater phenolic contents as mg gallic acid equivalent/g weight (mg GAE/g) for a value of 105 +/- 5.5 mg GAE/g. On the other hand, ML produced 29 +/- 3.12 mg GAE/g. The standard antioxidant vitamin E used in this experiment elicited a value of total phenolic contents equal 22 +/- 2.2 mg GAE/g. The percentage scavenging activity of against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 850 and 160% for OB and ML extracts, respectively. Vitamin E elicited% scavenging activity of against DPPH equal to 198%. Brine shrimp cytotoxic assay clearly indicated the cytotoxic effects of either ML or OB extract. The brine shrimp survival is inversely proportional to the concentration of either ML or OB extract used with LD50 191.23 and 235.50 ppm, respectively. Toxic effects on brine shrimps indicated the anticancer potential of ML or OB extract. The ML or OB extract was unable to produce pbluescript (pBS) plasmid DNA damage, while the plasmid DNA treated with EcoRI produced a single band as a result of DNA damage. Also, both ML and OB extract exhibited marked cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells at various concentrations (20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 microg mL(-1)). The 160 and 320 microg mL(-1) showed more cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Based on results achieved, we can concluded that, OB and ML extracts have the potency to act as powerful antioxidants and protect against DNA damage and have cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line.

  11. Effect of Ocimum basilicum L. on cyclo-oxygenase isoforms and prostaglandins involved in thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Anwar; Zhou, Wenting; Abdusalam, Elzira; Tursun, Arzigul; Reyim, Nadira; Tohti, Ibadet; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-02-27

    Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL) is a plant used in traditional Uyghur medicine for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. In previous studies we had found an antihypertensive and antithrombotic effect suggestive of an effect on prostaglandins, which we attempt to document here. 6-keto-PGF1α, the metabolite of prostacyclin, and PGE2 were measured in the supernatant of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and basal or LPS-stimulated mouse coeliac macrophage cultures exposed to OBL ethanol (OBL-E) extracts and petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and butanol (PE, C, EA, B) fractions. In addition, 6-keto-PGF1α and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were measured in a rat model of thromboangiitis obliterans exposed or not to OBL. Short-term exposure to OBL-E dose-dependently increased 6-keto-PGF1α from HUVEC, and long-term (24h) exposure decreased it. OBL-C and OBL-B increased 6-keto-PGF1α, whereas the other fractions tended to decrease it after 24h exposure. The extract and all fractions decreased basal and stimulated PGE2 production, but only OBL-EA and OBL-B reduced PGE2 in stimulated cultures to concentrations below the unstimulated values (P<0.05). In vivo OBL increased 6-keto-PGF1α and decreased TXB2. OBL and its extracts increased 6-keto-PGF1α and reduced PGE2 and TXB2 production in a dose and time-related manner. This could indicate simultaneous inhibition of COX-2 and stimulation of endothelial COX-1. The butanol fraction seemed most promising in this respect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ocimum basilicum extract exhibits antidiabetic effects via inhibition of hepatic glucose mobilization and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeani, Chinelo; Ezenyi, Ifeoma; Okoye, Theophine; Okoli, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L (Lamiaceae) is used as a traditional remedy for different ailments, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of an extract of aerial parts of O. basilicum . Antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was determined by its effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro , while antidiabetic properties were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated for 28 days with extract and compared to those treated with oral metformin (150 mg/kg). The study and analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015. The treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg extract significantly ( P < 0.05) reduced fasting blood glucose concentration and slightly increased mean body weight in treated groups. Oral glucose tolerance was also significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.001) improved in 100 and 400 mg/kg extract-treated groups. The extract caused a dose-dependent increase in liver glycogen content, while it decreased alanine transferase (18.9-30.56%) and aspartate transferase (6.48-34.3%) levels in a non-dose-dependent manner. A dose of 100 mg/kg also reduced serum cholesterol and triglycerides by 19.3 and 39.54%, compared to a 2.6% reduction of cholesterol seen in the metformin-treated group. The extract was observed to produce significant ( P < 0.001) concentration-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase (35.71-100%) and also α-amylase (23.55-81.52%), with estimated inhibitory concentration values of 1.62 and 3.86 mg/mL, respectively. The antidiabetic properties of the extract may be due to its ability to suppress endogenous glucose release, inhibit glycogenolysis and/or stimulate glycogenesis.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of the total flavonoid content in Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Layzon Antonio Lemos; Pezzini, Bianca Ramos; Soares, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The chemical characterization is essential to validate the pharmaceutical use of vegetable raw materials. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is an important technique to determine flavonoids, which are important active compounds from Ocimum basilicum. The objective of this work was to optimize a spectrophotometric method, based on flavonoid-aluminum chloride (AlCl3) complexation to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) in leaves of O. basilicum (herbal material), using response surface methodology. The effects of (1) the herbal material: Solvent ratio (0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.08 g/mL), (2) stock solution volume (0.8, 2.3, 4.4, 6.5, and 8.0 mL) and (3) AlCl3 volume (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mL) on the TFC were evaluated. The analytical performance parameters precision, linearity and robustness of the method were tested. The herbal material: Solvent ratio and stock solution volume showed an important influence on the method response. After choosing the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a precision (RSD%) lower than 6% for repeatability (RSD%) and lower than 8% for intermediate precision (on the order of literature values for biotechnological methods), coefficient of correlation of 0.9984, and no important influence could be observed for variations of the time of complexation with AlCl3. However, the time and temperature of extraction were critical for TFC method and must be carefully controlled during the analysis. Thus, this study allowed the optimization of a simple, fast and precise method for the determination of the TFC in leaves of O. basilicum, which can be used to support the quality assessment of this herbal material.

  14. Identification of new potent inhibitor of aldose reductase from Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Tehseen, Yildiz; Maryam, Kiran; Uroos, Maliha; Siddiqui, Bina S; Hameed, Abdul; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-12-01

    Recent efforts to develop cure for chronic diabetic complications have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors against aldose reductase (AKR1B1, EC 1.1.1.21) whose role in diabetes is well-evident. In the present work, two new natural products were isolated from the ariel part of Ocimum basilicum; 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-d-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and E-4-(6'-hydroxyhex-3'-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate (2) and confirmed their structures with different spectroscopic techniques including NMR spectroscopy etc. The isolated compounds (1, 2) were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1). The natural product (1) showed better inhibitory activity for AKR1B1 with IC 50 value of 2.095±0.77µM compare to standard sorbinil (IC 50 =3.14±0.02µM). Moreover, the compound (1) also showed multifolds higher activity (IC 50 =0.783±0.07µM) against AKR1A1 as compared to standard valproic acid (IC 50 =57.4±0.89µM). However, the natural product (2) showed slightly lower activity for AKR1B1 (IC 50 =4.324±1.25µM). Moreover, the molecular docking studies of the potent inhibitors were also performed to identify the putative binding modes within the active site of aldose/aldehyde reductases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

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    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, and timothy (Phleum pratense at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP, germination index (GI, germination energy (GE, speed of emergence (SE, seedling vigour index (SVI, and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50 and mean germination time (MGT were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of the total flavonoid content in Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Layzon Antonio Lemos; Pezzini, Bianca Ramos; Soares, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The chemical characterization is essential to validate the pharmaceutical use of vegetable raw materials. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is an important technique to determine flavonoids, which are important active compounds from Ocimum basilicum. Objective: The objective of this work was to optimize a spectrophotometric method, based on flavonoid-aluminum chloride (AlCl3) complexation to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) in leaves of O. basilicum (herbal material), using response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: The effects of (1) the herbal material: Solvent ratio (0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.08 g/mL), (2) stock solution volume (0.8, 2.3, 4.4, 6.5, and 8.0 mL) and (3) AlCl3 volume (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mL) on the TFC were evaluated. The analytical performance parameters precision, linearity and robustness of the method were tested. Results: The herbal material: Solvent ratio and stock solution volume showed an important influence on the method response. After choosing the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a precision (RSD%) lower than 6% for repeatability (RSD%) and lower than 8% for intermediate precision (on the order of literature values for biotechnological methods), coefficient of correlation of 0.9984, and no important influence could be observed for variations of the time of complexation with AlCl3. However, the time and temperature of extraction were critical for TFC method and must be carefully controlled during the analysis. Conclusion: Thus, this study allowed the optimization of a simple, fast and precise method for the determination of the TFC in leaves of O. basilicum, which can be used to support the quality assessment of this herbal material. PMID:25709217

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

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    Sajjanshetty Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tulsi leaves extract (Ocimum sanctum on periodontal pathogens with doxycycline as standard, as doxycycline has been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by cold extraction method. Extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%. Doxycycline was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide, as a negative control. The extract and controls were subjected to the microbiological investigation against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the concentration at which Tulsi gave an inhibition zone, similar to doxycycline. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. Results: At 5% and 10% concentrations, Tulsi extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, similar to doxycycline with similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05. P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, however, exhibited resistance to Tulsi extract that showed significantly smaller inhibition zones (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Tulsi demonstrated effective antimicrobial property against A. actinomycetemcomitans, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable “adjunct” along with the standard care in

  18. Incorporation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Leaf Powder in diet of broilers for quality meat production

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    R. D. Lanjewar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum leaf powder on meat cholesterol and serum lipid profile of broiler from day old to 42nd day of age. One hundred fifty day old chicks were distributed into three experimental groups of 50 birds which were further divided into five replicates of 10 birds each. The control (T1  group was fed with standard broiler diet and T2 and T3 were fed standard broiler diet plus tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 0.5% and 1% respectively. All the birds were reared under standard managemental conditions. The observations were recorded for cholesterol content of meat and serum lipid profile of broilers. Supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% for 42 days showed the significant decrease (P<0.01 in breast muscle and thigh muscle cholesterol. Group T2 showed the significant reduction in thigh muscle cholesterol but not in breast muscle cholesterol. The average serum total cholesterol was reduced significantly (P<0.01 in T3 group but not in T2. The average serum HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (P<0.01 in T2 and T3. The average serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in T2 and T3. But higher reduction obtained in birds fed with 1% tulsi leaf powder in diet. The average serum LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced (P<0.01 in T3 followed by T2   group. The study concluded that supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% in broiler diet for 42 days reduced meat and blood cholesterol levels of broiler. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 340-342

  19. Genome sequencing of herb Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) unravels key genes behind its strong medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Atul K; Chacko, Anita R; Gandhimathi, A; Ghosh, Pritha; Harini, K; Joseph, Agnel P; Joshi, Adwait G; Karpe, Snehal D; Kaushik, Swati; Kuravadi, Nagesh; Lingu, Chandana S; Mahita, J; Malarini, Ramya; Malhotra, Sony; Malini, Manoharan; Mathew, Oommen K; Mutt, Eshita; Naika, Mahantesha; Nitish, Sathyanarayanan; Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shilpa, S; Shingate, Prashant N; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Sukhwal, Anshul; Sunitha, Margaret S; Sumathi, Manojkumar; Ramaswamy, S; Gowda, Malali; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2015-08-28

    Krishna Tulsi, a member of Lamiaceae family, is a herb well known for its spiritual, religious and medicinal importance in India. The common name of this plant is 'Tulsi' (or 'Tulasi' or 'Thulasi') and is considered sacred by Hindus. We present the draft genome of Ocimum tenuiflurum L (subtype Krishna Tulsi) in this report. The paired-end and mate-pair sequence libraries were generated for the whole genome sequenced with the Illumina Hiseq 1000, resulting in an assembled genome of 374 Mb, with a genome coverage of 61 % (612 Mb estimated genome size). We have also studied transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) of two subtypes of O. tenuiflorum, Krishna and Rama Tulsi and report the relative expression of genes in both the varieties. The pathways leading to the production of medicinally-important specialized metabolites have been studied in detail, in relation to similar pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes in leaf samples of Krishna Tulsi were observed to be relatively high, explaining the purple colouration of Krishna Tulsi leaves. The expression of six important genes identified from genome data were validated by performing q-RT-PCR in different tissues of five different species, which shows the high extent of urosolic acid-producing genes in young leaves of the Rama subtype. In addition, the presence of eugenol and ursolic acid, implied as potential drugs in the cure of many diseases including cancer was confirmed using mass spectrometry. The availability of the whole genome of O.tenuiflorum and our sequence analysis suggests that small amino acid changes at the functional sites of genes involved in metabolite synthesis pathways confer special medicinal properties to this herb.

  20. Incidence des plantes régénérées in vitro sur les huiles essentielles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer l'impact de la culture in vitro sur la production des huiles essentielles de deux espèces de Ocimum cultivées au Bénin. Méthodologie et résultats: Les huiles essentielles des feuilles fraîches de Ocimum basilicum et de Ocimum gratissimum cultivés en serre constituent le témoin et celles ...

  1. Chemotaxonomic analysis of the aroma compounds in essential oils of two different Ocimum basilicum L. varieties from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradi, Mohammad Reza; Moghaddam, Mohammad; Farhadi, Nasrin

    2013-07-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oils of 21 accessions of Ocimum basilicum L. belonging to two different varieties (var. purpurascens and var. dianatnejadii) from Iran were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil yield was found to be between 0.6 and 1.1% (v/w). In total, 49 compounds, accounting for 96.6-99.7% of the oil compositions, were identified. Aromatic compounds, represented mainly by methyl chavicol (33.6-49.1%), and oxygenated monoterpenes, represented by linalool (14.4-39.3%), were the main components in all essential oils. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present in the essential oils of all accessions of the purpurascens variety, whereas they were completely absent in those of the dianatnejadii variety, indicating that monoterpene hydrocarbons might be considered as marker constituents of the purpurascens variety. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil compositions was discussed according to the results of the cluster analysis (CA). The CA showed a clear separation of the O. basilicum var. purpurascens accessions and the O. basilicum var. dianatnejadii accessions, although the data showed no major chemotype variation between the studied varieties. Indeed, the CA revealed only one principal chemotype (methyl chavicol/linalool) for both varieties. In conclusion, GC/MS analyses in combination with CA showed to be a flexible and reliable method for the characterization of the chemical profiles of different varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Uji Aktivitas Anti-Inflamasi Minyak Atsiri Daun Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L. pada Tikus Putih Jantan yang Diinduksi Karagenan

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    Fadlina Chany Saputri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L. is an aromatic plant that contains citral and known as anti-inflammatory agents. The aimed of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil kemangi leaves on carrageenan-induced rat. The male rats were divided into six groups, each consisting of four rats. Group I as negative control was given 0.5% CMC solution, group II as positive control was given diclofenac sodium, group III was given sitral, groups IV, V and VI were given 40 mg/200 g BW, 80 mg/200 g BW, and 160 mg/200 g BW essential oil of Ocimum americanum L., emulsified in 0.5% CMC solution. After 30 minutes of administration, left paw of rats was injected bycarragenan 0.2 mL to induce edema. Edema volume was measured using pletismometer every hour for six hours. The result showed that at dose 160 mg/200 g BW gives the best effect in inhibited the inflamation response 44,83%. There was significant difference (p<0.05 at dose 160 mg/200 g BB to negative control. From this study can be concluded that essential oil kemangi leaves has anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

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    Agarwal Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract has an antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and to determine which concentration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract among the 15 concentrations investigated has the maximum antimicrobial activity. Setting and Design: Experimental design, in vitro study, Lab setting. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was then diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain 15 different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 6%, 7% 8%, 9%, 10% of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 15 different concentrations of the extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters using a vernier caliper. Results: At the 4% concentration of Tulsi extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 15 different concentrations of Tulsi that were investigated. Conclusion: Tulsi extract demonstrated an antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans.

  4. Role of Ocimum basilicum L. in prevention of ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Arora, Shruti; Shri, Richa

    2011-10-11

    The genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae) has a long history of use as culinary and medicinal herbs. Many species are used for their antioxidant and neuroprotective activity in various parts of the world. Ocimum basilicum Linn. has been used traditionally for the treatment of anxiety, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, headaches, nerve pain, as anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory, and used in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum leaves on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was determined by colorimetric assay. Short-term memory was evaluated using elevated plus-maze. Inclined beam walking was employed to assess motor coordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced significant increase in cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and reduced GSH content, and impaired short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with standardized ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation, restored GSH content, and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. The results of the study suggest that Ocimum basilicum could be useful clinically in the prevention of stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feature selection of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry chemical profiles of basil plants using a bootstrapped fuzzy rule-building expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-11-01

    A bootstrapped fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) and a bootstrapped t-statistical weight feature selection method were individually used to select informative features from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chemical profiles of basil plants cultivated by organic and conventional farming practices. Feature subsets were selected from two-way GC/MS data objects, total ion chromatograms, and total mass spectra, separately. Four economic classifiers based on the bootstrapped FuRES approach, i.e., fuzzy optimal associative memory (e-FOAM), e-FuRES, partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (e-PLS-DA), and soft independent modeling by class analogy (e-SIMCA), and four economic classifiers based on the bootstrapped t-weight approach, i.e., e-PLS-DA-t, e-FOAM-t, e-FuRES-t, and e-SIMCA-t, were constructed thereafter to be compared with full-size classifiers obtained from the entire GC/MS data objects (i.e., FOAM, FuRES, PLS-DA, and SIMCA). By using three features selected from two-way data objects, the average classification rates with e-FOAM, e-FuRES, e-PLS-DA, and e-SIMCA were 95.3 ± 0.5%, 100%, 100%, and 91.8 ± 0.2%, respectively. The established economic classifiers were used to classify a new validation set collected 2.5 months later with no parametric change to experimental procedure. Classification rates with e-FOAM, e-FuRES, e-PLS-DA, and e-SIMCA were 96.7%, 100%, 100%, and 96.7%, respectively. Characteristic components in basil extracts corresponding to highest-ranked useful features were putatively identified. The feature subset may prove valuable as a rapid approach for organic basil authentication.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohsen Taheri; Gholami, Hamid; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid; Tafsiry, Asad

    2014-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta (TM) essential oil (TMO) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil (OBO) were examined. The main components for TMO were dihydrotagetone (33.9%), E-ocimene (19.9%), tagetone (16.1%), cis-β-ocimene (7.9%), Z-ocimene (5.3%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The main components for OBO were methylchavicol (46.9%), geranial (19.1%), neral (15.15%), geraniol (3.0%), nerol (3.0%), caryophyllene (2.4%). Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging were 12–17 and 200–250 μg/mL of TMO and OBO, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Salmonella typhi,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 150 ± 8, 165 ± 9, 67 ± 8, 75 ± 7, 135 ± 15, and 115 ± 8 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. MIC for S. typhi,E. coli,S. aureus,B. subtilis,A. niger, and C. albicans were 145 ± 8, 160 ± 7, 45 ± 4, 40 ± 3, 80 ± 9, and 95 ± 7 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. IC50 for nasopharyngeal cancer cell line (KB) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were 75 ± 5 and 70 ± 4 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. IC50 for KB and HepG2 were 45 ± 4 and 40 ± 3 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. Thus, they could be used as an effective source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial additive to protect foods from oxidative damages and foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, they could be promising candidate for antitumor drug design. PMID:24804073

  7. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

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    Kanika Chowdhary

    Full Text Available Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011 in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907 whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846. Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in

  8. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of basil seed mucilage coated Fe3O4magnetic nanoparticles as a drug carrier for the controlled delivery of cephalexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayegan, Ali; Allafchian, Alireza; Abdolhosseini Sarsari, Ismaeil; Kameli, Parviz

    2018-02-23

    A novel drug delivery system, loaded the drug cephalexin on the basil seed mucilage coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 @BSM-CPX) was prepared and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Furier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Anti-bacterial, and Specific Surface (BET). By comparing the size of the uncoated nanoparticles (12nm) and the size of the coated magnetite nanoparticles (6nm), it was found that with the mucilage coating being put on the magnetite nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticle cores has also decreased. The optimum pH results showed that the higher adsorption capacity occurs when cephalexin is cationic at pH2.5 because the NH 3 + group of cephalexin interacts better with negative functional groups of the basil seed mucilage. Disk Diffusion Anti-Bacterial test showed that the loading of CPX on the Fe 3 O 4 @BSM nanocarrier, not only does not have any negative effects on the structure and performance of the drug, but also increases the antibacterial properties of CPX. Furthermore, the in vitro release of Fe 3 O 4 @BSM-CPX nanocomposites showed an initial burst release in the first 18h, followed by a more gradual and sustained release for 120h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity.

  11. Acaricidal activity of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella against the ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachinida: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, V; Sakthivelkumar, S; Tamilarasan, K; Aisha, S O; Janarthanan, S

    2014-09-01

    The ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected at various cattle farms in and around Chennai was subjected to treatment of different crude solvent extracts of leaves of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella for acaricidal activity. Among various solvent extracts of leaves of O. basilicum and S. acmella used, chloroform extract of O. basilicum at concentrations between 6% and 10% exhibited 70% and 100% mortality of ticks when compared to control. The LC50 and LC90 values of the chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum treatment on the ticks after 24 h were observed as 5.46% and 7.69%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of α- and β- carboxylesterase enzymes in the whole gut homogenate of cattle tick, R. microplus treated with chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum revealed higher level of activities for the enzymes. This indicated that there was an induced response in the tick, R. microplus against the toxic effects of the extract of O. basilicum.

  12. A comparative study on plant morphology, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant response of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. grown on industrially polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    STANCHEVA, Ira; GENEVA, Maria; MARKOVSKA, Yuliana; TZVETKOVA, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Cd, Pb, and Zn uptake on plant morphology, photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant potential, and essential oil yield and quality in Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. plants were evaluated. The plants were grown as a pot experiment in soil heavily polluted with Cd and Pb and on unpolluted soil. Both plants accumulated Cd, mainly in the roots, while Pb occurred in the oregano shoots only. The leaf blade thickness of both plants increased when grown in polluted soil. Bas...

  13. In vitro antifungal activity of different components of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils and their synergism against oral pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Gopalkrishna, Aparna; M, Seshagiri; Muddaiah, Sunil; R, Shashidara

    2016-01-01

    Background. Opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are common in the oral cavity. In recent years Candida species have shown resistance against a number of synthetic drugs. This study assessed the antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils against six common pathogenic Candida strains. Synergistic activity of the major oil components was also studied. Methods. Antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils were tested against six oral fungal pathogens, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida krusei 6258, Candida tropicalis 13803, Candida parapsilosis22019, Candida glabrata 90030 and Candida dubliniensis MYA 646, by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus from seeds subjected to columnchromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) and major components were separated and quantified. Results. All the six Candida strains showed growth inhibition to a variable degree when tested with both seed oils. Both seed oils showed antifungal activity. For Centratherum anthelminticum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was recorded at 75.7 mm for Candida albicans ATCC 90028, and the least DIZ was 45.7 mm for Candida dubliniensis MYA 646. For Ocimum sanctum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was 61.0 mm for Candida krusei ATCC 6258 and the least DIZ was 46.7 mm for Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. The mixtures of phospholipids and unsaponifiable matter exhibitedMIC values at 1.25 μL for both oils, whereas neutral lipids fraction and unsaponifiable matter exhibited similar MIC at 2.5 μL against Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Conclusion. Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctumseed oils exhibited strong antifungal activity against six different species of Candida and this may be attributed to various active components in the oil and their

  14. A Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effect of the Extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, and Solanum trilobatum on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

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    M. Shyamala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the inhibitory effect of plant extracts, Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, and Solanum trilobatum, on the corrosion of mild steel in 1N HCl medium was investigated using weightloss method, electrochemical methods, and hydrogen permeation method. Polarization method indicates plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitor. The impedance method reveals that charge-transfer process mainly controls the corrosion of mild steel. On comparison, maximum inhibition efficiency was found in Ocimum sanctum with 99.6% inhibition efficiency at 6.0% v/v concentration of the extract. The plant extracts obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The SEM morphology of the adsorbed protective film on the mild steel surface has confirmed the high performance of inhibitive effect of the plant extracts. From hydrogen permeation method, all the plant extracts were able to reduce the permeation current. The reason for the reduced permeation currents in presence of the inhibitors may be attributed to the slow discharge step followed by fast electrolytic desorption step. Results obtained in all three methods were very much in good agreement in the order Ocimum sanctum > Aegle marmelos > Solanum trilobatum.

  15. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Ocimum selloi benth: sob condições de luz, temperatura e tempo de armazenamento Physiological quality of Ocimum selloi Benth: seeds under conditions of light, temperature and storage time

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    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O atroveran ou elixir-paregórico (Ocimum selloi Benth. é uma espécie aromática nativa do Brasil, produtora de óleo essencial rico em metil-chavicol. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da temperatura, luz e tempo de armazenamento em diferentes ambientes sobre a germinação e o vigor de sementes de O. selloi. Inicialmente, testou-se o efeito da presença e ausência de luz branca sob fotoperíodo de 12 horas para determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes em diferentes temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. Em seguida, testou-se a germinação e emergência no armazenamento sob duas temperaturas (ambiente e câmara fria aos 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento. A espécie foi classificada como fotoblástica neutra, apresentando germinação em ampla faixa de temperatura (20 a 30ºC. A germinação das sementes manteve-se por doze meses de armazenamento em câmara fria e à temperatura ambiente, entretanto, o vigor decresce a partir de seis meses em armazenamento sob temperatura ambiente."Atroveran" or "elixir-paregórico" (Ocimum selloi Benth. is a Brazilian species that produces an essential oil rich in methyl chavicol. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of light, temperature and time of storage in different environments on the germination and vigor of O. selloi seeds. We initially tested the influence of presence and absence of white light in a 12-hour photoperiod to determine the photoblastism of the seeds under different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35ºC. The physiological quality of seeds conserved under two temperatures (room temperature and cold chamber was tested at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 and 12 months of storage. The species was classified as neutral photoblastic with germination at a wide temperature range (20ºC-30°C. Germination was maintained for twelve months of storage in cold chamber at room temperature, but the vigor was reduced in seeds kept at room temperature after the sixth month of storage.

  16. Dissecting molecular and physiological response mechanisms to high solar radiation in cyanic and acyanic leaves: a case study on red and green basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattini, Massimiliano; Sebastiani, Federico; Brunetti, Cecilia; Fini, Alessio; Torre, Sara; Gori, Antonella; Centritto, Mauro; Ferrini, Francesco; Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Photosynthetic performance and the expression of genes involved in light signaling and the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were analysed in green ('Tigullio', TIG) and red ('Red Rubin', RR) basil. The aim was to detect the physiological and molecular response mechanisms to high sunlight. The attenuation of blue-green light by epidermal anthocyanins was shown to evoke shade-avoidance responses with consequential effects on leaf morpho-anatomical traits and gas exchange performance. Red basil had a lower mesophyll conductance, partially compensated by the less effective control of stomatal movements, in comparison with TIG. Photosynthesis decreased more in TIG than in RR in high sunlight, because of larger stomatal limitations and the transient impairment of PSII photochemistry. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway promoted above all the synthesis and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin-cycle pigments in TIG and of neoxanthin and lutein in RR. This enabled the green leaves to process the excess radiant energy effectively, and the red leaves to optimize light harvesting and photoprotection. The greater stomatal closure observed in TIG than in RR was due to enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) glucose ester deglucosylation and reduced ABA oxidation, rather than to superior de novo ABA synthesis. This study shows a strong competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, which occurs at the level of genes regulating the oxidation of the C2-C3 bond in the dihydro-flavonoid skeleton. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Merci esotiche che viaggiano verso occidente: la cornice e la figura del narratore popolare a partire da una lettura del Cunto de li cunti di Basile

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    Elena Massi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most precious goods we have gained from the East is the literary frame. Certain of its functions are observable from its early history, in the Middle Ages. In Eastern countries, ”the frame” was a communicative tool to express judgement and opinions in public according to different social conditions. In Western countries, it is still used as an   to express judgement, but only in the literary world. Eric Auerbach in Zur Technik der Fruhrenaissancenovelle in Italien und Frankreich says that from Dante to Boccaccio, the literary frame becomes the story's atmosphere and its barycentre because it offers writers the possibility to organize the relationship between text and context. In my hypothesis, Auerbach's words can work to introduce a narratological function to the literary frame. We notice other two functions: an anthropological one explained by Tzvetan Todorov in La conquête de l'Amérique and a psychological one showed by Andrè Jolles in De Decameron van Boccaccio. According to Tzvetan Todorov, in the seventeenth century, missionaries used literary frames to communicate with native Americans: in Historia general de las cosas de la Nueva España by Bernardino de Sahagún, a literary frame is used to organize different cultural knowledges. Andrè Jolles metaphorically says that thanks to literary frames, we are still able to listen to the voices of popular narrators because the literary frame reproduces cognitive structures typical of children. I propose to show these functions in the Cunto de li cunti by Basile. In this way, we can observe the modernity of Basile. The Neapolitan author not only founded the fairytale genre in Europe. He also contributed to spread a universal communicative form we can observe from three points of view: narratological, anthropological, and psychological.

  18. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

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    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A. The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  19. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys

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    Laurian Vlase

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS. The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids, flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin, in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively, and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-04-28

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  2. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  3. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Julio Colivet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  4. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-05-06

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops.

  5. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Julio Colivet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  6. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

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    Antonio Medeiros Venancio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP. EOOb and (−-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38±0.2 and 0.17±0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−-LIN, these values were 0.23±0.0 and 0.13±0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−-LIN in the essential oil.

  7. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  8. Antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves against Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Pushpangadan, Sivan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam; Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. Hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel (mango kernel) and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (tulsi) extracts with conventional irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine) against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion and broth microdilution assay was performed with the herbal extracts and conventional irrigants (2% chlorhexidine and 5% NaOCl) against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The assay was extended onto 3 week E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Results: Significant reduction of colony forming units (CFU)/mL was observed for the herbal groups and the antibacterial activity of the herbal groups was at par with 5% NaOCl. Conclusions: The antibacterial activity of these herbal extracts is found to be comparable with that of conventional irrigants both on the biofilm and planktonic counterparts. PMID:24082577

  9. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Ocimum sanctum for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

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    Charusheela Ramteke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern materials science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterials is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using leaf broth of medicinal herb, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffractometry. The mean particle of synthesized NPs was found to be 18 nm, as confirmed by TEM. The qualitative assessment of reducing potential of leaf extract has also been carried out which indicated presence of significant amount of reducing entities. FTIR analysis revealed that the AgNPs were stabilized by eugenols, terpenes, and other aromatic compounds present in the extract. Such AgNPs stabilized by Tulsi leaf extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

  10. Comparative Study on the Effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum Seeds on Anthropometric Measures in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Shahab-Aldin; Asgary, Sedigheh; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They randomly assigned into four groups receiving (1) OB 10 g/day; (2) PP 10 g/day; (3) mix of OB and PP 10 g/day; and (4) control group without placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were assessed during study baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. The data were analyzed using paired sample t -test for within group and analysis of covariance for between groups. In within group analysis, weight and body mass index show a significant reduction after 12 weeks intervention. In addition, soft lean mass and lean body mass were decreased in PP and mixed of PP and OB groups significantly; another group (OB) shows the same result for mass body fat. Although in intervention groups, we see considerable reduction, between group changes did not demonstrate the same consequences. The results of this study showed that administration of OB, PP, or mix of them for 12 weeks does not affect any of the anthropometric measures in NAFLD.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

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    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  12. Potential uptake of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes from growth substrate into leaves of salad plants and basil grown in soil irrigated with contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarra, Walter; Decastelli, Lucia; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2014-10-17

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness, resulting from the consumption of fresh produce contaminated with human pathogens, are increasing. Potential uptake and persistence of human pathogens within edible parts of consumed fresh vegetables become an important issue in food safety. This study was conducted to assess the potential uptake and internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes from an autoclaved substrate into edible parts of basil and baby salad plants (lettuce, cultivated rocket, wild rocket and corn salad) from 20 to 60-80days after inoculation, when plants are ready to be harvested and commercialized. Plants were grown in mesocosms under different temperature conditions (24°C and 30°C) and the growing substrate was inoculated using contaminated irrigation water (7logCFU/mL). E. coli O157:H7 could be internalized in the leaves of the tested leafy vegetables through the roots and persist up to the harvesting time with negligible differences between 24°C and 30°C. Significant decreases in pathogen titers were observed over time in the growing substrate on which the plants grew, until the last sampling time. In contrast, L. monocytogenes internalized and persisted only in lettuce mesocosms at 24°C. Neither pathogen was observed in basil leaves. Similarly, in basil growing substrates, enteric bacteria were undetectable at the end of the experiments, suggesting that basil plants may produce and release antimicrobial compounds active against both bacteria in root exudates. These results suggest that enteric bacteria are able to persist within baby salad leaves up to market representing a risk for consumer's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recontextualização da simulação clínica em enfermagem baseada em Basil Bernstein: semiologia da prática pedagógica Recontextualización de la simulación de enfermería clínica basada en Basil Bernstein: la semiología de la práctica pedagógica Recontextualization of Nursing clinical simulation based on Basil Bernstein: semiology of pedagogical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Casanova dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é um estudo de caso investigativo de caráter participante e descritivo, a partir da vivência pedagógica no disparador de aprendizagem Simulação em Enfermagem, do segundo semestre do primeiro ciclo da graduação da Faculdade de Enfermagem (FEn da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel, onde se desenvolve a simulação clínica de semiologia e semiotécnica em Enfermagem. O objetivo é estudar a recontextualização da prática pedagógica da Simulação com base em teorizações do sociólogo da educação Basil Bernstein, contribuindo para o processo de aperfeiçoamento do planejamento de ensino e, especialmente, da avaliação deste disparador de aprendizagem. A partir das reflexões deste estudo, observa-se a teorização de Bernstein como uma potente ferramenta semiológica das práticas pedagógicas, a qual contribui para o planejamento e análise do dispositivo pedagógico curricular.Este artículo es un caso de estudio de carácter descriptivo y de investigación participante, desde la experiencia educativa de aprendizaje en el gatillo Simulación en Enfermería, de la segunda mitad del primer ciclo de la Escuela Enfermería (FEN de la Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel donde se desarrolla la simulación de la semiología clínica y la semiótica en Enfermería. El objetivo es estudiar la recontextualización de la práctica pedagógica de teorías basadas en la simulación del sociólogo de la educación Basil Bernstein, contribuyendo al proceso de mejora de la educación, planificación y aprendizaje, especialmente la evaluación de gatillo. De las reflexiones de este estudio, existe la teoría de Bernstein como una poderosa herramienta de semiótica prácticas pedagógicas, lo que contribuye a la planificación y el análisis de dispositivos educativos curriculares.This article is a case study of investigative and descriptive participant character, from the educational experience of learning in the trigger

  14. A New Formula to Estimate the Length of Right Upper Extremity Vein from Elbow Crease to Carina Calculated by Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Insertion through Right Basilic Vein Puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Eui Yong; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Sung Hye; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Kwan Seop; Yoon, Dae Young; Im, Hyoung June

    2012-01-01

    To measure the length of the upper extremity vein between the elbow crease and the carina (elbow crease to carina length, ECL), to facilitate the appropriate positioning of the tip of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). A total of 124 patients (64 men and 60 women; mean age 65.2 ± 15.4 years; range, 21-90 years) inserted with PICC through the right basilic vein under fluoroscopy were included in this retrospective study. The ECL was determined as follows: ECL = (distance from elbow crease to puncture site) + (the catheter length of PICC) - (distance from carina to catheter tip on post-procedural chest radiograph). We analyzed the relationship between ECL and patient height. The mean ECL through right basilic vein was 42.07 ±4.03 cm (27.5 to 52.2 cm). ECL was found to be significantly correlated with patient height: ECL (cm) = 0.24 X patient height (cm) + 3.75. The formula developed in our study would be helpful for predicting the optimal catheter length during a blind bedside procedure of PICC via the right basilic vein.

  15. A New Formula to Estimate the Length of Right Upper Extremity Vein from Elbow Crease to Carina Calculated by Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Insertion through Right Basilic Vein Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Eui Yong; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Sung Hye; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Kwan Seop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangdong Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym University Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To measure the length of the upper extremity vein between the elbow crease and the carina (elbow crease to carina length, ECL), to facilitate the appropriate positioning of the tip of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). A total of 124 patients (64 men and 60 women; mean age 65.2 {+-} 15.4 years; range, 21-90 years) inserted with PICC through the right basilic vein under fluoroscopy were included in this retrospective study. The ECL was determined as follows: ECL = (distance from elbow crease to puncture site) + (the catheter length of PICC) - (distance from carina to catheter tip on post-procedural chest radiograph). We analyzed the relationship between ECL and patient height. The mean ECL through right basilic vein was 42.07 {+-}4.03 cm (27.5 to 52.2 cm). ECL was found to be significantly correlated with patient height: ECL (cm) = 0.24 X patient height (cm) + 3.75. The formula developed in our study would be helpful for predicting the optimal catheter length during a blind bedside procedure of PICC via the right basilic vein.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil and its main compound estragole: In vivo mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Anita; Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; Ferreira E Castro, Fyama; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; Martins Fernandes, Maria Neyze; Fernandes da Silva, Bruno Anderson; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Barbosa, Roseli; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose

    2016-09-25

    The genus Ocimum are used in cooking, however, their essential oils are utilized in traditional medicine as aromatherapy. The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition and systemic anti-inflammatory activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EOOB) and its major component estragole, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The Ocimum basilicum essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory action was verified using acute and chronic in vivo tests as paw edema, peritonitis, and vascular permeability and granulomatous inflammation model. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was analyzed by the participation of histamine and arachidonic acid pathways. The chemical profile analysis identified fourteen components present in the essential oil, within them: estragole (60.96%). The in vivo test results show that treatment with EOOB (100 and 50 mg/kg) and estragole (60 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran. The smallest doses of EOOB (50 mg/kg) and estragole (30 mg/kg) showed efficacy in the reduction of paw edema induced by histamine and arachidonic acid, vascular permeability inhibition and leukocyte emigration in the peritoneal fluid. Theses doses were capable of reducing the chronic inflammatory process. The results observed between the EOOB and estragole demonstrate efficacy in anti-inflammatory activity, however, the essential oil is more efficacious in the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory action. This study confirms the therapeutic potential of this plant and reinforces the validity of its use in popular medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Morfología básica de 17 introducciones del género ocimum en el departamento del valle

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno B., G. Valentín; Tamayo C., Carlos H.; Estrada, Edgar Iván

    2010-01-01

    Los objetivos del trabajo fueron establecer un jardín de introducciones de albahaca y contribuir en la caracterización botánica de las cultivariedades introducidas al banco de germoplasma. La colección se realizó en el departamento del Valle en campos de cultivo, áreas de vegetación natural, huertos caseros y mercados locales. En 6 zonas se recolectaron 17 introducciones, pertenecientes a 5 especies del genero Ocimum tres cultivadas (O. basilicum L., O. americanum Jacq Host y 0. minimum L.) y...

  18. Larvicidal efficacy of Ocimum basilicum extracts and its synergistic effect with neonicotinoid in the management of Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prejwltta Maurya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activities of different combinations of synthetic nicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid with an insecticidal plant, Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, with reference to the impact of most potent combination on some non-targets, Anisops bouvieri (A. bouvieri and cyclop. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against mosquito larvae in various concentrations, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 under laboratory conditions. These experiments were conducted according to WHO standard procedure. Results: In bioassays, binary mixtures of different combinations of synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid with crude petroleum ether leave extract of O. basilicum and then with most potent 4th fraction of it, produced promising results. Therefore, ratio 1:1 of all the binary mixtures was most effective as compared to 1:2 and 1:4 against mosquito larvae and showed synergism in all cases. The combinatorial ratio 1:1 of imidacloprid and most potent 4th fraction of petroleum ether extract of O. basilicum with LC 50 value 0.010 and 0.007 ppm; LC90 value 0.033 and 0.023 ppm for anopheline larvae after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively, showed high toxicity. This effective ratio was found safe to aquatic mosquito predator, A. bouvieri and other aquatic non- target cyclops with the respective LC50 values 12.351 and 5.290 ppm after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions: It is, therefore, concluded that the tested combination is more effective than its individual constituents. Further, this formulation is cost-effective and ecofriendly to the aquatic fauna.

  19. Effects of Ocimum basilicum Linn essential oil and sodium hexametaphosphate on the shelf life of fresh chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Albano, Mariana; Castilho, Ivana Giovannetti; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Athayde, Natália Bortoleto; Delbem, Nara Laiane Casagrande; Roça, Roberto de Oliveira; Fernandes, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Although consumers and the food industry have an interest in reducing the use of synthetic additives, the consumption of processed meat in Brazil has been increasing because of the easy preparation and low cost. Owing to the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EO), it has potential applications in food products. Polyphosphates are already used in meat processing with the goal of improving the quality of the products. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and O. basilicum EO, when added separately or together, on physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during the shelf life of chicken sausage. We also performed sensory analysis of the product prepared in this manner. Six different treatments were produced in which the substances were tested together or separately, and the content of EO was 0.3 or 0.03%. The samples were analyzed after 1, 7, and 15 days of storage at 4°C. An increase in pH on days 7 and 15 in samples that contained SHMP was observed. In the samples that contained either 0.3 or 0.03% EO, coliforms were inhibited throughout the study period (P < 0.05), which was not observed in samples with EO plus SHMP, thus demonstrating that the stabilizer blocked the antibacterial action of EO. There was a reduction in the cook loss and increased compressive force in the samples with 0.5% SHMP, contributing to greater juiciness of the product. The EO had substantial impact on acceptability of samples, but it did not influence the activities already described of polyphosphate.

  20. Improvement of memory and neurological deficit with Ocimum basilicum L. extract after ischemia reperfusion induced cerebral injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varinder; Krishan, Pawan; Shri, Richa

    2018-03-15

    Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O. basilicum leaf extract (OBLE) on functional outcomes following cerebral injury in mice. Cerebral injury was induced in the experimental animals by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) followed by reperfusion. OBLE treatment (200 and 400 mg/kg; orally, once daily) was given for 7 days after BCCAO. Cognitive outcomes and sensorimotor disturbances were evaluated with Morris Water Maze, Elevated Plus Maze and neurological severity score, respectively. TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining was used to measure cerebral infarct size. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity in mice brain homogenate were estimated to elucidate the neuroprotective mechanism of OBLE. Treatment with OBLE resulted in marked improvement in memory and motor coordination. OBLE also decreased cerebral infarct size and oxidative stress in mice. The extract was standardised with respect to total phenol content; an HPLC-PDA analysis showed the presence of eight phenolic acids in OBLE. It is concluded that treatment with OBLE improves functional outcomes after ischemic stroke and this may be developed as a neuroprotective drug.