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Sample records for basil ocimum gratissimum

  1. Estudo da atividade antioxidante do extrato e do óleo essencial obtidos das folhas de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. Study of the antioxidant activity and essential oil from wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf

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    Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de antioxidantes naturais, extraídos de plantas, contribuem para a descoberta de novas fontes de compostos químicos. A alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. é uma planta conhecida por seus aspectos medicinais e pelo uso na culinária. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial das folhas de alfavaca foi comprovada através do método do tiocianato férrico. A porcentagem de inibição da oxidação lipídica foi de 96,89% para o extrato bruto e de 92,44% para o óleo essencial, ambos na concentração de 0,02%. O extrato bruto foi purificado através da cromatografia em coluna com sílica-gel e fase móvel hexano:acetato de etila em diferentes proporções. Para a identificação, foram utilizadas análises espectrais (infravermelho, ressonância magnética de hidrogênio e carbono 13. A substância isolada foi o eugenol, que apresentou 86,56% de atividade antioxidante. Alguns constituintes do óleo essencial foram caracterizados por cromatografia de fase gasosa, sendo o eugenol o principal componente (53,90%. Desta forma, a alfavaca apresenta-se como uma nova fonte de eugenol e, conseqüentemente, de antioxidante natural.The isolation and identification of natural antioxidants from plants contribute to the discovery of new sources of chemical compounds. Wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. is used as a herbal medicine and also as a culinary spice. The antioxidant activity of wild basil leaf crude extract and essential oil was confirmed by the ferric thiocyanate method. The crude extract showed 96.89% inhibition of lipid oxidation, while the essential oil showed 92.44% inhibition, both in a 0.02% concentration. The crude extract was purified by column chromatography using silica gel and different proportions of hexane:ethyl acetate as an eluant. The plant’s chemical compounds were identified by spectral analyses using NMR (hydrogen and 13C and infrared spectroscopy. The isolated substance was

  2. Inativação bacteriana e sensorialidade em bebidas formuladas a partir de extrato reconstituído de Ocimum gratissimum L. (Alfavaca - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae Bacterial inactivation and sensory analysis in drink formulations prepared with Ocimum gratissimum L. ("African basil" - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae reconstituted extract

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    Marcelo Gonzalez Passos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da formulação de quatro bebidas, duas alcoólicas e duas não alcoólicas, com e sem açúcar, respectivamente, e do extrato reconstituído (alcoolatura/planta verde de Ocimum gratisimum L. ("alfavacão", "alfavaca", "alfavaca-cravo" - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae em diferentes concentrações (5, 15 e 30%, foi determinada, através de testes de suspensão em sistema de tubos múltiplos, a intensidade de atividade de inativação bacteriana (IINAB/bactericidia, sobre Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 11076, bem como a aceitabilidade/preferência sensorial por escala hedônica destes quatro produtos. Todas as formulações apresentaram atividade bactericida para Salmonella Enteritidis, diretamente proporcional às concentrações do extrato e ao tempo de exposição da bactéria às bebidas, destacando-se, neste sentido, a formulação não alcoólica com açúcar. Na análise sensorial, a preferência aumentou com o decréscimo da concentração de extrato de Ocimum gratissimum na formulação. A bebida não alcoólica com açúcar, na concentração de 5% de extrato, destacou-se na preferência/aceitabilidade.The activity intensity of bacterial inactivation (IINAB/bactericidie on Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 11076 was determined in four drink formulations, two alcoholic and two no-alcoholic, with and without sugar, respectively, and in the reconstituted extract (alcoholature/green plant of Ocimum gratissimum L. (African basil - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae at different concentrations (5, 15, and 30% through suspension tests in multiple tube system. The acceptability/sensory preference of these four products was also determined using a hedonic scale. The bactericidal activity of all formulations against Salmonella Enteritidis was found to be directly proportional to the extract concentrations and the exposure time of the bacterium in the beverages, especially the non-alcoholic formulation with sugar. In the sensorial analysis, the preference increased

  3. SECONDARY METABOLITES OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Deeptanjali Sahoo; Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum synthesizes and accumulates a variety of secondary metabolites. Some of the biologically active secondary metabolites such as eugenol, thymol, methyl cinnamate and geraniol are responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the well-known plant of this species and substantiate the claim in traditional system of medicine. The present review summarizes the information available on the secondary metabolites isolated from Ocimum gratissimum.

  4. Germination and vigor of clove basil seeds (Ocimum gratissimum L. submitted to accelerated aging/ Germinação e vigor de sementes de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. submetidas ao envelhecimento acelerado

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    Nair Mieko Takaki Bellettini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to verify the effect of treatment with fungicide on the germination and vigor of four lots of clove basil seeds, submitted to the traditional aging and with saturated salt solution, for periods of 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours, at 42ºC. After these periods, the seeds were evaluated by the germination test, using the first count of the number of normal seedlings as vigor indicative. The vigor and the germination of the seeds decreased as increased the time of aging. In the use of saturated salt solution, the seeds water content was lower and more uniform. The fungicide treatment increased the percentage average of germination, without provoking significant modifications in the contrasts among the lots. The periods of 36 and 48 hours were efficient in evaluating of the physiologic quality of the clove basil seeds.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito do período de exposição, tipos de solução e tratamento com fungicida sobre a germinação e o vigor de quatro lotes de sementes de alfavaca-cravo, submetidas ao teste de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com uso de solução saturada de NaCl, por períodos de 36, 48, 60 e 72 horas na temperatura de 42ºC. Após estes períodos, as sementes foram avaliadas pelo teste de germinação, utilizando-se a primeira contagem do teste de germinação como indicativo de vigor. Tanto o vigor quanto a germinação das sementes analisadas, diminuíram conforme se aumentou o tempo de envelhecimento. Na utilização de solução salina, o teor e a variabilidade de água das sementes foram menores. O tratamento fungicida aumentou a média percentual de germinação, mas não provocou modificações acentuadas nos contrastes entre os lotes. Os períodos de 36 e 48 horas foram eficientes na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes de alfavaca-cravo.

  5. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species. PMID:25844828

  6. Determinação de óleos essenciais de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L., orégano (Origanum vulgare L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. Determination of essential oils of basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., oregano (Ocimum gratissimum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

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    A.M. Borges

    2012-01-01

    apresentam potencial para o enriquecimento dos alimentos ou para a obtenção dos óleos essenciais.This study aimed to characterize commercial fresh and dry medicinal plants (basil, oregano and thyme, to obtain essential oil by the steam distillation method and to quantify chemical compounds by means of GC/MS. The fresh and dry plants were subjected to the following analyses moisture, ether extract, protein, crude fiber, ash, non-nitrogenous extract, caloric value, essential oil content and identification of major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Considering the obtained characterization, the following results on dry basis proved promising: protein and ash content in commercial dry basil with 17.34 g 100 g-1 and 8.12 g 100 g-1, respectively; crude fiber in commercial dry oregano with 15.65 g 100 g-1; ether extract, non-nitrogenous extract and caloric value in commercial dry thyme with 9.30 g 100 g-1, 52.72 g 100 g-1 and 356.74 Kcal 100 g-1, respectively. The highest essential oil yield was obtained for commercial dry basil with 1.02% and the lowest yield was obtained for fresh basil with only 0.13%. Chromatography indicated 87.38% eugenol and 6.27% thymol in fresh basil. For commercial dry basil, the chromatogram showed a reduction in eugenol (71.12% and an increase in thymol (13.28%. Four peaks were quantified for fresh oregano the γ-terpinene (33.45%, 4-terpineol (25.59%, thymol (14.21% and carvacrol (2.30%. For the essential oil of commercial dry oregano, there was a decrease in γ-terpinene (28.73% and an increase in 4-terpineol (27.58%, thymol (19.71% and carvacrol (3.67%. In the chromatogram of the essential oil of fresh thyme, three peaks were quantified: borneol (66.66%, thymol (13.41% and linalool (3.24%. On the other hand, in the chromatogram of the essential oil of commercial dry thyme, there was a decrease in borneol (37.90% and an increase in thymol (20.61% and linalool (10.34%. It can be concluded that commercial dry leaves of basil, oregano

  7. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil

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    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Shigella flexineri, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus mirabilis were at concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 mg/ml. The endpoint was not reached for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>=24 mg/ml. The MICs of the reference drugs used in this study were similar to those presented in other reports. The minimum bactericidal concentration of EO was within a twofold dilution of the MIC for this organism. The compound that showed antibacterial activity in the EO of O. gratissimum was identified as eugenol and structural findings were further supported by gas chromatography/mass spectra retention time data. The structure was supported by spectroscopic methods.

  8. Armazenamento de sementes de Alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Martins; C.L.P. Neves; W.V.S. Pereira; O.A.O. Tonetti; A.A. Alvarenga

    2014-01-01

    A espécie Ocimum gratissimum L. é um subarbusto aromático, pertencente à família Lamiaceae, considerado como importante produtor de óleo essencial e largamente utilizado na medicina popular. Devido à escassez de informações sobre a conservação das sementes dessa espécie o presente estudo objetivou analisar a longevidade das sementes submetidas a diferentes condições de armazenamento, por 12 meses, através de avaliações do potencial germinativo e da capacidade de formação de plântulas normais....

  9. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

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    Dobhal Y

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using col...

  10. Armazenamento de sementes de Alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    J.R Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Ocimum gratissimum L. é um subarbusto aromático, pertencente à família Lamiaceae, considerado como importante produtor de óleo essencial e largamente utilizado na medicina popular. Devido à escassez de informações sobre a conservação das sementes dessa espécie o presente estudo objetivou analisar a longevidade das sementes submetidas a diferentes condições de armazenamento, por 12 meses, através de avaliações do potencial germinativo e da capacidade de formação de plântulas normais. As sementes foram armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens: sacos de papel, sacos de papel aluminizado, e frascos de vidro, e nas seguintes condições ambientais: balcão de laboratório, geladeira, e câmara fria. Aos 6, 8, 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: umidade, porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e porcentagem de plântulas normais. Durante o período de armazenamento a manutenção da umidade nas sementes foi mantida, bem como a porcentagem de germinação e de plântulas normais em todos os tratamentos avaliados. As sementes armazenadas apresentaram maiores valores de IVG quando comparadas com as recém-colhidas.

  11. Spermatotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum in albino mice

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    Akeem Akinboro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae is an alternative medicine as well as food condiment in African and Asian countries. Information on its safe consumption is important considering its wide utilization. The potential effects of aqueous extract of this plant on cell division, chromosome structure and sperm morphology in mice were investigated. The Inductions of chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm cells were not dose dependent. However, these were and sperm morphology tests, respectively. Aberrant sperm cell in form of tail folded over head was observed most. These observations suggest possible mutagenic activity of the aqueous extract of O. gratissimum in albino mice. Key words: Ocimum gratissimum, chromosome, mitotic index, sperm cells, aqueous extract  

  12. Eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotypes of essential oil of species Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum campechianum Mill. from Colombia.

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    Pino Benitez, Nayive; Meléndez León, Erika M; Stashenko, Elena E

    2009-10-01

    Essential oils chemical constituents of leaves of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum of the Lamiaceae family, collected in Chocó of northwest Colombian, were obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 33 and 37 compounds were identified in the essential oil of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum, respectively. O. gratissimum's main essential oils were eugenol (43.2%), 1,8-cineole (12.8%) and beta-selinene (9.0%); in the O. campechianum essential oil, the main components were methyl eugenol (12.0%), germacrene D (10.1%), and eugenol (9.0%). Main distribution of compounds in these essential oils are 25.0% monoterpenes hydrocarbons, 15.0% monoterpenes oxygenated, 35.0% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, 7.5% other oxygenated components for O. gratissimum, 33.9% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, and 10.7% their respective oxygenated derivates; for O. campechianum, the distribution was 10.7% monoterpenes hydrocarbons and 7.1% their respective oxygenated derivates and 3.6% phenylpropanes. According to the essential oils chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum and O. campechianum, they are classified as eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotype, respectively. PMID:19835692

  13. Preliminary study on mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) grown in eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Evangeline T. Oparaocha; Iraneus Iwu; J.E. Ahanaku

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: The study examined the mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal activitiesof the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum at three different locations (World Bank Estate, Ihitteand Umuekunne) in Imo State, eastern Nigeria, with the purpose of sourcing for mosquito repellentthat is cheap, abundant, environment and user-friendly.Methods: Four different lotions; 20% (v/v) and 30% (v/v) concentrations each of the extractedvolatile oil in two natural oil bases (olive and palm kernel...

  14. Improvement in nutrient handling in STZ induced diabetic rats treated with Ocimum gratissimum

    OpenAIRE

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Davies, Koofreh Godwin; Olubobokun, Titilope Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alteration in digestive and absorptive enzymatic activities has been reported in diabetes mellitus (DM), but not with Ocimum gratissimum (OG) treatment. This study was, therefore, designed to indirectly assess the effect of DM and treatment with OG on nutrient digestion and absorption, through estimation of their fecal excretion. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of six per group for control, DM and diabetic mellitus treated (DMT). Diabetes was...

  15. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

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    Dobhal Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using column chromatographic technique that results four major fractions viz F1, F2, F3 and F4. These fractions screened for myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent at dose level of 100mg/kg body weight as compared with that of standard Trimetazidine(35mg/kg body weight. The fraction F4 of chloroform extract significantly prevented myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release as compared with that of standard trimetazidine. Further, cardioprotective effect of the fraction F4 of chloroform extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. was significantly (p˂0.05 compared to vehicle control group.

  16. Rupture of glandular trichomes in Ocimum gratissimum leaves influences the content of essential oil during the drying method

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina M. de Santana; Gabriel S. Pereira; Camila M. Boaventura; Ana Paula T. Uetenabaro; Larissa C. do B. Costa; Rosilene A. de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants are commonly sold dried; however, it is necessary to understand the effects different drying methods have on these materials, to ensure their efficiency and quality. Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, is an aromatic plant whose essential oil is stored in glandular trichomes. This study aimed to confirm the effects of different drying temperatures and methods of O. gratissimum leaves on trichome integrity and essential oil content. Leaves dried in a forced ventilat...

  17. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Ocimum Gratissimum, O. Sanctum and their Major Constituents

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    R K Joshi

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of two Ocimum species viz., Ocimum gratissimum and O. sanctum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The principal constituent of O. gratissimum and O. sanctum was eugenol (75.1%) and methyl eugenol (92.4%), comprising 99.3 and 98.9% of the total oils, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major compounds eugenol and methyl eugenol were ...

  18. Light intensity on growth, leaf micromorphology and essential oil production of Ocimum gratissimum

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    Valéria Ferreira Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Light conditions can promote the growth and development of plants and contribute to increase the essential oil production of commercially cultivated medicinal and aromatic species. In view of the great importance of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, as an aromatic plant, the objective of this work was to determine the effect of light intensities (approximately 4, 7, 11 and 20 mol m-2 d-1 on growth, foliar micromorphology, essential oil content, yield and chemical composition of O. gratissimum. Biomass production of different organs, root:shoot ratio and leaf mass per area were found to linearly increase with increased light availability, whereas stem dry matter fraction, number of leaves, leaf area and plant height have increased up to 10 mol m-2 d-1 and decreased from this value. The tector trichomes density increased with increased light availability, but there was no effect of light treatments on the glandular trichomes density and essential oil content. Regardless of the light level, the major component of the essential oil was eugenol. The essential oil yield per plant increased linearly with light intensity as a direct effect of increased leaf biomass under similar conditions.

  19. In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant, Phytochemical and Nutritional Properties of Extracts from the Leaves of Ocimum Gratissimum (Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Uzunuigbe, Edwina O; Isoken H. Igbinosa; Emmanuel E. Odjadjare; Igiehon, Nicholas O.; Emuedo, Oke A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn) were investigated to evaluate the therapeutic and nutritional potential of the leaves of this plant. The antioxidant of the plant extracts were assessed against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proan...

  20. Effect of Plectranthus glandulosus and Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oils on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin B1 Production

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    Mbofung, CMF.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Plectranthus glandulosus leaves were extracted by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS, and their effects on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus were tested at five levels (i.e 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/l using SMKY agar medium. The main components of O. gratissimum were thymol (47.7% and -terpinene (14.3% whereas those of P. glandulosus were represented by -terpinene (30.8% and terpinolene (25.2%. After 8 days of incubation on essential oil-supplemented medium, growth of A. flavus was totally inhibited by 800 mg/l of O. gratissimum essential oil and by 1000 mg/l of P. glandulosus essential oil. The effect of essential oils on aflatoxin B1 synthesis was evaluated in SMKY broth. The medium supplemented with different essential oil concentrations, was inoculated with A. flavus mycelium and incubated at 25 °C. At 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the supernatant were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA. Results showed that aflatoxin B1 synthesis was inhibited by 1000 mg/l of both essential oils of O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus after 8 days of incubation. Results obtained in the present study indicate the possibility of exploiting O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus essential oils in the fight against strains of A. flavus responsible for biodeterioration of stored food products.

  1. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  2. Preliminary study on mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of Ocimum gratissimum (L. grown in eastern Nigeria

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    Evangeline T. Oparaocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study examined the mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal activitiesof the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum at three different locations (World Bank Estate, Ihitteand Umuekunne in Imo State, eastern Nigeria, with the purpose of sourcing for mosquito repellentthat is cheap, abundant, environment and user-friendly.Methods: Four different lotions; 20% (v/v and 30% (v/v concentrations each of the extractedvolatile oil in two natural oil bases (olive and palm kernel were made and six volunteered humanbaits were used to evaluate the mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the stock materialsat the three different centres from September to November 2008.Results: Topical application of each of the four different lotions significantly (p <0.05 reduced thebiting rate of mosquitoes in all the three locations tested. The 30% (v/v concentration in olive oilbase exhibiting highest average percentage repellencies of 97.2, 95.7 and 96.3% at World BankEstate, Ihitte and Umuekunne centres respectively while the 20% (v/v concentration in palmkernel oil base had the least repellency of 36.3, 41.6 and 36.3%, respectively. The other twoformulations had values ranging from 67.8 to 80% in the three locations. The 30% (v/vconcentration in both olive and palm kernel oil bases afforded all night protection against mosquitobites in all the centres, and demonstrated fast knockdown and paralyzing effect on few mosquitoesat the urban centre (World Bank Estate.Interpretation & conclusion: The study confirms that O. gratissimum grown in eastern Nigeriahas mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal potentials and the formulations could be used to reducehuman-mosquito contacts and hence mosquito-borne diseases and irritations caused by their bites.

  3. Antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from Ocimum gratissimum L. (eugenol chemotype against phytopathogenic fungi

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    Terezinha de Jesus Faria

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of antifungal activity of the essential oil obtained by steam-distillation (1.1% w/w of the aerial parts of Ocimum gratissimum and of an ethanolic extract from the steam-distillation residue was carried out using the agar diffusion method. The results revealed that the essential oil inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including the phytopathogens, Botryosphaeria rhodina, Rhizoctonia sp. and two strains of Alternaria sp., while the extract from the residue was inactive. The essential oil was subjected to TLC bioautography used to detect fungitoxic constituents. The compound that showed antifungal activity was isolated and identified as eugenol. GC/MS analysis showed that eugenol was the main constituent of the essential oil studied. The antifungal activity of eugenol was evaluated against a species of Alternaria isolated from tomato (A1 and Penicillium chrysogenum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of eugenol were 0.16 and 0.31 mg/disc for Alternaria sp. (A1 and P. chrysogenum, respectively.O óleo essencial resultante da destilação por arraste a vapor das partes aéreas de Ocimum gratissimum e o extrato etanólico obtido do resíduo da destilação foram avaliados quanto à atividade antifúngica, utilizando-se o método de difusão em agar. O óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de todos os fungos testados, incluindo os fitopatogênicos Botryosphaeria rhodina e duas espécies de Alternaria sp, enquanto que o extrato do resíduo da destilação não apresentou atividade. O óleo essencial foi, então, submetido ao método de bioautografia em TLC para detecção do composto ativo. O componente ativo foi isolado e identificado através da análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas como o eugenol, constituinte majoritário do óleo estudado. Ensaios de atividade antifúngica revelaram a atividade do eugenol contra Alternaria isolada de tomate (A1 e Penicillium chrysogenum. As concentra

  4. Comparing the growth and flowering of selected basil (Ocimum basilicum L. varieties

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    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations carried out in 2005-2006 related to the growth, flowering, and yielding of selected basil (Ocimum basilicum L. varieties. The most important biometric traits, number of days from sowing till flowering, size of fresh and air-dried herb weight, and essential oil content in dried material, were determined. Great morphological and developmental as well as chemical composition differentiation was found for studied basil varieties. Plants of 'Sweet' cv. were characterized by the largest height (53.4 cm and side shoot number (16, 'Lemon' - by the largest plant diameter (42.3 cm. The number of days till flowering depended on weather conditions and the variety, and it amounted from 44 to 126. Basil flowers were white, pink, and violet. Herb yield depended on the variety and growth conditions. Differences in the amount and yield of essential oil from basil were also recorded. The largest amounts of oil (1.55% were accumulated by 'Bush' cv.

  5. Rupture of glandular trichomes in Ocimum gratissimum leaves influences the content of essential oil during the drying method

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    Ana Carolina M. de Santana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and aromatic plants are commonly sold dried; however, it is necessary to understand the effects different drying methods have on these materials, to ensure their efficiency and quality. Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, is an aromatic plant whose essential oil is stored in glandular trichomes. This study aimed to confirm the effects of different drying temperatures and methods of O. gratissimum leaves on trichome integrity and essential oil content. Leaves dried in a forced ventilation oven at 60ºC display damaged trichomes and a reduction in the essential oil content. The different drying methods (oven, dehumidification and air drying were not identified to elicit changes in the essential oil content or damage to trichomes. All of the drying methods showed a reduction in fungal contamination in a logarithmic cycle.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) herb

    OpenAIRE

    Hadush Gebrehiwot; R. K. Bachetti; Aman Dekebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leaves and flowering parts of Ocimum basilicum are believed to be rich of different phytochemicals and are traditionally used as antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, digestive, galactogogue, stomachic, and tonic agents. Hence, the study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of sweet basil (O. basilicum) herb. Methods: The leaf extract was used for screening of phytochemicals. A small amount of the powdered leaves of ...

  7. Phytochemical investigation of dichloromethanic fraction on Ocimum gratissimum L. extract/ Estudo químico da fração diclorometânica do extrato de Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited growth of Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizoctonia sp, Aspergillus niger and Alternaria sp, isolated from tomato and carrot. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical constituents of Ocimum gratissim. Aerial parts of the plant were treated with hexane-dichloromethane-ethanol mixture (1:3:1 at room temperature. The obtained extract was chromatographed on silica gel column eluted with hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol. Fractions eluted with dichloromethane were rechromatographed on a column of silica gel to yield alyphatic hydrocarbon mixture (C31, C33, C34 e C35, eugenol, caryophyllene oxide and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol. The structures of the compounds were deduced by spectral data analysis and by comparison with literature values. Recent studies showed that eugenol is probably one of the responsibles for antifungal activity of O. gratissimum.Ensaios anteriores de atividade antifúngica do extrato etanólico de Ocimum gratissimum, utilizando a técnica de difusão em meio sólido, evidenciaram a inibição do crescimento de Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizoctonia sp, Aspergillus niger e de duas espécies de Alternaria sp isoladas de tomate e de cenoura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os possíveis constituintes químicos responsáveis pela atividade antifúngica da planta, por meio de estudo químico do extrato hexano-diclorometano-etanol (1:3:1 das partes aéreas de O. gratissimum. O extrato foi cromatografado em coluna de sílica gel, eluída com hexano, diclorometano e etanol. A purificação em coluna cromatográfica de sílica gel das frações eluídas com diclorometano (5,9g resultou na obtenção de quatro constituintes: uma mistura de hidrocarbonetos saturados de cadeia longa (C31, C33, C34 e C35, eugenol, óxido de cariofileno e uma mistura de estigmasterolsitosterol. Os constituintes foram identificados através das an

  8. Chemical composition, In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major constituents

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    R K Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of two Ocimum species viz., Ocimum gratissimum and O. sanctum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The principal constituent of O. gratissimum and O. sanctum was eugenol (75.1% and methyl eugenol (92.4%, comprising 99.3 and 98.9% of the total oils, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major compounds eugenol and methyl eugenol were screened by using tube dilution methods. O. gratissimum oil was found highly active against S. marcescens while O. sanctum oil showed significant activity against A. niger and S. faecalis. Methyl eugenol exhibited significant activity against P. aeruginosa while eugenol was effective only against S. aureus. Antioxidant activity of oils, eugenol, and methyl eugenol was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. Essential oil of O. gratissimum showed comparative antioxidant activity with IC 50 values 23.66±0.55 and 23.91±0.49 μg/ml in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid models, respectively. Eugenol showed slightly weaker antioxidant activity compared to oil of O. gratissimum, while O. sanctum oil demonstrated very feeble antioxidant activity and methyl eugenol did not show any activity. Eugenol and methyl eugenol would be elite source from O. gratissimum and O. sanctum, respectively, of this region could be consider as a source of natural food antioxidant, preservatives, and as an antiseptic.

  9. Gastro-Protective Properties of the Leaf Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum L. Against Experimental Ulcers in Rat

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    P.A. Akah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae was investigated for gastroprotective properties. The anti-ulcer effect was evaluated in three experimental ulcer models induced by ethanol, indomethacin and hypothermic-restraint stress in rats. Anti-ulcer related properties of the extract such as gastrointestinal transit and the activity on isolated gut tissue preparations of guinea pig and rabbit were also determined. The extract (ME administered orally at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg kg-1 significantly (p<0.05 reduced the ulcer indices in a dose-related manner. The extract showed higher gastroprotection against indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcers than the stress-induced ulcer. Gastrointestinal motility was significantly (p<0.05 reduced by the extract in mice. On the rabbit jejunum, ME produced a concentration-dependent relaxation and inhibited ACh contractile responses. The extract, ME had no effect on guinea-pig ileum but inhibited the contractions produced by histamine. At doses above 3 g kg-1 (p.o., ME caused no signs of acute toxicity or deaths in mice. Flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, steroids, alkaloids, terpenes and volatile oils were found present in the methanol extract of O. gratissimum leaf. The results show that the methanol leaf extract of O. gratissimum offers protection against ulcers induced by different ulcerogens and could justify the folk use of the plant in peptic ulcer diseases. Cyto-protection and antispasmodic activities may be the likely mechanisms for the anti-ulcer property of this plant.

  10. Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

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    Santanu Kar Mahapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present study was to evaluate the immune functions and immune responses in nicotine-induced (10 mM macrophages and concurrently establish the immunomodulatory role of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Ae-Og and ascorbic acid. In this study, nitrite generations and some phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. Beside that, release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. Ae-Og, at a dose of 10 μg/mL, significantly reduced the nicotine-induced NO generation and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed with supplementation of ascorbic acid (0.01 mM. The administration of Ae-Og and ascorbic acid increased the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine-treated macrophages. Ae-Og and ascorbic acid were found to protect the murine peritoneal macrophages through downregulation of Th1 cytokines in nicotine-treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions and provide additional rationale for application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by O. gratissimum and ascorbic acid for different inflammatory disease prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity.

  11. Evaluación tóxica y genotóxica del extracto fluido de Ocimum gratissimum L. Toxic and genotoxic evaluation of the fluid extract from Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    Neylim Blanco Hernández

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la toxicidad aguda y la actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de hojas de Ocimum gratissimum L. a través de 2 sistemas de ensayo a corto plazo, uno in vitro con la cepa D-30 de Aspergillus nidulans y otro in vivo, el ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón. La toxicidad aguda del extracto quedó demostrada por la mortalidad observada que alcanzó el 50 % de los animales en la dosis 3g/kg, que fue dosis dependiente. Se encontró una respuesta genotóxica poco acentuada del extracto fluido al 30 % de O. gratissimum. Los resultados permitieron concluir que este extracto mostró efectos tóxicos agudos y signos histológicos de hepatotoxicidad y nefrotoxicidad y no resultó genotóxico sobre la cepa D-30 de Aspergillus nidulans en el ensayo de segregación mitótica y tampoco en el ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón.The acute toxicity and the genotoxic activity of the fluid extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissisum L. were evaluated by two short-term assay systems, one in vitro with the strain D-30 from Aspergillus nidulans, and another in vivo, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow. The acute toxicity of the extract was proved by the mortality observed that rose to 50 % in the 3g/kg dose, which was dose dependant. It was found a little accentuated genotoxic response of the fluid extract of O. gratissimum 30 %. The results allowed to conclude that this extract showed acute toxic effects and histologic signs of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. It was not genotoxic neither for the strain D-30 from Aspergillus nidulans in the mitotic segregation test, nor in the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF TWO DIFFERENT CULTIVATED BASIL ( OCIMUM BASILICUM L. FROM INDIA

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    H.C. Srivastava, Ashok Srivastava, Pankaj Shukla, Ajay Singh Maurya and Sonia Tripathi*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The chemical compositions of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. cv. purple and Ocimum basilicum L. cv. green cultivated in India were investigated by GC-MS. Twenty constituents (98.5% of the total oil were identified in the volatile oil of O. basilicum L. cv. Purple. The main constituents found in the oil were methyl chavicol (52.4%, linalool (20.1%, epi-α-cadinol (5.9% and trans-α-bergamotene (5.2%. In the volatile oil of O. basilicum L. cv. green, twelve components were characterized representing 99.4% of the total oil. Methyl chavicol (40.5%, geranial (27.6%, neral (18.5% and caryophyllene oxide (5.4% were the major components. Methyl chavicol is the dominant constituent in each of the two oils. Although the oil of green basil was characterized by a high content (46.1% of citral (neral and geranial, citral was not detected in the oil of purple basil oil.

  13. Creams Formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. Crude Extracts and Fractions as Mosquito Repellents Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined a...

  14. Gastro-Protective Properties of the Leaf Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum L. Against Experimental Ulcers in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Akah, P. A.; Lucy John-Africa; C S Nworu

    2007-01-01

    Methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) was investigated for gastroprotective properties. The anti-ulcer effect was evaluated in three experimental ulcer models induced by ethanol, indomethacin and hypothermic-restraint stress in rats. Anti-ulcer related properties of the extract such as gastrointestinal transit and the activity on isolated gut tissue preparations of guinea pig and rabbit were also determined. The extract (ME) administered orally at doses of 200, 400 and 80...

  15. THE PROXIMATE, MINERAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Ocimum gratissimum L., Melanthera scandens A. and Leea guineensis L. AND THEIR MEDICINAL VALUE

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    Fagbohun ED

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum, Melanthera scanden and Leea guineensis were investigated. The proximate analysis in % showed that Melanthera scanden had the highest amount of ash content of 7.73 and moisture content 6.54 while Ocimum gratissimum had the lowest amount of ash content 5.11 and moisture content 5.04. Ocimum gratissimum had the highest amount of fat 7.75 and carbohydrate 56.16 while Melanthera scanden had the least amount of fat 6.87 and carbohydrate 50.0. Leea guineensis had the highest amount of crude protein 19.3 while Melanthera scanden had the highest amount of crude fibre 12.66. The mineral analysis in mg/100g indicated that the leaves contained calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, and phosphorus. The Phytochemical analysis of the plants showed that the three medicinal plants contained alkaloid, tannins, saponins, steroid, phlobatannin/ terpenoid, flavonoid cardiac glycoside, while phlobatanin was not found in Melanthera scanden. The medicinal plants also contained antinutrient phytin phosphorus, oxalate, phytic acid and polyphenol.

  16. Linalool and methyl chavicol present basil (Ocimum sp.) cultivated in Brazil Linalol e metil-chavicol presentes em manjericão (Ocimum sp.) cultivados no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, R. A.; Moreira, I.S.; F.F. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, Ocimum species are commonly known as aromatic and restorative herbs. The present research aimed to study the chemical composition of the essential oils of fresh and dry basil (Ocimum sp) leaves obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The obtained yield was 0.70% for dry leaves and 0.26% for fresh leaves. The major compounds were: linalool (29.50-32.26%) and methyl chavicol (36.81-41.62%). Eucalyptol could also be detected (9.99-7.68%). The oil from dry leave...

  17. Anatomia e ultraestrutura foliar de Ocimum gratissimum sob diferentes níveis de radiação luminosa

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    Valéria Ferreira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Espécies vegetais são capazes de ajustar suas características fisiológicas, anatômicas e ultraestruturais aos fatores ambientais, como, por exemplo, a disponibilidade de radiação luminosa incidente. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de radiação luminosa na anatomia e ultraestrutura foliar de Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae. As plantas foram cultivadas por 93 dias em quatro níveis de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (20, 11, 7 e 4mol m-2 d-1. O incremento da intensidade de luz proporcionou aumento no espessamento dos parênquimas paliçádico e esponjoso e do limbo foliar, entretanto, a espessura da epiderme não foi alterada. Em relação aos aspectos ultraestruturais, verificou-se aumento no tamanho dos cloroplastos e grãos de amido e um aumento do empilhamento dos tilacoides com a redução da intensidade de luz. As variações anatômicas e ultraestruturais verificadas confirmam a plasticidade fenotípica dessa espécie em função da intensidade de radiação luminosa.

  18. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  19. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Seeds: Incidence of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum Leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

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    Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves as bioinsecticide in the preservation of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata against the pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The extracts were obtained by maceration of leaves powdersin ethanol (95%. These extracts were then used to achieve anti-insecticides tests in jars at doses of 10, 15, 25 and 50% compared to a reference compound (Stargrain. The weevils rearing and some biological tests were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results showed that these extracts have anti-oviposition activity and ovicidal dose-dependent. Doses 25 and 50% of Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum have completely inhibited the spawning activity of C. maculatus 24 h after treatment. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between oviposition due to the positive control (Stargrain and that due to dose 50% of the three extracts. Compared to the negative control (ethanol 95%, all these plant extracts have significantly reduced (p<0.05 oviposition of C. maculatus female (38 eggs per 100 seeds after 4 days. The dose 10% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum showed no weevil emergency. It have been also noticed a reduction in seeds depreciation and rate attack in all the treated settings compared to the control. So the rate attack and the mass loss were proportional to the doses of B. aegyptiaca leaves extract but conversely proportional to doses of Melia azedarach and O. gratissimum leaves extracts. No depreciation of seeds was recorded at doses 10 and 15% of B. aegyptiaca and 50% of O. gratissimum. The different treatments did not affect the germination of seeds; the highest germination rate (93.67% was recorded with seeds treated with the dose 50% of O. gratissimum against only 65% with those treated with the positive control. These ethanolic extracts have shown insecticidal

  20. Potencial da otencial planta medicinal Ocimum gratissimum no controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana em sementes de trigo = Potential of Ocimum gratissimum medicinal plant on Bipolaris sorokiniana control in the wheat seeds

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    Érica dos Anjos Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito, in vitro, do extrato bruto (EB, autoclavado e esterilizado por filtração, da planta medicinal Ocimum gratissimum e do fungicida iprodione+thiram no crescimento micelial e na esporulação de Bipolaris sorokiniana. Além disso, sementes de trigo naturalmente infectadas com B. sorokiniana foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: 1 fumigação com óleo essencial, 2 imersão em EB autoclavado e 3 não-autoclavado em diferentes concentrações (1%,5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% e 50% m/v, 4 polvilhamento com folhas secas e com fungicida iprodione+thiram. O EB autoclavado proporcionou maior inibição, ainda que parcial, do crescimento micelial em todas as concentrações testadas (1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 50% m/v, quando comparado ao EB esterilizado por filtração. Em casa-de-vegetação, as sementes fumigadas por 7 dias apresentaram velocidade de emergência (VE estatisticamente igual à da testemunha (água. Com relação ao tratamento por imersão, não houve diferença estatística entre os parâmetros analisados (VE, porcentagem de emergência, altura, massa fresca e seca e taxa de transmissão (Tt e a testemunha. Sementes tratadas com pó de folhas secas não diferiram estatisticamente do controle químico, em relação aos parâmetros anteriores, mas apresentaram maior Tt do patógeno. Em laboratório, as sementes submetidas à fumigação apresentaram maior número de sementes sadias doque a testemunha, enquanto os tratamentos com imersão em EB e polvilhamento não diferiram em relação ao mesmo parâmetro.The in vitro effect of Ocimum gratissimum medicinal plant CE(autoclaved and sterilized by filtration as well as the iprodione+thiram fungicide on the mycelial growth and sporulation of B. sorokiniana was evaluated. Besides, wheat seeds naturally infected with B. sorokiniana were submitted to the following treatments: 1 fumigation with essential oil; 2 immersion with autoclaved CE and; 3 non autoclaved CE at different

  1. Chloroplast DNA Phylogeography of Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum in Indian Subcontinent

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    Felix Bast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil “Tulsi”, is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5×10-4. However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km2 encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting.

  2. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent. PMID:27072205

  3. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Felix; Rani, Pooja; Meena, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil "Tulsi", is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10(-4). However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km(2) encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting. PMID:24523650

  4. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

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    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  5. Influence of Zn foliar application on growth characteristics and essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under salinity stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Gohari; M. B. HASSANPOURAGHDAM; M. R. Dadpour; M. Shirdel

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of medicinal and aromatic plants under hydroponic systems and especially in areas with saline soils is very important. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interaction of salinity stress and foliar application of zinc (Zn) on hydroponically-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). The factorial experiment was arranged as randomized complete blocks design, with two salinity levels (0 and 50 mM NaCl) and three Zn levels (0, 100 and 200 mg/L as ZnSO4,7H2O) and three replications...

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jelačić Slavica Ć.; Beatović Damir V.; Prodanović Slaven A.; Tasić Slavoljub R.; Moravčević Đorđe Ž.; Vujošević Ana M.; Vučković Savo M.

    2011-01-01

    In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 an...

  7. Horário de colheita e tempo de secagem da alfavaca-cravo Harvest moment and drying period of Ocimum gratissimum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Q Luz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o tempo adequado de secagem e o horário ideal de colheita da alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. em Pentecoste (CE, observando sua influência nas características do óleo essencial e os principais componentes durante o processo. No primeiro experimento foram testados cinco tempos de secagem (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16 dias, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se as variáveis umidade, teor de óleo essencial e seus principais constituintes. Para o segundo experimento utilizaram-se cinco horários de colheita (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 13:00 e 15:00 h, com quatro repetições, sendo cada bloco considerado como um dia. Foram analisados a umidade, massa fresca, massa seca, teor de óleo essencial e seus principais constituintes. Os resultados do primeiro experimento sugerem que a alfavaca-cravo não deve ser submetida ao processo de secagem, devendo ser processada rapidamente para evitar perdas do princípio ativo de interesse, o eugenol. Os diferentes horários de colheita testados não influenciaram no teor de óleo essencial, nem de seus principais constituintes (eugenol e 1,8 cineol.The appropriate drying period and the ideal harvest moment of Ocimum gratissimum L. were determined in Pentecoste, Brazil, observing the influence on the essential oil and its main components during this process. In the first experiment five drying periods were tested, represented by the number of days that the material was submitted to the process: control treatment (zero day of drying, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, with four replicates in each treatment. The percentage of humidity, essential oil content and its main components were evaluated. The second experiment consisted of five different harvest moment (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00 hours, with four replications, where days were considered as blocks. In this experiment humidity, fresh mass, dry mass, essential oil content and its main components were analyzed. The results of the first experiment suggest that Ocimum

  8. Linalool and methyl chavicol present basil (Ocimum sp. cultivated in Brazil Linalol e metil-chavicol presentes em manjericão (Ocimum sp. cultivados no Brasil

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    R.A. de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Ocimum species are commonly known as aromatic and restorative herbs. The present research aimed to study the chemical composition of the essential oils of fresh and dry basil (Ocimum sp leaves obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The obtained yield was 0.70% for dry leaves and 0.26% for fresh leaves. The major compounds were: linalool (29.50-32.26% and methyl chavicol (36.81-41.62%. Eucalyptol could also be detected (9.99-7.68%. The oil from dry leaves presented a more complex chemical composition. This study serves to contribute to the knowledge of medicinal plants occurring in Brazil.No Brasil, as espécies de Ocimum são conhecidas como ervas aromáticas e restaurativas. Nesse trabalho foi estudado a composição química dos óleos essenciais das folhas frescas e secas de manjericão (Ocimum sp obtido por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-FID e CG-EM. Os teores encontrados foram de 0,70% para as folhas secas e 0,26% para as folhas frescas. Os componentes majoritários foram: Linalol (29,50-32,26% e metil-chavicol (36,81-41,62%. Eucaliptol também foi detectado (9,99-7,68%. O óleo das folhas secas apresentou composição química mais complexa. Esse trabalho contribui para o conhecimento das plantas medicinais de ocorrência no Brasil.

  9. Creams formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. crude extracts and fractions as mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm(2) in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET. PMID:25881633

  10. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

  11. Evaluation of Insecticide Properties of Ethanolic Extract from Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleptera: Bruchidae

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    Djilé Bouba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect crops and food stocks against the grain depreciators while preserving the environment, ethanolic extracts of some plant leaves (Balanites aegyptiaca, Melia azedarach and Ocimum gratissimum were tested for their insecticide activities on Callosobruchus maculatus. In jars and petri dishes and at doses 10, 15, 25 and 50%, respectively biological tests were realized with the extracts obtained by maceration in ethanol (95% of leaves powders of these plants. The rearing of C. maculatus and anti-insect test were conducted in laboratory conditions at a temperature of 29.1°C and a relative humidity of 74%. The results were compared with those of the negative (only ethanol and positive (Star grain control. At the end of the first day of exposure, the lowest dose (10% of B. aegyptiaca< resulted in a high mortality (85% of C. maculatus and 50% dose of M. azedarach, 68.33% of mortality. Seventy two hours after treatment, the highest mortality (100% was obtained with 50% dose of . All these extracts showed repellent effects proportional to the dose. O. gratissimum extract had the highest repellency (Class IV and also proved highly persistence (63.33% mortality after 24 h of exposure. This Insecticide activity could be correlated to the presence of secondary metabolites such as saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolics and terpenes. These results suggest that these plant extracts could be used as an alternative in the fight against C. maculatus in the areas of culture and seed storage areas.

  12. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) flowering affected by foliar nitrogen application

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2012-01-01

    The aromatic and curative properties of basil are connected with the presence of essential oil, mainly in the leaves and flowers. Herb yield and the quality of basil oil are related to the effect of genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors. In the studies conducted in the years 2008-2009, the effect of basil cultivar and foliar feeding upon selected flowering features was examined. In an unheated plastic tunnel, plants of Kasia, Wala, Genua Star and Opal cultivars were grown. Foliar fee...

  13. Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L. (0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75 and 6.00 mg.g-1 were evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using the DPPH● radical methodology. From the IC50 obtained data, the concentrations of 0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75; 6.00 and 12.00 mg.mL-1 were applied directly to the product and these were sensorially evaluated by the test of control difference. The concentrations related to the highest acceptability (0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 were tested for antioxidant activity in the internal part of Italian type salami - during the processing and after 30 days of storage, in terms of lipid and protein oxidation. The oxidation of lipids was determined using the method of TBARS. The method of carbonyl compounds was employed for proteins oxidation. Five different formulations of salami were elaborated: blank (without the use of antioxidant; control (using sodium eritorbate as antioxidant; and adding 0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil. The product was kept between 25 ºC and 18 ºC and UR between 95% and 70%, for 28 days. Analyses were carried out on the processing day and after 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and also following 30 days of storage. The basil essential oil in vitro presented an antioxidant activity of IC50 12 mg.mL-1. In the internal part of the Italian type salami the commercial antioxidant (control and the formulation containing 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil presented antioxidant activity in relation to the lipids, but not to the proteins - during processing and storage.

  14. The Effect of Static Magnetic Forces on Water Contents and Photosynthetic Pigments in Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different magnetic regimes; aerial, surface and buried; each with three different forces, have been used to investigate their effects on the water contents and photosynthetic pigments of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Two groups of sweet basil seeds, Ocimum basilicum L. have been cultivated, one under normal conditions and the second has been subdivided into three portion (aerial, surface and buried) to examine the effect of different magnetic forces coming from the three directions on the resulted plants. At all directions of magnets, water contents have been significantly affected by the magnetic forces. Chlorophyll A and carotene contents have been affected, as well, according to the three magnetic forces coming from soil surface regime only. Chlorophyll B did not significantly affected by differences magnetic forces in the three regimes, but it is affected by magnetism wherever its direction or force. But all the photosynthetic pigments contents (Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenes) decreased significantly than the control in the three magnetic regimes., but without any effect according to differences in the magnetic force in the aerial and burried regimes of magnetism. It was concluded that magnetism affects both water absorption and retention , the most influenced regime was the aerial magnets followed by the surface and buried ones. This result can be interpreted by the ionization of water which makes water ions respond to magnetic forces. Photosynthetic pigments have been decreased significantly by the exposure to magnetic fields, irrespective to its direction or force and this may be due to the effect of magnetic fields on the reduction in plastids inside the cells. (author)

  15. Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf powder and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaf paste on sensory and nutritional qualities of beef and ham burgers – A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Teye; Moses Teye; Bright Mustapha; Alexander Abu

    2013-01-01

    Moringa leaf powder and sweet basil leaf paste are commonly used in local dishes in Ghana for purposes of flavour enhancement and nutrient supplements. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf powder (MLP) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaf paste (SBLP) on the sensory characteristics and nutritional compositions of beef and hamburgers. MLP and SBLP were incorporated at 0g (Control, T1), 2g, 4g and 6g/kg meat (T2, T3 and T4 respectively) during ...

  16. The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to the application of growth stimulators and forecrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing sweet basil was carried out in the period 2008-2010 in Fajsławice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. The study evaluated the biometric traits of the plants, yield, the qualitative parameters of herbal raw material and weed infestation of the crop in dependence on growth simulators (Asahi SL, Bio-algeen, Titanit and the forecrop (winter wheat or spring barley + white mustard cover crop. Plots without foliar application of the growth stimulators were the control treatment. Tillage, mineral NPK fertilization as well as mechanical and chemical weed control were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for herbal plant protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of growth stimulators would have a positive effect on basil productivity, raw material quality and weed infestation of the basil crop. It was also assumed that the phytosanitary and fertilizing effects of the cover crop would result in higher and qualitatively better yield compared to the cereal forecrop alone (winter wheat. The best quantitative parameters of sweet basil raw material and the highest reduction in air-dry weight of weeds in the crop were observed after the application of the growth stimulators. The forecrop - spring barley + a white mustard cover crop that is ploughed in - also had a beneficial effect on yield and weed infestation of the plant in question. The traditional crop protection method used in the basil crop, without the application of the growth stimulators, resulted in a lower plant height and a smaller number of shoots per plant. This caused higher weed infestation of the crop and a decrease in yield. The positive side of the non-application of growth stimulators was a better chemical composition of basil raw material. Asahi SL and Tytanit yielded the best growth and productivity of the basil plants.

  17. The effect of essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on UV-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević Jasna; Berić Tanja; Opačić Biljana; Vuković-Gačić Branka; Simić Draga; Knežević-Vukčević Jelena

    2008-01-01

    The antimutagenic potential of essential oil (EO) of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its major constituent linalool were studied with the E. coli K12 and S.cerevisiae D7 assays. In the E. coli assay, EO and linalool inhibited UV-induced mutagenesis in a repair-proficient strain, but had no effect on spontaneous mutagenesis in repair-proficient, nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and mismatch-deficient strains. By testing participation of different mechanisms involved in antimutagenesis, it...

  18. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Chenni, Mohammed; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; CHEMAT, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were lin...

  19. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelačić Slavica Ć.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 and deposited in the Plant Genes Bank at Serbia and at the Institute for Crop Sciences of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade. Essential oils of all tested basil populations were light yellow and had a specific aromatic scent. The composition of essential oil in the dry herb of the tested populations ranged from 0.87 to 1.84%. The results of gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils in tested basil populations pointed to their complex chemical composition and to the fact that they belong to the most appreciated European chemotype. In total thirty three components have been identified in the essential oils. The most common fraction of components in all tested oils was terpenoides. The predominant component in all essential oils is monoterpen linalol, ranging from 51.52 to 74.73%. Phenylpropranoid methylchavicol ranged from 2.49 to 18.97%. Essential oils of populations T-6, T-7, T-8 and T-10 were characterized by elevated 1.8-cineol (4.44, 3.70, 4.01 and 3.43%, respectively. Populations T-3 and T-4 in essential oil contained higher percent of geraniol (4.27 and 3.31%, respectively. In all ten essential oils sesquiterpen fraction consisted of greater number of components, with germacrene having special significance as it was found in high percentage in all populations. The highest content of germacrene was registered in population T-9 (4.30%, T-10 (4.18%, while in others it ranged from 2.17 to 3.69%. Basil populations traditionally grown in Serbia have

  20. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.; Leth, Vibeke; Vismer, H. F.; Pedersen, Jan Georg Torp; Guemdjom, E. F. N.; Mbeffo, M.; Tamgue, O.; Fotio, D.; Zollo, P. H. Amvam; Nkengfack, A. E.

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...... from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9....... At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P...

  1. Influence of Zn foliar application on growth characteristics and essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Gohari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass production of medicinal and aromatic plants under hydroponic systems and especially in areas with saline soils is very important. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interaction of salinity stress and foliar application of zinc (Zn on hydroponically-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. The factorial experiment was arranged as randomized complete blocks design, with two salinity levels (0 and 50 mM NaCl and three Zn levels (0, 100 and 200 mg/L as ZnSO4,7H2O and three replications. Some growth characteristics such as height, leaf surface area, fresh and dry weight of leaves, stem and whole plant, chlorophyll index, harvest index and yield of dry leaves per m2 were measured. After extraction of essential oil, the oil yield was calculated based on oil content in the plant. The results showed that salinity stress adversely affected all growth characteristics as well as essential oil content and yield. Despite the generally accepted hypothesis, Zn application not only had no impact on reducing the negative effects of salinity, but also showed no significant difference between the control plants (no salinity. The highest essential oil content and yield were recorded for control plants. Therefore, it is concluded that under the hydroponics system, basil is sensitive to 50 mM salinity, and Zn foliar application up to 200 mg/L had no positive impact on the reduction of negative effects of salinity. Thus, control nutrient solution has appropriate amount of Zn for salinity stress conditions.

  2. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

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    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.

  3. Investigation of the Presence of Some Heavy Metals in Four Edible Vegetables, Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina, Scent Leaf (Ocimum gratissimum, Water Leaf (Talinumtriangulare and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kalagbor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources of heavy metals contamination is atmospheric pollution from the use of fossil fuel, traffic density and dust. This research was carried out to investigate the presence of Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were investigated in four of the most commonly consumed vegetables in the Southern part of Nigeria. These vegetables are fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina, Scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum, and Water leaf (Talinum triangulaire. The metal analysis results showed the concentrations (mg/kg as follows; Cr (1.50-10.25, Mn (9.75-62.75, Ni (15.75-19.25, Co (1.75-3.00, Cu (7.75-11.00, Cd (1.25-1.50, Zn (79.75-186.95 and Pb (6.25-8.00. The concentrations of the metals are in the order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Cr>Co>Cd. Water leaf has the highest concentration of the metals Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr and Cd. Fluted pumpkin has the second highest concentration of Mn and the highest for Cu. The leaves under study reveal high concentrations of these heavy metals which were found to be above the FAO and WHO acceptable limits. These high values can be attributed firstly to atmospheric pollution as the cottage farm is a few meters away from a major highway and most of these metals are constituents of fossil fuel and machinery. Ni, Cd and Pb are classified as carcinogens. This therefore implies that the consumption of these vegetables will eventually lead to serious health problems in the organs and circulatory systems.

  4. Composição química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise L. Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94% e γ-muuroleno (12,58%. O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0 µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5 µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94% and γ-muurolene (12.58%. Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L. test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0 µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5 µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control.

  5. The effect of essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on UV-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antimutagenic potential of essential oil (EO) of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its major constituent linalool were studied with the E. coli K12 and S. cerevisiae D7 assays. In the E. coli assay, EO and linalool inhibited UV-induced mutagenesis in a repair-proficient strain, but had no effect on spontaneous mutagenesis in repair-proficient, nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and mismatch-deficient strains. By testing participation of different mechanisms involved in antimutagenesis, it was concluded that the antimutagenic effect against UV-induced mutagenesis involved decrease of protein synthesis and cell proliferation which led to increased efficiency of nucleotide excision repair. An antimutagenic effect of basil derivatives in S. cerevisiae was not detected. (author)

  6. Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf powder and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum leaf paste on sensory and nutritional qualities of beef and ham burgers – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Teye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Moringa leaf powder and sweet basil leaf paste are commonly used in local dishes in Ghana for purposes of flavour enhancement and nutrient supplements. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum leaf paste (SBLP on the sensory characteristics and nutritional compositions of beef and hamburgers. MLP and SBLP were incorporated at 0g (Control, T1, 2g, 4g and 6g/kg meat (T2, T3 and T4 respectively during the production of the burgers. The burgers were vacuum-packed and frozen for sensory and laboratory analyses. The M. oleifera leaf powder had significant (P0.01 the crude protein content but no significant effect on sensory characteristics of the products.

  7. Total biomass and essential oil composition of Ocimum gratissimum L. in response to broiler litter and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. PESSOA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the biomass yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of clove basil in response to doses of broiler litter (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 added in presence of triple superphosphate (200 kg ha-1 or without it. Before the first harvest, the height of the plants increased significantly (34.42 cm when 15 tonnes ha-1 broiler litter were added to the soil. However, after resprouting, the plant heights ranged only as a function of the vegetative cycle, with maximum height (76.0 cm observed at 60 days. Phosphate fertilization also significantly influenced the leaf area (1.771 cm2 plant-1 during the first harvest. The fresh weight of leaves increased linearly in response to the addition of broiler litter (20 ton ha-1 with maximum yields of 1,709 and 7,140 kg ha-1 during the first harvest and regrowth, respectively. On average, the oil content of the leaves was 0.7%, with maximum performance (3.8 L ha-1 when 20 tonnes ha-1 of broiler litter were added on the soil. Eugenol was found to be the major compound of the essential oil (71.65%.

  8. Avaliação das estruturas secretoras de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae após extração dos constituintes voláteis Evaluation of secretory structures of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae after extraction of volatile compounds

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    A.S. Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O impacto provocado nas estruturas secretoras de folhas adultas de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum após extração dos componentes voláteis utilizando-se diferentes métodos de extração foi investigado através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Secções transversais do ápice, da nervura central, e da margem mostraram superfície com cutícula estriada, estômatos diacíticos, tricomas tectores simples, filiformes, e glandulares peltados. Os peltados, com estrutura envolta por uma cutícula contendo o exsudado celular, variaram de 60 a 80µm de diâmetro sendo formados por uma porção apical multicelular com disposição radial formada por dois círculos concêntricos com 9 a 16 células. Na região central do ápice do tricoma peltado se identificou a presença de 4 células em forma de vértice dispostas sobre o pedúnculo, sendo esta a região mais externa formada por número variável de células. Os componentes voláteis das folhas adultas foram extraídos por hidrodestilação (HD, destilação-extração simultânea (DES, e solvente (SO. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o maior impacto nas estruturas secretoras ocorreu após extração por hidrodestilação quando comparado aos outros métodos utilizados. A porcentagem dos principais constituintes químicos, timol e γ-terpineno variaram de acordo com o método de extração: timol (HD = 25,4%, SO = 18,2%, DES = 54,8% e γ-terpineno (HD = 38,2%, SO = ausente, DES = 13,7%.The impact on the secretory structures of mature leaves of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum, after extraction of the volatile compounds using different extraction methods, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cross-sections of the apex, the midrib and the margin showed surface with striated cuticle, diacitic stomata, single tector, filiform and glandular peltate trichomes. The peltate trichomes with a structure surrounded by cuticle containing the celllular exudate ranged from

  9. Avaliação fitoquímica e atividade antioxidan e, antimutagênica e toxicológica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    D.C Gontijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Ocimum gratissimum L., popularmente conhecida como alfavaca, é uma planta muito usada na medicina tradicional brasileira, à qual são atribuídas diversas atividades terapêuticas quando usada na forma de infuso de suas folhas. Neste estudo foi realizada a caracterização fitoquímica, a avaliação da ação antioxidante e a investigação dos efeitos antimutagênico e antigenotóxico, além do efeito mutagênico e genotóxico potencial do extrato aquoso liofilizado a parir das folhas de O. gratissimum (EAOG. O conteúdo de polifenóis totais no extrato foi determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, sendo encontrado 11,3 µg EAG/mg de EAOG. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo teste do 1,1-difenil-2-picril hidrazil (DPPH•, apresentando IC50 de 83,0 µg/mL. A antimutagenicidade e mutagenicidade foram avaliadas em cepas de Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 e TA100 utilizando o teste Salmonella/microssoma (Salmonella typhimurium/microssomas em diferentes concentrações. EAOG induziu a atividade antimutagênica para a cepa TA98. A mutagenicidade não foi observada para o extrato em ambas as linhagens. Adicionalmente, a ação antigenotoxica avaliada pelo teste de clivagem do DNA-plasmidial também foi observada para EAOG. Os resultados também demonstraram que o extrato não foi capaz de induzir a genotoxicidade pelo teste empregado. Este estudo relata, pela primeira vez, as propriedades antimutagênica e antigenotóxica do extrato aquoso de O. gratissimum.

  10. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (pGST) and catalase (CAT). CoCl2 also produced significant reduction (p<0.05) in systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressures. Oral COG and gallic acid treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of H2O2 and MDA; with reduced expression of caspase 8 and restoration of GSH levels, GPx, SOD and CAT activities, howbeit, to varying degrees in the heart and kidneys. COG (200mg/kg) was most effective in restoring the blood pressures in the rats to near control levels. CoCl2-induced histopathological lesions including myocardial infarction and inflammation and renal tubular necrosis and inflammation were effectively ameliorated by the treatments administered. This study provides evidence for the protective roles of O. gratissimum and gallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats. PMID:27259349

  11. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds. PMID:27192193

  12. A Study of the Essential Oils of Four Sudanese Accessions of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

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    Azhari H. Nour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Certain basil essential oils were claimed to have a larvicidal activity towards mosquito's larvae. To test this claim the essential oils of four accessions of basil grown in Sudan were selected and tested for Anopheles larvae. Malaria is the major health problem in the Sudan and the whole country is now considered endemic, with varying degrees, about 35,000 deaths every year due to malaria. Anopheles mosquito is the major vector of malaria disease in Sudan. Search for larvicidal active compound(s is one of several attempts to fine effective and affordable ways to control this mosquito. To determine the toxic effects of basil essential oils extracted by steam distillation against Anopheles larvae. Approach: For the larvicidal bioassay, three concentrations (100, 300, 500 ppm of essential oil solutions of four basil accessions were prepared; 1 mL of ethanol was used to solubilize the oil in water (999 mL. In each concentration of oil solution were inserted 20 larvae (third instars. A set of controls using 0.1% ethanol and untreated sets of larvae in (tap water, were also run for comparison. Data were evaluated through regression analysis, from the regression line; the LC50 values were read. The active ingredients were separated and/ or identified by TLC, IR and GC-MS. Results: Larvicidal activity of the essential oils is varied, lasted for about 9 h and thereafter decreased, LC50 values ranging from 190-300 ppm. Linalool, geraniol and eugenol are active components of basil essential oil against Anopheles larvae. Two accessions were caused 100% mortality at a concentration range 300-500 ppm for 3 h. Conclusion: These results indicated that basil essential oils have larvicidal activity towards Anopheles larvae. Therefore, could be affordable way to control this mosquito.

  13. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  14. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey; Pooja Singh; Nijendra Nath Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.), Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic) agents.

  15. Comparative studies on the activity of basil--an essential oil from Ocimum basilicum L.--against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas by using different test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalchenova, G; Obreshkova, D

    2003-07-01

    The essential oil basil is obtained from the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. After gas chromatographic separation, the following components were identified: linalol (54.95%), methylchavikol (11.98%), methylcinnamat (7.24%) and linolen (0.14%). The activity of basil against multidrug resistant clinical isolates from the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas has been studied. For this purpose, standard and modified broth macrodilution methods were used and time kill kinetic of basil was studied. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reported between 0.0030% and 0.0007% (v/v). These concentrations were compared with the inhibitory concentrations (ICs) and the logs of the bacterial counts reduction both obtained by basil diluted in 1% Tween (Tw) 80, saline test solution (STS) and spiritus vini (Sv) 95 degrees instead in a broth. The data, obtained after application of different methods of investigation and validated with membrane filtration, showed a strong inhibitory effect of basil on the test bacteria. The chosen bacteria are widespread and pose serious therapeutic difficulties because of their high level of resistance. For this reason, the results obtained were considered encouraging. PMID:12732427

  16. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation. PMID:26797599

  17. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Sydney H. ALVES; Rudi Weiblen; Luciane T. Lovato

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were add...

  18. UV‐B is Required for Normal Development of Oil Glands in Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet Basil)

    OpenAIRE

    IOANNIDIS, DAPHNE; Bonner, Lynda; Johnson, Christopher B.

    2002-01-01

    Plants of Ocimum basilicum L. grown under glass were exposed to short treatments with supplementary UV‐B. The effect of UV‐B on volatile essential oil content was analysed and compared with morphological effects on the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In the absence of UV‐B, both peltate and capitate glands were incompletely developed in both mature and developing leaves, the oil sacs being wrinkled and only partially filled. UV‐B was found to have two main effects on the glandular t...

  19. Determinação de óleos essenciais de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L.), orégano (Origanum vulgare L.) e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L.) Determination of essential oils of basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.), oregano (Ocimum gratissimum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Borges; Pereira, J.; M.G. Cardoso; Alves, J. A.; E.M.P. Lucena

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização de plantas frescas e secas (comerciais) de alfavaca, orégano e tomilho, a obtenção dos óleos essenciais através do método de arraste a vapor e a quantificação dos compostos químicos por CG/EM. As plantas frescas e as secas comerciais foram submetidas às análises de umidade, extrato etéreo, proteína, fibra bruta, cinzas, extrato não nitrogenado, valor calórico, teor de óleo essencial e identificação dos compostos majoritários através da c...

  20. Kinetics of drying of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L. in the infrared Cinética de secagem de folhas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. via infravermelho

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    Renata C. dos Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to model the drying curves of the leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in the infrared at temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 ºC and to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on the color of dried leaves. Drying was conducted in infrared dryer with temperature and greenhouse air circulation. Experimental data were fitted to eight mathematical models. The magnitude of the coefficient of determination (R², the mean relative error (P, the estimated mean error (SE and chisquare test (χ2 were used to verify the degree of fitness of the models. From the study it was concluded that: a the behavior of the drying curves of basil leaves was similar to most agricultural products, the drying times in the infrared were less than the drying times in an oven with air circulation, b the mathematical drying model proposed by Midilli et al. (2002 was the one which best adjusted to the experimental data, c the diffusion coefficient ranged from 9.10 x 10-12 to 2.92 x 10-11 m² s-1 and d the color of the samples was highly influenced by drying, becoming darker due to loss of chlorophyll with increasing temperature.Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar, modelar as curvas de secagem das folhas de Manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. por infravermelho nas temperaturas de 50, 60, 70 e 80 ºC e avaliar a influência das temperaturas de secagem na cor das folhas desidratadas. A secagem foi conduzida em secador infravermelho com controle de temperatura e em estufa com circulação de ar. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados oito modelos matemáticos. As magnitudes do coeficiente de determinação (R², do erro médio relativo (P, do erro médio estimado (SE e do teste do qui-quadrado (χ² foram utilizadas para verificar o grau de ajuste dos modelos. Do estudo concluiu-se que: a o comportamento das curva s de secagem das folhas de manjericão foi semelhante ao da maioria dos produtos agrícolas; os tempos de secagem no infravermelho

  1. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil and monoterpenes

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    Thaís F. Kubiça

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV. The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay; b pre-treatment of the cells; or c post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation. The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration, IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50. Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 µgmL-1 and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 µgmL-1 showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05 in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  2. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  3. Molecular characterisation and similarity relationships among iranian basil (Ocimum basilicum L. accessions using inter simple sequence repeat markers Caracterização molecular de acessos de Ocimum basilicum L. por meio de marcadores ISSR

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    Mohammad Aghaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of genetic relationships is a prerequisite for plant breeding activities as well as for conservation of genetic resources. In the present study, genetic diversity among 50 Iranian basil (Ocimum basilicum L. accessions was determined using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Thirty-eight alleles were generated at 12 ISSR loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 3.17. The maximum number of alleles was observed at the A7, 818, 825 and 849 loci, and their size ranged from 300 to 2500 bp. A similarity matrix based on Jaccard's coefficient for all 50 basil accessions gave values from 1.00-0.60. The maximum similarity (1.00 was observed between the "Urmia" and "Shahr-e-Rey II" accessions as well as between the "Urmia" and "Qazvin II" accessions. The lowest similarity (0.60 was observed between the "Tuyserkan I" and "Gom II" accessions. The unweighted pair- group method using arithmetique average UPGMA clustering algorithm classified the studied accessions into three distinct groups. All of the basil accessions, with the exception of "Babol III", "Ahvaz II", "Yazd II" and "Ardebil I", were placed in groups I and II. Leaf colour was a specific characteristic that influenced the clustering of Iranian basil accessions. Because of this relationship, the results of the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA approximately corresponded to those obtained through cluster analysis. Our results revealed that the geographical distribution of genotypes could not be used as a basis for crossing parents to obtain high heterosis, and therefore, it must be carried out by genetic studies.O estudo das relações genéticas é um pré-requisito para atividades em reprodução de plantas assim como para conservação de recursos genéticos. Neste trabalho a diversidade genética entre 50 acessos de Manejericão Iraniano (Ocimum basilicum L. foram determinadas usando marcadores de Seqüência Simples Repetida Interna (ISSR

  4. Elevation of serum pancreatic amylase and distortion of pancreatic cyto-architecture in type 1 diabetes mellitus rats treated with Ocimum gratissimum

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    Okon Uduak Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus has been shown to cause severe impairment in exocrine pancreatic function and cyto-architecture. Ocimum grattissimum has been reported to lower blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic animals. This study, therefore, aims to investigate if treatment with O. grattissimum can alleviate these pancreatic complications of diabetes mellitus. The phytoconstituents and median lethal dose of the plant extract were determined. Materials and Methods: Eighteen rats were divided into three groups of six rats each. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin. Group 1 was the control and were given normal feed only; Group 2 was of diabetic untreated rats, while Group 3 was O. grattissimum-treated diabetic rats at a dose of 1,500 mg/kg. After 28 days, blood was collected by cardiac puncture of the anaesthetised animals and the serum was obtained for analysis of serum pancreatic amylase. Permanent preparations using routine biopsy method were employed for histological preparations. Results: Results showed that the level of pancreatic serum amylase in the test groups (diabetic and diabetic-treated were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than the control group, while the diabetic-treated group was significantly lower than the diabetic group. Atrophic acinar tissue without β-cells was noted in the diabetic and diabetic-treated groups. Patchy areas of necrosis, oedematous interstitium, haemorrhagic and necrotic acinar cells were present in diabetic-treated groups. Conclusion: Direct association exists between the hyperglycaemic state caused by diabetes mellitus and the elevation of the serum pancreatic amylase and distortion of pancreatic cyto-achitecture. O. grattissimum-treatment reduced serum pancreatic amylase level to near normal and limit the extent of structural damage.

  5. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds. Influence of intercropping on phytomass and essential oil production in basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T.L.S. Maia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Regional de Montes Claros- MG. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com doze repetições, compreendendo seis tratamentos: manjericão + cenoura, manjericão + alface, manjericão solteiro, hortelã + cenoura, hortelã + alface e hortelã solteira. A produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial da hortelã não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Para o manjericão, apenas a massa fresca variou significativamente com os tratamentos.Medicinal plants produce their active principles according to environmental stimuli; thus, the presence of other plants may affect the synthesis of secondary compounds. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of intercropping on phytomass and essential oil production in basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.. The study was carried out in the experimental field of the Center for Agriculture, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros Campus, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with twelve replicates and six treatments: basil + carrot, basil + lettuce, sole crop of basil, mint + carrot, mint + lettuce, and sole crop of mint. Phytomass and essential oil production in mint were not affected by the treatments. As regards basil, only fresh matter significantly varied with treatments.

  6. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. PMID:27451148

  7. Murcha do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum no Brasil: agente causal, círculo de plantas hospedeiras e transmissão via semente Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum wilt in Brazil: causal agent, host range and seed transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2007-06-01

    representam o mais provável veículo de introdução e potencial disseminação deste patógeno no Brasil.Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L is one of the most important vegetable crops in the family Lamiaceae, being employed mainly as a source of essential oils for the pharmaceutical industry. Samples of plants showing symptoms of wilt, stem blight and collar root rot were collected during the 2005 hot rainy season in the rural area of Brazlândia (Federal District in central Brazil. Two other samples displaying identical symptoms were collected under greenhouse and field conditions in Ponte Alta (DF. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum was consistently isolated in all samples. Pathogenicity tests were conducted using seedlings and stem cuttings of the O. basilicum cultivars 'Dark Opal' and 'Italian Large Leaf' as well as accessions of the species O. americanum L, O. campechianum Mill., Origanum manjorana L., O. vulgare L., Mentha arvensis L., Coleus blumei Benth., Leonorus sibiricus L. and Leonotis nepetaefolia (L. W.T. Aiton. All isolates were highly virulent on O. basilicum cultivars, whereas O. campechianum and O. americanum cultivars reacted with a slight vascular browning and with a very mild reduction in plant growth rate. All isolates were considered avirulent to O. manjorana, O. vulgaris, M. arvensis, C. blumei, L. sibiricus and L. nepetaefolia accessions. The experimental data indicated that the causal agent of this disease is the fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici. This is the first formal report of this pathogen in Brazil. The remaining seeds from commercial lots that were sowed in the areas where the pathogen was first described were evaluated for the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici. This fungus was detected in four out of six seed lots and the seed-derived isolates were able to induce similar set of symptoms in the same group of plant accessions. This result strongly suggests that this new disease in Brazil was most likely introduced into the country via

  8. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  9. Antioxidant potential of oregano (Oreganum vulgare L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.): application of oleoresins in vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré; Neuza Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Studies have been carried out in order to increase the stability of vegetable oils due to economic and health protection reasons. There is a growing interest in the addition of natural antioxidants; especially herbs and spices. For this reason, this study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant potential of the oleoresins of oregano, basil, and thyme, as well as their behavior when applied to soybean oil under various concentrations. Firstly, the antioxidant activity was determined by the β-carot...

  10. Foliar sprays of citric acid and salicylic acid alter the pattern of root acquisition of some minerals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Noushin eGhazijahani; Ebrahim eHadavi; Byoung Ryong eJeong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of two levels of citric acid (0 and 7 mM) and two levels of salicylic acid (0 and 1mM) combined with two levels of nutrient solution strength (full strength and half strength) on mineral acquisition by sweet basil were investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design arrangement with three replications. Salicylic acid alone reduced the plant height and thickened the stem. Plants supplied with a full strength solution had a ticker stem, p...

  11. Foliar sprays of citric acid and salicylic acid alter the pattern of root acquisition of some minerals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazijahani, Noushin; Hadavi, Ebrahim; Jeong, Byoung R.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of two levels of citric acid (CA; 0 and 7 mM) and two levels of salicylic acid (SA; 0 and 1 mM) combined with two levels of nutrient solution strength (full strength and half strength) on mineral acquisition by sweet basil were investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design arrangement with three replications. SA alone reduced the plant height and thickened the stem. Plants supplied with a full strength solution had a ticker stem, prod...

  12. PROXIMATE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCIMUM VIRIDIS LEAF AND OCIMUM GRATISSIUM LEAF

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    Abdurahman F.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the proximate content, concentration of some micro/macro elements and the phytochemistry of Ocimum viridis (scent leafs and Ocimum gratissimum (jaw’s mallow leafs with the view of updating its usage in orthodox and herbal medicine by man in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and wound healing. The leaves sampled of Ocimum viridis and Ocimum gratissimum were collected from Zannari, Jere L.G.A, Borno state, Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using methods of Association of Analytical Chemist and the results showed that Ocimum viridis has higher dry matter (99.70%, crude protein (12.48%, Nitrogen free extract (2.03%, Ash (6.5% and fats (7.0%. While carbohydrate (83.40%, crude fibre (45.50% and moisture content (0.4% were estimated to be higher in Ocimum gratissimum. The levels of eight (8 elements (Ca, F, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results revealed higher concentration in Ocimum gratissimum except for iron and manganese concentration which are higher of the elements understudy in Ocimum viridis only the lead was not detected in the samples by the methodology employed for the analysis. The concentration of anions (nitrates, phosphates and sulphates was estimated using the Smart Spectro Spectrophotometer. It shows that, Ocimum viridis has higher concentration of 11.08 mg/g and 7.04 mg/g in nitrates and sulphates respectively. And Ocimum gratissimum has higher concentration of phosphates 6.28 mg/g. The phytochemicals and some heavy and trace elements as well as a few anions were evaluated using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of both the fresh and dry leafs revealed the presence of very high cardiac glycosides and the flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates shows difference in variation of the leafs. And alkaloids were found to be absence in both fresh and dry leafs. The elemental content obtained

  13. chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay; Kumar; Pandey; Pooja; Singh; Nijendra; Nath; Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance.The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz.,Ocimum basilicum Linn.(alt.Ocimum basilicum var.minimum,Ocimum basilicum var.purpurience).Ocimum campechianum Mill.,Ocimum canum Sims.(Ocimum americanum),Ocimum citriodorum,Ocimum gratissimum Linn.,Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn..Ocimum micranthum Willd.,Ocimum sanctum Linn.,(alt.Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.),Ocimum selloi Benth..Ocimum trichodon,Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions.A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found,which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors.Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial,antioxidant,repellent,insecticidal,larvieidal,nematicidal and therapeutic(anti-inflammatory,antinociceptive,antipyretic,antiulcer,analgesic,anthelmintic,anticarcinogenic,skin permeation enhancer,immunomodulatory,cardio-protective,antilipidemic) agents.

  14. Antioxidant potential of oregano (Oreganum vulgare L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.: application of oleoresins in vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been carried out in order to increase the stability of vegetable oils due to economic and health protection reasons. There is a growing interest in the addition of natural antioxidants; especially herbs and spices. For this reason, this study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant potential of the oleoresins of oregano, basil, and thyme, as well as their behavior when applied to soybean oil under various concentrations. Firstly, the antioxidant activity was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and by the quantification of total phenolic compounds. Next, different concentrations of oleoresins (500 to 3000 mg.kg-1 were added to the soybean oil, and its antioxidant potential was analyzed using the oxidative stability through a Rancimat equipment. The value of 3000 mg.kg-1 of thyme and oregano oleoresins was the concentration that presented the greatest oxidative stability to soybean oil making them a natural alternative to vegetable oil conservation.

  15. Foliar sprays of citric acid and salicylic acid alter the pattern of root acquisition of some minerals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazijahani, Noushin; Hadavi, Ebrahim; Jeong, Byoung R

    2014-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of two levels of citric acid (CA; 0 and 7 mM) and two levels of salicylic acid (SA; 0 and 1 mM) combined with two levels of nutrient solution strength (full strength and half strength) on mineral acquisition by sweet basil were investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design arrangement with three replications. SA alone reduced the plant height and thickened the stem. Plants supplied with a full strength solution had a ticker stem, produced more biomass, and showed higher values of Fv/Fm. Some changes in the uptake pattern of some nutrients, especially boron and sulfur, were noticed. Higher boron concentrations in leaves were in plants sprayed with a combination of 7 mM CA and 1 mM of SA. Applying combination of CA and SA was more effective than using them individually that suggests an effective synergism between them. PMID:25400645

  16. Foliar sprays of citric acid and salicylic acid alter the pattern of root acquisition of some minerals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin eGhazijahani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar application of two levels of citric acid (0 and 7 mM and two levels of salicylic acid (0 and 1mM combined with two levels of nutrient solution strength (full strength and half strength on mineral acquisition by sweet basil were investigated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design arrangement with three replications. Salicylic acid alone reduced the plant height and thickened the stem. Plants supplied with a full strength solution had a ticker stem, produced more biomass, and showed higher values of Fv/Fm. Some changes in the uptake pattern of some nutrients, especially boron and sulfur, were noticed. Higher boron concentrations in leaves were in plants sprayed with a combination of 7 mM citric acid and 1 mM of salicylic acid. Applying combination of citric acid and salicylic acid was more effective than using them individually that suggests an effective synergism between them.

  17. Murcha do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum) no Brasil: agente causal, círculo de plantas hospedeiras e transmissão via semente Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) wilt in Brazil: causal agent, host range and seed transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Ailton Reis; Bruno Eduardo Cardoso Miranda; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2007-01-01

    O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) é uma hortaliça da família Lamiaceae, utilizada na culinária ou como matéria prima para a indústria de fármacos e óleos essenciais. Amostras de plantas de manjericão apresentando sintomas de murcha, seca de hastes e podridão de colo foram coletadas na área rural de Brazlândia (DF) durante a estação chuvosa de 2005. Outras duas amostras foram coletadas em plantas cultivadas em campo aberto e casas de vegetação na região de Ponte Alta (DF). Isolados de um fung...

  18. Chemical composition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil Ocimum sanctum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Beatović Damir V.; Jelačić Slavica Ć.; Oparnica Čedo D.; Krstić-Milošević Dijana B.; Glamočlija Jasmina M.; Ristić Mihailo S.; Šiljegović Jovana D.

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) sin. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or Tulsi basil is a plant originating from tropical and subtropical areas of India. It is used in both the traditional and official medicine in India. Tulsi is a type of basil that is insufficiently explored and studied in Europe. The goal of this paper is to determine the chemical composition, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil Ocimum sanctum L. grown in Serbia. The quantity of essential oil in 100 g o...

  19. Influência da temperatura e velocidade do ar na secagem de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. com relação aos teores de óleos essenciais e de linalol Influence of drying temperature and air velocity related to essential oil and linalol contents of the basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilvaynia Dantas Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a influência de quatro temperaturas de ar de secagem (40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC, em camada fina, e duas velocidades do ar (0,9 e 1,9 m/s sobre o teor de linalol do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. Utilizou-se um secador de bandejas especialmente desenvolvido, no laboratório de Secagem da UESB, Campus de Itapetinga-BA. Foram feitas quatro repetições, com 100 g de folhas frescas em cada uma das cinco bandejas da câmara de secagem. Na extração do óleo essencial, utilizou-se um sistema de destilação por arraste a vapor e a análise do óleo essencial foi realizada em um cromatógrafo conectado a um e espectrômetro de massa (CG-MS. Os maiores rendimentos de óleos essenciais de manjericão foram obtidos no processo de secagem com temperatura do ar igual a 40 ºC e 1,9 m/s de velocidade do ar. Os maiores rendimentos de linalol foram obtidos com temperatura do ar de secagem na faixa de 50 a 60 ºC e 1,9 m/s de velocidade do ar (2,23 e 2,47 ppm, respectivamente. Por análise de regressão, estimou-se que a temperatura de 54,4 ºC e a velocidade de 1,9 m/s forneceriam o maior rendimento de linalol. Concluiu-se que a composição química do óleo essencial do manjericão é afetada tanto pela temperatura como pela velocidade do ar de secagem.This work aimed to study the influence of four thin layer drying temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 ºC and two air velocities (0.9 and 1.9 m/s in the content of linalol of the Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. It was used a tray dryer specially built for this experiment in the drying laboratory of the UESB at the "Campus de Itapetinga-Ba". There were made four repetitions with 100 g of fresh leaves in each one of the five trays in the dry chamber In the extraction of the essential oil, a vapor hauling system was used and the oil analysis was made in a gas chromatographer that was connected to a mass spectrometer (CG-MS. The greatest extracted profits of basil's essential oil were

  20. Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil delivery to swine gastrointestinal tract using gelatin microcapsules coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitprasert, Pakamon; Sutaphanit, Polin

    2014-12-31

    Holy basil essential oil (HBEO) can be applied as a feed additive; however, its benefits depend on the available amount in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the physicochemical properties, including the release properties of three different microcapsules, HBEO-loaded gelatin microcapsules (UC), UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose (CC), and UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-beeswax composite (CB), were compared. The encapsulation efficiency, HBEO content, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity for the microcapsules were 95.4 ± 0.17%, 66.7-67.7%, and 94.3-96.5%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed nonuniform HBEO distributions in honeycomb-like networks in the microcapsules. An X-ray diffraction analysis determined that UC and CC microcapsules were amorphous, but CB microcapsules were semicrystalline. UV-vis spectrophotometer and CLSM analyses results determined that HBEO was released from CC and CB microcapsules in greater amounts than from UC microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid. Therefore, the HBEO amount reaching the intestine can be controlled using the optimal encapsulation system. PMID:25382222

  1. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED SPECIES OF OCIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Joshi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In traditional systems of medicine, different parts of Ocimum have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, chronic fever and insect bite. Morphological and anatomical characters play a vital role in crude drug identification and standardization. In the present study, comparative Pharmacognostical evaluation was performed for the dried leaves powder of selected species of Ocimum such as O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and O. canum. The result from macroscopical, microscopical and powder characters are used for the identification of O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and O. canum. The results throw immense light on the botanical identity of various species of Ocimum which furnish a basis of judging the authenticity of the plant and also to differentiate the drug from its allied species and detect adulterants.

  2. Colored Shade Cloth Affects the Growth of Basil, Cilantro, and Parsley

    OpenAIRE

    Appling, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary experiment evaluated the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs) or mechanical stimulation (brushing) on branching of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cilantro (Coriandrum sativium L.), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill). Dikegulac sodium increased branching in sweet basil up to 400 ppm and thereafter branching decreased compared to control plants. Ethephon increased branching in sweet basil as rate increased up to 500 mg/L compared to control plant...

  3. INFLUENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON OCIMUM BASILICUM L. DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Talmaciu; Corneliu Tanase; Irina Volf; Valentin Popa

    2015-01-01

    The activities and role of phenolic compounds in the plant kingdom are well known. They are especially recognized for their function as plant growth regulators, but also for the important role in the biosynthesis process. Based on that, the aim of this work is to establish the influence of polyphenolic compounds, on the main physiological processes involved in basil cultivation under controlled conditions. Studies were carried out on sweet basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum L.) treated...

  4. Rapid Staining Method to Detect and Identify Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in Basil

    OpenAIRE

    Koroch, Adolfina R.; Villani, Thomas S.; Pyne, Robert M.; Simon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Demand for fresh-market sweet basil continues to increase, but in 2009 a new pathogen emerged, threatening commercial field/greenhouse production and leading to high crop losses. This study describes a simple and effective staining method for rapid microscopic detection of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) from leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum). Methods and Results: Fresh leaf sections infected with P. belbahrii were placed on a microscope slide, cleared wit...

  5. Basil conservation affected by cropping season, harvest time and storage period Armazenamento e conservação de manjericão após diferentes épocas e horários de colheita

    OpenAIRE

    Franceli da Silva; Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos; Nélio José de Andrade; Luiz Cláudio de Almeida Barbosa; Vicente Wagner Dias Casali; Renato Ribeiro de Lima; Ricardo Vaz de Melo Passarinho

    2005-01-01

    Fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is used in food, phytotherapic industry, and in traditional therapeutic, due to its essential oil content and composition. Nevertheless basil can not be kept for long periods after harvest and its quality can be reduced. This work aimed to assess the influence of the season and harvest time in the postharvest conservation of basil stored for different periods. Basil was harvested at 8 am and 4 pm both in August/1999 and January/2000. Cuttings were conditioned...

  6. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-centr...

  7. Potential Activity of Basil Plants as a Source of Antioxidants and Anticancer Agents as Affected by Organic and Bio-organic Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan Anwar Aly TAIE; Zeinab Abd-EL Rahman SALAMA; Radwan, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for fresh or dry leaf, essential oil and seed markets. Recently, basil was shown to rank highest among species and herbal crops for phenolic compounds, essential oils which are associated with decreasing risks of cancer and aging diseases. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential activity of phenolic, flavonoids and essential oil of basil as antioxidant and anticancer activities by application organic and bio-orga...

  8. Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil Influência do horário de colheita, temperatura e tempo de secagem no óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz S de Carvalho Filho; Blank, Arie F.; Péricles B. Alves; Polyana A.D. Ehlert; Alberto S. de Melo; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C. H.; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Renata Silva-Mann

    2006-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil with high concentration of linalool is valuable in international business. O. basilicum essential oil is widely used as seasoning and in cosmetic industry. To assure proper essential oil yield and quality, it is crucial to determine which environmental and processing factors are affecting its composition. The goal of our work is to evaluate the effects of harvesting time, temperature, and drying period on the yield and chemical composition of O. basilicum ess...

  9. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY; RAMACHANDRAN RAMESH KUMAR; ARIGARI NIRANJAN KUMAR; GOGTE SNEHA; MARGARET ELIZABETH

    2012-01-01

    Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for the...

  10. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.) Influence of intercropping on phytomass and essential oil production in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    J.T.L.S. Maia; Martins, E. R.; Costa, C. A.; E.O.F. Ferraz; I.C.A. Alvarenga; I.T. Souza Júnior; S.V. Valadares

    2009-01-01

    As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.). O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universida...

  11. Influência da temperatura e velocidade do ar na secagem de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) com relação aos teores de óleos essenciais e de linalol Influence of drying temperature and air velocity related to essential oil and linalol contents of the basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rilvaynia Dantas Soares; Modesto Antonio Chaves; Arienilmar Araujo Lopes da Silva; Marcondes Viana da Silva; Betânia dos Santos Souza

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a influência de quatro temperaturas de ar de secagem (40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC), em camada fina, e duas velocidades do ar (0,9 e 1,9 m/s) sobre o teor de linalol do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L). Utilizou-se um secador de bandejas especialmente desenvolvido, no laboratório de Secagem da UESB, Campus de Itapetinga-BA. Foram feitas quatro repetições, com 100 g de folhas frescas em cada uma das cinco bandejas da câmara de secagem. Na extração do óleo essencial, u...

  12. Rapid Staining Method to Detect and Identify Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii in Basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfina R. Koroch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Demand for fresh-market sweet basil continues to increase, but in 2009 a new pathogen emerged, threatening commercial field/greenhouse production and leading to high crop losses. This study describes a simple and effective staining method for rapid microscopic detection of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii from leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum. Methods and Results: Fresh leaf sections infected with P. belbahrii were placed on a microscope slide, cleared with Visikol™, and stained with iodine solution followed by one drop of 70% sulfuric acid. Cell walls of the pathogen were stained with a distinct coloration, providing a high-contrast image between the pathogen and plant. Conclusions: This new staining method can be used successfully to identify downy mildew in basil, which then can significantly reduce its spread if identified early, coupled with mitigation strategies. This technique can facilitate the control of the disease, without expensive and specialized equipment.

  13. Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil Influência do horário de colheita, temperatura e tempo de secagem no óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    José Luiz S. Carvalho Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil with high concentration of linalool is valuable in international business. O. basilicum essential oil is widely used as seasoning and in cosmetic industry. To assure proper essential oil yield and quality, it is crucial to determine which environmental and processing factors are affecting its composition. The goal of our work is to evaluate the effects of harvesting time, temperature, and drying period on the yield and chemical composition of O. basilicum essential oil. Harvestings were performed 40 and 93 days after seedling transplantation. Harvesting performed at 8:00 h and 12:00 h provided higher essential oil yield. After five days drying, the concentration of linalool raised from 45.18% to 86.80%. O. basilicum should be harvested during morning and the biomass dried at 40ºC for five days to obtain linalool rich essential oil.Óleo essencial de Ocimum basilicum L. com alta concentração de linalol é valorizado no mercado internacional e amplamente usado na indústria de condimentos e cosméticos. Para garantir excelente qualidade e rendimento de óleo essencial é crucial a determinação do efeito dos fatores ambientais e de processamento na sua composição. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do horário de colheita, da temperatura e do tempo de secagem no teor e na composição química do óleo essencial de O. basilicum. Colheitas foram realizadas aos 40 e 93 dias após transplantio das mudas. Colheitas realizadas às 8:00 h e 12:00 h proporcionaram os maiores rendimentos de óleo essencial. Ao quinto dia de secagem o teor de linalol no óleo essencial subiu de 45,18% para 86,80%. O. basilicum deve ser colhido pela manhã e a biomassa deve ser seca a 40 ºC por um período de cinco dias para obter óleo essencial rico em linalol.

  14. Basil Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii): Discoveries and Challenges Relative to Its Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyenandt, Christian A; Simon, James E; Pyne, Robert M; Homa, Kathryn; McGrath, Margaret T; Zhang, Shouan; Raid, Richard N; Ma, Li-Jun; Wick, Robert; Guo, Li; Madeiras, Angela

    2015-07-01

    Basil (Ocimum spp.) is one of the most economically important and widely grown herbs in the world. Basil downy mildew, caused by Peronospora belbahrii, has become an important disease in sweet basil (O. basilicum) production worldwide in the past decade. Global sweet basil production is at significant risk to basil downy mildew because of the lack of genetic resistance and the ability of the pathogen to be distributed on infested seed. Controlling the disease is challenging and consequently many crops have been lost. In the past few years, plant breeding efforts have been made to identify germplasm that can be used to introduce downy mildew resistance genes into commercial sweet basils while ensuring that resistant plants have the correct phenotype, aroma, and tastes needed for market acceptability. Fungicide efficacy studies have been conducted to evaluate current and newly developed conventional and organic fungicides for its management with limited success. This review explores the current efforts and progress being made in understanding basil downy mildew and its control. PMID:25894318

  15. Genetic association for oil yield and its component traits in different Ocimum species

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    R. Ramesh Kumar , , L. Prasanna Anjaneya Reddy and Rajendra Prasad Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ocimum belonging to family Lamiaceae is a medicinal aromatic plant that produces essential oils used for various aromatic and medicinal purposes. The present study on genetic correlation and path-coefficient was carried out in 20 lines belonging to four different Ocimum species i.e. O. basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum to identify component traits facilitating indirect selection. The yield traits (herb yield, oil content and oil yield revealed strong genetic association among them exhibiting positive direct path of herb yield (0.729 and oil content (0.532 towards oil yield that were having high positive genetic correlation of 0.792 and 0.726 respectively. All the component traits, except plant height,number of branches/ plant, number of seeds/ inflorescence and canopy spread showed positive association with oil yield and can be used for indirect selection for higher oil yield in Ocimum.

  16. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K. [Synthetic and Surface Science Laboratory, Ajmer (India)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E{sub B}), ocimum canum (E{sub C}) and ocimum sanctum (E{sub S}). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E{sub B} is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution.

  17. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (EB), ocimum canum (EC) and ocimum sanctum (ES). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, EB is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution

  18. Antioxidant Activity of The Ancient Herb, Holy Basil in CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnusam, Yuvaraj; Louis, Therasilin; Madhavachandran, V; Kumar, Suresh; Thoprani, Neelam; Hamblin, Michael R.; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy

    2015-01-01

    An herbal preparation called “holy basil plus herbal powder” (HBPP) containing Ocimum santum, Withania somnifera, Pongamia pinnata, Plumbago indica, Emblica officinalis and Curcuma longa was investigated as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent. The antioxidant activity of HBPP was investigated in rats with liver injury induced by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride:olive oil (1:1). HBPP was administered orally at 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days before. HBPP exhibited statistically sig...

  19. Effects of Cultivation System and Fertilization on Seedling Production of Ocimum basilicum L. and Mentha spicata L.

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia AKOUMIANAKI-IOANNIDOU; Marina RASOULI; Lamprini PODAROPOULOU; Ioannis KARAPANOS; Dimitrios BILALIS

    2015-01-01

    The demand for aromatic plants as ornamentals and sources of essential oils has increased recently. A float system is a promising alternative method of seedling production. Two cropping systems, float and conventional (seed bed), and two nutrient solution formulations, one organic and one inorganic, were evaluated for Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Mentha spicata (spearmint) seedling production. Basil seedlings grown in float system had better or comparable growth of shoots and leaves with thos...

  20. Some of the Regenerative Properties of the Aqueos Extract of Ocimum sanctum on the Cytoarchitecture of the Liver of Adult Female Wistar Rats Following Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage

    OpenAIRE

    S.B. Mesole; Y.G. Mohammed; C. Nyaribo; J. Olusakin; A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate some of the regenerative properties of Ocimum sanctum on the cytoarchitecture of the liver of adult female wistar rats following paracetamol induced liver damage. There is a lack of good hepatoregenerative drugs in modern medicine to aleviate and treat drug-induced liver damage. Leaves of sacred holy basil, also called Green Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), belonging to family Lamiaceae are used traditionally for their hepatoregenerative effect. We wanted...

  1. High Frequency Pulsatile Electromagnetic Fields and Ultrasound Pulsatile Fields Impact on Germination Dynamic at Ocimum basilicum L. and O. basilicum var. purpurascens Benth., Observed with Open Source Software’s

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan ONAC; Valentin SINGUREANU; Gelu MOLDOVAN; Rodica UNGUR

    2016-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum sp.), generally knowned as “king of herbs” due to its pharmaceutical and culinary properties, is considered to be a native plant derived from Africa and Asia. Ocimum sp. grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions with more than 50 species knowned till present time. Germination percent of Ocimum sp. is considered to be between 85-95%. Even though Ocimum sp. are considered to have fast germination velocity index (GVI), short mean germination time (MGT) and increased seedling vigor...

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF WASTE GENERATED FROM SANCTUM SANCTORUM

    OpenAIRE

    Korla Swapnavahini; Tanuku Srinivas; Pinapathruni Lokesh Kumar; Manjeti Shanthi Kumari; Tholapi Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    The waste originated in temples is presently piled up at one place and then disposed off in water bodies or dumped on land to decay, leading to water and soil pollution. The present work aims to determine the biogas yield and nutrient reduction potential of Ocimum sanctum (basil) leaf waste obtained from temples. Laboratory scale digesters of 2.5 L capacity were used and fed with basil leaf waste, which was digested in a batch reactor for a retention period of 30 days at room temperature. Pr...

  3. Morphological and chemical variability of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-01-01

    Morphological features of 17 sweet basil cultivars as well as essential oil content and composition were determined. The study clearly indicated great variability of Ocimum basilicumL. The content of essential oil in the dried herb was high and varied from 0.75% (O. basilicumvar. piperita) to 1.89% (O. basilicumvar. cinnamon). Based of the primary components, three chemotypes were distinguished: citral (‘Lime’, ‘Lemon’ and var. citriodorum), E-methyl cinnamate/linalool (‘Licorice’, var. c...

  4. Morphological and chemical variability of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of 17 sweet basil cultivars as well as essential oil content and composition were determined. The study clearly indicated great variability of Ocimum basilicumL. The content of essential oil in the dried herb was high and varied from 0.75% (O. basilicumvar. piperita to 1.89% (O. basilicumvar. cinnamon. Based of the primary components, three chemotypes were distinguished: citral (‘Lime’, ‘Lemon’ and var. citriodorum, E-methyl cinnamate/linalool (‘Licorice’, var. cinnamon and methyl chavicol (‘Tai’.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud; Mohamed Deabes; Lamia Abou El-Kassem; Mona Khalil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and anal...

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF WASTE GENERATED FROM SANCTUM SANCTORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korla Swapnavahini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The waste originated in temples is presently piled up at one place and then disposed off in water bodies or dumped on land to decay, leading to water and soil pollution. The present work aims to determine the biogas yield and nutrient reduction potential of Ocimum sanctum (basil leaf waste obtained from temples. Laboratory scale digesters of 2.5 L capacity were used and fed with basil leaf waste, which was digested in a batch reactor for a retention period of 30 days at room temperature. Preliminary results indicate that the process is effective in reducing the pollution potential of the basil waste. The process removed up to 73% and 42% of total solids and BOD, respectively, along with biogas production.

  7. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities. PMID:26880438

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT BASIL OILS

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    H.C. Srivastava, Pankaj Shukla, Ajay Singh Maurya and Sonia Tripathi*

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; tanethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 80-150 μL/L and from 200-500 μL/L respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200-400 μL/L and from 250-500 μL/L respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.

  9. Anti-acetylcholinesterase potential and metabolome classification of 4 Ocimum species as determined via UPLC/qTOF/MS and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M A; Ezzat, S M; Salama, M M; Tadros, M G

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum (sweet basil) is a plant of considerable commercial importance in traditional medicine worldwide as well as for the flavor and food industry. The goal of this study was to examine Ocimum extracts anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and to correlate the activity with their secondary metabolites profiles via a metabolome based ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) approach coupled to chemometrics. The metabolomic differences in phenolics from leaves derived from 4 Ocimum species: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum americanum and Ocimum minimum were assessed. Under optimized conditions, 81 metabolites were identified including 21 hydroxy cinnamic acids, 4 benzoic acid conjugates, 14C/O flavonoid conjugates, 2 alcohols, 5 acyl sugars, 4 triterpenes and 12 fatty acids. Several salviolanic acid derivatives including salviolanic acid A, B, C & I found in Salvia, were found in Ocimum herein for the first time. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were further used for comparing and classification of samples. A clear separation among the four investigated Ocimum species was revealed, with O. africanum samples found most enriched in hydroxy cinnamates conjugates (HC) and flavonoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for compositional differences among Ocimum leaves via a metabolomic approach revealing that among examined species O. africanum leaves present a better source of Ocimum bioactive metabolites. The anticholinesrase activity of examined species was further assessed with a potent IC50 values for O. americanum, O. africanum, O. basilicum ranging from 2.5 to 6.6mg/ml, whereas O. minimum was least active with IC50 of 31.4mg/ml. Furthermore, major HC i.e., caftaric, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids identified in extracts via UPLC-MS analysis exhibited IC50 values of 24, 0.5 and 7.9mg/ml respectively

  10. Potential Activity of Basil Plants as a Source of Antioxidants and Anticancer Agents as Affected by Organic and Bio-organic Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Anwar Aly TAIE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for fresh or dry leaf, essential oil and seed markets. Recently, basil was shown to rank highest among species and herbal crops for phenolic compounds, essential oils which are associated with decreasing risks of cancer and aging diseases. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential activity of phenolic, flavonoids and essential oil of basil as antioxidant and anticancer activities by application organic and bio-organic fertilization. A pot experiment was conducted. Basil seeds were grown, with three levels of organic fertilizers (compost in presence or absence of biofertilizer. Growth parameters, pigments content, total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of methanolic plant extract were examined. Application of 50% compost and 50% sand in the presence of biofertilizer resulted in enhancement fresh and dry weights, total phenolics, total flavonoids and pigment content as compared with compost alone. The constituents of essential oils extracted by hydrodistilation of basil leaves were identified by GLC. Eleven components of essential oils were identified. The highest value of antioxidant and anticancer activities were obtained in basil plants grown in 50% and 75% compost treatments in the presence of biofertilizer. These results emphasized the important of bioorganic fertilizers for enhancement the antioxidant activity of phenolics, flavonoids, and essential oils of basil plant extract.

  11. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

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    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-central of Iran (Isfahan province were investigated. The hydro-distillated oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yields were obtained from the aerial of Purple with 0.56 ml/100 g dry matter and the aerial of Green with 0.48 ml/100 g dry matter. Results indicated significant differences (p < 0.01 among the aerial for the main constituents in the essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial of Purple landrace were methyl chavicol or estragol (63.32% and linalool (7.96%. The main compositions of the essential oil from the aerial of Green landrace were methyl chavicol (31.82%, geranial (24.60% and neral (22.65%. Genarlly, a comparison of our results with the previous reports suggests differences in the essential oil compositions and oil yield of the plant material could be attributed to genetic diversity in two Iranian landraces of sweet basil.

  12. Repellent Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora Extracts on Rabbit Skin against Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Koech Peter Kiplang’at; Richard W. Mwangi

    2013-01-01

    Vector borne diseases are the major public health problems in developing countries particularly in tropics. Essential oils from plants can provide the safe and biodegradable alternatives to synthetic repellents, but plant-based repellent formulations available in the market are not effective. The purpose of the study was to investigate mosquito repellent activities of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) extracts. Different con...

  13. Mosquito Repellent Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Essential Oils From Striga hermonthica, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum basilicum Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gabi Baba; A.O. Lawal; Hauwa B. Sharif

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals and compare the mosquito repellent activities of essential oils from Hyptis spicigera, Striga hermonthica and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. The global threat of malaria to human race and the need to control its advances is on the focus. Mosquito is the target being the primary host in the spread of malaria. Alkaloids, saponnins, steroids, tannins and terpenoi...

  14. Sorghum bicolor; Cinnamomum zeylanicum; Ocimum gratissimum; Alternative control; Germination and seed pathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Duarte Cardoso; Marco Eustáquio de Sá; Kuniko Iwamoto Haga; Flávio Ferreira da Silva Binotti; Débora Cristiane Nogueira; Walter Veriano Valério Filho

    2014-01-01

    The use of seeds of B. brizantha has increased, however, the physiological quality of seeds available to the producer is still a limiting factor for a good performance culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by chemical scarification, different periods of aging and priming on physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha cv. MG-5 Victory. The seeds were subjected to chemical scarification – H2SO4 (presence and absence), artificial aging period...

  15. Sorghum bicolor; Cinnamomum zeylanicum; Ocimum gratissimum; Alternative control; Germination and seed pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Duarte Cardoso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of seeds of B. brizantha has increased, however, the physiological quality of seeds available to the producer is still a limiting factor for a good performance culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by chemical scarification, different periods of aging and priming on physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha cv. MG-5 Victory. The seeds were subjected to chemical scarification – H2SO4 (presence and absence, artificial aging periods (zero, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours at 41 ° C and priming using the 0,2 KNO3 % (presence and absence for two hours at 25 º C, creating a completely randomized design in factorial 2x8x2, with four repetitions. The seeds were evaluated by testing germination and vigor. Chemical scarification is an effective method for breaking dormancy, but decreases the physiological seed. Overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha occurs with the use of artificial aging for non-scarified and scarified seeds. Priming generally has no effect on the physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha, however, it provides less loss of cellular constituents.

  16. Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Basil and Spearmint Against Two Major Pyralid Pests of Stored Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Hassiotis, C N; Andreadis, S S; Porichi, A-E E

    2015-04-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. and spearmint Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) were tested against two major stored products pests Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Various oil doses (0.5, 2.5, 5, 50, 250, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µl/liter air), for an exposure period of 24 h, were tested. The essential oils were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed that the major compounds were for spearmint oil carvone (67.1%) and limonene (+1,8 cineole; 14.3%) and for basil oil linalool (45.9%), 1,8 cineole (16.7%) and eugenol (10.3%). Apart from a few exceptions, no significant differences in insecticidal action were observed between basil and spearmint oil. Both oils were highly effective against adult moths, given that notable mortality (>80%) was recorded after exposure to low doses such as 2.5 µl/liter. Noteworthy, egg mortality was also recorded, reaching 73-79% for basil and 56-60% for spearmint. Toxicity data indicated that larvae and pupae were the most tolerant stages in all cases. Larval mortality never exceeded 21 and 18%, for basil and spearmint, respectively, irrespective of moth species. Basil and spearmint oils displayed mortalities as high as 38 and 28% in pupae. Lethal doses (LD50 and LD99) values were estimated via probit analysis. Developmental stage proved to be a significant factor, whereas the effect of oil species on insect mortality was insignificant. With the exception of adult individuals, basil and spearmint oils did not show satisfactory overall insecticidal activity against E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella. PMID:26470193

  17. In silico Sequence Analysis, Homology Modeling and Function Annotation of Ocimum basilicum Hypothetical Protein G1CT28_OCIBA

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    Sobia Idrees

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum is commonly known as sweet basil and belongs to the Lamiaceae Family. Ocimum basilicum has great therapeutic benefits and can be used for lowering blood pressure, as an antispasmodic as well as cleansing the blood. In the present study, subcellular localization prediction suggested that it is a cytoplasmic protein. We predicted the 3D structure of protein using homology modeling as 3D structure prediction approach. 3D structure of the protein was determined using Protein Structure Prediction Server (PS2 selecting MODELLER as 3D structure prediction method. Quality analysis of the model indicated that it is a reliable model. Furthermore, it was discovered that Ocimum basilicum hypothetical protein G1CT28_OCIBA is involved in two biological processes, oxidation reduction and metabolic process and the biochemical function of the protein is acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor, catalytic activity and oxidoreductase.

  18. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels

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    Sajad MIJANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this survey were to determine the effect of temperature on germination and seedling growth of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae family as well as comparing species regarding germination behavior and growth characteristics. Seeds were germinated on a temperature-gradient bar varying between 5 and 40 °C (with 5 °C intervals. Results indicated that the highest germination percentage of hyssop (92-98%, sweet basil (86-90% and oregano (74-77% occurred at 20-30 °C, 25-30 °C and 20-30 °C, respectively; therefore, moderate and warm temperatures are proper for germination of all species. In all species the maximum germination rate obtained at 30 °C. Among all species, Day 10 % of Sweet basil Germination had the lowest value, which indicates faster germination. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling or maximum were estimated by the segmented model. Base temperature (Tb was calculated for hyssop, sweet basil and oregano as 3.42, 5.70 and 5.46 °C, respectively. Optimal temperature (To calculated for all species was approximately 30°C, So warmer temperatures are much more proper for them. The species showed different maximum temperatures (Tm from 42.91 (Oregano to 48.05 °C (Hyssop. In Hyssop and Sweet basil optimum growth of seedlings were observed at 30°C while Oregano reached its best growth at 25°C. The difference between maximum and minimum temperatures of germination knowing as temperature range (TR index could show adaptation capability to broad sites for planting and domestication. Regarding this index Hyssop stood in the first place.

  19. Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Alice; Duarte, Ligia M L; Santos, Déborah Y A C

    2011-08-01

    Ocimum basilicum L., popularly known as sweet basil, is a Lamiaceae species whose essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids. The contents of these compounds can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors such as infections caused by viruses. The main goal of this research was an investigation of the effects of viral infection on the essential oil profile of common basil. Seeds of O. basilicum L. cv. Genovese were sowed and kept in a greenhouse. Plants presenting two pairs of leaves above the cotyledons were inoculated with an unidentified virus isolated from a field plant showing chlorotic yellow spots and foliar deformation. Essential oils of healthy and infected plants were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS. Changes in essential oil composition due to viral infection were observed. Methyleugenol and p-cresol,2,6-di-tert-butyl were the main constituents. However, methyleugenol contents were significantly decreased in infected plants. PMID:21922932

  20. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analyses of Red and Green Morphs of Sweet Basil Grown in Full Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Sara; Tattini, Massimiliano; Brunetti, Cecilia; Guidi, Lucia; Gori, Antonella; Marzano, Cristina; Landi, Marco; Sebastiani, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), one of the most popular cultivated herbs worldwide, displays a number of varieties differing in several characteristics, such as the color of the leaves. The development of a reference transcriptome for sweet basil, and the analysis of differentially expressed genes in acyanic and cyanic cultivars exposed to natural sunlight irradiance, has interest from horticultural and biological point of views. There is still great uncertainty about the significance of anthocyanins in photoprotection, and how green and red morphs may perform when exposed to photo-inhibitory light, a condition plants face on daily and seasonal basis. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of the green-leaved Tigullio (TIG) and the purple-leaved Red Rubin (RR) exposed to full sunlight over a four-week experimental period. We assembled and annotated 111,007 transcripts. A total of 5,468 and 5,969 potential SSRs were identified in TIG and RR, respectively, out of which 66 were polymorphic in silico. Comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes showed 2,372 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) clustered in 222 enriched Gene ontology terms. Green and red basil mostly differed for transcripts abundance of genes involved in secondary metabolism. While the biosynthesis of waxes was up-regulated in red basil, the biosynthesis of flavonols and carotenoids was up-regulated in green basil. Data from our study provides a comprehensive transcriptome survey, gene sequence resources and microsatellites that can be used for further investigations in sweet basil. The analysis of DEGs and their functional classification also offers new insights on the functional role of anthocyanins in photoprotection. PMID:27483170

  1. Effect of Thymus serpyllum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils on the shelf-life of chicken’s meat during refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of chicken’s thighs meat after application of Thymus serpyllum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils with combination of vacuum packaging and EDTA treatment. The microbiological quality of control samples without vacuum packaging, vacuum packed with and without EDTA treatment, vacuum packed and treated with EDTA and samples treated with the essential oils of basil and breckland thyme were followed for 16 days. Microbiological ...

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil Ocimum sanctum L.

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    Beatović Damir V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae sin. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or Tulsi basil is a plant originating from tropical and subtropical areas of India. It is used in both the traditional and official medicine in India. Tulsi is a type of basil that is insufficiently explored and studied in Europe. The goal of this paper is to determine the chemical composition, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil Ocimum sanctum L. grown in Serbia. The quantity of essential oil in 100 g of herb (v/w is 0.68%, with 41 components identified in the tested essential oil. The most represented chemical group are sesquiturpene hydrocarbonates with 80.47%. Other groups were much less represented. Sesquiturpene hydrocarbonate β-cariophyllene is a predominant component in the essential oil with 63.80%. The quantity of tested essential oil needed to achieve 50% of inhibition of DPPH radicals is 0.35 μg/ml, and it has high potential to neutralize free radicals. The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity to all tested strains of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative. It affected all strains in an inhibitory way in the interval 0.34-41.50 μl/ml, and in a bactericide way within the range 22.50-124.5 μl/ml. The most sensitive strains of bacteria are Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, while Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococus faecalis showed greatest resistance. The essential oil exhibited antifugal activity on all tested fungi. It affected all tested fungi in an inhibitory way in the interval 4.42-8.83 μl/ml, and in a microbicide way within the range 10.00-50.00 μl/ml. The most sensitive fungi are: Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicilium funiculosum, while the most resistent one is Aspergillus niger. The tested basil essential oil Ocimum sanctum demonstrated significant antioxidative and antimicrobial effect and may be used as a raw material in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  3. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P components other than chicoric acid contribute to the hypoglycemic activity of the two extracts. Despite the abundance of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in OB, their hypoglycemic activity observed at 8.3 μmol/kg was low. This is the first chemical profile of crude extracts from Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. PMID:27218231

  4. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

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    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  5. Effects of Cultivation System and Fertilization on Seedling Production of Ocimum basilicum L. and Mentha spicata L.

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    Anastasia AKOUMIANAKI-IOANNIDOU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for aromatic plants as ornamentals and sources of essential oils has increased recently. A float system is a promising alternative method of seedling production. Two cropping systems, float and conventional (seed bed, and two nutrient solution formulations, one organic and one inorganic, were evaluated for Ocimum basilicum (basil and Mentha spicata (spearmint seedling production. Basil seedlings grown in float system had better or comparable growth of shoots and leaves with those grown in seedbeds, irrespective of the fertilization, whereas spearmint organic fertilization reduced the growth of the aboveground parts of the seedlings, regardless of the cropping system. By contrast, fertilization treatments on both species’ seedling grown in float system showed better root length and higher root biomass accumulation. The survival percentage of seedlings after transplanting, as well as the subsequent growth of plants, were not seriously affected by the cropping system of the fertilization method during transplant production. Overall, we conclude that a float system can be used for the production of Ocimum basilicum and Mentha spicata seedlings under organic or inorganic fertilization.

  6. Technoeconomic evaluation of urban plant factories: The case of basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaros, Stelios; Botsis, Konstantinos; Xydis, George

    2016-06-01

    Greece is currently in a turmoil, experiencing the effects of more than half a decade of economic crisis. Public health and welfare, jobs and wages, labor market concerning employment as long as employability of the work force, inequality, life satisfaction and housing, tourism and environment, economic and energy poverty are heavily impacted by Greece's disadvantageous economic situation. Real estate market could not have gotten away from the financial commotion, being currently in a halt after years of rapid decline. Fired from the present situation of Greece's real estate market, the present study is concerned with the investigation of alternative ways to support the local real estate market. With respect to sustainable development's ethics, the development, implementation, installation and operation of small, inexpensive plant factories within the urban environment is evaluated. Installations such are those, will encourage the penetration of a new market for the untapped buildings' resource, advancing new investing opportunities, promoting economic growth and productivity while creating a new labor market. The study will rely on the basic principles of Life Cycle Costing Assessment and develop a methodology upon which different scenarios will be evaluated against the "Do Nothing" scenario. PMID:26950636

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. herb

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    Hadush Gebrehiwot

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: So, the study has showed that the observed antimicrobial effect of O. basilicum essential oil on the bacterial and fungal isolate, though in vitro appear interesting and promising. So, emphasize have to made on the antimicrobial activities of the plant during the time of drug extraction. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 869-875

  8. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BASIL PLANTS (Ocimum basilicum L.) UNDER DIFFERENT IRRADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. POLYAKOVA; Yu, Ts; T.A. DILOVAROVA; A.A. KOSOBRYUKHOV

    2015-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of growing plants in phytotrons is largely linked to the introduction of advanced technologies, providing the optimization of the light conditions. The use of modern light sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) or induction lamps can reduce the energy consumption for growing plants due to the high light output, long work and control of the spectrum of irradiation. Comparative studies of growth processes and activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants of B...

  9. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir

    OpenAIRE

    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga; Suresh Rao; Manoj P Rai; Prema D'souza

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal...

  10. New studies on basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.) seed gum: Part II-Emulsifying and foaming characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji-Tabasi, Sara; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-20

    BSG is composed of two major fractions with different molecular weight: PER-BSG (5980kgmol(-1)) and SUPER-BSG (1045kgmol(-1)). In the present work, the emulsifying and foaming properties of BSG and its fractions were investigated as a function of molecular weight, chain flexibility and physicochemical features (protein and acid uronic content). BSG prevented creaming of emulsion for 4 weeks. This high stabilization may be related to formation a solid-like structure and viscoelastic film of BSG around oil droplets which protected oil droplets against aggregation. The low molecular weight fraction (SUPER-BSG) created more stable emulsion than high molecular weight fraction (PER-BSG). The foam capacity and stability of albumin solution increased by adding BSG. The highest foam stability was observed at the highest gum concentration (0.3% w/v). Removing protein moieties of BSG led to emulsion and foam stabilization properties of BSG weakened, which presents the importance of protein in emulsifying and foaming properties of BSG. PMID:27261739

  11. Multivariable parameter optimization for the endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 from Ocimum gratissimum seed

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    Mithu Das

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction effects of the physico-chemical parameters on the endoglucanase (CMCase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 on a cellulosic agro-residue by the solid-state fermentation (SSF and to determine their optimum values by the EVOP factorial design technique. The best combination of physical parameters for the maximum production of the endoglucanase (CMCase was 28ºC temperature, 79% relative humidity and 4.8 pH of the medium. The best combination of the chemical parameters was (mg/L nicotinic acid 15, naphthalene acetic acid 7, ferric chloride 5 and Tween-80 6. With the application of this technique, the yield of the CMCase increased by ~ 2.3 fold.

  12. Optimization of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process regarding the antioxidant activity

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    Vidović Senka S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of input variables (temperature and extraction solvent that optimize a particular response (total phenols content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process were determined by the response surface methodology (RSM. The influence of theextraction temperature on extraction process was investigated in the range from 33.8ºC to 76.2ºC, as well as of extraction solvent ethanol, in the range of concentrations from 21.7% to 78.3%. For the preparation of basil dry extract, characterized with minimal IC50 value, the calculated optimal values of temperature and ethanol concentration were: 75.33ºC and 73.66% (w/w. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  13. Altered growth and polyamine catabolism following exposure of the chocolate spot pathogen Botrytis fabae to the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Senga K; Svoboda, Katja P; Walters, Dale R

    2005-01-01

    Biomass of the fungal pathogen Botrytis fabae in liquid culture amended with two chemotypes of the essential oil of basil, Ocimum basilicum, was reduced significantly at concentrations of 50 ppm or less. The methyl chavicol chemotype oil increased the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), but polyamine concentrations were not significantly altered. In contrast, the linalol chemotype oil decreased AdoMetDC activity in B. fabae, although again polyamine concentrations were not altered significantly. However activities of the polyamine catabolic enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) were increased significantly in B. fabae grown in the presence of the essential oil of the two chemotypes. It is suggested that the elevated activities of DAO and PAO may be responsible, in part, for the antifungal effects of the basil oil, possibly via the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent triggering of programmed cell death. PMID:16392245

  14. Repellent Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora Extracts on Rabbit Skin against Aedes aegypti

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    Koech Peter Kiplang’at

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases are the major public health problems in developing countries particularly in tropics. Essential oils from plants can provide the safe and biodegradable alternatives to synthetic repellents, but plant-based repellent formulations available in the market are not effective. The purpose of the study was to investigate mosquito repellent activities of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum, Neem (Azadirachta indica and Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora extracts. Different concentrations of the extracts were tested for mosquito repellency on rabbit skin as the host of Aedes aegypti. Laboratory reared starved females were used for the tests and data collection was done by observational parameters based on frequency of mosquito landing and blood engorgement. Synergised Crude oleoresin extract of Pyrethrum and Ballet mosquito repellent® were included as positive test controls and Vaseline pure petroleum jelly® as a negative test control. The results showed that synergised Pyrethrum oleoresin showed complete protection at 0.1% as compared to Lemon Eucalyptus oil and Sweet Basil oil at 2% and 3% respectively (p<0.05. Neem oil and Ballet did not provide complete protection. The mean percent repellency of 5% Neem oil was 84.21 and that of Ballet was 66.84 (p<0.05. Sweet basil and Lemon Eucalyptus oils can be alternative to Pyrethrum as natural mosquito repellents from plant origin.

  15. Effect of Water Stress and Storage Time on Anthocyanins and Other Phenolics of Different Genotypes of Fresh Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María C; Bekhradi, Farzaneh; Ferreres, Federico; Jordán, María J; Delshad, Mojtaba; Gil, María I

    2015-10-28

    This study describes the effect of water stress and storage time on the content of anthocyanins and other phenolics in different genotypes of fresh sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Purple and green Iranian cultivars and a Genovese variety were exposed to a control (100% of the field capacity, FC) and to water stress of mild and severe deficit irrigation treatments (25 and 50 DI corresponding to 75 and 50% FC, respectively). The individual characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and the MS fragmentation pathway of anthocyanins are described. A 50% increase in the anthocyanin content was observed in 50 DI after storage. Water stress markedly enhanced the content of phenolic acids after storage in the three genotypes. Water stress can be an efficient way to help the sustainability of water resources, enriching the content of phenolic compounds that may be beneficial to human health. PMID:26473474

  16. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita

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    Eleni Fitsiou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Pimpinella anisum (anise and Fortunella margarita (kumquat. GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4% in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9% in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1% in anise, and limonene (93.8% in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  17. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-01-01

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma. PMID:27537869

  18. Cultivo de manjericão em hidroponia e em diferentes substratos sob ambiente protegido Culture of basil in substrata and hydroponic systems under protected environment

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    Priscila C. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre as ervas aromáticas, o manjericão possui importância econômica no Brasil, sendo seu consumo tanto in natura quanto para processamento industrial, na obtenção de óleo essencial. Porém, as informações quanto à qualidade aromática dessas plantas em função das técnicas de cultivo são escassas. Avaliou-se a produtividade de duas espécies de manjericão, de folha estreita (Ocimum minimum L. e de folha larga (Ocimum basilicum L. em ambiente protegido. Os sistemas de cultivo utilizados foram: 1 hidroponia (floating; 2 substrato preparado e 3 substrato comercial. As amostragens foram realizadas durante o período de florescimento das plantas. O experimento foi realizado em Campinas (SP, em casa de vegetação com controle de umidade e iluminação naturais, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram avaliados também o rendimento e composição química dos óleos essenciais das plantas. O sistema hidropônico apresentou a maior produtividade de massa verde, aproximadamente 44% superior aos outros dois tipos de cultivo, para ambas as espécies estudadas. Não houve diferença significativa entre as formas de cultivo quanto ao rendimento e composição química dos óleos essenciais dentro da mesma espécie. Quanto à produção de óleo essencial, as plantas de manjericão de folha estreita apresentaram rendimento aproximadamente 10% mais elevado em relação às de folha larga, além de diferenças significativas na composição dos óleos essenciais entre as espécies.Among the aromatical herbs, basil is of great economic importance in Brazil. This species is used as fresh herb and also for essential oil extraction. To evaluate the productivity of basil in protected environment, two species, Ocimum minimum L. (narrow leaf basil and Ocimum basilicum L. (wide leaf basil were cultivated under greenhouse conditions, using a hydroponic system and two types of substrata. The experiment was

  19. Structure and reaction mechanism of basil eugenol synthase.

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    Gordon V Louie

    Full Text Available Phenylpropenes, a large group of plant volatile compounds that serve in multiple roles in defense and pollinator attraction, contain a propenyl side chain. Eugenol synthase (EGS catalyzes the reductive displacement of acetate from the propenyl side chain of the substrate coniferyl acetate to produce the allyl-phenylpropene eugenol. We report here the structure determination of EGS from basil (Ocimum basilicum by protein x-ray crystallography. EGS is structurally related to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs, and in particular, enzymes in the isoflavone-reductase-like subfamily. The structure of a ternary complex of EGS bound to the cofactor NADP(H and a mixed competitive inhibitor EMDF ((7S,8S-ethyl (7,8-methylene-dihydroferulate provides a detailed view of the binding interactions within the EGS active site and a starting point for mutagenic examination of the unusual reductive mechanism of EGS. The key interactions between EMDF and the EGS-holoenzyme include stacking of the phenyl ring of EMDF against the cofactor's nicotinamide ring and a water-mediated hydrogen-bonding interaction between the EMDF 4-hydroxy group and the side-chain amino moiety of a conserved lysine residue, Lys132. The C4 carbon of nicotinamide resides immediately adjacent to the site of hydride addition, the C7 carbon of cinnamyl acetate substrates. The inhibitor-bound EGS structure suggests a two-step reaction mechanism involving the formation of a quinone-methide prior to reduction. The formation of this intermediate is promoted by a hydrogen-bonding network that favors deprotonation of the substrate's 4-hydroxyl group and disfavors binding of the acetate moiety, akin to a push-pull catalytic mechanism. Notably, the catalytic involvement in EGS of the conserved Lys132 in preparing the phenolic substrate for quinone methide formation through the proton-relay network appears to be an adaptation of the analogous role in hydrogen bonding played by the equivalent

  20. High Frequency Pulsatile Electromagnetic Fields and Ultrasound Pulsatile Fields Impact on Germination Dynamic at Ocimum basilicum L. and O. basilicum var. purpurascens Benth., Observed with Open Source Software’s

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    Ioan ONAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum sp., generally knowned as “king of herbs” due to its pharmaceutical and culinary properties, is considered to be a native plant derived from Africa and Asia. Ocimum sp. grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions with more than 50 species knowned till present time. Germination percent of Ocimum sp. is considered to be between 85-95%. Even though Ocimum sp. are considered to have fast germination velocity index (GVI, short mean germination time (MGT and increased seedling vigor index (SVI values, their experimental monitoring is done with specialized software’s that are expensive. Low cost scientific solutions are keen on open source software germination protocols. For observing the accuracy of open source C.A.D. software’s Ocimum sp. seeds where submitted to high frequency pulsatile electromagnetic fields (300 impulses/3 peak penetrance - 293 W and ultrasound pulsatile fields (1/2 pulses by 0.5 W/cm2. All sequence images where taken using a positive/negative photo filter enhancing differences in seed development. At the end of the experiment all images where transformed into vector formats (dwg. On the dwg extension, selective free plug-ins such as Face Centroid and Area Properties help to collect data like seed development on X/Y scale, area, perimeter, no. of germinated seeds, length of seedling root, hypocotyl length.

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats

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    Kingshuk Lahon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of reliable hepatoprotective drugs in modern medicine to prevent and treat drug-induced liver damage. Leaves of Sacred/Holy Basil, i.e. Green Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum, belonging to family Lamiaceae are used traditionally for their hepatoprotective effect. We wanted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum and observe whether synergistic hepatoprotection exists with silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats (150-200 g were divided into five groups. Groups A and B were normal and experimental controls, respectively. Groups C, D and E received the alcoholic extract of Ocimum Sanctum leaves (OSE 200 mg/kg BW/day, silymarin 100 mg/kg BW/day and OSE 100 mg/kg BW/day + silymarin 50 mg/kg BW/day p.o., respectively, for 10 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in Groups B, C, D and E on the eighth day with paracetamol 2 g/kg BW/day. The hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum proteins, albumin globulin ratio, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases and liver histopathology. The assay results were presented as mean and standard error of mean (SEM for each group. The study group was compared with the control group by one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferoni′s test. A P-value of <0.01 was considered significant. Results: In groups C, D and E, liver enzymes and albumin globulin ratio were significantly (P < 0.01 closer to normal than in group B. Reduction in sinusoidal congestion, cloudy swelling and fatty changes and regenerative areas of the liver were observed on histopathological examination in groups C, D and E, whereas group B showed only hepatic necrosis. Conclusion: The Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract shows significant hepatoprotective activity and synergism with silymarin.

  2. Comparative reproduction mechanisms of three species of Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Oziegbe; Temitope Olatayo Kehinde; Joshua Olumide Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum species have a combination of reproductive system which varies with the locality and cultivar. We have studied here the reproductive mechanisms of five variants of three Ocimum species in Nigeria, namely: Ocimum canum Sims., O. basilicum L., and O. americanum L. Flowers from each variant were subjected to open and bagged pollination treatments of hand self-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination and emasculation. All open treatments of the five Ocimum variants produced more fruit and...

  3. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  4. Antipsychotic Potentials of Ocimum sanctum Leaves

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    Renu Kadian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antipsychotic potential of Ocimum sanctum in experimental animal models. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g and albino mice (25-30 g were used for the study. The antipsychotic effect of the Ocimum sanctum was evaluated on haloperidol induced catalepsy, cooks pole climbing apparatus, locomotor activity on actophotometer, ketamine induced stereotype behavior. Different groups of rats were fed orally with a specially prepared diet containing various concentrations (2% w/w, 4% w/w and 8% w/w of Ocimum sanctum leaves paste (OCLP for 15 consecutive days. Further, the biochemical estimations were done by estimating brain dopamine levels. The OCLP produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p. induced catalepsy in rats, significantly increased the time taken by the rat to climb the pole in dose dependent manner, significantly decreased the locomotor activity. The OCLP significantly decreased ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p. induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. Ocimum sanctum leaves paste (OCLP significantly decreased the brain dopamine levels. The results suggest that OCLP posse’s antipsychotic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to anti-dopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent.

  5. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Twelve Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivars Grown in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Beatović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of twelve Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars grown in Serbia. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields ranged from 0.65 to 1.90 %. A total of 75 compounds were identified as constituents of analyzed essential oils. GC/MS analyses revealed that a majority of the examined basil cultivars belonged to the “linalool chemotype”. The results of the DPPH assay showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the basil oils, which was especially high for Blue Spice cultivar (IC 50 = 0.03 m g/mL. Significant antimicrobial activity was shown for all the tested oils. Essential oil of Compact cultivar was the most active against the bacterium Micrococcus flavus, with an MIC value of 0.009 m g/mL while Osmin cultivar exhibited the strongest antifungal activity with MIC values ranging from 0.08-1.07 m g/mL . All the examined essential oils showed a 10- to 100-fold greater ability to inhibit fungal growth compared to commercial antifungal agents.

  6. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra FAKHAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of TSS, TA, TSS/TA ratio, firmness, ascorbic acid, antioxidant and delayed weight loss and color changes compared to control. However, the fruit treated with 300 µl/l concentration had essence flavor compared to control. Inconclusion, the use of basil essential oil is an effective tool on maintaining postharvest quality and storage life of plum fruits.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeferson C. Nascimento; Luiz C. A. Barbosa; Vanderlucia F. Paula; David, Jorge M.; Renato Fontana; Luiz A.M. Silva; Robson S. França

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons,...

  8. Comparative reproduction mechanisms of three species of Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Oziegbe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum species have a combination of reproductive system which varies with the locality and cultivar. We have studied here the reproductive mechanisms of five variants of three Ocimum species in Nigeria, namely: Ocimum canum Sims., O. basilicum L., and O. americanum L. Flowers from each variant were subjected to open and bagged pollination treatments of hand self-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination and emasculation. All open treatments of the five Ocimum variants produced more fruit and seed than the corresponding bagged treatments. The two O. canum variants and O. basilicum ‘b1’ produced high fruit and seed set in the open and bagged treatments of spontaneous self-pollination. Ocimum basilicum ‘b2’ and O. americanum produced higher fruit and seed set in the self-pollination open treatment but significantly lower fruit and seed set in the bagged treatment. Fewer fruit and seeds were produced in the emasculated open treatments but none in the emasculated bagged treatments of the five Ocimum variants. The floral foragers comprising of bees, wasps and butterflies visited the Ocimum species to collect pollen or nectar in the open treatments. The two O. canum variants and O. basilicum ‘b1’ variant reproduced mainly through autogamy but O. basilicum ‘b2’ and O. americanum showed mixed reproduction of autogamy and outcrosssing. Insect visitation to the flowers enhanced pollination resulting in higher fruit and seed set in all the Ocimum species studied.

  9. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract induces drought stress tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, M W; Tula, Suresh; Sahoo, R K; Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, J; Tuteja, Narendra; Shukla, Alok

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum leaves are highly enriched in antioxidant components. Thus, its leaf extract, if applied in plants, is believed to efficiently scavenge ROS, thereby preventing oxidative damage under drought stress. Thus, the present study was performed in kharif 2013 and rabi 2014 season to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum against drought stress in 2 rice genotype under glass house conditions. Here we show that various morpho- physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf rolling score, leaf tip burn, number of senesced leaves and total dry matter) and biochemical parameters (proline, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase content) were amended by Ocimum treatment in both the seasons. Application of Ocimum extract increased expression of dehydrin genes, while reducing expression of aquaporin genes in drought stressed rice plant. Thus, application of Ocimum leaf extract under drought stress can be suggested as a promising strategy to mitigate drought stress in economical, accessible and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26890603

  10. Basil Willey, Sixty Years after (October 22, 2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    On the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the foundation of the Danish Association of English Teachers' newsletter, Anglo Files, the essay reconsiders the contents of the first issue from December 1947, Cambridge professor Basil Willey's address to the Association on October 22, 1947, 'Poetr...

  11. Mosquito Repellent Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Essential Oils From Striga hermonthica, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum basilicum Leaf Extracts

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    Gabi Baba

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals and compare the mosquito repellent activities of essential oils from Hyptis spicigera, Striga hermonthica and Ocimum basilicum (Basil against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. The global threat of malaria to human race and the need to control its advances is on the focus. Mosquito is the target being the primary host in the spread of malaria. Alkaloids, saponnins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids were present in all the 3 oils. Cardiac glycosides were detected in both H. spicigera and Striga hermonthica, while anthraquinone and phlobatin were present in Striga hermonthica and Hyptis spicigera, respectively. The FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of C = O, C-l, C-O-C, OH, C-N, S = O and NO2. These correlate with the functional groups in the identified phytochemicals. At 50% concentration, O. basilicum and Hyptis spicigera oil exhibited higher repellant potential on Anopheles gambiae with protection time of 183 and 120 min, respectively, while H. spicigera and S. hermonthica had protection time of 180 and 175 min, respectively against Anopheles gambiae. At 100% concentration, O. basilicum oil exhibited the highest protection time against the two species of mosquito tested and at all the concentrations. O. basilicum was equally potent against Culex quinquefasciatus with 180 min protection time. S. hermonthica had more repellent potential against Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Striga hermontica, Ocimum basilicum and Hyptis spicigera leaf extracts have been confirmed to have potentials as mosquito repellent agents against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus.

  12. Anti epileptic activity of ocimum species: A brief review

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    Chhaya Agarwal, N. L. Sharma, S. S. Gaurav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum species is a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. Ocimum sp. have variety of biological, pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, anthelmentic, antidiarrhoeal, antiinflammatory, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, central nervous system (CNS depressant, antidiabetic, antithyroidic, antioxidant, anticancer, chemopreventive, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, antifertility, antiulcer, antiarthritic, antistress, antileucodermal and anticoagulant activities. Sevral species of Ocimum are used to cure central nervous system (CNS disorders.in various part of the world due to its anticonvulsant property .epilepsy is a chronic disorder which is characterized by seizures. Seizures are resistant to treatment with currently available anticonvulsant drug (AEDs in about one out of three patient with epilepsy. This review refers to the study of ocimum as an antiepileptic drug (AEDs because of its specific anticonvulsant property.

  13. INFLUENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON OCIMUM BASILICUM L. DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Talmaciu; Corneliu Tanase; Irina Volf; Valentina Popa

    2015-01-01

    The activities and role of phenolic compounds in the plant kingdom are well known. They are especially recognized for their function as plant growth regulators, but also for the important role in the biosynthesis process. Based on that, the aim of this work is to establish the influence of polyphenolic compounds, on the main physiological processes involved in basil cultivation under controlled conditions. Studies were carried out on sweet basil seeds (Ocimumbasilicum L.) treated with differe...

  14. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih)

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Dhianawaty; Ramdan Panigoro; Samsudin Surialaga; Pricilla Purushothman

    2012-01-01

    A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Me...

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT BASIL OILS

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. Srivastava, Pankaj Shukla, Ajay Singh Maurya and Sonia Tripathi*

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; tanethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol...

  16. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

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    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  17. Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L

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    MOHAMMAD BAGHER HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 vs. 19.4 % and monoterpenes (27.7 vs. 22.1 %. Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 vs. 18.9 % were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 vs. 15.9 % were the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 vs. 56.7 % was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 vs. 13.1 % was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 vs. 3 %, germacrene D (6.1 vs. 2.7 % and 1,8-cineole (2.4 vs. 3.5 %. There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  18. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system

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    Daniel I. Hădărugă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed–uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC–MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated.

  19. The effect of soil risk element contamination level on the element contents in Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Růžičková Petra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Red Rubin was cultivated in model pot experiment in the soil amended by arsenic, cadmium and lead solutions in stepwise concentrations representing the soil concentration levels of former mining area in the vicinity of Příbram, Czech Republic. The element levels added to the soil reached up to 40 mg Cd, 100 mg As, and 2000 mg Pb per kg of soil. Moreover, essential macro-and microelements as well as cyanidine contents were investigated to assess their potential interactions with the risk elements. The extractable element portions in soils determined at the end of vegetation period differed according to the individual elements. Whereas the plant-available (extractable with 0.11M CH3COOH content of Cd represented 70-100% of the added Cd, the mobile portion of Pb did not exceed 1%. The risk element content in plants reflected the increasing element contents in soil. The dominant element portions remained in plant roots indicating the limited translocation ability of risk elements to the aboveground biomass of this plant species. Although the risk element contents in amended plants significantly increased, no visible symptoms of phytotoxicity occurred. However, the effect of enhanced risk element contents on the essential element uptake was assessed. Considering inter-element relationships, elevated sulphur levels were seen in amended plants, indicating its possible role of phytochelatin synthesis in the plants. Moreover, the molybdenum contents in plant biomass dropped down with increasing risk element uptake by plants confirming As-Mo and Cd-Mo antagonism. The increasing content of cyanidine in the plant biomass confirmed possible role of anthocyanins in detoxification mechanism of risk element contaminated plants and suggested the importance of anthocyanin pigments for risk element tolerance of plants growing in contaminated areas.

  20. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Extracts of Allium sativum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ocimum basilicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Stan; Adriana Popa; Dana Toloman; Teofil-Danut Silipas; Dan Cristian Vodnar

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized by chemical method (coprecipitation) and biological method using aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum),rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and basil (Ocimum basilicum).The influence of plant extract on the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of green synthesized nanoparticles was investigated.The X-ray diffraction studies reveal that all ZnO samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure.The particle size of ZnO NPs estimated by transmission electron microscopy analysis (between 14 and 27 nm) varies depending on the synthesis method of nanoparticles and the type of extracts from the plants used.The functional groups involved in the biosynthetic procedure were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.The presence of Mn2+ ions,Zn vacancy complexes and oxygen vacancies in ZnO samples was highlighted by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.The green synthesized ZnO NPs have shown a good bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains.ZnO NPs synthesized using extracts of the selected plant species have been found to exhibit more enhanced antibacterial and antioxidant activities as compared to chemical ZnO NPs.

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson C. Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e

  2. Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

  3. Antifungal activity ofOcimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) on clinically isolated dermatophytic fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balakumar S; Rajan S; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess antifungal activity ofOcimum sanctum leaves against dermatophytic fungi. Methods: Antifungal activity ofOcimum sanctum leaves was measured by38 A NCCLS method. Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration(MFC) of various extracts and fractions ofOcimum sanctum leaves were also determined.Results:Ocimum sanctum leaves possessed antifungal activity against clinically isolated dermatophytes at the concentration of200μg/mL.MICandMFC were high with water fraction (200 μg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi used.Conclusions:Ocimum sanctum has antifungal activity, and the leaf extracts may be a useful source for dermatophytic infections.

  4. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  5. Comportamento fenotípico e genotípico de populações de manjericão Phenotypic and genotypic behavior of basil populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie F Blank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Genótipos de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. apresentam diferentes teores, rendimentos e composições químicas de óleos essenciais. Fatores influenciam na produção do óleo essencial de manjericão, como a cultivar plantada e o método de cultivo. O estudo dos parâmetros genéticos tem sido ferramenta útil na identificação de genótipos superiores. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estimar alguns parâmetros genéticos associados ao comportamento produtivo de seis populações de manjericão nos anos agrícola 2004/05 e 2005/06. As características massa seca de folha + inflorescência e rendimento de óleo essencial apresentaram grande variabilidade por forte influência dos anos estudados. Já o teor de linalol manteve sua produtividade estável ao longo dos dois anos. Teor e rendimento de óleo essencial e teor de linalol no óleo essencial apresentaram herdabilidades altas na análise conjunta, indicando controle genético e grande possibilidade de serem transmitidas para as gerações futuras. Na análise conjunta as populações PI 197442-S3-bulk 3, PI 197442-S3-bulk 5 e PI 197442-S3-bulk 8 apresentaram os maiores teores e rendimentos de óleo essencial. Quanto ao constituinte químico majoritário do óleo essencial, o linalol, todas as populações apresentaram teores semelhantes, diferindo apenas na presença de alguns constituintes químicos minoritários.Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. genotypes present different contents, yields and chemical constituents in its essential oils. Factors influence the essential oil production of basil, such as cultivar and cultivation method. The study of genetic parameters is a useful tool to identify superior genotypes. In this work we estimated some genetic parameters associated to the production behavior of six basil populations cultivated in 2004/05 and 2005/06. The variables dry weight of leaves + inflorescences and essential oil yield presented high variability because of strong influence of

  6. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4–1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii. PMID:27171554

  7. A teoria de Basil Bernstein: alguns aspectos fundamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Morais

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a reference to the pieces of work that Basil Bernstein considered to have been the landmarks of the evolution of his thought. This is followed by a detailed description of the two models that contain the main concepts of his theory – Model of Cultural Reproduction and Transformation and Model of Pedagogic Discourse – where the theoretical meaning of these models and concepts is explained and where are given some examples of how to put them into practice at the level of pedagogic texts and contexts. The article also includes the most recent developments of Bernstein’s thought by explaining his ideas about the forms discourses can take – Vertical and Horizontal Discourses. Finally, Bernstein’s theory is approached within the framework of the empirical research, highlighting his epistemological positioning and explicating the methodological model that he suggested should be the driving force of any theory.

  8. Basil as functional and preserving ingredient in "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Soković, Marina; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-15

    Antitumor, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of basil were studied, along with its characterization in phenolic compounds, organic acids and soluble sugars. The results placed basil as a valuable candidate for functionalization and conservation of food products, maintaining their nutritional properties, while increasing their shelf life and potential health effects. The basil leaves were then incorporated in "Serra da Estrela Cheese", either in its dehydrated form or as a decoction. The cheeses were then subject to a nutritional evaluation, being characterized for their fatty acids, minerals and CIE color parameters. To assess the combined effects of plant incorporation and storage time, a 2-way ANOVA was used to process the results, further analysed through a linear discriminant analysis. Overall, basil leaves provided antioxidant activity to the cheeses, reduced the moisture, and preserved the unsaturated fatty acids and proteins. Comparing both incorporation types, the decoctions had a higher functionalizing and conservative effect. PMID:27080879

  9. acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L

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    A Lagarto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial tóxico de un extracto acuoso liofilizado fue evaluado mediante el ensayo de toxicidad aguda oral y subcrónica a 90 días en ratas Wistar de ambos sexos. Los métodos empleados fueron los descritos por las normas OECD. En el ensayo agudo se administró por vía oral la dosis de 2000 mg/kg y en el ensayo subcrónico 250, 500 y 1000 mg/kg/día durante 13 semanas. Se evaluaron los signos tóxicos y peso corporal en ambos ensayos. En el estudio subcrónico además se evaluó el consumo de alimentos, indicadores hematológicos (hemoglobina, hematocrito, recuento diferencial de leucocitos, recuento total de leucocitos y recuento total de eritrocitos y bioquímica clínica (glucosa, alanino amino transferasa, aspartato amino transferasa, colesterol, urea, bilirrubina y creatinina. También se realizó necropsia y examen histopatológico de órganos y tejidos (corazón, riñón, hígado, bazo, cerebro, pulmón, estómago, intestino, timo, glándulas suprarrenales, tiroides, paratiroides, páncreas, glándulas salivales, ganglio cervical, testículos, vesículas seminales, próstata y ovarios y se determinó el peso relativo de órganos (corazón, riñón, hígado, bazo, cerebro, pulmón, timo, glándulas suprarrenales, próstata, testículos y ovarios. No se apreciaron signos tóxicos ni mortalidad como consecuencia de la administración del liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L. en ninguno de los ensayos. Los parámetros analizados de peso corporal, consumo de alimentos, hematología, bioquímica, peso relativo de órganos y análisis histopatológico de órganos y tejidos no evidenciaron toxicidad significativa atribuible a la sustancia de prueba

  10. EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. IN STRESS INDUCED GASTRIC ULCERS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Vaseem, Ghulam Subhani, Khuteja Afshan, Mazher Ali, Md. Mohiuddin A Khan, Mujtaba T Rumana

    2015-01-01

    Aims & Objectives: Ocimum sanctum L. popularly known as Tulsi is a medicinal plant that has been used for curing various diseases since ages. In the present study we used leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum for its anti-ulcer property by inducing stress ulcers on rats. Materials and Method: Albino rats were randomly allocated to different experimental groups and aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum was given for 7 days. Stress ulcers were induced by restraint and ethanol administered methods and...

  11. La lingua de "Lo Cunto de li cunti" di Giambattista Basile

    OpenAIRE

    Stromboli, Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Il lavoro presenta una descrizione della lingua de Lo cunto de li cunti, raccolta di 50 racconti fiabeschi, scritta da Giambattista Basile e pubblicata, postuma, a Napoli negli anni 1634-36. Il commento linguistico ha la finalità di mostare come, nonostante l’elevato tasso di elaborazione letteraria che caratterizza il testo, la lingua usata da Basile non si discosta dalla fonetica, dalla morfologia, dalla sintassi e dal lessico del napoletano seicentesco. Il lavoro è articolato in sei capito...

  12. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of the Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae

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    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum genus (Lamiaceae presents essential oils used in the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetics and culinary industries. The aim of this paper was to study the fl oral biology and breeding mechanisms of Ocimum canum Sims. in relation to improved plant breeding. Ocimum canum has inflorescences with white, protandrous and hermaphoditic flowers. The osmophores are located at the anthers and stigma. Anthesis occurs between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. The main fl oral visitors were bees of the Apis and Augochloropsis genuses. Ocimum canum presents a breeding system with a predominance of outcrossing that possibly demonstrates the wide reproductive flexibility of this species.

  13. Caracterização morfológica e agronômica de acessos de manjericão e alfavaca Morphologic and agronomic characterization of basil accessions

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    Arie F. Blank

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. pode ser considerado cultura anual ou perene, conforme o local de cultivo. Existem diversas finalidades para seu uso na culinária, como planta ornamental, medicinal e aromática, sendo o seu oleo essencial valorizado no mercado internacional pelo teor de linalol. Caracterizou-se morfológica e agronômicamente, acessos de Ocimum sp. visando a seleção de genótipos com alto rendimento de óleo essencial rico em linalol. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com duas repetições, avaliando 55 genótipos do Banco de Germoplasma de Ocimum da UFS. Avaliou-se a altura de plantas, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, teor e rendimento de óleo essencial. Observou-se grande diversidade entre os genótipos para todas as variáveis morfológicas e agronômicas avaliadas. Houve grande amplitude entre os genótipos quanto ao teor de óleo essencial, variando de 0,202 a 2,536 ml/100g e para o rendimento de óleo essencial, variando de 1,103 a 21,817 l/ha. Avaliando as variáveis teor e rendimento de óleo essencial de O. basilicum pode-se selecionar os genótipos NSL6421, PI197442, PI358464, PI414194, PI531396 e 'Fino Verde' para o programa de melhoramento genético que visa a obtenção de novas cultivares de manjericão com alto rendimento de óleo essencial rico em linalol.The sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., can be an annual or a perennial plant depending on the place where it is grown. This plant has several culinary, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic uses. The value of its essential oil in the international market depends on the percentage of linalool. We characterized the morphologic and agronomic qualities of the Ocimum accessions, to select genotypes with higher yield of essential oil rich in linalool. Experiment design consisted of randomized blocks with two replications, evaluating 55 genotypes of the Germplasm Bank of Ocimum from the Universidade Federal do Sergipe, Brazil. The plant

  14. Basil conservation affected by cropping season, harvest time and storage period Armazenamento e conservação de manjericão após diferentes épocas e horários de colheita

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    Franceli da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is used in food, phytotherapic industry, and in traditional therapeutic, due to its essential oil content and composition. Nevertheless basil can not be kept for long periods after harvest and its quality can be reduced. This work aimed to assess the influence of the season and harvest time in the postharvest conservation of basil stored for different periods. Basil was harvested at 8 am and 4 pm both in August/1999 and January/2000. Cuttings were conditioned in PVC packages and stored for 3, 6, and 9 days. During storage, chlorophyll content, essential oil content and composition were determined as well as microbiological analyses were carried out. Harvest season and the days of storage influenced the final content of essential oil. There was a linear decrease in the content of essential oil, in the chlorophyll content and in the number of mold and yeast colonies during storage. There was no effect of cropping season or harvest hour on essential oil composition, but the eugenol and linalool content increased during storage. Coliforms were under 0.3 MPN g-1 and the number of Staphylococcus aureus was under 1.0x10² UFC g-1.O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é empregado tanto na indústria culinária quanto fitoterápica e na medicina tradicional, devido ao teor e composição de seu óleo essencial. No entanto, o manjericão não pode ser conservado por longo período após a colheita e sua qualidade pode ser prejudicada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da época e do horário de colheita sobre a conservação de manjericão armazenado por diferentes períodos. O manjericão foi colhido às 8h e às 16h em agosto/1999 e em janeiro/2000. Os ramos foram acondicionados em filmes de PVC e armazenados por 3, 6 e 9 dias. Durante o armazenamento, o teor de clorofila, e o teor e a composição do óleo essencial foram determinados e foram conduzidas análises microbiológicas. A época de colheita

  15. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei

    OpenAIRE

    Glinwood Robert; Ghebru Maedot; Ignell Rickard; Dekker Teun; Hopkins Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds inclu...

  16. Ocimum Basilicum: A Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies

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    S. Khair-ul-Bariyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum is a common herb that is known for its ornamental and therapeutic importance. The chemical constituents which have been isolated from the plant include terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponin glycosides and ascorbic acid. It has been reported to be hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, antitoxic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. The present review is aimed to cover the phytochemical study and pharmacological investigations on this important medicinal herb.

  17. ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON OCIMUM SPP IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Agarwal; Vijay R Kumar; Ashwani Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have served as a major source of new pharmaceutical products and relatively in expensive preparatory materials for the production of some very popular drugs. It is evident, from ethnobotanical survey, that indigenous people use wide range of plants therapeutically to maintain their health. Ocimum called Tulsi is the most sacred plant is regarded as a goddess and worshipped as in deity form. Tulsi is not only sacred plant but also possesses therapeutic properties. From ethnobo...

  18. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a...

  19. ETHNOMEDICOBOTANICAL STUDY ON OCIMUM SANCTUM L. (TULSI) - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    BIPLAB KUMAR DASH; MD. MOSHIUL AZAM; A.N.M MAMUN-OR-RASHID; FATEMA BINTE HAFIZ; MONOKESH KUMER SEN

    2013-01-01

    Ethnomedicobotanical study of different plant parts of Ocimum sanctum L., belonging to the family Lamiaceae, popular for its medicinal and religious value in Hinduism of Bangladesh. Methods and materials: This review has been conducted to pile up information that is available in different scientific literatures and this update compendium documentation has focused on some of the traditional and pharmacological aspects and phytochemical constituents. Results: From the result it reveals that wid...

  20. A REVIEW ON KRISHNA TULSI, OCIMUM TENUIFLORUM LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Palla Ravi; A. Elumalai; M. Chinna Eswaraiah; Raju Kasarla

    2012-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum is the most sacred herb in India and it is otherwise called as Krishna tulsi. O.tenuiflorum belongs to Lamiaceae family, which posses various healing medicinal properties for human life. Traditionally the various parts like leaves, flowers and stems are being used in the treatment various disorders such as skin diseases, cold, cough, fever, vomiting, swelling etc. Into this, O.tenuiflorum was reported to have anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antifungal...

  1. SACRED TULSI (OCIMUM SANCTUM L.) IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND PHARMACOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Khosla, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Scared Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum L.) of family Lamiaceae is a wonder ayurvedic herb which is known for its tremendous medicinal properties both in traditional folklore as well as pharmacological system of medicines. Every part of the plant finds its use in one form or the other. Keeping in view the importance of the plant, an attempt has been made to review the various studies carried out in traditional system of medicine as well as modern pharmacological investigations.

  2. A REVIEW ON ETHNOMEDICAL USES OF OCIMUM SANCTUM (TULSI

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    Singh Vishwabhan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional remedies are an integral part of Indian culture. Here we present the result of study of ethnomedicine consist study of ancient medical practice which is native or indigenous to a place. It includes etiology of disease, practitioners and their role in health care, and types of treatment administered. It is a complicated system indulges the use of plants for healing diseases. Recently from few decades back, the use of ethnomedicine come into play as earlier there was fear of dosage, toxicity and composition but today ethnomedicine is integral part of research of new medicinal components. Here is review on ethnomedicinal uses of Ocimum sanctum widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases. Traditionally different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root and even whole plant of Ocimum sanctum herb native to India, suggested for treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, dermal ailments, ophthalmic problems, insect bite etc. Research shown Ocimum sanctum possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic.

  3. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih

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    Diah Dhianawaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Medical Chemistry laboratory Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in 2005. Flavonoids were extracted continually by 95% ethanol, were isolated with paper chromatography/cellulose TLC and 2% acetic acid, then continued with elucidation reagents: n-butanol–acetic acid–water, chloroform–acetic acid–water, forestall, 5%, 15%, 35% and 50% acetic acids. Flavonoids were identified with diagnostic reagents and ultraviolet light. Isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively gave two spots of flavonoids as flavon, FOAc-1 had Rf=0.69 and FOAc-2 had Rf=0.57. The other elucidation reagents gave one spot of flavonoid. In conclusion, isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively and identification with diagnostic reagent and ultraviolet light is a rapid method for identification of flavonoids content in Ocimum sanctum

  4. Biologia reprodutiva de populações de Ocimum selloi Benth Reproductive biology of Ocimum selloi Benth. populations

    OpenAIRE

    R. Facanali; M.M.S. Campos; O. Pocius; L.C. Ming; M.D. Soares-Scott; M.O.M. Marques

    2009-01-01

    Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal no Brasil, encontra-se Ocimum selloi Benth., planta anual herbácea da família Lamiaceae que ocorre nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do país. Este trabalho avaliou os aspectos da biologia floral (estrutura floral, floração e frutificação) e mecanismos reprodutivos de Ocimum selloi em quatro populações oriundas das regiões de Piquete e Apiaí, Estado de São Paulo, Camanducaia, Estado de Minas Gerais, e Colombo, Estado do Paraná. O período de antese teve início ...

  5. Can Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in vitro culture be a potential source of secondary metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, Karuppiah; Gokulanathan, Ananda; Jayanthi, Malayandi; Govindasamy, Vaithiyanathan; Milella, Luigi; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok Chun; Girija, Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    In this study Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (OT) in vitro culture standardisation for increasing eugenol distribution, in comparison to their respective field grown parts was carried out. Eugenol was quantified using an optimised HPLC method and its relation with the total phenolic content (TPC) was measured. In vitro grown leaves and somatic embryos, of both OB and OT were found to contain similar quantities of eugenol (85μg/g approximately), higher than OB and OT field-grown leaves (30.2μg/g and 25.1μg/g respectively). It was also determined that in vitro grown leaves were richer in TPC than the field-grown intact organs. Results demonstrated the prominence of in vitro cultures for eugenol extraction. This study underlines that important food flavouring metabolites (e.g. vanillin, vanillic acids) might be produced, via the eugenol pathway, in Ocimum species that may be a good potential source of eugenol. PMID:26471526

  6. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  7. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Akono Ntonga Patrick; Baldovini Nicolas; Mouray Elisabeth; Mambu Lengo; Belong Philippe; Grellier Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the...

  8. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Ethiopian Indigenous Medicinal Plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar P. Nair; Kumar Ganesan; Henok Gulilat Azalewor; Neethu Letha; Sharmila Banu Gani

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants are the chemical substances which prevent the free radicals damage in the body. Numerous researches are going globally focussed on investigating natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of the present study were to evaluate preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro antioxidant activities of Ethiopian indigenous medicinal plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. Aqueous, benzene and hexane crude leaves extracts of O. lamiifolium and O....

  9. Evaluation of holy basil mouthwash as an adjunctive plaque control agent in a four day plaque regrowth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anirudh B.; Vij, Chhavi; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Setty, Swati B.; Thakur, Srinath L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various antibacterial and antiplaque agents are used in chemical plaque control but none are without their shortcomings. Chlorhexidine considered a gold standard, also has an array of side effects. To overcome these, numerous herbal extracts have been tried and tested and one among them is holy basil. The present study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of holy basil in vitro against some periodontopathogens and its antiplaque effect in vivo. Study Design: Thirty periodontally healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups and refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene measures for 4 days and used one of the randomly assigned mouthwash (1- chlorhexidine; 2- holy basil; and 3- sterile water [placebo]) twice daily. The Plaque Index (PI) was assessed at days 0 and 5. Aqueous extract of holy basil was tested against Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F.nucleatum). Results: Holy basil extract showed inhibition of both the tested periodontopathogens (P.intermedia and F.nucleatum) at various concentrations. In all groups, the PI increased from baseline to day 5. There was a statistically significant difference (p < .05) between the chlorhexidine and placebo rinse and the holy basil and placebo rinse, but no statistically significant difference was found between the chlorhexidine and holy basil rinse with respect to PI. Conclusions: These results indicate that the holy basil mouthwash has an antiplaque effect and is efficacious against P. intermedia and F. nucleatum strains in vitro. Hence holy basil mouthwash may have potential as an antiplaque mouthwash with prophylactic benefits. Key words:Antibacterial agent, basil, Fusobacterium nucleatum, mouthwashes, Prevotella intermedia. PMID:25674314

  10. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and -carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange...

  11. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  12. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

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    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect. Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.

  13. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect). Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants. PMID:25992649

  14. Microbiological Status and Food Safety Compliance of Commercial Basil Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Willeke; Otto, Denise; Korsten, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Basil has been implicated in a number of microbe-associated foodborne illnesses across the world, and the source of contamination has often been traced back to the production and/or processing stages of the supply chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of fresh basil from the point of production to the retail outlet in the Gauteng and Northwest Provinces of South Africa. A total of 463 samples were collected over a 3-month period from two large-scale commercial herb producing and processing companies and three retail outlets. The microbiological quality of the samples was assessed based on the presence or absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium and the levels of the indicator bacteria E. coli and total coliforms. Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on four basil samples (0.9%) arriving at the processing facility and at dispatch, but no E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the study. Total coliform counts were 0.4 to 4.1 CFU/g for basil, 1.9 to 3.4 log CFU/ml for water, and 0.2 to 1.7 log CFU/cm(2) for contact surfaces, whereas E. coli was detected in the water samples and only once on basil. The Colilert-18 and membrane filter methods were used to analyze water samples, and a comparison of results revealed that the Colilert-18 method was more sensitive. Strong evidence suggests that high numbers of coliforms do not necessarily indicate the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium. The study results highlight the importance of effective implementation of food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry. PMID:26735028

  15. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:; María Boffill Cárdenas; Emoe Betancourt Morgado; Raylen Escobar Román; Ignacio Igualada Correa; Bennia Alonso Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium ...

  16. Cholinergic basis of memory improving effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer′s disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Ethanol extract of dried whole plant of O. tenuiflorum Linn. ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg and aging-induced memory deficits in mice. Passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioural model. O. tenuiflorum extract increased step-down latency and acetyl cholinesterase inhibition significantly. Hence, O. tenuiflorum can be employed in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer′s disease.

  17. ETHNOMEDICOBOTANICAL STUDY ON OCIMUM SANCTUM L. (TULSI - A REVIEW

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    BIPLAB KUMAR DASH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicobotanical study of different plant parts of Ocimum sanctum L., belonging to the family Lamiaceae, popular for its medicinal and religious value in Hinduism of Bangladesh. Methods and materials: This review has been conducted to pile up information that is available in different scientific literatures and this update compendium documentation has focused on some of the traditional and pharmacological aspects and phytochemical constituents. Results: From the result it reveals that wide numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant e.g. aesculectin, orientin, vallinin, eugenol, alkanoids and is proved to have potential for medical effects like hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, chemopreventive, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, antipyretic and various other important medicinal properties. Conclusion: The effects of O. sanctum may delay the development some life threating complications and this work stimulates the researchers for further research on the potential use of this medicinal plants having pharmaceutical potential.

  18. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a ‘green’ method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves...

  19. Efficacy of wash solutions in recovering Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii from basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Venessa; Torres, Maria; Ortega, Ynés R

    2014-08-01

    Parasitic diseases can be acquired by ingestion of contaminated raw or minimally processed fresh produce (herbs and fruits). The sensitivity of methods used to detect parasites on fresh produce depends in part on the efficacy of wash solutions in removing them from suspect samples. In this study, six wash solutions (sterile E-Pure water, 3% levulinic acid-3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1 M glycine, 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline, 0.1% Alconox, and 1% HCl-pepsin) were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii from basil. One hundred or 1,000 oocysts of these parasites were inoculated onto the adaxial surfaces of 25 g of basil leaves, placed in stomacher bags, and stored for 1 h at 21°C or 24 h at 4°C. Leaves were hand washed in each wash solution for 1 min. DNA was extracted from the wash solutions and amplified using PCR for the detection of all parasites. Oocysts inoculated at a concentration of 1,000 oocysts per 25 g of basil were detected in all wash solutions. At an inoculum concentration of 100 oocysts per 25 g, oocysts were detected in 18.5 to 92.6% of the wash solutions. The lowest variability in recovering oocysts from basil inoculated with 100 oocysts was observed in 1% HCl-pepsin wash solution. Oocyst recovery rates were higher at 1 h than at 24 h postinoculation. Unlike most bacteria, parasites cannot be enriched; therefore, an optimal recovery process for oocysts from suspected foods is critical. The observations in this study provide guidance concerning the selection of wash solutions giving the highest retrieval of parasite oocysts. PMID:25198596

  20. EFFECTS OF AGRONOMIC VARIABLES AND HINERITANCE ON AROMATIC COMPONENTS IN BASIL AND CHILI PEPPER

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This PhD Thesis focuses on how aroma profile in crops is affected by agronomic and genetic variables. In the first chapter we considered the effects of salt stress on main morphological and physiological traits of two cultivars of sweet basil (Genovese and Napoletano) Specifically, we focused on compositional changes in aroma profile and their possible significance in adaptation and tolerance to the oxidative stress. In the second chapter, we considered the aroma profile of two chilli pep...

  1. Klucz niepamięci: motyw zapomnienia w „Pentameronie” Giambattisty Basile

    OpenAIRE

    Szpilewska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    L’articolo tratta il motivo della dimenticanza dei protagonisti maschili del "Pentamerone" di Giambattista Basile. Questa raccolta barocca di fiabe, dalla forte valenza letteraria, riprende più volte gli archetipi della dimenticanza, presenti nelle fiabe popolari, essendo nello stesso tempo costruita intorno a uno di loro, il che fa di tale oblio maschile la chiave di interpretazione del libro intero. La perdita della persona amata e il tentativo di ristabilire la memoria dell’accaduto sono d...

  2. Cama-de-frango em mono e policultivo de fáfia com cravo-de-defunto e manjericão Poultry manure in mono and intercrop of Brazilian ginseng with marigold and basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenise C Barboza

    2010-09-01

    os policultivos foram efetivos.This study was carried out in field of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, in Dourados, Brazil, during the period from March 2005 to September 2006. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen yield under monocropping system or intercropped with Tagetes erecta L. and Ocimum basilicum L, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol, using semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM. The study objects were Brazilian ginseng (BG, marigold (M and basil (B under monocropping and the intercropping of two Brazilian ginseng, three marigold (BG2M3 and three basil (BG2B3 lines, all of them with or without semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM as fertilizer. Ten treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design, with four replications. Fresh and dry weight production from shoot of Brazilian ginseng were higher (13.22 t ha-1 and 4.39 t ha-1, respectively under monocropping, independently of the use of poultry manure. Nevertheless, none of experimental designs influenced the dry and fresh weight production or root number of Brazilian ginseng which produced average values of 10.02 and 2.07 t ha-1 and 417,916 roots ha-1, respectively. Root diameter was higher (23.5 mm under intercropping system with basil. Dry and fresh weight of marigold flowers were higher (14.28 t ha-1and 1.278 t ha-1, respectively when intercropped with Brazilian ginseng, but only fresh weight of the flowers was increased (14.17 t ha-1 by poultry manure application. Basil shoot production was higher (52.91 t ha-1 when intercropped, independently of the used species; however, they were not influenced by the use of poultry manure. Land equivalent ration (LER for the Brazilian ginseng intercropped with marigold was 2.15 under poultry manure application and 1.99 without it, and for the basil 2.44 under poultry manure application and 3.08 without it. Values higher than 1.0 indicate that the intercropping systems were effective.

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Koba, Koffi; Poutouli, P.W.; Raynaud, Christine; Chaumont, Jean-Pierre; Sanda, Komla

    2009-01-01

    The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and meth...

  4. THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF HOLY BASIL (TULSI) IN GENERAL AND ORAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Bhateja Sumit; Arora Geetika

    2012-01-01

    Nature has bestowed on us a very rich botanical wealth and a large number of diverse types of plants grow in different parts of the country. Plants are the richest resource of drugs in traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. Medicinal plants are a source of great economic value all over the world. Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) is a well-known plant used in the Ind...

  5. Different species of basil need different ammonium to nitrate ratio in hydroponics' system

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    M. SAADATIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a very important medicinal plant and culinary spice, and is marketed fresh, dried or frozen. In crop nutrition, nitrogen is essential for plant growth and as a macro-element, is part of the proteins’ structure and participates in the metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and energy transfer. It has been shown that a balance between ammonium and nitrate favors plant growth and that the degree of benefit varies among crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth of two varieties of basil in function of four nutrient solutions containing different NH4+/NO3- ratios. Results showed that different variety response differently to nutrient solution. Although the highest yield in both varieties (sweet and purple was obtained when fed by nutrient solution without ammonium but their response on quality indices were different due to nitrate ammonium ratio in nutrient solutions. The highest total phenol content of sweet and purple basil was 92 and 100 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight respectively, while the highest antioxidant capacity was obtained in purple variety grown in nutrient solution 2 (NH4+:1/NO3:4 and the lowest value were related to sweet variety with the same nutrient solution. Moderate content of total nitrogen can be suitable for sweet variety while for purple variety nutrient solution with low amount of ammonium can be more suitable.

  6. Higher Potassium Concentration in Shoots Reduces Gray Mold in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermiyahu, Uri; Israeli, Lior; David, Dalia Rav; Faingold, Inna; Elad, Yigal

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional elements can affect plant susceptibility to plant pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea. We tested the effect of potassium (K) fertilization on gray mold in sweet basil grown in pots, containers, and soil. Increased K in the irrigation water and in the sweet basil tissue resulted in an exponential decrease in gray mold severity. Potassium supplied to plants by foliar application resulted in a significant decrease in gray mold in plants grown with a low rate of K fertigation. Lower K fertigation resulted in a significant increase in B. cinerea infection under semi-commercial conditions. Gray mold severity in harvested shoots was significantly negatively correlated with K concentration in the irrigation solution, revealing resistance to B. cinerea infection as a result of high K concentration in sweet basil tissue. Gray mold was reduced following K foliar application of the plants. In general, there was no synergy between the fertigation and foliar spray treatments. Proper K fertilization can replace some of the required chemical fungicide treatments and it may be integrated into gray mold management for improved disease suppression. PMID:25760521

  7. Assessment of volatile profile as potential marker of chilling injury of basil leaves during postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Pace, Bernardo; Cefola, Maria; Martignetti, Antonella; Stocchero, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-12-15

    The volatile profile of three sweet basil cultivars, "Italico a foglia larga", "Cammeo" and "Italiano classico", packaged in air at 4 or 12°C until 9days, was monitored by solid phase microextraction with GC-MS. Chilling injury (CI) score and electrolyte leakage were also assessed. In total, 71 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of basil samples. A preliminary principal component analysis highlighted the dominant effect of the cultivar on VOCs profiles. Data analysis by post-transformation of projection to latent structures regression (ptPLS2) clarified the role played by time and temperature of storage. Temperature influenced the emission of volatiles during storage, with much lower total volatile emissions at 4°C compared to 12°C. Finally, a ptPLS2 regression model performed on VOCs and the two CI parameters allowed selection of 10 metabolites inversely correlated to both CI parameters, which can be considered potential markers of CI in basil leaves. PMID:27451192

  8. Teor, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de manjericão sob doses de cama de frango Content, yield and chemical composition of the essential basil oil under chicken manure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Q Luz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. com alta concentração de linalol é valorizado no mercado internacional e amplamente usado nas indústrias de condimentos e cosméticos. Há poucas informações a respeito do cultivo de manjericão e, portanto o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o teor, o rendimento e a qualidade de óleo essencial de genótipos de manjericão em função de níveis de adubação orgânica com cama de frango nas condições de inverno sob irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental do Glória, pertencente à Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Foram testados cinco níveis de adubação, sendo 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10 kg de cama de frango por m². O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Foram semeados os genótipos Manjericão PI 197442-S3 (G1 e Manjericão NSL 6421-S3 (G2. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilações com aparelho tipo Clevenger modificado. Avaliou-se a altura da planta; comprimento e largura de folha; relação comprimento/largura (C/L; teor e rendimento de óleo essencial, e teor de linalol no óleo essencial extraído de folhas e inflorescências frescas e secas. As doses de adubo influenciaram significativamente o teor de linalol do óleo essencial destilado a partir de parte aérea fresca e seca dos genótipos 1 e 2. As outras variáveis não apresentaram diferenças significativas.Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., essential oil with high linalool content, is appreciated in the international market and widely used in spice and cosmetics industries. There are few informations available for basil cultivation, and therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the content, yield and quality of the essential oil of basil genotypes depending on organic fertilizer levels in the winter and using irrigation. The experiment was carried out in the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Five

  9. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorothe Dinangayi Tshilanda; Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana; Damase Nguwo Vele Onyamboko; Blaise Mavinga Mbala; Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Damien Sha Tshibey Tshibangu; Matthieu Kokengo Bokolo; Kalulu Muzele Taba; Teddy Kabeya Kasonga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Methods:The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results: The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusions:The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.

  10. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  11. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  12. STUDIES ON ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF OCIMUM TENUIFLORUM LINN SEED MUCILAGE

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    Meghana S Kamble

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant products serves as an alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, eco-friendly nature and lower prices compared to important synthetic products. Natural gums and mucilages have been widely explored as pharmaceutical excipient. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate mucilage from the seeds of Ocimum Tenuiflorum Linn and explore its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. Various methods of mucilage extraction were tried and simple, economical and optimum method was developed. Physicochemical properties of Ocimum seed mucilage such as pH, Charring, Swelling Ratio, Bulk and Tapped Densities, Carr's Index and Hausner’s Ratio, Viscosity, Angle of Repose were studied.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum: Extraction Techniques and Urease and alpha-Amylase inhibition

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    *S. Khair-ul-Bariyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, two important medicinal plants of genus Ocimum, O. basilicum and O.sanctum have been compared in a number of phytochemical parameters. Effect of extraction techniques, solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and hydro-distillation, on the yield in different solvents have been investigated. Hydro-distillation gave a better yield of more volatile components than hexane fraction of the other two techniques. Both the plants showed good urease inhibitory activity. Hydro-distillate was stronger inhibitor than hexane or methanolic extracts of solvent or Soxhlet extractions. The extracts of O. basilicumshowed a greater urease activity than extracts of O. sanctum.Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of O. basilicum was also higher than that of O. sanctum. Notably, the synergistic effect of the extracts of the two plants was much higher than their individual efficacy against alpha-amylase. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration. Both the species had almost equal air pollution tolerance index (APTI with O. basilicum(10.558 having slightly higher value than O. sanctum (9.202.Both plants contained alkaloids and phenolics. Both the plants also had almost same nutritional values.

  14. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

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    Hanan A. Soliman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim:The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10. Group (1 fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2 received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt., (400 mg/kg b. wt., and (100 mg/kg b. wt., respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 65-71

  15. Epidermal coumaroyl anthocyanins protect sweet basil against excess light stress: multiple consequences of light attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattini, Massimiliano; Landi, Marco; Brunetti, Cecilia; Giordano, Cristiana; Remorini, Damiano; Gould, Kevin S; Guidi, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    The putative photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins continues to attract heated debate. Strikingly different experimental set-ups coupled with a poor knowledge of anthocyanin identity have likely contributed to such disparate opinions. Here, the photosynthetic responses to 30 or 100% solar irradiance were compared in two cultivars of basil, the green-leafed Tigullio (TG) and the purple-leafed Red Rubin (RR). Coumaroyl anthocyanins in RR leaf epidermis significantly mitigated the effects of high light stress. In full sunlight, RR leaves displayed several shade-plant traits; they transferred less energy than did TG to photosystem II (PSII), and non-photochemical quenching was lower. The higher xanthophyll cycle activity in TG was insufficient to prevent inactivation of PSII in full sunlight. However, TG was the more efficient in the shade; RR was far less able to accommodate a large change in irradiance. Investment of carbon to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was more in RR than in TG in the shade, and was either greatly enhanced in TG or varied little in RR because of high sunlight. The metabolic cost of photoprotection was lower whereas light-induced increase in biomass production was higher in RR than in TG, thus making purple basil the more light tolerant. Purple basil appears indeed to display the conservative resource-use strategy usually observed in highly stress tolerant species. We conclude that the presence of epidermal coumaroyl anthocyanins confers protective benefits under high light, but it is associated with a reduced plasticity to accommodate changing light fluxes as compared with green leaves. PMID:24684471

  16. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim:The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along...

  17. Essential oil composition of sweet basil cultivars as affected by nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    NURZYNSKA-WIERDAK, RENATA; BOROWSKI, Bartlomiej; DZIDA, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to find correlations between the rate of nitrogen and potassium and basil herb quality resulting from essential oil content and composition. An increase in the amount of nitrogen in the nutritional environment of the plants resulted in the enhanced accumulation of essential oil, as well as in a rise in linalool and germacrene D concentration. The present study also showed increased content of essential oil in the herb, as well as an increase of 1,8-cineole in the oil u...

  18. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the following characteristics: seed health (Blotter test, germination, first count of germination and germination speed index. The design was a DIC in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, two oils or two extracts with four concentrations, independent testing. Several fungal species were associated with the seed, and the genus Curvularia the most prevalent. The aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and clove essential oil of basil (Ocimum gratissimum have shown promise for the treatment of seeds, reducing fungal infestation, especially Curvularia, however have phytotoxic effect reducing the viability and vigor of sorghum seeds.

  19. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  20. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  1. Exploring the potential effect of Ocimum sanctum in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    Jaggi Amteshwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Peripheral neuropathy was induced in rats by administration of vincristine sulfate (50 μg/kg i.p. for 10 consecutive days. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Vincristine administration was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia. Furthermore, vincristine administration was also associated with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated vincristine-induced neuropathic pain along with decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating chemotherapy induced-painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. Furthermore, saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum may be responsible for its noted beneficial effect in neuropathic pain in rats.

  2. Antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves in albino rats

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    Sowmya Kaniganti

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Both the doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves exhibited significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation model, whereas only 200 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract was effective in cold restrain stress model. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1353-1358

  3. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

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    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. against acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Adult male NMRI mice were used. They were orally administered soft extracts of the plants at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg for three consecutive days before inducing hepatotoxicity. Clinical signs of toxicity and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated; in addition, the morphological analysis of the liver was performed. Results: the biochemical parameters showed highly significant differences, but only three groups had results similar to the untreated control group. No macroscopic changes in the liver were confirmed. Microscopically, the absence of histopathological changes prevailed in the groups treated with Ocimum basilicum L. at both doses and Allium sativum L. at 200mg/kg; slight damage was observed by administering 400mg/kg of Allium sativum L., with significant differences from the untreated control group. Conclusions: soft extracts of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. at a dose of 200mg/kg have greater hepatoprotective activity against the toxic action of acetaminophen.

  4. Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried medicinal plant of basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naheed; Sharma, Seema; Alam, Md K; Singh, V N; Shamsi, S F; Mehta, B R; Fatma, Anjum

    2010-11-01

    Plants respond to heavy metal stress by metal complexation process like production of phytochelations or by other metal chelating peptides. In this paper we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the room dried stem and root of Ocimum sanctum. The broth of the plant is used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles at room temperature. The reaction process was simple and was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). There was formation of highly stable silver nanoparticles in the solution. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies showed that the silver nanoparticles obtained from roots and stem were of sizes 10+/-2 and 5+/-1.5 nm, respectively. The various phytochemicals present within the ocimum plant result in effective reduction of silver salts to nanoparticles but their chemical framework is also effective at wrapping around the nanoparticles to provide excellent robustness against agglomeration. PMID:20656463

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

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    Sangeeta Sankhalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

  6. Les relations entre l' ancienne et la nouvelle Rome sous Basile II et l'intronisation d'Alexis Stoudite

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    Βασιλική ΒΛΥΣΙΔΟΥ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the churches of Elder and New Rome during the reign of Basil II and the enthronement of Alexios StοuditesThis study investigates the relations between the churches of Elder and New Rome during the reign of Basil II and concludes that the attempts to impose Boniface VII in 984/985 and John XVI in 997/998 as popes of Rome and the long controversy between the two sides (1011-1024 was against the policy of the Macedonian dynasty and also threatened Byzantine rule in Southern Italy. Near the time of his death, Basil II assigned the continuation of the reconciliation policy with the Roman Church (accomplished in 1024/1025 to the patriarch Alexios and to the long lasting tradition of the monastery of Stoudios. The warm welcome given by Alexios to abbot Richard of Saint-Vanne, advocate of the rising power and role of the pope of Rome, reveals a deeper reason which dictated to Basil II the choice of a Stoudite for the patriarchal see of Constantinople.

  7. Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic and basil essential oil supplementation on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

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    SEYYED REZA RIYAZI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the probiotic ‘Protexin', basil essential oil and the antibiotic growth promoter ‘Avilamycin' were studied on the ileum microbial flora of broilers when these substances are used as broiler feed additives. A total of six hundred Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments have been performed with a plant essential oil at 3 levels (200, 400 and 600 ppm, the probiotic ‘Protexin' (150 ppm, the antibiotic ‘Avilamycin' (150 ppm and a control group with no additives. Birds in different treatments received the same diets during the experimental period. The results showed that the probiotic treatment significantly decreased the total bacteria counts (P0.05. The lowest and highest lactic acid bacteria in ileum were obtained in the control group and in birds receiving 400 ppm basil essential oil, respectively. Moreover, addition of 600 ppm of basil essential oil into diet decreased the number of E. coli colonies as compared to other treatments (P< 0.05. It could be speculated that the basil essential oil and ‘Protexin' could replace the antibiotics, which have been banned to use as growth promoter in animal feeds.

  8. Effect of Ocimum sanctum, ascorbic acid, and verapamil on macrophage function and oxidative stress in mice exposed to cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, S K; Rathi, N.; Mahajan, P; Tripathi, A. K.; Paudel, K.R.; G P Rauniar; Das, B. P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Ocimum sanctum, ascorbic acid, and verapamil on macrophage function and oxidative stress in experimental animals exposed to cocaine. Materials and Methods: Mice were used in this study and were divided randomly into different groups of six animals each. They were either treated with intraperitoneal injection of saline or cocaine hydrochloride or an oral feeding of oil of Ocimum sanctum, ascorbic acid or verapamil, or both (ascorbic acid and verapamil), ...

  9. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the field in Tanzania

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    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, An. gambiae ss (Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET, a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. Results In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence. Conclusion This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting

  10. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Almeida Gonçalves; Aristéa Alves Azevedo; Wagner Campos Otoni

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de ...

  11. Atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum Potentially allelophatic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum

    OpenAIRE

    A.P.S. Souza Filho; J.C. Bayma; G.M.S.P Guilhon; M.G.B. Zoghbi

    2009-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais são reconhecidos pelas suas diversificadas ações biológicas. A biodiversidade amazônica é rica em espécies de plantas produtoras de óleos essenciais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum (estoraque) e determinar seus efeitos sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de duas espécies de plantas daninhas. O óleo essencial foi testado em concentrações variando de 100 a 2.000 mg L-1, co...

  12. Radioprotective effects of ocimum flavonoids on leukocyte oxidants and antioxidants in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidants (NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase) and antioxidants (GSH, GSH peroxidase, SOD and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, that provides NADPH for antioxidants) were assayed in the neutrophils from oral cancer patients, in three stages viz, baseline samples, 15 days after radiation and 30 days following radiation. These samples were obtained from 2 groups of patients. Group A that received radiation alone and Group B that received radiation and ocimum flavonoids, a radioprotector. The results showed a significant fall in the SOD levels in the second follow up of group B. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase showed significant increase only in the first follow up of patients who received Ocimum flavonoids. Except for these findings all other parameters remained statistically nonsignificant. (author)

  13. OCIMUM BASILICUM AND MENTHA PIPERITA ESSENTIAL OILS INFLUENCE THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Mihaiescu; Crina Saviuc; Ioana Marinaş; Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc; Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Veronica Lazǎr

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted by microwave assisted hydrodistillation technique from Ocinum basilicum and Mentha piperita were characterized by GC-MS. An adapted diffusion method was used in order to assess the potentiator effect of the essential oils on the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus clinical and reference strains to some of the currently used antibiotics, i.e. clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin and erythromycin.. The Ocimum basilicum and Mentha piperit...

  14. Ekstrakcija bosiljka (Ocimum basilicum, Lamiaceae) ugljendioksidom u superkritiĉnom stanju i modelovanje ekstrakcionog sistema

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    Filip, Snežana

    2014-01-01

    U okviru ove doktorske disertacije, proučavana je ekstrakcija bosiljka (Ocimum basilicum L.) primenom postupka hidrodestilacije, Soxhlet ekstrakcije i ugljendioksidom u superkritičnom stanju. Određen je sadržaj etarskog ulja u drogi (0,565%), a primenom GC/MS(FID) metoda određen kvalitativni i kvantitativni sastav detektovanih komponenata. Identifikovane komponente svrstane su u nekoliko grupa (monoterpeni, seskviterpeni i njihovi oksidovani derivati). Rezultati ispitivanja pokazuju da je dom...

  15. Cholinergic basis of memory improving effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum linn

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    Joshi H; Parle M

    2006-01-01

    Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer′s disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Ethanol extract of dried whole plant of O. tenuiflorum Linn. ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging-induced memory defici...

  16. Pollination following grafting introduces efficiently Ocimum basilicum L. genes into Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    K. Q. Wei; J. X. YANG; Z. Z. Wei

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in the world. However, the genetic basis is comparatively narrow among the modern Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, limiting its potential for quality improvement. To introduce genes conferring desirable chemical constituents from medicinal plants, a distant hybridization test was conducted between N. tabacum and Ocimum basilicum L. Seedlings of wild type Nicotiana sylvestris and N. tabacum cultivar 78-04 respectively acted as rootstock and scion. During the flowe...

  17. STUDIES ON ISOLATION AND EVALUATION OF OCIMUM TENUIFLORUM LINN SEED MUCILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Meghana S Kamble

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant products serves as an alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, eco-friendly nature and lower prices compared to important synthetic products. Natural gums and mucilages have been widely explored as pharmaceutical excipient. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate mucilage from the seeds of Ocimum Tenuiflorum Linn and explore its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. Various methods of mucilage extraction were tried and simple, economical a...

  18. A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN (TULSI) WITH ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Das Mahapatra Kousik; Kumar baldev

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever,...

  19. An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs)

    OpenAIRE

    *S. K. Bariyah

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medication centuries back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modern medical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like ant...

  20. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. PMID:25673470

  1. INVESTIGATION ON THE ANTI-GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM IN FLUORIDE INDUCED GENOTOXICITY

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    Kambam Srilatha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-genotoxic effect of Ocimum sanctum on fluoride induced genotoxicity and its impact on oxidative stress. Exposure to fluoride can mainly occur through drinking water when the levels far exceed the permissible limit. Fluorosis is a serious problem the world over resulting in damage to DNA. Micronuclei assessment from bone marrow and peripheral blood was used in the present study to assess the damage to DNA. Sodium fluoride in a single dose (30 mg/kg, i.p. was used to induce micronuclei in albino mice. Treatment with the aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum was initiated in the single dose study (100, 400 & 800 mg/kg and as a time course for 1 day, 3 days and 7 days (100 mg/kg. 24 h after injecting sodium fluoride, the animals were sacrificed and micronuclei were determined from smears prepared from bone marrow and peripheral blood. The antioxidant impact of the extract was determined using ferric ion reducing capacity of plasma and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as a measure of lipid peroxidation. All doses were capable of preventing the formation of micronuclei but 100 mg/kg of the aqueous extract was most efficacious as a single dose and in the time course study. The beneficial effect of Ocimum sanctum is possibly due to the synergistic action of constituents like polyphenols, triterpenoids, and flavonoids.

  2. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. PMID:24995776

  3. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Ethiopian Indigenous Medicinal Plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Suresh Kumar P. Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the chemical substances which prevent the free radicals damage in the body. Numerous researches are going globally focussed on investigating natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of the present study were to evaluate preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro antioxidant activities of Ethiopian indigenous medicinal plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. Aqueous, benzene and hexane crude leaves extracts of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening using standard procedures. In addition, we investigated the antioxidant potential of crude aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. Preliminary phytochemical investigation for benzene, hexane and aqueous extracts found alkaloids, sterols, carbohydrate and glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The fraction inhibition of lipid peroxide at the first stage of oxidation illustrated antioxidant activity of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum as 90% and 88% compared to those of gallic acid (97% and BHT (84% respectively. Also, the aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity, nitric acid free radical scavenging activity assay, superoxide anion scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging assay. Our findings provide confirmation that the aqueous leaves extract of O. lamiifolium and O. basilicum are potential source of natural antioxidants, and this warranted its uses in traditional medicine systems.

  4. O pai dos contos: "Lo cunto de li cunti. O trattenimiente de li peccerille (Pentamerone)" de Giambattista Basile

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Lombardi

    2015-01-01

    Em seu prefácio à coletânea Fábulas italianas, Calvino toma os contos dos irmãos Grimm (1812) como modelo, mas critica seu caráter violento e “sanguinário”. Ele imita rigorosamente a coletânea dos autores alemães, selecionando o mesmo número de fábulas (200) e também decide traduzir todos os textos, escritos originalmente em dialeto, para a língua italiana, adaptando arbitrariamente enredos e nomes. Em relação a Giambattista Basile [BASILE: 1999 e 2000], autor de Lu cunto de li cunti (ou Pent...

  5. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Chandra, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To analyze the efficacy of three different concentrations of Ocimum sanctum extract against various microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and methods: Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum was prepared by the hot extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain 3 different concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10%) of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl sul-foxide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 3 different concentrations of extract gave a wider inhibition zone against S. mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguis, L. acidophilus. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. Results: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract demonstrated maximum antimicrobial activity against microorganisms responsible for dental caries at the 10% concentration level although 5 and 2.5% were also effective. Maximum activity was seen against S. mutans and S. sanguis with 10% extract. Conclusion: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was effective against all the microorganisms. How to cite this article: Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Chandra J. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum Sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):99-101. PMID:26379375

  6. Alelopatia do extrato aquoso e do óleo essencial de folhas do manjericão "Maria Bonita" na germinação de alface, tomate e melissa Allelopathy of aqueous extract and essential oil of leaves from basil "Maria Bonita" on lettuce, tomato and melissa germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D.S. Rosado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso e do óleo essencial de folhas frescas de Ocimum basilicum L. 'Maria Bonita' no índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento de raízes e porcentagem de germinação da alface (Lactuca sativa L., de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., e de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.. Os extratos foram obtidos pela trituração das folhas frescas e o óleo essencial extraído por hidrodestilação das folhas durante 90 min. Foram utilizadas duas formas de aplicação, extrato aquoso e óleo essencial, cinco concentrações (0,0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1 e 1,0% v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, com 25 sementes de cada espécie por placa, totalizando 25 parcelas para cada espécie. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os extratos aquosos de manjericão apresentaram efeito significativo apenas para o índice de velocidade de germinação das sementes de tomate e para comprimento de raízes da alface e da melissa. O óleo essencial do manjericão apresentou potencialidades alelopáticas inibitórias em sementes de alface, de tomate e de melissa afetando o índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimento das raízes e a porcentagem de germinação.The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract and essential oil of fresh leaves from Ocimum basilicum L. 'Maria Bonita' on germination velocity index, root length and germination percentage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., and melissa (Melissa officinalis L.. The extracts were obtained by grounding fresh leaves and the essential oil was extracted through hydrodistillation of the leaves during 90 min. Two application forms were used, aqueous extract and essential oil, five concentrations (0.0; 0.001; 0.01; 0.1 and 1.0% v/v, in completely randomized design, with five replicates including 25 seeds of each species per plot

  7. Antimutagena svojstva bosiljka (Ocimum basilicum L.) u soju bakterije Salmonella typhimurium TA100

    OpenAIRE

    Stajković, Olivera; Berić-Bjedov, Tanja; Mitić-Ćulafić, Dragana; Stanković, Slaviša; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Simić, Draga; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Upotreba dijetetskih antimutagena i antikarcinogena ima obećavajuću ulogu u zaštiti ljudskoga zdravlja. Bosiljak (Ocimum basilicum L.) dobro je poznata medicinska i aromatična biljka koja ima širok raspon tek otkrivenih bioloških aktivnosti važnih za prevenciju raka. U početnim pokusima istražen je toksični i mutageni potencijal esencijalnog ulja (essential oil – EO) bosiljka i čistih spojeva: linalola, ß-mircena i 1,8-cineola, koristeći sojeve bakterija Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 ...

  8. Role of Ocimum sanctum as a Genoprotective Agent on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Genotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Asha; Shukla, Poonam; Tabassum, Shajiya

    2011-01-01

    Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum was evaluated on chlorpyrifos-induced genotoxicity in in vivo and in vitro models. Two different concentrations of pesticide were taken, i.e., 1/5 and 1/15 of LD50 of chlorpyrifos for the in vivo study. Rats were pre-treated orally with O. sanctum extract (OE) at 50 mg/kg b.wt. For the in vitro studies, human lymphocyte cultures were exposed to 75 μg/ml chlorpyrifos with and without OE. Structural and numerical (both aneuploidy and euploidy types) chromosom...

  9. OCIMUM BASILICUM AND MENTHA PIPERITA ESSENTIAL OILS INFLUENCE THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihaiescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted by microwave assisted hydrodistillation technique from Ocinum basilicum and Mentha piperita were characterized by GC-MS. An adapted diffusion method was used in order to assess the potentiator effect of the essential oils on the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus clinical and reference strains to some of the currently used antibiotics, i.e. clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin and erythromycin.. The Ocimum basilicum and Mentha piperita essential oils, exhibited a strong, strain specific influence on the antibiotic susceptibility of the tested strains.

  10. ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Saiprasanna; Babu, S M; Ramani, Y. Roja; Choudhury, Prasanta Kumar; Patra, Sudeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wis...

  11. An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. K. Bariyah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medication centuries back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modern medical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like antimicrobial, anticataleptic, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic and cardioprotective activities. The aim of the present review is to present an extensive survey on the phytochemistry and pharmacological applications of the herb.

  12. Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantis, Filippos; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of two Ocimum basilicum cultivars (Lettuce Leaf, and Red Rubin-mountain Athos hybrid) under artificial lighting were investigated. Four LED light treatments [AP673L (high red and high red:far-red), G2 (high red and low red:far-red), AP67 (modera

  13. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Sarate, Priya; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity. PMID:25098951

  14. Investigation of hydrogel isolated from seeds of Ocimum basilicum as binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic powders are widely used as therapeutic agents but most of them have unpleasant taste and large doses. One of the possible approach to overcome these drawbacks is to represent them in unit dosage form i.e. tablet dosage form. The purpose of this study is to elucidate and quantify the compressibility and compactibility of herbal granules prepared by using hydrogel isolated from whole seeds of Ocimum basilicum as a novel binder. The compressibility is the ability of the powder to deform under pressure and the compactibility is the ability of a powder to form coherent compacts. To test the functionality of novel excipients, Sonnergaard proved a simple linear model to confirm compactability, which is an uncomplicated tool for quantification. The tablets were compressed at increasing compression pressures and were evaluated for various mechanical properties. The linear relationship between specific crushing strength and compression pressure revealed the compactibility of the herbal granules and the linear relationship between porosity and logarithm of compression pressure revealed the compressible nature of the herbal granules according to the model developed by Sonnergaard. Thus the hydrogel isolated from whole seeds of Ocimum basillicum had potential as a granulating and binding agent.

  15. Basil seed gum as a novel stabilizer for structure formation and reduction of ice recrystallization in ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Goff, H

    2013-01-01

    International audience Basil seed gum (BSG), as a novel source of hydrocolloid, was used at two concentrations (0.1% or 0.2%) to stabilize ice cream, and its impact on selected physical and structural properties, especially ice crystal size, was compared to a commercial blend of carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gums (0.1% or 0.2%) and to an unstabilized control. Samples were temperature cycled at subzero temperatures and ice crystal size was measured before and after cycling. There was no ...

  16. Creation of an Arterio-Venous Fistula Between the Brachial Artery and Basilic Vein with a Saphenous Vein Graft Interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan KARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis are usually open in the upper extremity. For patients with thrombosed arteriovenous fistulas in this area, alternative fistula access routes are needed. AVF creation with a saphenous vein graft is an alternative hemodialysis access method in the patient who has lost the chance of fistula creation with his native vessels.The aim of this case report is to discuss AV fistula management with a saphenous vein graft between the brachial artery and basilic vein in a hemodialysisdependent patient. In this patient previous fistulas were thrombosed and the native vessels in the upper extremity vessels were not suitable for a new AV fistula creation.

  17. O pai dos contos: "Lo cunto de li cunti. O trattenimiente de li peccerille (Pentamerone" de Giambattista Basile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Em seu prefácio à coletânea Fábulas italianas, Calvino toma os contos dos irmãos Grimm (1812 como modelo, mas critica seu caráter violento e “sanguinário”. Ele imita rigorosamente a coletânea dos autores alemães, selecionando o mesmo número de fábulas (200 e também decide traduzir todos os textos, escritos originalmente em dialeto, para a língua italiana, adaptando arbitrariamente enredos e nomes. Em relação a Giambattista Basile [BASILE: 1999 e 2000], autor de Lu cunto de li cunti (ou Pentamerone, uma coletânea de 50 contos, redigidos em napolitano em 1646, um autor celebrado, imitado e traduzido pelos irmãos Grimm, Calvino foi francamente omisso. Trata-se de um autor proto-expressionista, que apresenta em sua obra as versões mais antigas de muitos contos conhecidos (Cinderela, Branca de Neve, O Gato de botas, A bela adormecida entre outros foi traduzido para o italiano pelo filósofo Benedetto Croce somente em 1925. O assim-chamado Pentamerone (por associação ao Decameron de Boccaccio, teve uma surpreendente tradução para o alemão, publicada em 1846, graças ao estímulo dos irmãos Grimm, que veneravam o autor italiano como grande mestre do conto maravilhoso. O triângulo virtual que se forma entre Calvino, os irmãos Grimm e Basile, tem num de seus ângulos a denegação calviniana do autor napolitano e no outro, a obra maior deste autor, a qual reforça a importância, vivacidade e consistência dos dialetos na tradição literária italiana. Entre Calvino e Basile, os irmãos Grimm parecem representar uma mediação singular e típica entre a cultura alemã e a italiana.

  18. Unravelling the genome of Holy basil: an “incomparable” “elixir of life” of traditional Indian medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Shubhra; Kalra, Alok; Gupta, Vikrant; Khan, Feroz; Lal, Raj Kishori; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Parameswaran, Sriram; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Ramaswamy, Gopalakrishna; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Ocimum sanctum L. (O. tenuiflorum) family-Lamiaceae is an important component of Indian tradition of medicine as well as culture around the world, and hence is known as “Holy basil” in India. This plant is mentioned in the ancient texts of Ayurveda as an “elixir of life” (life saving) herb and worshipped for over 3000 years due to its healing properties. Although used in various ailments, validation of molecules for differential activities is yet to be fully analyzed, as about 80 %...

  19. EFFECT OF OCIMUM IN CHEMOTHERAPY INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS” A STUDY CONDUCTED IN DAKSHINA KANNADA DISTR ICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debkumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Adriamycin (ADR belongs to anthracycline group of antibiotics, which is widely used for the complete remission of solid tumours. I n carcinoma breast, non Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, ADR is considered as most useful chemotherapeutic medication. Anthracycline by virtue of their quinon e group generates free radicals in solution in both normal and malignant cells. The Ocimum leaf ex tract as well as their flavonoids orientin and vicenin have strong antioxidant activity in vit ro and antilipid peroxidative effect in vivo, and strongly suggest free radical scavenging as a major mechanism by which Ocimum products protect against cellular damage and tumour induction . However, most interest has been devoted to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids, which is due to their ability to reduce free radical formation and to scavenge free radicals. Th e capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in vitro has been a subject of several studies in t he past years. The antioxidant efficacy of flavonoids present in Ocimum sanctum in vivo is less documented, presumably because of the limited knowledge on their uptake in tumours. Inspite of limitation of the knowledge of exact mechanism of uptake of flavonoids we have studied an tioxidant efficacy of Ocimum sanctum aqueous extract (140mg with placebo control in carc inoma breast, non Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases along with chemotherapy parti cularly during third cycle. Statistical analysis has been done by Mann Whitney’s test which shows no significant difference of antioxidant enzymes between study (n=19 and contro l (n=16 group before chemotherapy. There is a significant increase of all scavenging e nzymes in study group (n=19 compared to control group (n=16 after chemotherapy. Significant increase in the Haemoglobin content and enhanced activities of Superoxide dismutase ( SOD a nd Catalase (CAT in the study group which was given Ocimum

  20. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

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    Devanand Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo. Materials and Methods: A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1 Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36; (2 Chlorhexidine (active control (n = 36; (3 normal saline (negative control (n = 36. Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine.

  1. Activité larvicide sur Anopheles gambiae Giles et composition chimique des huiles essentielles extraites de quatre plantes cultivées au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Tchoumbougnang F.; Dongmo PMJ.; Sameza ML.; Mbanjo EGN.; Fotso GBT.; Zollo PHA.; Menut C.

    2009-01-01

    Larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae Giles and chemical composition of essential oils from four plants cultivated in Cameroon. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of dry leaves from Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stapf, Ocimum canum Sims, Ocimum gratissimum L. var 'gratissimum' L. and Thymus vulgaris L. cultivated in Cameroon were analyzed and their larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae Giles were determined. The yie...

  2. Simultaneous detection of the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in food matrices and their persistence on basil leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohweyer, Jeanne; Cazeaux, Catherine; Travaillé, Emmanuelle; Languet, Emilie; Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Terryn, Christine; Dubey, Jitender P; Azas, Nadine; Houssin, Maryline; Loïc, Favennec; Villena, Isabelle; La Carbona, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis are emerging pathogen parasites in the food domain. However, without standardized methods for their detection in food matrices, parasitic foodborne outbreaks remain neglected. In this study, a new immunomagnetic separation assay (IMS Toxo) targeting the oocyst's wall of T. gondii was developed using a specific purified monoclonal antibody. Performance of this IMS Toxo coupled to microscopic and qPCR analyses was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and recovery rate (RR) on: i) simple matrix (LOD = 5 oocysts; RR between 5 and 56%); ii) raspberries and basil (LOD = 33 oocysts/g; RR between 0.2 and 35%). Finally, to simultaneously extract the three protozoa from these food matrices, T. gondii oocysts were directly concentrated (without IMS Toxo) from the supernatant of the IMS of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. This strategy associated to qPCR detection led to LOD <1 to 3 (oo)cysts/g and RR between 2 and 35%. This procedure was coupled to RT-qPCR analyses and showed that the three protozoa persisted on the leaves of basil and remained viable following storage at 4 °C for 8 days. These data strengthen the need to consider these protozoa in food safety. PMID:27052700

  3. Antimetastatic and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Essential Oil from Edible Ocimum sanctum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamilvaani Manaharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and above showed a significant (P*<0.05 decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250 μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer.

  4. FENOLOGÍA DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimum basilicum L. CULTIVADA EN DIFERENTES FECHAS DE SIEMBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barroso

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, con el objetivo de estudiar la fenología de la albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L. en diferentes fechas de siembra. Para ello las semillas se sembraron en enero y abril en recipientes de seis litros, con un sustrato de suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado y materia orgánica del tipo cachaza, en una relación 3:1 v/v. Del análisis de las observaciones se obtuvo que, entre las fechas estudiadas, se alcanzan diferencias hasta de 15 días en cuanto a la duración del ciclo del cultivo.

  5. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  6. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

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    S. Grant Wyllie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8% and linalool (+2.5% were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the post-wounding response to be independent from the pre-wounding levels of the particular compounds expressing the response and from the overall leaf oil-composition.

  7. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of green nanotechnology is generating interest of researchers toward ecofriendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was done using Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability of bioreduced silver nanoparticles was analyzed using UV–vis absorption spectra, and their antimicrobial activity was screened against both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. It was observed that O. sanctum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 8 min of reaction time. Thus, this method can be used for rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles of size range 4–30 nm possessing antimicrobial activity suggesting their possible application in medical industry.

  8. Relaxant effects of Ocimum basilicum on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effects of Ocimum basilicum on respiratory diseases especially dyspnea have been reported in Iranian ancient medical books. In the present study, the relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were evaluated. The relaxant effects of 4 cumulative concentrations of macerated and soxhlet extracts (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 W/V in comparison with saline as negative control and 4 cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mM as positive control were examined on precontracted tracheal chains of two groups of 6 guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 µM methacholine (group 2. Decrease in contractile tone of tracheal chains was considered as relaxant effect. In group 1 experiments only the last two higher concentrations of theophylline showed significant relaxant effect compared to that of saline (p<0.001 for both concentrations, which were significantly greater than those of macerated and soxhlet extracts (p<0.001 for all cases and in group 2 experiments both macerated and soxhlet extracts showed concentrationdependent relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001 for both extracts. There were significant differences between the relaxant effects of both extracts with those of theophylline in group 2 experiments (p<0.01 to p<0.001. The relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts in group 1 were significantly lower than those of groups 2. These results showed a potent relaxant effect of Ocimum basilicum on tracheal chains of guinea pigs which were lower than theophylline at concentrations used.

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar; Vrunda Vernekar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenu...

  10. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Mandana Behbahani

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative ...

  11. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Distribution and Antibacterial Activities of Medicinal Plants Tinospora cordifolia, Ocimum sanctum and Piper nigrum

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath, M.; KHANDELWAL, M.; Lal, P.; Jain, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the inhibition and the in vitro interaction of the pathogens with the plant extracts, various solvent extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Ocimum sanctum, Piper nigrum were screened for antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method. A synergistic inhibitory activity by the combination of aqueous extracts of the three plants against Salmonella, Shigella and P. aeruginosa was observed. The chloroform extracts in combination also showed maximum inhibition against E. coli but e...

  12. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Malve, Harshad O.; Raut, Sanket B.; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os) on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects o...

  13. Antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves against Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Pushpangadan, Sivan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam; Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. Hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel (mango kernel) and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (tulsi) extracts with conventional irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlor...

  14. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum

    OpenAIRE

    K Bharavi; Reddy, A. Gopala; G S Rao; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara; Rao, S. V. Rama

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roo...

  15. Community of floral visiting insects of Ocimum selloi Benth (Lamiaceae) in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Köhler; Alexandre Somavilla; Karine Schoeninger

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to list the community of floral visitors of Ocimum selloi, indicate the potential pollinators, and their patterns of visitation. The collection of flower visitors was carried out in 2007, in an anthroposophical area, with analysis of constancy and dominance of taxa. A total of 653 insects was collected, belonging to seven orders; Hymenoptera, with 370 individuals, was the most representative group. Thirty six families were identified, being 12 of Hymenoptera and eight of Dipt...

  16. Antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves against Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Arunajatesan Subbiya; Krishnan Mahalakshmi; Sivan Pushpangadan; Kesavaram Padmavathy; Paramasivam Vivekanandan; Vridhachalam Ganapathy Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. Hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel (mango kernel) and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (tulsi) extracts with conventional irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% c...

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys

    OpenAIRE

    Laurian Vlase; Daniela Benedec; Daniela Hanganu; Grigore Damian; Ioan Csillag; Bogdan Sevastre; Augustin C. Mot; Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu; Ioan Tilea

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometricall...

  18. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Ocimum sanctum for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Charusheela Ramteke; Tapan Chakrabarti; Bijaya Ketan Sarangi; Ram-Avatar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern materials science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterials is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf broth of medicinal herb, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi). The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffractometry. The...

  19. Evaluation of burn wound healing property of ocimum sanctum by monitoring of period of re-epithelization in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav K. Gupta; Pathak, Swanand S.; Mahesh K. Jain

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burns remain a major public health problem all over the world, especially in developing countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of infection and a contributing factor in the death of patients with burns. So, there is a growing need to develop drugs which will prevent infections and complications more effectively than the presently used drugs. Ocimum sanctum L. (Tulsi in Hindi) has been shown to have antioxidant properties, which may be responsible and favorable for fast...

  20. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  1. Atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum Potentially allelophatic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais são reconhecidos pelas suas diversificadas ações biológicas. A biodiversidade amazônica é rica em espécies de plantas produtoras de óleos essenciais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum (estoraque e determinar seus efeitos sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de duas espécies de plantas daninhas. O óleo essencial foi testado em concentrações variando de 100 a 2.000 mg L-1, considerando seus efeitos sobre a germinação de sementes (25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 12 horas e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo (25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 24 horas das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Fatores relacionados a concentração, especificidade das plantas receptoras e parâmetros analisados foram decisivos para os efeitos obtidos. A tendência geral foi de relação positiva entre concentração e efeito inibitório. Malícia foi mais sensível aos efeitos do que mata-pasto. Comparativamente, a germinação, seguida do desenvolvimento da radícula, foi afetada pelo óleo essencial em maior magnitude, ficando o desenvolvimento do hipocótilo como o de menor sensibilidade. Os efeitos observados podem ser atribuídos à presença, no óleo essencial, de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados, sesquiterpenos, alifáticos e fenilpropanoides, com destaque para os constituintes com atividade alelopática já comprovada, como o limoneno, a cânfora e o linalol.Essential oils are known for their several biological activities. The biodiversity of the Amazon region is rich in essential-oil producing plants.The aim of this work was to study the potentially allelopathic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum and to determine its effects on seed germination and growth of two weed species. Solutions of the essential oil were tested

  2. Antimicrobial activity of sweet basil and thyme against salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in egg-based pasta

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    Stojiljković Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is known as one of the most common pathogenic bacteria causing salmonellosis in humans. Raw materials of animal origin (eggs, chicken meat are frequent vectors that transmit this bacterium. Since eggs are used for the production of pasta, due to insufficient thermal treatment during pasta drying, they can be a potential risk to consumer health. Different essential oils of herbs can be used to reduce present pathogenic microorganisms. This paper compares a decrease in the number of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (D ATCC 13076 and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks of salmonellosis in egg-based pasta under the influence of thyme and sweet basil essential oils. The results indicate that the utilized oils were more effective against the epidemic strain than the ATCC strain. In addition, thyme oil caused a more significant inhibition of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis during the production process.

  3. Basiléia II e exigência de capital para risco de crédito dos bancos no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Yanaka, Guilherme Matsumura; Holland, Márcio

    2009-01-01

    Com a implementação do Acordo de Basiléia II no Brasil, os grandes conglomerados bancários poderão utilizar o chamado modelo IRB (Internal Ratings Based) para cômputo da parcela de risco de crédito da exigência de capital. O objetivo deste trabalho é mensurar a diferença entre o capital mínimo exigido (e, conseqüentemente, do Índice de Basiléia) calculado pela abordagem IRB em relação à regulamentação atual. Para isso, foram estimadas probabilidades de inadimplência (PD) utilizando matrizes d...

  4. The Trinity and the religions : an assessment of Gavin D’Costa’s trinitarian theology of religions with reference to the patristic trinitarianism of Basil of Caesarea

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Loe-Joo

    2012-01-01

    As a key contributor to the current discussion of the Catholic theology of religions, Gavin D’Costa’s writings represent a consistent attempt to utilize the resources of the doctrine of the Trinity to address a number of issues regarding the theological significance and function of religions in the salvific plan of God. The aim of this thesis is to examine critically his Trinitarian theology of religions through the lens of a main proponent of patristic theology, Basil of Caesarea, and throug...

  5. Formulation and in Vivo Evaluation for Anti-Aging Effects of an Emulsion Containing Basil Extract Using non- Invasive Biophysical Techniques

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    N. Akhtar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Skin aging is a complex process induced by constant exposure to ultraviolet (UV irradiation and damages human skin. UV generates reactive oxygen species leading to collagen deficiency and eventually skin wrinkling. Basil contains a number of phenolics and favonoids which possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to formulate and investigate the antiaging potential of a cream containing Basil extract. Methods: A single blinded study was conducted using non-invasive methods. Formulation containing 3% of the concentrated extract of Basil was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both creams were stored at different storage conditions of 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C+ 75% relative humidity to predict their stabilities. The formulation and base were evaluated for their effects on various skin parameters i.e., moisture and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL, volume, energy and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS. Results: Significant effects (p≤0.05 were observed for both creams in the case of TEWL. The base showed insignificant (p≤0.05 while formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture. Volume, SELS SEr (skin roughness, SEsc (skin scaliness, SEsm (skin smoothness, SEw (skin wrinkles parameter showed significant decline while texture parameter of ‘Energy' showed significant increase. Conclusion: The results statistically indicated that the active formulation containg extract of Basil exert antiaging effects when applied topically.

  6. Effect ofOcimum sanctum on the development of protective immunity against Salmonellatyphimurium infection through cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjana Goel; Sandeep Kumar; Ashok Kumar Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective role of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaves against Salmonella typhimurium(S. typhimurium) infection in rats by inducing TNF-α, IFN-γ& IL-2 cytokines.Methods:Wistar albino rats were fed with aqueous extract ofO. sanctum leaves using 250 mg/kg body weight dose once a day for20 consecutive days. Control rats were fed with placebo. Rats were infected withLD50 dose ofS.typhimuriuminfection and monitored for their survival. Bacterial blood burden in both the groups was compared and numbers of activated peritoneal macrophages were counted. Concentration of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines in serum during different time intervals was assayed by sandwich ELISA.Results:Rats of control group showed a high mortality rate and had higher bacterial blood burden when compared with O. sanctum extract fed rats. There was a significant increase in the number ofS. typhimurium engulfed peritoneal macrophages in the peritoneal fluid ofO. sanctum fed animals. The protective control against bacterial infection inO. sanctumfed rats was associated with elevated level of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines in serum.Conclusions: These findings suggest that orally administeredO. sanctum leaves extract effectively enhanced activation in macrophage and lymphocytes, depicted by the elevated serum concentration of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines, leading to induce a protective resistance againstSalmonellatyphimurium infection.

  7. Anti-stress Activity of Ocimum sanctum: Possible Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothie Richard, Edwin; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandhakumar, Senthilkumar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Chinampudur Velusami, Chandrasekaran; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated anti-stress potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. Further, the possible mechanism of anti-stress was explored in vitro using cell and cell-free assays. Rats were administered O. sanctum followed by CVS regimen for a period of 16 days. On days 4, 8, 12, and 16, body weight and immobility time in forced swim test were measured. In addition, the possible inhibitory effect of O. sanctum and ursolic acid on cortisol release and CRHR1 receptor activity were studied in cell-based assays, while inhibitory effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were studied in cell-free assays. CVS group demonstrated less body weight gain and higher immobility time than O. sanctum administered groups, while oral administration of O. sanctum significantly increased body weight gain and decreased the immobility time. Further, O. sanctum and its constituents inhibited cortisol release and exhibited a significant CRHR1 receptor antagonist activity. Also, they had specific inhibitory activity towards 11β-HSD1 and COMT activity. Thus, O. sanctum was found to be effective in the management of stress effects, and anti-stress activity could be due to inhibition of cortisol release, blocking CRHR1 receptor, and inhibiting 11β-HSD1 and COMT activities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26899341

  8. Pollination following grafting introduces efficiently Ocimum basilicum L. genes into Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    K. Q. Wei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is an important cash crop in the world. However, the genetic basis is comparatively narrow among the modern Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, limiting its potential for quality improvement. To introduce genes conferring desirable chemical constituents from medicinal plants, a distant hybridization test was conducted between N. tabacum and Ocimum basilicum L. Seedlings of wild type Nicotiana sylvestris and N. tabacum cultivar 78-04 respectively acted as rootstock and scion. During the flowering season, hand pollination between 78-04 as pistillate parent and O. basilicum as pollen parent was carried out under 22-25°C temperature and 70-80% of relative humidity in the greenhouse. Seed sets of 55% were obtained in 78-04, and about 400 seeds per capsule were produced. But both non-grafted and self-grafted 78-04 plants rarely resulted in fruits by hand pollination and those obtained were without seed. Similar results were obtained in different material combination. The interfamilial F1 hybrids acquired showed distinct variation with various morphological characteristics, and their hybrid nature was confirmed by isozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analyses. This result indicated that pollination following grafting can facilitate gene exchange and recombination at the interfamilial level and efficiently overcome barriers of sexual incompatibility between N. tabacum and O. basilicum. Our research not only extends the genetic basis of tobacco but also will provide valuable germplasm for improvement of varieties.

  9. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (-)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(-)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (-)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (-)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (-)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (-)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (-)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (-)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  10. Rhizospheric Microflora Escalating Aroma Constituents and Yield Attributes in Ocimum tenuiflorum (L. cv. CIM-Ayu

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    Shilpi Khare Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of rhizospheric microbial flora for crop yield enhancement is well established. Rhizospheric microbes influence the plant physiology by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, Nitrogen fixation, increased nutrient uptake, and secondary metabolites production on their host plants. The present study investigates the response of Bacillus megaterium ATCC No. 13525, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC No. 14581, and Trichoderma viride MTCC No. 167 in alone and combined treatments for their effect on growth and yield parameters in a commercially important Ocimum tenuiflorum L. cv. CIM-Ayu. The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. The combination treatments, T7 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens and T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride, showed maximum enhancement (27.27% of percentage essential oil as compared to untreated control. Nutrient uptake especially N2 content was significantly increased (43% with the treatment T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride. Amongst major essential oil constituents, eugenol content was maximally increased by 58.5% as compared to 42.9% (control indicating a cumulative role of microbial inoculants for crop yield boost-up.

  11. Seed mucilage from Ocimum americanum linn. as disintegrant in tablets: Separation and evaluation

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    Patel D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant products serve as an alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, eco-friendly nature and lower prices compared to imported synthetic products. Natural gums and mucilage have been widely explored as pharmaceutical excipients. The present study was undertaken to separate mucilage from the seeds of Ocimum americanum Linn . and explore its use as a tablet disintegrant. Methods for extraction of mucilage from the seeds were developed and the yield by the method C was found to be 14%. The mucilage was evaluated for various parameters as per Indian Pharmacopoeia. The loss on drying, ash value and microbial load were well within the official limits. The disintegrating efficiency of separated mucilage was compared with that of the starch in tablets prepared using lactose, propranolol hydrochloride and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as model diluent, drug and binder, respectively. The disintegration time for tablet formulations prepared using mucilage (10% w/w was less (154 s than that of the tablet formulations prepared using starch as a disintegrant (269 s. The mucilage not interfered with the release of a drug from tablet formulations. Formulated tablets were found stable at 45 o C for 4 weeks without significant change in hardness, disintegration time and in vitro drug release.

  12. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  13. Atividade repelente do óleo essencial de Ocimum selloi Benth. (variedade eugenol) contra o anopheles braziliensis chagas

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane P. Paula; Paulo V. Farago; Checchia, Lizianne E. M.; Hirose, Karla M.; Ribas, Joao L.

    2004-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma planta herbácea nativa do Brasil. Seu óleo essencial tem sido utilizado como flavorizante em comidas e em produtos orais e como componente de fragrâncias. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade repelente de mosquitos do óleo essencial de O. selloi (variedade eugenol) em humanos. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas da espécie. Em estudo de campo, no qual seis voluntários (cada qual como seu próprio contr...

  14. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; ANANTASOMBOON, GUN; PIEWBANG, CHUTCHAI

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves have been shown to exert diverse potential benefits in a variety of stress conditions. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the fixed oil extracted from OS leaves on the blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of OS leaves to protect various organs including the liver, kidney and heart was investigated. The fixed oil of the OS leaves was extracted using h...

  15. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Colivet; Glenny Marcano; Genette Belloso; Diagnora Brito; Ely Gómez

    2011-01-01

    La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae), muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obt...

  16. Complexation of estragole as pure compound and as main component of basil and tarragon essential oils with cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Auezova, Lizette; Ruellan, Steven; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2015-03-15

    Inclusion complexes of estragole (ES) as pure compound and as main component of basil and tarragon essential oils (EOs) with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), a low methylated-β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB) and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) were characterized. Formation constants (Kf) of the complexes were determined in aqueous solution by nonlinear regression analysis using static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Solid inclusion complexes were prepared by the freeze-drying method for different CD:ES molar ratios and were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Inclusion complexes formation allowed the controlled release of ES. Moreover, increased DPPH radical scavenging activity and photostability of ES and ES containing EOs (ESEOs) were observed in the presence of CDs. These findings suggest that encapsulation with CDs could be an efficient tool to improve the use of ES and ESEOs in aromatherapy, cosmetic and food fields. PMID:25542121

  17. Undergraduate Sustainable Learning: Effects of Sustainable Soilless Media on Production and Sensory Evaluation of Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse production has been ~100% reliant on fossil fuels for all inputs (glazing, heating, fertilization, lighting, post-harvest. Recent innovations may reduce fossil fuel dependence but their effectiveness may not be thoroughly tested. To promote education in sustainable production, undergraduate students in Greenhouse Management class (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota tested the effectiveness of two organic or ‘sustainable’ soilless media (Sunshine Natural and Organic Growing Mix, Sungro Metro-Mix Special Blend with a control (Sunshine LC8 Professional for crop production (height, leaf/flower number, yield and sensory evaluations (appearance, texture, taste, purchase of cucumbers (‘Big Burpless Hybrid’, ‘Sweet Burpless Hybrid’, basil (‘Opal Purple’, ‘Redleaf’, parsley (‘Green River’, ‘Extra Curled Dwarf’, ‘Hamburg’, and lettuce (Flying Saucer ‘Green’, ‘Red’. Significant differences between sustainable vs. control soils occurred for plant growth, depending on vegetative or reproductive traits, crops, and cultivars. These differences occasionally disappeared for sensory evaluation of edible components. In most crops, however, cultivars were highly significant factors. Undergraduate research can be used to provide directionality for future vegetable and herb plant breeding to focus on creating cultivars with increased yield and high consumer acceptance when grown in sustainable greenhouse soilless mixes.

  18. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

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    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, and timothy (Phleum pratense at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP, germination index (GI, germination energy (GE, speed of emergence (SE, seedling vigour index (SVI, and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50 and mean germination time (MGT were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  19. In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz Eldin, Hayam Mohamed; Badawy, Abeer Fathy

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis; a cosmopolitan sexually transmitted disease. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for T. vaginalis infections. The increase in metronidazole resistant parasites and undesirable side effects of this drug makes the search for an alternative a priority for the management of trichomoniasis. Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum oil are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal effects. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil on T. vaginalis trophozoites. The effects of different concentrations of P. lentiscus mastic (15, 10 and 5 mg/ml) and different concentrations of O. basilicum oil (30, 20 and 10 μg/ml) on multiplication of trophozoites at different time points (after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) were determined, also morphological changes were reported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that both plants caused an inhibition of growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites. The minimal lethal concentration of P. lentiscus mastic was 15 mg/ml after 24 h incubation, 10 mg/ml after 48 h and 5 mg/ml after 96 h. The minimal lethal concentration of O. basilicum oil was 30 μg/ml after 24 h incubation, 20 μg/ml after 48 h and 10 μg/ml after 96 h. TEM study of trophozoites treated by P. lentiscus mastic or by O. basilicum oil showed considerable damage of the membrane system of the trophozoites, and extensive vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These results highly suggest that P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil may be promising phytotherapeutic agents for trichomoniasis treatment. PMID:26345053

  20. Role of Ocimum sanctum in the experimental model of Alzheimer′s disease in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer′s disease (AD, a neurodegenerative disorder incapacitating elderly people towards the end of their life, accounts for approximately 70% of dementia. It affects 17-25 million elderly people worldwide. In spite of the remarkable increase in scientific knowledge about the pathobiology of AD, attempts other than modifying the cholinergic neurotransmission have proved futile. In Ayurveda a number of agents are in use, since ancient times, for chronic debilitating disorders. One such preparation, Ocimum sanctum (OS has been found to possess anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. Because of the nonavailability of proper curative therapy for AD, the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the possible role of OS in experimental AD in rats. Experimental AD in rats was produced by a nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v administration of colchicine (Col. Various behavioural tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the possible role of OS in AD. OS exhibited anxiolytic activity in an open field test. In an elevated plus maze test, OS significantly alleviated IB, and Col induced anxiety and depression in the Porsolt′s swim test. In Morris′ water maze test, OS pretreatments improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning. Both IB and Col induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behaviour, which were significantly reversed by OS. IB and Col induced increased lipid peroxidase activity, which was significantly reversed by OS (as seen from the reductions in the malondialdehyde level and stabilized the rise in superoxide dismutase activity, but it had no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. OS might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties, which are the primary needs to be addressed in AD.

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tulsi leaves extract (Ocimum sanctum) on periodontal pathogens with doxycycline as standard, as doxycycline has been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by cold extraction method. Extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%). Doxycycline was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide, as a negative control. The extract and controls were subjected to the microbiological investigation against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the concentration at which Tulsi gave an inhibition zone, similar to doxycycline. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. Results: At 5% and 10% concentrations, Tulsi extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, similar to doxycycline with similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05). P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, however, exhibited resistance to Tulsi extract that showed significantly smaller inhibition zones (P periodontal conditions. However, further research assessing the toxicity, durability, and other assessments followed by clinical trials is necessary to explore the potential of Tulsi in combating oral conditions. PMID:27143825

  2. Estudio sobre la influencia de la inoculación de las rizobacterias Azospirillum brasilense y Pseudomonas fluorescens sobre el desarrollo morfológico y el contenido de aceites esenciales en las especies aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Trenado, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analiza la influencia de la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense, con Pseudomonas fluorescens y la inoculación conjunta con ambas rizobacterias en las especies de plantas aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis. Se evaluará su desarrollo morfológico, atendiendo a tres parámetros: la longitud del tallo, el peso fresco y la superficie foliar. Así como el posible incremento en el c...

  3. Maria Bonita: cultivar de manjericão tipo linalol Maria Bonita: a linalool type basil cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Maria Bonita' é proveniente do acesso PI 197442, do Banco de Germoplasma North Central Regional PI Station, EUA. É uma cultivar de manjericão de copa arredondada, pétalas róseas e sépalas roxas, indicada para o Nordeste brasileiro. Apresenta hábito de crescimento ereto, o que favorece a colheita manual e mecanizada. A produtividade média de matéria seca de folhas e inflorescências foi de 20,97 g por planta, 26,34% superior à testemunha 'Genovese'. Possui teor de 4,96% de óleo essencial, e rendimento de 1,18 mL por planta. Seu componente principal é o linalol (78,12%. Seu óleo essencial possui atividades antinociceptiva e antigiardial.'Maria Bonita' is derived from the accession PI 197442, from the Germplasm Bank North Central Regional PI Station, USA. It is a basil cultivar with a rounded canopy, rose petals and purple sepals, and it is indicated for Brazilian Northeast region. 'Maria Bonita' presents erect growth habit, which is an advantage for both manual and mechanized harvest. The average yield of leaves dry weight and inflorescences was 20.97 g per plant, 26.34% higher than the control 'Genovese'. It presents 4.96% essential oil content, and yield of 1.18 mL per plant. The major chemical constituent is linalool (78.12%. Its essential oil presents antinociceptive and antigiardial activities.

  4. Phase equilibrium in systems with ionic liquids: An example for the downstream process of the Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) process. Part I: Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibrium for a downstream process in sustainable chemical technology. ► Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) Process. ► SLE, LLE, and SLLE of (NaCl + water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and its ternary subsystems. ► Experimental phase equilibrium data at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K. - Abstract: Experimental results are presented for the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria occurring in the downstream process of a typical example for the Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL)-processes. In a BASIL process an organic base is used to catalyze a chemical reaction and, at the same time, to scavenge an acid that is an undesired side product of that reaction. The particular example of a BASIL process treated here is the reaction of 1-butanol and acetylchloride to butylacetate and hydrochloric acid, where the acid is scavenged by the organic base 1-methyl imidazole (1-MIM) resulting in the ionic liquid 1-methyl imidazolium chloride. The reaction results in a two-phase system as butylacetate and the ionic liquid reveal a large liquid–liquid miscibility gap. The organic base has to be recovered. This is commonly achieved by treating the ionic liquid–rich liquid phase with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (i.e., converting the ionic liquid to the organic base) and extracting the organic base by an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., 1-propanol). The work presented here deals in experimental work with the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) phase equilibria that are encountered in such extraction processes. Experimental results are reported for temperatures between about 298 K and 333 K: for the solubility of NaCl in several solvents (1-propanol, 1-MIM), (water + 1-MIM), (1-propanol + 1-MIM), (water + 1-propanol), and (water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and for the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium as well as for the (solid + liquid

  5. Modulatory Effect of Distillate of Ocimum sanctum Leaf Extract(Tulsi)on Human Lymphocytes Against Genotoxicants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIPANWITA DUTTA; S.SARAVANA DEVI; K.KRISHNAMURTHI; KOEL KUMAR; PRIYANKA VYAS; P.L.MUTHAL; P.NAOGHARE; T.CHAKRABARTI

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the modulatory effect of distillate of Ocimum sanctum(traditionally known as Tulsi)leaf extract (DTLE)on genotoxicants.Methods In the present investigation,we studied the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effect of distillate of Tlulsi leaf extract on(i)human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by evaluating the DNA strand break without metabolic activation against mitomycin C(MMC)and hexavalent chromium(Cr+6)and(ii)human peripheral lymphocytes (in vitro)with or without metabolic activation against mitomycin C(MMC),hexavalent chromium(Cr+6)and B[a]P by evaluating chromosomal aberration(CA)and micronucleus assay(MN).Three different doses of DTLE,50 μL/mL,100 μL/mL,and 200 μL/mL were selected on the basis of cytotoxicity assay and used for studying DNA strand break,chromosomal aberration and micronucleus emergence.The following positive controls were used for inducing genotoxicity and clastogenicity:MMC(0.29 μmol/L)for DNA strand break,chromosomal aberration and 0.51 μmol/L for micronucleus assay;Potassium dichromate(Cr+6)600 μmol/L for DNA strand break and 5 μmol/L for chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assay;Benzo[a]pyrene(30 μmol/L)for chromosomal aberration and 40 μmol/L for micronucleus assay.The active ingredients present in the distillate of Tulsi leaf extract were identified by HPLC and LC-MS.Results Mitomycin C(MMC)and hexavalent chromium(Cr+6) induced statistically significant DNA strand break of respectively 69%and 71%(P<0.001)as revealed by fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding.Furthermore,thedamage could be protected with DTLE(50 μL/mL,100 μL/mL,and 200 μL/mL) on simultaneous treatment.Chromosomal aberration and micronucleus formation induced by MMC,Cr+6 and B[a]P were significantly protected(P<0.001)by DTLE with and without metabolic activation.Conclusion Distillate of Tulsi leaf extract possesses antioxidants contributed mainly by eugenol,luteolin and apigenin as identified by LC-MS.These active ingredients may have

  6. Caracterização morfológica e agronômica de acessos de manjericão e alfavaca Morphologic and agronomic characterization of basil accessions

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Arie F.; Carvalho Filho, José L. S.; Antônio L. dos Santos Neto; Péricles B. Alves; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Renata Silva-Mann; Marcelo da C. Mendonça

    2004-01-01

    O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) pode ser considerado cultura anual ou perene, conforme o local de cultivo. Existem diversas finalidades para seu uso na culinária, como planta ornamental, medicinal e aromática, sendo o seu oleo essencial valorizado no mercado internacional pelo teor de linalol. Caracterizou-se morfológica e agronômicamente, acessos de Ocimum sp. visando a seleção de genótipos com alto rendimento de óleo essencial rico em linalol. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ca...

  7. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  8. ESR-based Identification of Radiation-Induced Free Radicals in Gamma-Irradiated Basil and Clove Using Different Sample Pre-Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved detection of radiation-induced paramagnetic faults was developed to identify the irradiation status of basil and clove. The effectiveness of different sample pretreatments, including freeze-drying (FD), oven-drying (OD), alcoholic-extraction (AE), and water-washing and alcoholic-extraction (WAE), were examined. All non-irradiated samples showed a single central signal (g0 = 2.006), whereas radicals representing two additional side peaks (g1 = 2.023 and g2 = 1.986) with a mutual distance of 6 mT were detected in the irradiated samples. AE and WAE produced the best results for irradiated clove in terms of intensities of radiation-specific ESR signals and their ratios to the central signal. However, FD provided the highest intensities of radiation-specific ESR signals for basil, whereas their ratios to the major signal were better in the cases of AE and WAE. Signal noise, particularly due to Mn2+ signals, was observed, whereas it decreased in AE and WAE pretreatments. Based on our results, AE and WAE can improve the detection conditions for radiation-specific ESR signals in irradiated samples. (author)

  9. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomot...

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Devakul Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn; Songsak, Thanapat; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Poungshompoo, Somlak

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves decrease serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic animals. No experimental evidences support the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative actions against hypercholesterolemia. Moreover the identity of the specific chemical ingredients in OS leaves responsible for these pharmacological effects are unknown. Since OS leaves are rich in essential oil (EO). Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic and an...

  11. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evaldo Pires; Clovis Manica; Roberta Nogueira; Jeandson Carneiro; William Rodrigues; Marcus Soares

    2014-01-01

    Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. are plants species commonly used for medicinal and gastronomic purposes, respectively. Caterpillars of the Spodoptera genus are generalists due to the wide variety of plants species used as food souce. The aim of this research was record the occurrence of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sinop, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and also record C. barbatus and O. basilicum as potencial host plants for this insect species. It is r...

  12. A comparative study on plant morphology, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant response of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. grown on industrially polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    STANCHEVA, Ira; GENEVA, Maria; MARKOVSKA, Yuliana; TZVETKOVA, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Cd, Pb, and Zn uptake on plant morphology, photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant potential, and essential oil yield and quality in Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. plants were evaluated. The plants were grown as a pot experiment in soil heavily polluted with Cd and Pb and on unpolluted soil. Both plants accumulated Cd, mainly in the roots, while Pb occurred in the oregano shoots only. The leaf blade thickness of both plants increased when grown in polluted soil. Bas...

  13. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, Arnadi Ramachandrayya; Azmidah, Aysha; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2012-02-01

    Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even today. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the commonly used dietary agents like Allium sativum (garlic), Camellia sinensis (tea), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Ferula asafoetida (asafoetida), Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind), Glycine max (soyabean), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Piper betle (beetle leaf), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Ocimum gratissimum (wild basil), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Vitis vinifera (grapes) protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic studies have shown that the beneficial effects of these phytochemicals in preventing the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are mediated by the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The present review for the first time collates the hepatoprotective effects of these agents and also emphasizes on aspects that need future research to establish their utility in humans. PMID:22119904

  14. Comportamento fenotípico e genotípico de populações de manjericão Phenotypic and genotypic behavior of basil populations

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Arie F.; Evanildes M de Souza; José WA de Paula; Péricles B. Alves

    2010-01-01

    Genótipos de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) apresentam diferentes teores, rendimentos e composições químicas de óleos essenciais. Fatores influenciam na produção do óleo essencial de manjericão, como a cultivar plantada e o método de cultivo. O estudo dos parâmetros genéticos tem sido ferramenta útil na identificação de genótipos superiores. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estimar alguns parâmetros genéticos associados ao comportamento produtivo de seis populações de manjericão nos anos ag...

  15. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  16. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A. The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  17. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. PMID:26485843

  18. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Medeiros Venancio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP. EOOb and (−-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38±0.2 and 0.17±0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−-LIN, these values were 0.23±0.0 and 0.13±0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−-LIN in the essential oil.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Hanaa A.; Pang, Edwin C.; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  20. Aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum decreases levels of blood glucose in induced hyperglycemic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amilcar Arenal; Leonardo Martn; Nestor M Castillo; Dainier de la Torre; Ubaldo Torres; Reinaldo Gonzlez

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate, in hyperglycemic tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus)], the effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose levels.Methods:The hyperglycemia inO. niloticus was induced by adding glucose to fish pond water.An aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum) was prepared by boiling fresh leaves and the doses of0,40,80,200 and400 mg per liter of pond water were tested.Results:The blood sugar concentration for tilapia with hyperglycemic induced was an average of50% higher than the control group.The blood glucose levels in tilapia after the induction of hyperglycemia were higher than the control group for 90 min after the treatment.The treatment with the aqueous extract ofO. tenuiflorum dropped the serum glucose level of hyperglycemic tilapia until it was similar to that of the control group and was dose dependent.Conclusions:The results indicated that O. tenuiflorum was endowed with anti-hyperglycemic activity.To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of fish as a diabetes model to test natural extracts from plants.

  1. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:27150014

  2. Antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves against Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm

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    Arunajatesan Subbiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. Hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel (mango kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (tulsi extracts with conventional irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion and broth microdilution assay was performed with the herbal extracts and conventional irrigants (2% chlorhexidine and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The assay was extended onto 3 week E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Results: Significant reduction of colony forming units (CFU/mL was observed for the herbal groups and the antibacterial activity of the herbal groups was at par with 5% NaOCl. Conclusions: The antibacterial activity of these herbal extracts is found to be comparable with that of conventional irrigants both on the biofilm and planktonic counterparts.

  3. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

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    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Hanaa A; Pang, Edwin C; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  6. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

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    Tabassum Imrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products. PMID:24786688

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Vlase

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS. The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids, flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin, in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively, and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE COMBINED CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT OF BIXA ORELLANA, AZADIRACHTA INDICA AND OCIMUM SCANTUM

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    B.UttamKumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of Bixa orellana, Azadirachta indica & Ocimum scantum were investigated for their invitro antimicrobial properties. Fresh leaves were collected randomly from Bhimavaram region, India. Plants were compared with voucher specimens deposited by Dr. B. Sarveswara Lingam at Department of Botany, K.G.R.L College (Autonomous, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. The aim of study was to scientifically test whether plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infection showed antibacterial activity. Extracts of sample of 3 species traditionally used as antibacterial were screened for activity against Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Staphylococcus aurues. The study confirms that simple laboratory methods are very well suited to assess the efficacy of traditionally used medicinal plants to inhibit bacterial growth. A comparison to the traditional uses also indicate that local knowledge can give important leads for the development of new treatments. Further tests, especially with regards to toxicity, are needed to verify the safety of the traditional preparations.

  10. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Distribution and Antibacterial Activities of Medicinal Plants Tinospora cordifolia, Ocimum sanctum and Piper nigrum

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    M Debnath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the inhibition and the in vitro interaction of the pathogens with the plant extracts, various solvent extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Ocimum sanctum, Piper nigrum were screened for antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method. A synergistic inhibitory activity by the combination of aqueous extracts of the three plants against Salmonella, Shigella and P. aeruginosa was observed. The chloroform extracts in combination also showed maximum inhibition against E. coli but ethanolic extract in equimolar concentration showed maximum inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. All these plant extracts were tested for heavy metal (HM content as they are often contaminated during the growth, development and processing. O. sanctum and P. nigrum contained the maximum HM content while T. cordifolia contained less HM. The plants extracts in combination also showed low contamination with heavy metal which is a positive indication for their potential use in combating infections. These results indicate that plant extracts in combinations are less contaminated with heavy metals but they are very potent in fighting emerging pathogens.

  11. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Julio Colivet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  12. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Julio Colivet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  13. Isolation and characterization of anti-diabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) fromOcimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and characterize antidiabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) from hydro alcoholic extract ofOcimum sanctum (O. sanctum) aerial part.Methods: Ten fractions(F1 - F10) were isolated from hydro alcoholic extract ofO. sanctum aerial part by column chromatography. All the fractions F1 toF10 were screened for antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats by estimating serum glucose level and lipid parameters. The isolated bioactive component was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, MS,1H and 13C NMR) data analysis.Results:The bioactive fraction(F5) was found to be potent antidiabetic by ameliorating glucose and lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol). The extensive spectroscopic data analysis reveals that, the isolated bioactive compound elucidated as tetracyclic triterpenoid [16-Hydroxy-4,4,10,13-tetramethyl-17-(4-methyl-pentyl)-hexadecahydro-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one]. Conclusions:Our present study concluded that, tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from aerial part ofO. sanctum has a great anti-diabetic potential.

  14. Recontextualização da simulação clínica em enfermagem baseada em Basil Bernstein: semiologia da prática pedagógica Recontextualización de la simulación de enfermería clínica basada en Basil Bernstein: la semiología de la práctica pedagógica Recontextualization of Nursing clinical simulation based on Basil Bernstein: semiology of pedagogical practice

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    Mateus Casanova dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é um estudo de caso investigativo de caráter participante e descritivo, a partir da vivência pedagógica no disparador de aprendizagem Simulação em Enfermagem, do segundo semestre do primeiro ciclo da graduação da Faculdade de Enfermagem (FEn da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel, onde se desenvolve a simulação clínica de semiologia e semiotécnica em Enfermagem. O objetivo é estudar a recontextualização da prática pedagógica da Simulação com base em teorizações do sociólogo da educação Basil Bernstein, contribuindo para o processo de aperfeiçoamento do planejamento de ensino e, especialmente, da avaliação deste disparador de aprendizagem. A partir das reflexões deste estudo, observa-se a teorização de Bernstein como uma potente ferramenta semiológica das práticas pedagógicas, a qual contribui para o planejamento e análise do dispositivo pedagógico curricular.Este artículo es un caso de estudio de carácter descriptivo y de investigación participante, desde la experiencia educativa de aprendizaje en el gatillo Simulación en Enfermería, de la segunda mitad del primer ciclo de la Escuela Enfermería (FEN de la Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel donde se desarrolla la simulación de la semiología clínica y la semiótica en Enfermería. El objetivo es estudiar la recontextualización de la práctica pedagógica de teorías basadas en la simulación del sociólogo de la educación Basil Bernstein, contribuyendo al proceso de mejora de la educación, planificación y aprendizaje, especialmente la evaluación de gatillo. De las reflexiones de este estudio, existe la teoría de Bernstein como una poderosa herramienta de semiótica prácticas pedagógicas, lo que contribuye a la planificación y el análisis de dispositivos educativos curriculares.This article is a case study of investigative and descriptive participant character, from the educational experience of learning in the trigger

  15. Giambattista Basile, The tale of tales, or entertainment for little ones, trad. Nancy L. Canepa, Detroit, Wayne State University Press 2007, 463 pages. ISBN 978-8143-2866-8 (capa mole)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Francisco Vaz da

    2007-01-01

    Lo Cunto de li Cunti, overo Lo Trattenemiento de’ Peccerille (O Conto dos Contos, ou O Entretenimento dos Pequenitos) é a primeira grande colecção europeia de contos maravilhosos, também designados como contos mágicos ou de fadas. Escrita por Giambattista Basile, um literato da corte napolitana, esta obra (também conhecida como Pentamerone) foi dada à estampa pela primeira vez, em cinco volumes, entre 1634 e 1636.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil and its main compound estragole: In vivo mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Anita; Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; Ferreira E Castro, Fyama; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; Martins Fernandes, Maria Neyze; Fernandes da Silva, Bruno Anderson; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Barbosa, Roseli; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose

    2016-09-25

    The genus Ocimum are used in cooking, however, their essential oils are utilized in traditional medicine as aromatherapy. The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition and systemic anti-inflammatory activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EOOB) and its major component estragole, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The Ocimum basilicum essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory action was verified using acute and chronic in vivo tests as paw edema, peritonitis, and vascular permeability and granulomatous inflammation model. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was analyzed by the participation of histamine and arachidonic acid pathways. The chemical profile analysis identified fourteen components present in the essential oil, within them: estragole (60.96%). The in vivo test results show that treatment with EOOB (100 and 50 mg/kg) and estragole (60 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran. The smallest doses of EOOB (50 mg/kg) and estragole (30 mg/kg) showed efficacy in the reduction of paw edema induced by histamine and arachidonic acid, vascular permeability inhibition and leukocyte emigration in the peritoneal fluid. Theses doses were capable of reducing the chronic inflammatory process. The results observed between the EOOB and estragole demonstrate efficacy in anti-inflammatory activity, however, the essential oil is more efficacious in the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory action. This study confirms the therapeutic potential of this plant and reinforces the validity of its use in popular medicine. PMID:27474066

  17. Evaluación in vivo del potencial mutagénico de los quimiotipos Estragol y Eugenol del aceite esencial de Ocimum selloi Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Josiane de F.P. de; Paulo V. Farago; Ribas, Joao Luiz C.; Spinardi, Gisele Mara S.; Döll, Patricia M.; Artoni, Roberto F.; Zawadzki, Sónia F.

    2007-01-01

    Se determinó la composición química y la mutagenicidad de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas del Ocimum selloi Benth, perteneciente a la familia Lamiaceae, nativos de la región sur de Brasil. Para el estudio se utilizaron técnicas de cromatografía gaseosa capilar acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Para la evaluación de la mutagenicidad in vivo se utilizó el ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratones Wistar. Del aceite esencial nominado quimiotipo A, fueron identifica...

  18. Comportamiento de las relaciones hídricas en la albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L.) al ser irrigadas con diferentes volúmenes de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, L; E. Jerez

    2000-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), con el objetivo de estudiar los requerimientos hídricos de la albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L.). Para ello se establecieron diferentes niveles de humedad en el suelo, evaluándose el potencial hídrico, la conductancia estomática y el contenido relativo de agua, así como las masas fresca y seca de la parte aérea. Del análisis de los resultados se obtuvo que la aplicación del 75 % del balance de evapo...

  19. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  20. Teor e composição do óleo essencial de quatro acessos e duas cultivares de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Veloso; H.G. Castro; L.C.A. Barbosa; D.P. Cardoso; A.F. Chagas Júnior; G.N. Scheidt

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o teor e a composição química dos óleos essenciais de quatro acessos silvestres de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.), provenientes de diferentes regiões geográficas, e duas cultivares comerciais cultivados sob as mesmas condições edafoclimáticas. As sementes dos acessos foram coletadas nos município de Gurupi-TO (GUR) e de Monte Alegre-GO (MAL, MVE e FPS) e as sementes da cultivar comercial manjericão roxo (MR) foram adquiridas no comércio de Gurupi e da cul...

  1. Potential Dual Role of Eugenol in Inhibiting Advanced Glycation End Products in Diabetes: Proteomic and Mechanistic Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Singh; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H.; Sachin B. Agawane; Garikapati Vannuruswamy; Arvind M. Korwar; Atul Anand; Dhaygude, Vitthal S.; Mahemud L. Shaikh; Rakesh S Joshi; Ramanamurthy Boppana; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Hirekodathakallu V. Thulasiram; Giri, Ashok P.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinally important genus Ocimum harbors a vast pool of chemically diverse metabolites. Current study aims at identifying anti-diabetic candidate compounds from Ocimum species. Major metabolites in O. kilimandscharicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum were purified, characterized and evaluated for anti-glycation activity. In vitro inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by eugenol was found to be highest. Preliminary biophysical analysis and blind docking studies to understand e...

  2. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malve, Harshad O.; Raut, Sanket B.; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os) on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100–150 g) were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe), and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os). The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb–Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone. PMID:25624694

  3. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

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    Harshad O Malve

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer′s disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer′s disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100-150 g were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe, and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os.The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb-Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone.

  4. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

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    Naveen Kumar eKalagatur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO on growth and zearalenone (ZEA production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 of OSEO was determined to be 8.5µg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 µg/mL and 1800 µg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 µg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 µg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13 revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250 µg/mL to 1500 µg/mL significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

  5. Enhancing chloramphenicol and trimethoprimin vitro activity byOcimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract againstSalmonellaenterica serovar Typhi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity ofOcimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaf extract, alone, and in combination with chloramphenicol (C) and trimethoprim (Tm) againstSalmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi).Methods: The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of tulsi, O. sanctum, leaf(TLE; 500 μg) for23S. typhi isolates was determined following agar diffusion. TheC (30 μg) and Tm (5 μg) activity alone and in combination with TLE(250 μg) was determined by disk diffusion. The zone diameter of inhibition(ZDI)for the agents was recorded, and growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) were calculated.Results: The S. typhi isolates (n=23), which were resistant to bothC (ZDI 6 mm) and Tm (ZDI6 mm), hadTLE (500 μg)ZDIs16-24 mm. The ZDIs ofC and Tm were increased up to15-21 mm and 17-23 mm, respectively, whenTLE(250 μg) was added to theC and Tm discs. TheGIIs ranged0.789-1.235 and0.894-1.352, due to combined activity againstS. typhi isolates, ofC andTLE and Tm andTLE, respectively.Conclusions: The data suggest that TLE, in combination with C and Tm, had synergistic activity forS. typhi isolates, and henceO. sanctumis potential in combatingS. typhi drug resistance, as well promising in the development of non-antibiotic drug forS. typhi infection.

  6. Characterization of Turbulent Processes by the Raman Lidar System Basil in the Frame of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment - Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Cacciani, Marco; Scoccione, Andrea; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-06-01

    Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL are reported to demonstrate the capability of this instrument to characterize turbulent processes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). In order to resolve the vertical profiles of turbulent variables, high resolution water vapour and temperature measurements, with a temporal resolution of 10 sec and a vertical resolution of 90 and 210 m, respectively, are considered. Measurements of higher-order moments of the turbulent fluctuations of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature are obtained based on the application of spectral and auto-covariance analyses to the water vapour mixing ratio and temperature time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 5, 20 April 2013) from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of up to fourth-order moments for both water vapour mixing ratio and temperature fluctuations with sufficient accuracy.

  7. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

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    Shaila V. Kothiwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO, clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16, PI (0.57, and PMA (0.02 scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy.

  8. Characterization of Turbulent Processes by the Raman Lidar System Basil in the Frame of the HD(CP2 Observational Prototype Experiment – Hope

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    Di Girolamo Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL are reported to demonstrate the capability of this instrument to characterize turbulent processes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL. In order to resolve the vertical profiles of turbulent variables, high resolution water vapour and temperature measurements, with a temporal resolution of 10 sec and a vertical resolution of 90 and 210 m, respectively, are considered. Measurements of higher-order moments of the turbulent fluctuations of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature are obtained based on the application of spectral and auto-covariance analyses to the water vapour mixing ratio and temperature time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 5, 20 April 2013 from the HD(CP2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE, held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of up to fourth-order moments for both water vapour mixing ratio and temperature fluctuations with sufficient accuracy.

  9. Holy Basil Leaf Extract Decreases Tumorigenicity and Metastasis of Aggressive Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells in vitro and in vivo: Potential Role in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Torres, María P.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Souchek, Joshua J.; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Macha, Muzafar; Ganti, Apar K.; Hauke, Ralph J; Batra, Surinder K.

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop alternative therapies against lethal pancreatic cancer (PC). Ocimum sanctum (“Holy Basil”) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Indian medicine, but its anti-tumorigenic effect remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that extracts of O. sanctum leaves inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and induce apoptosis of PC cells in vitro. The expression of genes that promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of PC cells including activated ERK-1/2, FAK, and p65 (subunit of NF-κB), was downregulated in PC cells after O. sanctum treatment. Intraperitoneal injections of the aqueous extract significantly inhibited the growth of orthotopically transplanted PC cells in vivo (p<0.05). Genes that inhibit metastasis (E-cadherin) and induce apoptosis (BAD) were significantly upregulated in tumors isolated from mice treated with O. sanctum extracts, while genes that promote survival (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and chemo/radiation resistance (AURKA, Chk1 and Survivin) were downregulated. Overall, our study suggests that leaves of O. sanctum could be a potential source of novel anticancer compounds in the future. PMID:23523869

  10. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, E O; Gompertz, O F; Giesbrecht, A M; Paulo, M Q

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen essential oils were isolated from officinal plants and tested in vitro against dermatophyte strains isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Of the tested oils, those obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eugenia uniflora and Alpinia speciosa were found to be the most active, inhibiting 80% of the dermatophyte strains tested and producing inhibition zones more than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:8015567

  11. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y ENZIMÁTICA DE ALBAHACA ‘NUFAR’ (Ocimum basilicum L. ALMACENADA EN REFRIGERACIÓN

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    Eduardo L\\u00F3pez-Blancas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actividad antioxidante y enzimática de albahaca “Nufar” ( Ocimum basilicum L. almacenada en refrigeración. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del almacenamiento en refrigeración sobre la actividad antioxidante y actividad enzimática en albahaca ‘Nufar’. En la Universidad Aut ónoma Chapingo (Texcoco, México, durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2012, albahaca preciclo primavera-verano de 2012, albahaca previamente empacada en película plástica, se almacenó en cámaras frigoríficas a 5 y 10 °C , y a temperatura ambiente (20 °C - testigo, por dieciocho días. Cada 48 horas, se evaluó el contenido de fenoles totales, capacidad antioxidante y la actividad de las enzimas catalasa, superóxido dismutasa, peroxidasa y polifenol oxidasa. En relación con el tiempo en refrigeración a 5 °C a los dos y cuatro días se presentó la mayor actividad de catalasa (14,3 U/mg/pro y superóxido dismutasa (2,9 U/mg/pro, y a los diez y dieciocho días hubo aumento de la actividad de peroxidasa (57,6 y 74,9 U/ mg/pro. A 10 °C y diez días se incrementó el contenido de fenoles totales de 3,7 a 4,2 mg/kg/PFr; así como la capacidad antioxidante de 47,5 a 79,1 mg VCEAC/g/PFr a ocho días; también aumentó la actividad de la polifenol oxidasa de 11,7 a 31,8 U/mg/pro a diez días. El almacenamiento a 5 °C afectó el contenido de fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante, así como la actividad enzimática de peroxidasa y polifenol oxidasa, e incrementó la actividad de catalasa y superóxido dismutasa, por lo cual, se sugiere el almacenamiento de albahaca “nufar” a 10 °C para disminuir la actividad de las enzimas oxidativas.

  12. Nisin/罗勒精油对冷鲜猪肉的保鲜效果%Fresh-keeping Effect of Nisin and Basil Oil on Fresh Pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建清; 姜楠楠; 金政伟

    2012-01-01

    将Nisin与罗勒精油复配制备保鲜剂,对冷鲜猪肉进行了货架寿命研究。通过检测挥发性盐基氮、菌落总数、pH值以及脂肪氧化程度值,综合评价了保鲜剂的性能。结果表明:添加复合抑菌剂可有效抑制冷鲜猪肉菌落总数,保持猪肉鲜度;保鲜剂体积分数为0.75%时可延长冷鲜肉的贮藏期4d,体积分数为1%时可延长冷鲜肉的贮藏期6d。%Antistaling agent was prepared by mixing Nisin and Basil oil, and the shelf life of fresh pork was studied. The performance of antistaling agent was evaluated by detecting the change in TVB-N, total colony, pH, and TBARS. The results showed that the addition of the antistaling agent can effectively inhibit microbial growth and keep pork fresh; when the volume fraction of antistaling agent is 0.75%, the shelf life of fresh pork can be extended by 4 days; when the volume fraction of antistaling agent is 1%, the shelf life of fresh pork can be extended by 6 days.

  13. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  14. Propagação in vitro de Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2034 In vitro propagation of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Kommling Seixas; Marcia Wulff Schuch; Vera Lucia Bobrowski; Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga; Luciana Bicca Dode

    2003-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (manjericão) pertencente à família das Lamiaceae é rico em óleos essenciais aromáticos e valorizado por suas propriedades farmacêuticas, aromáticas e culinárias. Neste trabalho descrevemos o procedimento para micropropagação de O. basilicum utilizando cotilédones de sementes germinadas in vitro. Estas foram utilizadas como explante inicial, colocadas em meio MS (Murashige e /skoog, 1962), com 0,2mg.L-1 de ANA em combinação com BAP nas variações de 0–5mg.L-1 e mantidas à 28...

  15. STUDY FARMACOGNOSICO FOR THE CARE OF THE HEALTH FROM ESSENTIAL OILS OBTAINED BY DISTILLATION OF STEAM DRAGGING

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    Beltran-Cifuentes Martha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: natural medicine has substantially addressed the ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants from the study of active principles, using techniques of phytochemistry, for application in different fields of health, including cosmetology.The production of medicinal and aromatic plants is cost-effective when given added value to primary production, those are not as drugs marketed fresh or dried vegetables, but processed and transformed. In that sense can be obtained extracts, oils or develop phytomedicines, phytocosmetic, etc.Method: a study with an experimental approach which was taken as reference of the genus Ocimum species belonging to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae that are cultivated in the Department of Risaralda. The species studied were of the varieties: O. basilicum L. var cinammom, O. anisatum, O. purpurescens, O. album, O. thyrsiflorum, O. cf. gratissimum.Essential oils were obtainedfrom the aerial parts of each plant species by extraction of the steam distillation and solvent extraction with ethyl acetate. This procedure was performed in triplicate for each species and its chemical composition was determined by GC-MS.To identify the components of the oils used the database Wiley library (Seventh Edition Version 2003. The recording of data was performed using Microsoft Excel program.Results: the chemical composition of essential oils obtained by GC-MS, reported high in phenylpropane (eugenol, (E-methyl cinnamate (Z-methyl cinnamate and oxygenated monoterpenes (eucalyptol, α-terpineol, β - terpineol and linalool.Conclusions: the results are confirmed by reviewing reports from other studies on the chemical composition of some varieties of basil grown in the department of Tolima. This study found a chemotype for them "methyl cinnamate", and volatiles of these plants were rich in phenylpropanoids.

  16. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

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    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  17. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  18. BASIL TAHAN ASAM PADA NYAMUK

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    Subakir Subakir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. M. Leprae (AFB is found in blood of lepromatous patients. A preliminary study of AFB (Acid Fast Bacteria was performed from 49 mosquitoes in a leprosy ward. The result shows that 2(4,1% mosquitoes were found positive AFB. This study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of mosqiutoes as a vehicle in transmission and spreading of leprosy.

  19. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P control (6 days) (P < 0.05). PMID:26396365

  20. ASCETIC VIEWS OF BASIL THE GREAT AND THEIR ROLE IN THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGIOUS CONSCIOUSNESS AND SOCIAL THOUGHT IN RUSSIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF XIV - EARLY XV CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. DAVYDOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and development of religious consciousness and social thought in Russia at the second half of XIV - early XV centuries was conditioned by the main facts of history and spiritual life of Russia. All the spiritual forces of Russia at the second half of XIV - early XV centuries were directed to solve practical problems of creating the united state. The development of religious-social thought in Russia was greatly influenced by the entry into the culture of Russia of numerous translations of the classics of patristic literature from Byzantium. An appeal to the creations of Byzantine thinkers had internal reasons, where the main problems were the issues of morality and strengthening of spirituality. One of the main themes of the ancient Russian scribes at the second half of XIV - early XV centuries was asceticism. The aim of the article is to analyze the moral and ascetic views of the Byzantine theologian, philosopher and church leader of the 4th century Basil the Great and reflection of his views in the ancient Russian authors‟ works. Investigation of the works of St. Basil the Great allows to reveal the specific sources that determined the growth of personal principles, moral and ascetic orientation of religious and social thought in Russia. Active asceticism became one of the main sources of additional spiritual strength needed to solve the practical problems in creating a united state.

  1. Studies on the performance of TiO{sub 2} thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malliga, P. [Department of Physics, V.V.Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Selvi, B. Karunai [Department of Botany, V.V.Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N. [Nanoscience Lab, Department of Physics, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Neyvasagam, K., E-mail: srineyvas@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai - 625011 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO{sub 2} has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO{sub 2} thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO{sub 2} thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants.

  2. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliga, P.; Selvi, B. Karunai; Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Neyvasagam, K.

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of TiO2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450˚C and 550˚C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X - Ray diffraction (XRD), UV - Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants.

  3. Antigenotoxic effect of green-synthesised silver nanoparticles from Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes—in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya, P. P.; Rekha, B.; Mathew, Anu Thersa; Syed Ali, M.; Yogananth, N.; Anuradha, V.; Kalitha Parveen, P.

    2014-04-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the antigenotoxic effect of bio-synthesised silver nanoparticles (SNP) of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against cyclophosphamide (CP). We tested the antigenotoxic effect of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles of O. sanctum leaf extract on human lymphocytes against CP by using chromosomal aberration assay (CAA). Silver nanoparticles was first synthesized from fresh leaf extract of O. sanctum and characterised. Their quality was checked by XRD technique and morphology by SEM. Three different doses of the bio-synthesised SNPs namely, 50, 100 and 200 μl/ml were selected and CP (100 μg/ml) was used as a positive control for CAA. CP administration to human lymphocytes culture caused reduction in mitotic index (MI) and increase in chromosomal damages. The three doses (50, 100 and 200 μl/ml) significantly ( P < 0.005) reduced the chromosomal damages by CP and there was increase in MI. The biological way of synthesising SNPs has advantages like cost effectiveness and eco-friendly. Also the bio-synthesised SNPs of O. sanctum leaf extract was found to be an powerful genoprotectant. Furthermore works are to be carried out in future to find the extract mechanism of its genoprotective nature.

  4. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of TiO2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants

  5. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  6. Estudo da biologia floral e mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L.) visando o melhoramento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598 Study of the floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of Alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L.) aiming at genetic improvement - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral; Anderson Barbosa Silva; ANderson Brito da Silva; Alisson Harley Brito da Silva; Obertal da Silva Almeida

    2004-01-01

    O Gênero Ocimum, da Família Lamiaceae, compreende plantas ricas em óleos essenciais destinados às industrias para produção de fármacos, perfumes e cosméticos. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é extremamente relevante, pois permite definir estratégias de seleção com base em cruzamentos intra e interpopulacionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia floral e os mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão com vistas ao melhoramento genético. A atividade floral compreendeu três estádio...

  7. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomotor activity meter. The chemical composition of the plant essential oil was also determined. The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of this plant were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice at various doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and 200 mg/kg of essential oil) 30 min before starting the experiment. The amount of hydroalcoholic extract was 18.6% w/w and the essential oil was 0.34% v/w. The major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol (42.8%), geranial (13.0%), neral (12.2%) and β-caryophyllene (7.2%). HE at 150 and 200 mg/kg and EO at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the time passed in open arms in comparison to control group. This finding was not significant for the dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. None of the dosages had significant effect on the number of entrance to the open arms. Moreover, both the hydroalcoholic extract and the essential oil decreased the locomotion of mice in comparison to the control group. This study shows the anxiolytic and sedative effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum. The anti-anxiety and sedative effect of essential oil was higher than the hydroalcoholic extract with the same doses. These effects could be due to the phenol components of O. basilicum. PMID:26779273

  8. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  9. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and aflatoxin B1 induced skin tumorigenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the protective effect of alcoholic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum on 3-mthylcholanthrene (MCA), 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced skin tumorigenesis in a mouse model has been investigated. The study involved pretreatment of mice with the leaf extract prior to either MCA application or tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) treatment in a two-stage tumor protocol viz a viz, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA. The results of the present study indicate that the pretreatment with alcoholic extract of the leaves of O. sanctum decreased the number of tumors in MCA, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treated mice. The skin tumor induced animals pretreated with alcoholic extract led to a decrease in the expression of cutaneous γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutathione-S-transferase-P (GST-P) protein. The histopathological examination of skin tumors treated with leaf extract showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear, mononuclear and lymphocytic cells, decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity with concomitant enhancement of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum, implying the in vivo antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity of leaf extract. The decrease in cutaneous phase I enzymes and elevation of phase II enzymes in response to topical application of leaf extract prior to MCA, AFB1, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treatment indicate the possibility of impairment in reactive metabolite(s) formation and thereby reducing skin carcinogenicity. Furthermore, pretreatment of leaf extract in the carcinogen induced animals resulted in elevation of glutathione levels and decrease in lipid peroxidation along with heat shock protein expression, indicating a scavenging or antioxidant potential of the extract during chemical carcinogenesis. Thus it can be concluded that leaf extract of O. sanctum provides protection against chemical carcinogenesis in one or more of the following mechanisms: (i) by acting as an

  10. COMPOSITION OF HERB AND SEED OIL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF TWO VARIETIES OF OCIMUM BASILICUM HARVESTED AT SHORT TIME INTERVALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Sastry KAKARAPARTHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the changes in the chemical composition of the essential oil of two varieties of Ocimum basilicum over a period of six months at short harvest intervals for two crop seasons. In variety Vikarsudha, GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of eighteen essential oil constituents. Linalool (23.5­40.1% and 22.8­33.7% and methyl chavicol (25.4­51.9% and 40.0­52.7% were the major constituents in main and ratoon crops. Similarly, in variety Kuhmohak GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of linalool (19.2­25.4 % and 16.1­31.3% and methyl chavicol (34.7­53.4% and 39.4­59.2% in large quantities in main and ratoon crops, respectively. β myrcene, limonene, 1,8 cineole, ocimene, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, bornyl acetate, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β elemene, β caryophyllene, α humulene, γ Cadinene and cadinol were present in small quantities. Results pertaining to the zone of inhibition in the antimicrobial activity of essential oil indicated that Chromobacterium violaceum is more sensitive compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Among the fungal strains Aspergillus niger was found to be more sensitive. GC-MS analysis of the fixed oils obtained from the seeds in the ratoon crop revealed the presence of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The unsaturated fatty acids averaged 89% consisting of α-linolenic (49.3%­52.4%, linoleic (23.4%­26.0%, and oleic (10.3%­12.3% acids. The most abundant saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic acids.

  11. Teor e composição do óleo essencial de quatro acessos e duas cultivares de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Veloso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o teor e a composição química dos óleos essenciais de quatro acessos silvestres de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L., provenientes de diferentes regiões geográficas, e duas cultivares comerciais cultivados sob as mesmas condições edafoclimáticas. As sementes dos acessos foram coletadas nos município de Gurupi-TO (GUR e de Monte Alegre-GO (MAL, MVE e FPS e as sementes da cultivar comercial manjericão roxo (MR foram adquiridas no comércio de Gurupi e da cultivar Maria Bonita (MB foram fornecidas pelo Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O plantio foi realizado em vasos com capacidade de dez litros utilizando-se como substrato: solo de barranco e esterco bovino na proporção 2:1. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger e a identificação e a porcentagem relativa dos compostos do óleo essencial foi realizada por Cromatografia à Gás acoplada a Detector de Espectrometria de Massas. Foram identificados trinta e nove substâncias nos óleos essenciais obtidos, abrangendo monoterpenos, sesquiterpenos e fenilpropanoides. Nas cultivares MB e MR o composto majoritário foi o linalol, enquanto nos acessos silvestres (MAL, GUR, FPS e MVE o composto em maior quantidade foi o (E-cinamato de metila. O maior teor de óleo essencial foi obtido na cultivar Maria Bonita (3,77%.

  12. Estudo da biologia floral e mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L. visando o melhoramento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598 Study of the floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of Alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L. aiming at genetic improvement - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Gênero Ocimum, da Família Lamiaceae, compreende plantas ricas em óleos essenciais destinados às industrias para produção de fármacos, perfumes e cosméticos. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é extremamente relevante, pois permite definir estratégias de seleção com base em cruzamentos intra e interpopulacionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia floral e os mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão com vistas ao melhoramento genético. A atividade floral compreendeu três estádios florais: primeiro, pré-antese, quando ocorreu a polinização; segundo, antese, quando aconteceu a abertura assincrônica de estames e, terceiro, pós-antese, quando houve a fecundação dos óvulos. O processo de antese está intimamente relacionado com as condições climáticas. Os acessos de O. officinalis do Banco de Germoplasma de Plantas Medicinais da UESB, apesar de se reproduzirem, predominantemente, por autofecundação, podem apresentar fecundação cruzada, o que evidencia a ampla versatilidade reprodutiva dessa espécie, acentuando a variabilidade genética, a qual é essencial para sua evoluçãoSome of the plants from Ocimum genus in Lamiaceae family are source of essential oils used in pharmacy, perfume and cosmetics industry. The knowledge of mate systems is extremely important because it allows to define selection strategies based on intra and interpopulation crossbreeding. The aim of this work was to study floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of alfavacão aiming at genetic improvement. The floral activity included three floral stages: first, pre-anthesis, when the pollination happened; second, anthesis, when the asynchronous opening of stamens happened; and third, pos-anthesis, when there was the fecundation of the ova. The anthesis process is intimately related to climatic conditions. The accesses of O. officinalis from Banco de Germoplasma de Plantas Medicinais da UESB (Medicinal Plants Germplasm Bank from UESB

  13. Avoidance Behavior to Essential Oils by Anopheles minimus, a Malaria Vector in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Chauhan, Kamal; Tantakom, Siripun; Eiden, Amanda L; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from 4 different plant species--citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)-were investigated for their irritant and repellent activities against Anopheles minimus, using an excito-repellency test system. Pure essential oils were used in absolute ethanol at the concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v) compared with deet. At the lowest concentration of 0.5%, hairy basil displayed the best irritant and repellent effects against An. minimus. Citronella and vetiver at 1-5% showed strong irritant effects with>80% escape, while repellent effects of both oils were observed at 1% and 2.5% citronella (73-89% escape) and at 5% vetiver (83.9% escape). Sweet basil had only moderate irritant action at 5% concentration (69.6% escape) and slightly repellent on test mosquitoes (mosquito repellent products for protection against An. minimus. PMID:27105214

  14. Actividad antidermatofítica in vitro de aceites esenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Lizet Hernández Díaz; Mayra Rodríguez Jorge; Dinah García; Jorge Pino Alea

    2003-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antidermatofítica in vitro de las especies Ocimum gratissimum L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Pimenta dioica L y Piper auritum H.B.K. El estudio de esta actividad biológica se realizó mediante la determinación de las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias con el empleo del método de diluciones en medio caldo sabouraud dextrosa. Se trabajaron muestras de aceites esenciales obtenidos en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" y se empleó una batería...

  15. Correlação entre as atividades antiradical, antiacetilcolinesterase e teor de fenóis totais de extratos de plantas medicinais de farmácias vivas

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Morais; K.S.B. Lima; S.M.C. Siqueira; E.S.B. Cavalcanti; M.S.T. Souza; J.E.S.A. Menezes; M.T.S. Trevisan

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre o conteúdo de fenóis de extratos de 18 plantas medicinais comuns nas Farmácias Vivas com a atividade sequestradora do radical livre DPPH e com a inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Maiores conteúdos de fenóis totais foram encontrados nas plantas: Eugenia uniflora, Lippia alba, Lippia microphylla, Mentha x villosa, Ocimum gratissimum e Ocimum selloi. As espécies que apresentaram maior atividade antioxidante, semelhante a quercetina, ...

  16. Persistance of the insecticidal activity of five essential oils on the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamo Tinkeu, L S; Goudoum, A; Ngassoum, M B; Mapongmetsem, P M; Kouninki, H; Hance, T

    2004-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants are popularise as protectant with low persistance. The evaluation of this duration of activity was carried out for five aromatic plants: Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae), Eucalyptus citriodora et Ecalyptus saligna (Myrtaceae), Lippia rugosa (Verbenaceae) and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). They have significant insecticidal activity on S. Zeamais, on the first day of application, this activity decreases after 2 or 4 days. After 8 more than 50% of the efficacy is lossed for all the plants excepted A. senegalensis. PMID:15759405

  17. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil Composição e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas usadas no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Sartoratto; Ana Lúcia M. Machado; Camila Delarmelina; Glyn Mara Figueira; Marta Cristina T. Duarte; Vera Lúcia G. Rehder

    2004-01-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum, O. basilicum were obtained by steam destillation using a Clevenger-type system. These oils were screened for antibacterial and anti-Candida albicans activity using bioautographic method. Subsequently, minimal inhibitory concentration from oils was determined by microdilution method. Most essential oil studied were effective against Enterococcus ...

  18. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Ocheng; Freddie Bwanga; Moses Joloba; Abier Softrata; Muhammad Azeem; Katrin Pütsep; Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson; Celestino Obua; Anders Gustafsson

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed ...

  19. Effect of plant extracts used in folk medicine on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) cultivated in defined medium Efeito de extratos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) cultivada em meio definido

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Barbieri Holetz; Tania Ueda Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho; Diogenes Aparicio Garcia Cortez; João Carlos Palazzo de Mello; Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2002-01-01

    This work reports the effect of 15 medicinal plants on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, used as biological model for its similar antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi. Crude extracts (1,000 g/ml) or essential oil (250 g/ml) were added in a defined medium. Cell growth was estimated by counting in Neubauer’s chamber and cell differentiation was examined by light microscope. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron...

  20. Characterization of Water Vapor Fluxes by the Raman Lidar System Basil and the Univeristy of Cologne Wind Lidar in the Frame of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment - Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Cacciani, Marco; Scoccione, Andrea; Schween, Jan H.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements carried out by the Raman lidar system BASIL and the University of Cologne wind lidar are reported to demonstrate the capability of these instruments to characterize water vapour fluxes within the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). In order to determine the water vapour flux vertical profiles, high resolution water vapour and vertical wind speed measurements, with a temporal resolution of 1 sec and a vertical resolution of 15-90, are considered. Measurements of water vapour flux profiles are based on the application of covariance approach to the water vapour mixing ratio and vertical wind speed time series. The algorithms are applied to a case study (IOP 11, 04 May 2013) from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), held in Central Germany in the spring 2013. For this case study, the water vapour flux profile is characterized by increasing values throughout the CBL with lager values (around 0.1 g/kg m/s) in the entrainment region. The noise errors are demonstrated to be small enough to allow the derivation of water vapour flux profiles with sufficient accuracy.

  1. Uso del FitoMas-E® como atenuante del estrés salino (NaCl durante la emergencia y crecimiento inicial de Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Batista-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bioestimulantes vegetales estimula la emergencia y el crecimiento vegetal debido a que están compuestos por sustancias naturales como carbohidratos, péptidos de bajo peso molecular y aminoácidos, activadores de las funciones fisiológicas de las plantas, por lo que su aplicación permite un mejor aprovechamiento de los nutrientes y representa una opción para enfrentar problemas de estrés abiótico por salinidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del bioestimulante FitoMas-E® derivado de la caña de azúcar como atenuante de la salinidad en la emergencia y el crecimiento de plántulas de variedades de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. con respuesta diferencial al estrés por salinidad. Tres variedades de albahaca: Napoletano, Emily y Nufar se sometieron a cuatro concentraciones de NaCl (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM y cuatro dosis de FitoMas-E® (0, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 mL L-1 en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro repeticiones. El trabajo se desarrolló en una estructura de malla sombra y las variables que se midieron fueron: porcentaje y tasa de emergencia, longitud de radícula, altura de la plántula, biomasa fresca y seca de radícula y de parte aérea. Los resultados evidenciaron que en condiciones de estrés salino (NaCl de moderado a severo, las variables disminuyeron significativamente. Largo de raíz, altura de planta y biomasa seca de raíz en 150 mM de NaCl fueron las más afectadas. Se observó que cuando se aplicó FitoMas-E® las plantas incrementaron significativamente sus valores en las variables, largo de raíz 32% y altura de planta 41%, lo que revela el efecto estimulante del FitoMas-E®, siendo 0.5 mL L-1 la dosis estimulante para la variedad Napoletano y 1.0 mL L-1 para la variedad Emily, aún y cuando se encontraban en condiciones de estrés salino hasta 100 mM de NaCl. Para la concentración de 150 mM se evidenció una afectación extrema para las variedades Emily y Nufar.

  2. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and Prediction of Biological Activity of its Phytoconstituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Parasuraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and prediction of biological activities of its phytoconstituents using in vivo anti-diabetic model and in silico analysis respectively. Materials and Methods: The leaves of O. tenuiflorum were extracted with 60% ethanol, and the extract was used for further pharmacological screening. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated as per the guidelines set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, revised draft guidelines 423. The oral anti-diabetic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg was studied against streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg; i.p. + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p. induced diabetes mellitus. The animals were treated with the investigational plant extract and standard drug (glibenclamide for 21 consecutive days and the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum on blood glucose levels was measured at regular intervals. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, then the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidney were collected for organ weight analysis. Prediction for pharmacological and toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum was carried out using online web tools such as online pass prediction and lazar toxicity prediction. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Predicted biological activities of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum showed presence of various pharmacological actions, which includes anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Prediction of toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum did not show any major toxic effects

  3. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de Ipameri - GO Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Ipameri City - Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zucchi

    2013-01-01

    of these plants; and to diagnose the gender profile and the age and wage ranges of users. Thus, structured interviews were conducted with 200 families in the city and plants were collected for their correct identification. The material was herborized, identified and deposited in the Herbarium of "Universidade Estadual de Goiás" (HUEG. Of the 200 families interviewed, 75 said they did not make use of plants for medicinal purposes (37.5%, while 125 said they do use them (62.5%. The latter group reported the 35 most used species: "hortelã-rasteira" (Mentha x villosa L., "boldo-sete-dores" (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews., lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf., "quebra-pedra" (Phyllanthus niruri L., chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert., pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L., clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., wormwood (Artemisia canphorata Vill., balm (Eysenhardtia platycarpa Mich., broom (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., aloe (Aloe vera L. and mallow (Althaea officinalis L.. All consumer families (100% stated to prefer plants grown organically, to select the plants based on their good appearance (68% families and to eat them in natura (unprocessed, 100%. The use of medicinal plants in Ipameri is independent of gender (54% womem and 46% men and extends to several age and socioeconomic ranges, configuring thus a good consumer market.

  4. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  5. Diferentes condimentos vegetais: avaliação sensorial e de atividade antibacteriana em preparação alimentar com frango cozido Different spice plants: sensorial evaluation and antibacterial activity in chicken broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    , individualmente, atividade antibacteriana significativa, mesmo que sem significância quando comparados entre si. Contudo, em relação ao tempo de início da atividade antibacteriana, destacou-se a pimenta dedo-de-moça, enquanto que, em relação ao prolongamento dessa ação no tempo, destacou-se o alho nirá. As 12 plantas condimentares em estudo tiveram atestada a sensorialidade, sendo que as quatro plantas com destaque tiveram a atividade anti-coliforme termo-resistente comprovada in loco. Diferentes condimentos vegetais foram capazes de fornecer qualificação sensorial e sanitária em caldo com frango cozido, em condições domésticas de manuseio.Based on the in vitro antibacterial activity predetermined for 12 spice plants with ethnographic indicator, this feature was tested in loco in the model cooked chicken broth. First, ten evaluators were trained, according to the current legislation for Free and Informed Consent, providing previous knowledge about the plants parsley (Petroselinum sativum, marjoram (Origanum X aplii and Origanum majorana, basil (Ocimum basilicum, common sage (Salvia officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, anis-like spice (Ocimum selloi, african basilicum (Ocimum gratissimum, nirá garlic (Allium tuberosum, leek (Allium porrum, turmeric (Curcuma longa and "dedo-de-moça" chili (Capsicum baccatum. Those spices were individually added to the chicken broth to perform a Hedonic Scale-like Acceptance Test, selecting four of the twelve spices that had higher sensory acceptance, "dedo-de-moça" chili, nirá garlic, leek and thyme. A new Acceptance Test was then performed using low, medium and high concentrations of those four spices to establish the most acceptable sensory intensities. The elected quantities (0.5 g "dedo-de-moça" chili, 15 g nirá garlic, 15 g leek and 5 g thyme were added to the chicken broth, then challenged with Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 at a final 10 concentration of CFU/mL, the tolerated limit according to legislation. The control

  6. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, M.; Maleki, A.

    2009-07-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  7. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q93WU2|EOMT1_OCIBA Eugenol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.146) ((Iso)eugenol... O-methyltransferase EOMT1) (S-adenosysl-L-methionine:(Iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase EOMT1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 3.00E-61 ...

  8. UniProt search blastx result: AK288263 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288263 J090016D04 Q93WU3|CVMT1_OCIBA Chavicol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.146) ((Iso)eugenol... O-methyltransferase CVOMT1) (S-adenosysl-L-methionine:(Iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase CVOMT1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 1.00E-16 ...

  9. UniProt search blastx result: AK287689 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287689 J065128D10 Q93WU3|CVMT1_OCIBA Chavicol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.146) ((Iso)eugenol... O-methyltransferase CVOMT1) (S-adenosysl-L-methionine:(Iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase CVOMT1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 2.00E-50 ...

  10. UniProt search blastx result: AK287689 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287689 J065128D10 Q93WU2|EOMT1_OCIBA Eugenol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.146) ((Iso)eugenol... O-methyltransferase EOMT1) (S-adenosysl-L-methionine:(Iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase EOMT1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 1.00E-47 ...

  11. UniProt search blastx result: AK288263 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288263 J090016D04 Q93WU2|EOMT1_OCIBA Eugenol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.146) ((Iso)eugenol... O-methyltransferase EOMT1) (S-adenosysl-L-methionine:(Iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase EOMT1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 3.00E-14 ...

  12. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q93WU3|CVMT1_OCIBA Chavicol O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.146) ((Iso)eugenol... O-methyltransferase CVOMT1) (S-adenosysl-L-methionine:(Iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase CVOMT1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 2.00E-58 ...

  13. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q9XGW0|COMT 1_OCIBA Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1 (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-ade ... -methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1) (COMT -1) (CAOMT-1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 3.00 ...

  14. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  15. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  16. Comparison of Field and Laboratory-Based Tests for Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to Repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Kongmee, Monthathip; Tainchum, Krajana; Suwansirisilp, Kornwika; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The repellent and irritant effects of three essential oils-clove, hairy basil, and sweet basil-were compared using an excito-repellency test system against an insecticide-resistant strain of Aedes aegypti (L.) females from Pu Teuy, Kanchanaburi Province. DEET was used as the comparison standard compound. Tests were conducted under field and controlled laboratory conditions. The most marked repellent effect (spatial noncontact assay) among the three test essential oils was exhibited by sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L. (53.8% escaped mosquitoes in 30-min exposure period) under laboratory conditions while hairy basil, Ocimum americanum L. and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merill et. L.M. Perry from laboratory tests and sweet basil from field tests were the least effective as repellents (0-14%). In contrast, the contact assays measuring combined irritancy (excitation) and repellency effects found the best contact irritant response to hairy basil and DEET in field tests, whereas all others in laboratory and field were relatively ineffective in stimulating mosquitoes to move out the test chambers (0-5.5%). All three essential oils demonstrated significant differences in behavioral responses between field and laboratory conditions, whereas there was no significant difference in contact and noncontact assays for DEET between the two test conditions (P > 0.05). PMID:26470388

  17. Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

    2013-12-01

    The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

  18. Basil plants growth and essential oil yield in a production system with successive cuts Crescimento de plantas de manjericão e produção de óleo em sistema de produção com cortes sucessivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André May

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the growth of basil plants and the effect of successive cuts on the total yield and quality of the essential oil, throughout the crop cycle. Steady increases were observed in the dry weight of the aerial part and in the essential oil yield, during the cultivation cycle. Intensive cultivation and successive cuts could improve the agronomical and industrial yield in each harvest.Esta pesquisa visou estudar o crescimento de plantas de manjericão e o efeito de cortes sucessivos sobre a produção e qualidade do óleo essencial ao longo do ciclo. Observou-se aumento na massa seca da parte aérea e na produção de óleo essencial ao longo do ciclo de cultivo. O cultivo do manjericão submetido a cortes sucessivos pode aumentar a produção do óleo em cada colheita.

  19. Teor, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de manjericão sob doses de cama de frango Content, yield and chemical composition of the essential basil oil under chicken manure levels

    OpenAIRE

    José Magno Q. Luz; Tatiane PS Morais; Blank, Arie F.; Ana Carolina B. Sodré; Guedmiller S Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) com alta concentração de linalol é valorizado no mercado internacional e amplamente usado nas indústrias de condimentos e cosméticos. Há poucas informações a respeito do cultivo de manjericão e, portanto o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o teor, o rendimento e a qualidade de óleo essencial de genótipos de manjericão em função de níveis de adubação orgânica com cama de frango nas condições de inverno sob irrigação. O experimento f...

  20. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  1. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de erva-cidreira e manjericão frente a bactérias de carnes bovinas
    Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cidreira-herb and basil against bacteria from bovine meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. SANTOS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais extraídos de Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown e Ocimum basilicum frente a microrganismos isolados de carnes bovinas. Os óleos foram extraídos por hidrodestilação e caracterizados quanto à composição por cromatografi a gasosa. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida mínima dos óleos (CBM foram determinadas pelo método de microplacas utilizando concentrações de óleos entre 0,39 e 25μg/mL. Foram utilizadas suspensões de diferentes cepas de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. na concentração de 0,5x104 UFC/mL. O óleo de Lippia alba N.E. Brown apresentou maior efi ciência como agente bacteriostático e bactericida frente às diferentes cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. isoladas de carnes bovinas do que o óleo essencial de Ocimum basilicum (cultivar “Maria Bonita”, o qual foi mais efetivo frente às cepas de Escherichia coli. Além disto, os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana em concentrações muito menores do que as obtidas por outros pesquisadores.

  2. Ação e caracterização química de óleos essenciais no manejo da antracnose do maracujá Chemical characterization and action of essential oils in the management of anthracnose on passion fruits

    OpenAIRE

    César Fernandes Aquino; Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales; Eriksen Patric Silva Soares; Ernane Ronie Martins

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar dois métodos de inoculação de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em maracujá, testar a patogenicidade de diferentes isolados, o efeito fungitóxico e a composição química dos óleos essenciais das espécies medicinais alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham.), capim-santo [Cymbopogon citratus (D. C.) Stapf.], alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.), no controle da antracnose [Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.)], associado ao estádio de maturação de frutos de maracujazeiro-amare...

  3. Fungitoxic effect of concentrations of essential oils on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from the passion fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Teodoro de Souza Júnior; Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales; Ernane Ronie Martins

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of essential oils on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The essential oils were obtained from shoots of the plants Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus and Psidium guayava var. pomifera. After the incorporation of oil in water-agar and PDA medium, in concentrations of 1μL/mL, 3μL/mL 5μL/mL and 10μL/mL and witness at 0μL/mL (oil/the culture medium), the inhibitions of conidia germ...

  4. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio; Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales; César Fernandes Aquino; Eriksen Patric Souza Soares; Lucas Franklin Souza Aquino; Hugo César Rodrigues Moreira Catão

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the followi...

  5. Ação e caracterização química de óleos essenciais no manejo da antracnose do maracujá

    OpenAIRE

    César Fernandes Aquino; Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales; Eriksen Patric Silva Soares; Ernane Ronie Martins

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar dois métodos de inoculação de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em maracujá, testar a patogenicidade de diferentes isolados, o efeito fungitóxico e a composição química dos óleos essenciais das espécies medicinais alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham.), capim-santo [Cymbopogon citratus (D. C.) Stapf.], alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.), no controle da antracnose [Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.)], associado ao estádio de maturação de frutos de maracujazeiro-amare...

  6. Allelopathic Inhibiting Effect of the Aqueous Extracts from Aerial Part of Ocimum basilicum L.on Germination of Weed Seeds%罗勒地上部水浸液对杂草种子萌发的化感抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜男; 刘保东; 白红彤; 李慧; 李东; 崔洪霞; 石雷

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨罗勒(Ocimum basilicum L.)化感作用在杂草防治中的可行性,采用培养皿滤纸法研究了罗勒花期地上部分的水浸液对田间常见杂草马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus L.)和灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)种子萌发的抑制作用.结果表明,罗勒水浸液处理对3种杂草的种子萌发均有抑制作用,抑制作用随着水浸液浓度的增加而逐渐增强;抑制强度因杂草种类而异,表现为灰菜>反枝苋>马齿苋.

  7. Preliminary studies of the antifungal activities of some medicinal plants against Basidiobolus and some other pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, M O; Okafor, J I

    1995-01-01

    The antifungal activities of extracts of 10 medicinal plants collected from south-eastern parts of Nigeria were tested against seven pathogenic fungi using the broth dilution and agar plate methods. All the extracts at 1:10 dilution inhibited the growth of Basidiobolus haptosporus and B. ranarum but did not inhibit that of Aspergillus fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum and Candida albicans. While extracts from Piper guineense, Ocimum gratissimum, Moringa oleifera and Erythrophleum suaveolens inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, those from Fatropha curcas, Mitracarpus villosus, Azadirachta indica and Gongronema latifolium failed to do so at 1:10 dilution. Extract from Piper sp. was also able to inhibit the growth of B. haptosporus at a concentration as low as 1:80 dilution followed by those of Ocimum and Rauvolfia spp. at 1:40 dilution. These results indicate possible use of certain plant extracts in the treatment of subcutaneous phycomycosis in humans and animals. PMID:8531930

  8. The multiple phenylpropene synthases in both Clarkia breweri and Petunia hybrida represent two distinct protein lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Koeduka, Takao; Louie, Gordon V.; Orlova, Irina; Kish, Christine M.; Ibdah, Mwafaq; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Baiga, Thomas J.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Pichersky, Eran

    2008-01-01

    Many plants synthesize the volatile phenylpropene compounds eugenol and isoeugenol to serve in defense against herbivores and pathogens and to attract pollinators. Clarkia breweri flowers emit a mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol, while Petunia hybrida flowers emit mostly isoeugenol with small amounts of eugenol. We recently reported the identification of a petunia enzyme, PhIGS1, that catalyzes the formation of isoeugenol, and an Ocimum basilicum (basil) enzyme, ObEGS1, that produces eugenol....

  9. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Dghaim; Safa Al Khatib; Husna Rasool; Munawwar Ali Khan

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchas...

  10. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of some Thai culinary plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of red and green bird chili (Capsicum frutescens Linn.), red and green chili spur pepper (Capsicum annuum Linn. var. acuminatum Fingerh.), red and white holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Decne.), which have been normally used in Thailand as food ingredients, was estimated by three different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, and DPPH...

  11. Karakterisasi Simplisia Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Kemangi Segar Dan Kering (Ocimumi Folium) Secara GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Fadlianti, Delly

    2010-01-01

    Volatile oil represent the essential oil with the different compositions depends on source of plants and chemical physics different. Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L.) Is one of the plants species that contain volatile oil and a lot of people used to vegetable and flavour. To increase the function and to know the component of volatile oil of basil, therefore we analyses the research include simplex characterization, isolation of volatile oil was accomplished by steam distillation, and analy...

  12. Antifungal activity of six plant essential oils from Serbia against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum

    OpenAIRE

    Rada Đurović-Pejčev; Ivana Potočnik; Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić; Biljana Todorović; Emil Rekanović; Miloš Stepanović

    2014-01-01

    Six essential oils (EOs) extracted from plants originating in Serbia were assayed for inhibitory and fungicidal activity against a major fungal pathogen of button mushroom causing green mould disease, Trichoderma agressivum f. europaeum. The strongest activity was demonstrated by the oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Medium antifungal activity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) and walnut [Juglans regia (F)] ...

  13. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    OpenAIRE

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L...

  14. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Radaelli; Bárbara Parraga da Silva; Luciana Weidlich; Lucélia Hoehne; Adriana Flach; Luiz Antonio Mendonça Alves da Costa; Eduardo Miranda Ethur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piper...

  15. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Radaelli, Marcela; da Silva, Bárbara Parraga; Weidlich, Luciana; Hoehne, Lucélia; FLACH, ADRIANA; da Costa, Luiz Antonio Mendonça Alves; Ethur, Eduardo Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piperita L. va...

  16. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Dionizio Moreira; Marcelo Coutinho Picanço; Luiz Cláudio de Almeida Barbosa; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Mateus Ribeiro de Campos; Gerson Adriano Silva; Júlio Cláudio Martins

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  17. Interaction between Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Intercropped Herbs under Field Conditions in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Pacheco Bustos; H. Jürgen Pohlan; Margot Schulz

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine released from decaying seeds and leaves accumulates in a soluble form in the soil. The compound is known to inhibit mitosis, reduce the access of nutrients and water to surrounding plants which is one of limiting problems in intercropped coffee plantations. The allelopathic interactions between coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and mint (Mentha piperita L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) could be a diversification alternative and...

  18. QCM-Arrays for Sensing Terpenes in Fresh and Dried Herbs via Bio-Mimetic MIP Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Iqbal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A piezoelectric 10 MHz multichannel quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM, coated with six molecularly imprinted polystyrene artificial recognition membranes have been developed for selective quantification of terpenes emanated from fresh and dried Lamiaceae family species, i.e., rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L., basil (Ocimum Basilicum and sage (Salvia Officinalis. Optimal e-nose parameters, such as layer heights (1–6 KHz, sensitivity

  19. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-01-01

    The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.), common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill.), horsemint (Mentha longifolia L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.). The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs fro...

  20. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of some Thai culinary plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of red and green bird chili (Capsicum frutescens Linn., red and green chili spur pepper (Capsicum annuum Linn. var. acuminatum Fingerh., red and white holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn., garlic (Allium sativum Linn., and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Decne., which have been normally used in Thailand as food ingredients, was estimated by three different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Additionally, their total phenolic contents were analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteau micro method. The result showed that red holy basil and red bird chili seemed to be better sources of antioxidant compounds, followed by green bird chili and red chili spur pepper, white holy basil, green chili spur pepper, garlic and pumpkin, respectively. For results of total phenolic content analysis, they were significantly related to those of FRAP (r = 0.825, ABTS (r = 0.973 and DPPH (r = 0.683.

  1. Fungitoxic effect of concentrations of essential oils on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from the passion fruit

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    Ismail Teodoro Souza Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of essential oils on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The essential oils were obtained from shoots of the plants Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus and Psidium guayava var. pomifera. After the incorporation of oil in water-agar and PDA medium, in concentrations of 1μL/mL, 3μL/mL 5μL/mL and 10μL/mL and witness at 0μL/mL (oil/the culture medium, the inhibitions of conidia germination and mycelial growth, respectively, were evaluates. The results showed that from the concentration of 1μL/mL, essential oils of all plant species had an effect on conidia germination, with an inhibition of 100%. The species Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora and Cymbopogon citratus inhibited the growth of the fungus mycelium by 100%. The oil of Psidium guayava var. pomifera had progressive control over the mycelium of C. gloeosporioides, in accordance with the increase in concentrations of essential oil.

  2. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Santos Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37°C por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L. was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.

  3. Correlação entre as atividades antiradical, antiacetilcolinesterase e teor de fenóis totais de extratos de plantas medicinais de farmácias vivas

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    S.M Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre o conteúdo de fenóis de extratos de 18 plantas medicinais comuns nas Farmácias Vivas com a atividade sequestradora do radical livre DPPH e com a inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Maiores conteúdos de fenóis totais foram encontrados nas plantas: Eugenia uniflora, Lippia alba, Lippia microphylla, Mentha x villosa, Ocimum gratissimum e Ocimum selloi. As espécies que apresentaram maior atividade antioxidante, semelhante a quercetina, foram: Spondias mombim, Malphigia glabra, L. alba e Croton zenhtneri,. As plantas Cecropia pachystachia, L. alba, L. microphylla, M. glabra, O. gratissimum e Plectranthus ornatus mostraram maiores halos de inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Combinando as duas ações, as plantas mais ativas foram a M. glabra e a L. alba e somente a segunda correlaciona-se diretamente com o maior teor de fenóis totais. Através deste estudo, M. glabra e L. alba foram consideradas as plantas mais promissoras para estudos subsequentes a fim de encontrar novos compostos com ação potencial contra a doença de Alzheimer.

  4. Influência do processamento da folha e tipo de secagem no teor e composição química do óleo essencial de manjericão cv. Maria Bonita Influence of leaf processing and type of drying on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of basil cv. Maria Bonita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Domiciano Silva Rosado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O manjericão é uma planta medicinal aromática pertencente à família Lamiaceae, rica em óleos essenciais e com grande interesse industrial. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, estudar a influência do processamento da folha (inteira e pulverizada submetida a dois tipos secagem (estufa de ventilação forçada a 38º C e sala com desumidificador, sobre o teor e composição química do óleo essencial. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com 4 tratamentos e 6 repetições. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação das folhas e analisado por CG e CG/EM. O tipo de secagem e o processamento da folha do O. basilicum influenciaram no teor e composição química do óleo essencial. Maior porcentagem da área de pico do componente químico linalol foi obtida quando se realizou o processo de secagem das folhas. A secagem em estufa conservou o aroma e a coloração verde das folhas, preservando as características originais da cultivar.Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Maria Bonita is a medicinal aromatic plant of the Lamiaceae family, it is rich in essential oils with high industrial interest. The present work aimed to study the influence of leaf processing (whole and ground leaf in two drying types (oven-drying at 38º C and room temperature using moisture dryer on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil. A completely randomized design was used with 4 treatments and 6 replicates. The essential oil obtained by hydrodestillation of the leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The results show that the drying type and the processing of the leaf influence the content and chemical composition of the essential oil. High amounts of linalol were obtained when the leaves underwent dry processing. The oven-dried conserved the aroma and the green color of the leaves, preserving the original characteristics of the cultivar.

  5. Fesleğen (Ocimum basilicum L.)’ de farklı bitki sıklığı ve azot dozlarının verim, verim ögeleri, uçucu yağ oranı ve bileşenleri üzerine etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    DANESHIAN MOGHADDAM, Amir Mohammad

    2010-01-01

       Bu araştırma, fesleğen (Ocimum basilicum L.)'de farklı bitki sıklığı ve azot dozlarının verim, verim ögeleri, uçucu yağ oranı ve bileşenleri üzerine etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü deneme alanında 2007 ve 2008 yıllarında yürütülmüştür. Tesadüf bloklarında bölünmüş parseller deneme desenine göre dört tekerrürlü olarak kurulan denemede bitki sıklığı (30×20 cm, 40×...

  6. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products. PMID:26036589

  7. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in treating neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

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    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  9. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rogério Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37degreesC por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.

  10. Insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants on Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The excessive use of chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests is becoming alarming. The objective of this study is to search for biopesticides of plant origin that could be used to control one of the major pest of fruit production; the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). A colony of the Lebanese wild strain of this insect was reared under laboratory condition to provide biological material. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants in Lebanon was assessed. The tested plants are: Foeniculum vulgare, Thymbra spicata, Artemisia herba alba, Origanum syriacum, Ruta chalepensis, Lavandula stoechas, Salvia fruticosa, Mentha microphylla, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis and Ocimum gratissimum. Results show that essential oils isolated from F. vulgare, T. spicata, A. herba alba, O. syriacum and R. chalepensis have promising insecticidal potential. (author)

  11. Larvicidal and adulticidal potential of medicinal plant extracts from south India against vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Momordica charantia (M.charantia), Moringa oleifera(M. oleifera), Ocimumgratissimum (O. gratissimum), Ocimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum), Punica granatum(P. granatum) and Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) against Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal and adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal and adulticidal activities, however the effective larval mortality was found in the leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of O. gratissimum and bark methanol extract of M. oleifera against Cx.gelidus with LC50 values of 39.31, 66.28, and 21.83 μg/mL respectively, and methanol extract of O. gratissimum, O. tenuiflorum and P. granatum againstCx. quinquefasciatus exposed for 1 h and mortality was recorded at 24 h recovery period. Above 90% mortality was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of all experimental plants at the concentrations of 500 μg/mL. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the medicinal plant extracts provided an excellent potential for controlling Cx. gelidus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. with LC50 values of 38.47, 24.90 and 67.20 μg/mL, respectively. The adult feoxupnods eidn tfhore 1e thhy al nadc emtaotert aalnidty m weatsh arneoclo redxetrda catt o2f4 a lhl erxepcoevriemrye nptearl ipodla.n Atsb aotv teh e9 0c%on mceonrttraaltiitoyn ws aosf 500 μg/mL. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the medicinal plant extracts provided an excellent potential for controlling Cx. gelidus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  12. Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

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    Ibe Christopher C

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six Nigerian medicinal plants Terminalia avicennioides, Phylantus discoideus, Bridella ferruginea, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha wilkesiana used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for in vitro anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA activity. Methods Fresh plant materials were collected from the users. Water and ethanol extracts of the shredded plants were obtained by standard methods. The Bacterial cultures used were strains of MRSA isolated from patients. MRSA was determined by the reference broth microdilution methods using the established National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards break points. Staphylococcus aureus NCIB 8588 was used as a standard strain. Susceptibility testing and phytochemical screening of the plant extracts were performed by standard procedures. Controls were maintained for each test batch. Results Both water and ethanol extracts of T. avicennioides, P. discoideus, O. gratissimum, and A. wilkesiana were effective on MRSA. The Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of the ethanol extracts of these plants range from 18.2 to 24.0 mcg/ml and 30.4 to 37.0 mcg/ml respectively. In contrast, MIC range of 30.6 to 43.0 mcg/ml and 55.4 to 71.0 mcg/ml were recorded for ethanol and water extracts of B. ferruginea, and A. conyzoides respectively. Higher MBC values were obtained for the two plants. These concentrations were too high to be considered active in this study. All the four active plants contained at least trace amount of anthraquinones. Conclusion Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of water and ethanol extracts of A. wilkesiana, O. gratissimum, T. avicennioides and P. discoideus against MRSA-associated diseases. However, B. ferruginea and A. conyzoides were ineffective in vitro in this study; we

  13. Produção de biomassa e óleo essencial de elixir-paregórico em função do corte das inflorescências e épocas de colheita Biomass and essential oil production of Ocimum selloi as affected by cutting of inflorescences and harvest times

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    Larissa CB Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção de biomassa e óleo essencial de plantas de elixir-paregórico (Ocimum selloi, em função do corte das inflorescências e épocas de colheita. O experimento foi realizado em campo, em blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos dispostos em fatorial 2 x 8, sendo dois sistemas de manejo (com e sem corte de inflorescências e oito épocas de colheita (45; 60; 75; 90; 105; 120; 135 e 150 dias após o transplante das mudas, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se as características altura de planta, massa seca de caule (MSC, folhas (MSF e inflorescências (MSI e teor e rendimento de óleo essencial destilado de folhas. O corte das inflorescências não afetou a altura das plantas. Plantas intactas apresentaram uma média de altura de 51,8 cm, enquanto aquelas que tiveram suas inflorescências cortadas atingiram em média 53,2 cm de altura. O crescimento das plantas apresentou resposta quadrática em relação às épocas de colheita, com a altura máxima estimada de 65,9 cm, 139 dias após o transplante (DAT. As plantas cujas inflorescências foram cortadas produziram maior MSC (51,8 g planta-1 e MSF (27,9 g planta-1, em relação às plantas sem corte (MSC = 42,4; MSF = 21,3 g planta-1 e, assim como MSI, apresentaram ajuste quadrático para os dois sistemas de manejo, ao longo das épocas de colheita. O teor de óleo essencial das folhas não foi afetado pelo sistema de manejo, mas apresentou resposta quadrática às épocas de colheita. Entretanto, o rendimento médio de óleo essencial das folhas das plantas cuja inflorescência foi cortada foi significativamente maior (1,60 g planta-1 do que nas plantas que não sofreram o corte (1,18 g planta-1. Para as plantas que tiveram as suas inflorescências cortadas, o rendimento de óleo máximo estimado foi de 2,36 g planta-1, obtido 135 DAT, enquanto nas plantas que não foram cortadas o rendimento de óleo máximo estimado foi de 1,65 g planta-1, obtido 114 DAP.Biomass and essential

  14. Effects of medicinal plant extracts on growth of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no crescimento de Leishmania (L. amazonensis e Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Patrícia Shima Luize

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 19 species of plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of a variety of diseases. The extracts were tested against axenic amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania (L. amazonensis, and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, and Tanacetum vulgare showed significant effects against one or both parasites, with a percentage of growth inhibition between 49.5 and 99%. The extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on sheep erythrocytes. These medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that are clinically active against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi.Este estudo descreve a triagem de extratos obtidos de 19 espécies de plantas usadas na medicina tradicional brasileira para o tratamento de várias doenças. Os extratos foram testados contra formas amastigota axênica e promastigota de Leishmania (L. amazonensis, e formas epimastigota de Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro na concentração de 100 mg/ml. Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomilla, Mikania glomerata, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper regnellii, Prunus domestica, Psidium guajava, Sambucus canadensis, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Tanacetum parthenium, e Tanacetum vulgare apresentaram efeito significante contra um ou ambos parasitas, com a porcentagem de inibição de crescimento entre 49,5 e 99%. Os extratos não mostraram efeito citotóxico em hemácias de carneiro. Essas plantas medicinais podem ser fontes alternativas de novos compostos clinicamente ativos contra L. amazonensis e T. cruzi.

  15. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil Composição e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas usadas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Sartoratto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum, O. basilicum were obtained by steam destillation using a Clevenger-type system. These oils were screened for antibacterial and anti-Candida albicans activity using bioautographic method. Subsequently, minimal inhibitory concentration from oils was determined by microdilution method. Most essential oil studied were effective against Enterococcus faecium and Salmonella cholerasuis. Aloysia triphylla and O. basilicum presented moderate inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus while only A. tryphila and M. piperita were able to control the yeast Candida albicans. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majoritary compounds.Óleos essenciais foram obtidos a partir das partes aéreas de Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum e O. basilicum através de arraste de vapor em sistema tipo Clevenger. Os óleos foram avaliados quanto à atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias e contra a levedura Candida albicans pelo método de bioautografia. A concentração mínima inibitória dos óleos com atividade positiva foi em seguida determinada pelo método da microdiluição. De acordo com os resultados, a maioria dos óleos essenciais estudados foram efetivos contra Enterococcus faecium e Salmonella cholerasuis. A.triphylla e O. basilicum apresentaram inibição moderada contra Staphylococcus aureus enquanto apenas A. tryphila e M. piperita foram capazes de inibir a levedura Candida albicans. Os óleos foram analisados quimicamente por técnicas de CG e CG-EM de modo a determinar os compostos majoritários presentes.

  16. A REVIEW ON ETHNOMEDICAL USES OF OCIMUM SANCTUM (TULSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Vishwabhan; Vimal Kumar Birendra; Suvagiya Vishal

    2011-01-01

    Traditional remedies are an integral part of Indian culture. Here we present the result of study of ethnomedicine consist study of ancient medical practice which is native or indigenous to a place. It includes etiology of disease, practitioners and their role in health care, and types of treatment administered. It is a complicated system indulges the use of plants for healing diseases. Recently from few decades back, the use of ethnomedicine come into play as earlier there was fear of dosage,...

  17. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimanga, K; Kambu, K; Tona, L; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Hermans, N; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from 15 aromatic medicinal plant species growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been studied. More than 15 constituents in an amount higher than 0.1% were identified in each essential oil. 1,8-cineole, alpha and beta-pinene, p-cymene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and limonene were prevalent constituents in almost more than 10 selected plant species. Results from the antibacterial testing by the diffusion method indicate that all essential oils (5 microl per disc) inhibited the growth of selected bacteria at different extents. The most active antibacterial essential oils were those of the leaves of Eucalyptus camadulensis and Eucalyptus terticornis (12-30 mm zone diameter of inhibition). They showed particularly a most potent inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth (15-16 mm), followed by Eucalyptus robusta (12 mm). Essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus alba, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus deglupta, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus robusta, Aframomum stipulatum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum and that of the seeds of Monodora myristica showed also a good antibacterial activity (10-18 mm). Eucalyptus propinqua, Eucalyptus urophylla and Ocimum gratissimum essential oils were the less active samples against the selected bacteria. No correlation between the amount of major constituents such as 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, cryptone or thymol and the antibacterial activity was observed. PMID:11801384

  18. Interaction between Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Intercropped Herbs under Field Conditions in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico

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    Alex Pacheco Bustos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine released from decaying seeds and leaves accumulates in a soluble form in the soil. The compound is known to inhibit mitosis, reduce the access of nutrients and water to surrounding plants which is one of limiting problems in intercropped coffee plantations. The allelopathic interactions between coffee (Coffea arabica L. and mint (Mentha piperita L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L. could be a diversification alternative and extra income activity for coffee growers outside the harvest period that could cope with high levels of caffeine in the soil. We tested the interaction of the proposed system (2004 – 2005 in rural area of Puebla State, Mexico. The results demonstrate that intercropping sage, spearmint, basil and oregano stimulate the plagiotropic growth of Coffea arabica plants most effectively in young production systems, through volatile essential oils. Intercropping basil, sage, spearmint and oregano in coffee plantations seems to be a promising approach for higher income and increasing yield and quality production in coffee farms.

  19. Lead and cadmium contents in a medicinal plant/spice grown in an urban city of Nigeria

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    Olateju Dolapo Adeyolanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to heavy metals is a growing concern across Nigerian urban settings due to potential danger from consuming plants grown on contaminated soils. This study assessed the contents of lead and cadmium in soil and basil (Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae grown by vegetable farmers in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Using grid method, 36 points were located to collect soil samples at 0–15 and 15–30 cm depths, while plant samples were also collected simultaneously. The contents of lead and cadmium in soil and plants were determined and results were subjected to descriptive statistics while the transfer factor (TF was calculated. Lead ranged from 1.85 mg kg−1 at the topsoil to 2.54 mg kg−1 at subsoil. Cadmium varied from 0.99 mg kg−1 at the topsoil to 1.41 mg kg−1 at subsoil. Average TF were 0.21 for Pb and 0.35 for cadmium. Distribution of lead and cadmium increased in order leaf < stem < root indicating that the root of basil may be useful in bioremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Although, the levels of lead and cadmium contents in the basil leaf are lower than other parts, there could be accumulation of these metals through long-term consumption of the leaf.

  20. WARDHAUGH, Ronald. 1986. An introduction to sociolinguistics. New York: Basil Blackwell, 388pp. WARDHAUGH, Ronald. 1986. An introduction to sociolinguistics. New York: Basil Blackwell, 388pp.

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Meurer

    2008-01-01

    An introduction to sociolinguistics -- Una introduce° a sociolinguistica -- de Ronald Wardhaugh (RW) tem por objetivo oferecer um embasamento geral a alunos em cursos de sociolinguistica ou sociologia da linguagem. Conforme observe o autor, o livro pode ser usado com alunos que estejam estudando sociolinguistica de maneira panorâmica pola primeira vez ou com alunos em cursos sobre tópicos especificos a níveis mais elevados cujos professores queiram que ...

  1. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  2. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  3. Accumulation of anthropogenic radionuclides in crops in conditions of water stream and classical hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrapetyan, Khachatur; Hovsepyan, Albert; Daryadar, Mahsa; Alexanyan, Julietta; Tovmasyan, Anahit; Ghalachyan, Laura; Tadevosyan, Anna; Mayrapetyan, Stepan [Institute of Hydroponics Problems, NAS, Noragyugh 108, 0082, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2014-07-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides (RN) dangerous for health are emitted into ecosystems because of human anthropogenic activities in the field of nuclear energetics. Biologically artificial RN {sup 90}Sr(T{sub 1/2}=28,6 years) and {sup 137}Cs (T{sub 1/2}=30,1 years)are very dangerous. Therefore obtaining radio-ecologically safe raw material of high quality is a very urgent problem now. Taking into account the above mentioned, in order to obtain ecologically safe raw material we carried out comparative radiochemical investigations on essential oil and medicinal plants peppermint(Mentha piperita L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown in new water-stream (continuous, gully, cylindrical) and classical hydroponics, with the aim of revealing accumulation peculiarities of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. The results of experiments have shown that in classical hydroponics peppermint and sweet basil exceeded the same indices of water-stream hydroponics with {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content 1,1-1,2; 1,2-1,3 and 1,5-1,8; 1,4-1,8 times, respectively. Moreover, sweet basil exceeded peppermint in water-stream hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,3-1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2-1,4 times and in classical hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2 times. The content of controlled artificial RN in raw material did not exceed the allowed concentration limit (ACL). New water-stream hydroponics system worked out in Institute of Hydroponics Problems is a radio-ecologically more profitable method for producing raw material than classical hydroponics. At the same time water-stream hydroponics system in comparison with classical hydroponics promoted productivity (dry raw material) increase of peppermint and sweet basil 1,1-1,4 times. (authors)

  4. Ação e caracterização química de óleos essenciais no manejo da antracnose do maracujá Chemical characterization and action of essential oils in the management of anthracnose on passion fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dois métodos de inoculação de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em maracujá, testar a patogenicidade de diferentes isolados, o efeito fungitóxico e a composição química dos óleos essenciais das espécies medicinais alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham., capim-santo [Cymbopogon citratus (D. C. Stapf.], alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., no controle da antracnose [Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.], associado ao estádio de maturação de frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo. Avaliaram-se três experimentos, onde se testou a patogenicidade de seis isolados do fungo em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, outro com o mesmo delineamento em esquema fatorial 2x2 (suspensão de conídios e disco de micélio e frutos (verdes e maduros, com seis repetições. No tratamento com frutos, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x3+1, sendo cinco concentrações (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8µL mL-1 e três espécies medicinais, mais o tebuconazol, com cinco repetições. Fez-se a caracterização química dos óleos por cromatografia gasosa, com espectrometria de massas. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos. Os frutos maduros apresentaram maior diâmetro das lesões, quando inoculados com suspensão de conídios. O óleo de C. citratus proporcionou o menor diâmetro das lesões nos frutos, até a concentração de 6 µL mL-1. Na concentração de 8 µL mL-1, todos os óleos inibiram o desenvolvimento do fungo. O timol (30,24%, o citral (77,74% e o eugenol (92,89% foram componentes majoritários em L. sidoides, C. citratus e O. gratissimum, respectivamente.The objective was to evaluate two methods of inoculation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on passion fruit, test the pathogenicity of different isolates, fungitoxic effect and the chemical composition of the essential oils from medicinal plants Lippia sidoides (Cham., Cymbopogon citratus (D. C. Stapf. and Ocimum gratissimum (L., in

  5. ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТЬ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННО-ЦЕННЫХ ПРИЗНАКОВ ЭВГЕНОЛ СОДЕРЖАЩИХ ВИДОВ OCIMUM L

    OpenAIRE

    Ильченко, Галина; Тлехас, Зара; Берёзкин, Николай; Татлок, Руслан

    2014-01-01

    Представлены результаты изучения коллекции базилика, с целью выявления источников и доноров хозяйственно-ценных признаков для селекции базилика эвгенольного. Выделены эвгенол содержащие виды. Большинство признаков имеет высокую и очень высокую степень изменчивости, что предполагает гибридогенное происхождение большинства изучаемых коллекционных образцов рода Ocimum L. Коэффициенты вариации показателей отдельных морфологических и биохимических признаков (в пределах от 24,3 до 59,8), говорят о ...

  6. Efeito in vitro de compostos de plantas sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolado do maracujazeiro In vitro effect of plant compounds on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolated from passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de extratos e óleos essenciais de quatorze plantas medicinais e ou nativas, conhecidas popularmente no Norte de Minas Gerais, sobre a germinação de esporos e crescimento micelial do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Foram utilizados no teste de inibição do crescimento micelial, os extratos aquosos de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea, joá (Solanum sisymbriifolium, quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus corcovadensis, erva botão (Eclipta alba e açafrão da índia (Curcuma longa obtidos por meio do processo de infusão; óleo essencial de alecrim de vargem (Família Lamiaceae, alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides, alfavaca cravo (Ocimum gratissimum, lippia (Lippia citriodora, goiaba branca (Psidium guajava, capim santo (Cymbopogon citratus; óleo resina de copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffi; hidrolatos de alecrim de vargem, goiaba vermelha (Psidium guajava, lippia, capim santo, goiaba branca, alfavaca cravo; manipueira de (Manihot esculenta. Também foram testados esses mesmos hidrolatos e os óleos essenciais na germinação dos esporos do fungo. Todos os tratamentos foram realizados in vitro, cultivando-se o fungo em meio de cultura BDA acrescido de 100μL dos compostos vegetais. No teste de inibição da germinação, todos os óleos essenciais impediram a germinação do fungo. No entanto, os hidrolatos não tiveram esse efeito. No teste de crescimento micelial, os óleos essenciais de todas as plantas inibiram completamente o crescimento do fungo, exceto o óleo da goiaba branca. Os extratos aquosos, a manipueira, o óleo resina e os hidrolatos, também não foram eficientes sobre o crescimento do patógeno. Esses resultados indicam o potencial antifúngico de alguns óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of extracts and essential oils of fourteen medicinal and or native plants popularly known in the North of Minas

  7. Composição química e atividade in vitro de três óleos essenciais sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides do maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Aquino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a ação de diferentes concentrações de óleos essenciais de três plantas medicinais sobre o crescimento micelial, a produção e a germinação de conídios de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.. Utilizou-se os óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides Cham., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. e Ocimum gratissimum L. em cinco concentrações (0 µL mL-1, 1 µL mL-1, 3 µL mL-1, 5 µL mL-1 e 7 µL mL-1 com 4 repetições no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x3. Os óleos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrometria de massas. Para todas as características verificou-se efeito significativo da interação "Óleo" versus "Concentração". O óleo essencial de C. citratus proporcionou a maior inibição do crescimento micelial em todas as concentrações testadas. Os outros óleos não se diferenciaram, exceto a partir da concentração de 5 µL mL-1, onde o óleo de L. sidoides foi superior ao óleo de O. gratissimum. Na produção e germinação de conídios, o óleo de C. citratus, foi superior aos óleos de L. sidoides e de O. gratissimum nas concentrações de 1 µL mL-1 e 3 µL mL-1, inibindo completamente a produção e germinação a partir da concentração de 3 µL mL-1. As concentrações influenciam em todas as variáveis, ajustando-se à equação do modelo linear. Observa-se o decréscimo nessas, à medida em que se aumentam as concentrações dos óleos testados. Os óleos essenciais testados possuem efeito fungitóxico e fungistático.

  8. A comparison of E. coli persistence on basil plants and soil using drip and overhead irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: It is estimated that each year in the US there are 63,153 cases of foodborne illnesses caused by E.coli O157 serotypes and 112,752 illnesses caused by non-O157 shiga-toxin producing E.coli. Irrigation water is recognized as a pre-harvest contamination source and has been linked with o...

  9. Evaluation of linalool, a natural antimicrobial and insecticidal essential oil from basil: effects on poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Ross C; Byrd, J Allen; Kubena, Leon F; Hume, Michael E; McReynolds, Jackson L; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2014-02-01

    Linalool is a natural plant-product used in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavoring agents. Linalool has proven antimicrobial and insect-repellent properties, which indicate it might be useful for control of enteropathogens or insect pests in poultry production. However, there are no published reports that linalool may be safely administered to or tolerated by chickens. Linalool was added to the diets of day-of-hatch chicks, and they were fed linalool-supplemented diets for 3 wk. We studied the effects of linalool on serum chemistry, gross pathology, feed conversion, and relative liver weights. Linalool had a dramatic negative dose-dependent effect on feed conversion at concentrations in the feed exceeding 2% linalool, but not on gross pathology. Liver weights were significantly increased in the 5% linalool-treated birds. There was a statistical effect on blood glucose, but this parameter remained below the cut-offs for elevated serum glucose, and the result is likely of no biological significance. Linalool caused serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels to increase, but it did not increase serum gamma-glutamyl transferase levels. The linalool effect on AST was dose-dependent, but in linalool doses between 0.1 and 2% of the feed, AST was not elevated beyond normal parameters. Linalool at 2% or less may be safely added to chicken feed. We suggest future studies to evaluate the addition of linalool to the litter, where it may be used as an antimicrobial or an insect repellent or to produce a calming effect. PMID:24570447

  10. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas com atividade inseticida em Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae = Evaluation of essential oils with insecticidal activity in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellem Petilim Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A doenca de Chagas e um dos maiores problemas de saude publica na America Latina. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a acao inseticida de oleos essenciais de Anacardium humile Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum e Eucalyptus urograndis em ninfas do 3‹ e 4‹ estadios dedesenvolvimento de Triatoma infestans por acao topica e pressao a vapor (fumigacao. Para o teste topico foram realizadas duas repeticoes cada uma com cinco ninfas de 3‹ e 4‹ estadios de desenvolvimento de T. infestans. Foi aplicado 1ƒÊL de cada concentracao na regiao dorsal de cada individuo. Para o teste de fumigacao foram utilizados potes de 2 L com tampa vedante. Os oleos essenciais de O. gratissimum e E. urograndis apresentaram atividadeinseticida para T. infestans, e A. humile e C. nardus apresentaram em media 5 e 15% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Para fumigacao, somente o oleo de E. urograndis teve efeito, com 100% de mortalidade sobre T. infestans , sendo que para os outros oleos nao foiobservado efeito de fumigacao. Esse trabalho relata pela primeira vez a acao inseticida de E. urograndis em potes fumigenos para o controle de triatomineos. Os resultados sao importantes devido a busca por novos modelos moleculares com acao inseticida em triatomineos resistentes aos inseticidas sinteticos.Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticide action of essential oils of Anacardium humile, Cymbopogon nardus, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus urograndis on Triatoma infestans nymphs of third and fourth stages of development by topic action and steam pressure (fumigation. Two repetitions were performed at the topic test with five nymphs of third and fourth stages of development of T. infestans. It was applied 1ƒÊL of each concentration on the dorsal region of each nymph. Two-liter pots with sealing covers were used at the fumigation test. The essential oils of O. gratissimum and E. urograndis showed insecticidal

  11. Identificação botânica e química de espécies vegetais de uso popular no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Botanical and chemical identification of plant species of popular use in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    J. Félix-Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais são utilizadas mundialmente como uma das principais formas de cuidado primário de saúde. No entanto, a literatura indica que muitas espécies podem apresentar composição química variável, toxicidade ou difícil identificação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi obter critérios úteis para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico das principais espécies vegetais de uso popular no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, utilizando metodologias de análise botânica (morfodiagnose macro e microscópica e química (triagem fitoquímica e cromatografia em camada delgada, evitando assim adulterações ou uso inadequado dessas plantas medicinais no estado. No total, sete espécies foram analisadas Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus e Rosmarinus officinalis. Diversos marcadores botânicos e fitoquímicos foram identificados, contribuindo dessa forma para a correta identificação destas espécies de plantas medicinais importantes no estado do Rio Grande do Norte.Medicinal plants are worldwide used as one of the main forms of primary healthcare. However, the literature indicates that many species may have variable chemical composition, toxicity, or even difficult identification. The aim of this study was to obtain useful criteria for pharmacognostic quality control of the main plant species of popular use in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, using methods of botanical (macro and microscopic morphodiagnosis and chemical (phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatography analysis, thus preventing adulteration or inappropriate use of these medicinal plants in the state. In total, seven species were analyzed Acmella oleracea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lippia alba, Mentha piperita, Ocimum gratissimum, Peumus boldus and Rosmarinus officinalis. Several botanical and phytochemical markers were identified, thereby contributing to the correct identification of these

  12. Effect of plant extracts used in folk medicine on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivated in defined medium Efeito de extratos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivada em meio definido

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    Fabiola Barbieri Holetz

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effect of 15 medicinal plants on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, used as biological model for its similar antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi. Crude extracts (1,000 g/ml or essential oil (250 g/ml were added in a defined medium. Cell growth was estimated by counting in Neubauer’s chamber and cell differentiation was examined by light microscope. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, and Tanacetum vulgare showed antiprotozoan activity, Psidium guajava and Punica granatum a lower activity and Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, and Spilanthes acmella had no activity. In contrast, Arctium lappa, Erythrina speciosa, and Sambucus Canadensis stimulated H. samuelpessoai growth. Only L. alba and S. acmella stimulated cell differentiation in this flagellate. These results indicate that medicinal plants possess active compounds against H. samuelpessoai. Thus, this protozoan seems to be a suitable model for screening plants containing trypanocidal drugsNeste trabalho, verificou-se o efeito de 15 plantas medicinais no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, um tripanosomatídeo não patogênico utilizado como modelo biológico, que apresenta antígenos semelhantes aos do Trypanosoma cruzi. Extratos brutos (1.000 g/ml ou óleo essencial (250 µg/ml foram adicionados ao meio definido. O crescimento celular foi determinado pela contagem em câmara de Newbauer e a diferenciação celular examinada por microscopia ótica. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, e Tanacetum vulgare mostraram atividade antiprotozoário, Psidium guajava e Punica granatum menor atividade e Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, e Spilanthes acmella não apresentaram atividade. Por outro lado, Arctium lappa

  13. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

  14. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

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    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes. PMID:22299433

  15. Antifungal activity of six plant essential oils from Serbia against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum

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    Rada Đurović-Pejčev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Six essential oils (EOs extracted from plants originating in Serbia were assayed for inhibitory and fungicidal activity against a major fungal pathogen of button mushroom causing green mould disease, Trichoderma agressivum f. europaeum. The strongest activity was demonstrated by the oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Medium antifungal activity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. and walnut [Juglans regia (F] oils was also recorded. Oils extracted from yarrow (Achillea millepholium L. and juniper (Juniperus communis L. exhibited the lowest activity. Peppermint oil showed fungicidal effect on the pathogen, having a minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.64 μl ml-1. The main components of peppermint essential oil were menthone (37.02%, menthol (29.57% and isomenthone (9.06%.

  16. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I H; Loreto, É S; Rossato, L; Mario, D N; Venturini, T P; Baldissera, F; Santurio, J M; Alves, S H

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates. PMID:26281965

  17. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-06-01

    Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

  18. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Marcela; da Silva, Bárbara Parraga; Weidlich, Luciana; Hoehne, Lucélia; Flach, Adriana; da Costa, Luiz Antonio Mendonça Alves; Ethur, Eduardo Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint), Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise) against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier. The antibacterial activity was assessed from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were 1.25mgmL(-1) for thyme, 5.0mgmL(-1) for basil and marjoram, and 10mgmL(-1) for rosemary, peppermint and anise. All oils showed bactericidal activity at their minimum inhibitory concentration, except anise oil, which was only bacteriostatic. The use of essential oils from these common spices might serve as an alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in the control and inactivation of pathogens in commercially produced food systems. PMID:26991289

  19. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens

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    Marcela Radaelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary, Origanum majorana L. (marjoram, Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint, Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier. The antibacterial activity was assessed from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC using the microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were 1.25 mg mL-1 for thyme, 5.0 mg mL-1 for basil and marjoram, and 10 mg mL-1 for rosemary, peppermint and anise. All oils showed bactericidal activity at their minimum inhibitory concentration, except anise oil, which was only bacteriostatic. The use of essential oils from these common spices might serve as an alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in the control and inactivation of pathogens in commercially produced food systems.

  20. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

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    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  1. Evaluation of herbal essential oil as repellents against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles dirus Peyton & Harrion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duangkamon Sritabutra; Mayura Soonwera; Sirirat Waltanachanobon; Supaporn Poungjai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repellent activity of herbal essential oils from garlic (Allium sativum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon grass (Cybopogon citratus), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and their combinations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) and Anopheles dirus (An. dirus) Peyton & Harrion under laboratory conditions.Methods:In laboratory condition, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3-10 cm of exposed area on a volunteer’s forearm. The test was carried out every 30 min until fewer than two mosquitoes bit or land during the 3 min study period and then the repellency test was stopped.Results:Essential oil from lemon grass exhibited protection against biting from two mosquito species, for Ae. aegypti [(98.66±11.56) min protection time and 0.97% biting rate] and for An. dirus [(98.00±15.28) min protection time and 0.80% biting rate]. The combinations from eucalyptus oil and sweet basil oil were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against Ae. aegypti [(98.87±10.28) min protection time and 0.90% biting rate] and An. dirus [(210±10.70) min protection time and 0.93% biting rate]. All herbal repellents exhibited the period of protection time against Ae. aegypti which was lower than 120 min. Conlussions: It can be concluded that oils of lemon grass and combination from eucalyptus-sweet basil are the most effective in repellent activity.

  2. Herbal Supplement Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats with CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhosis

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    Ping-Chun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl4 and either OGE (0.02 g/kg B.W. or 0.04 g/kg B.W. or silymarin (0.2 g/kg B.W.. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl4 along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl4-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl4-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy.

  3. Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

  4. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  5. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  6. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. PMID:22771867

  7. Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value

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    Protus Arrey Tarkang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1 activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P<0.05 and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang.

  8. Cancer Lung: Cure/Long Term Control Following Polyherbal Interventions- A Case Report

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    P. Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is no specific treatment aimed at cure of human lung cancer, a kind of most lethal cancers. Modern allopathy provides only temporary relief of symptoms or severity when used in the form of medicines, radiotherapy or chemotherapy at the cost of moderate to severe side-effects while long term survival or complete cures are anecdotal. It is also well known that surgical interventions, chemo and radiotherapies have failed consistently to cure many varieties of cancers. This hopeless situation demands for newer kind of therapeutic interventions which may not be the conventional modes of therapy. Alternative/complementary medicine from plant sources becomes well worth trying for these cancers as these medicines are quite safe and their effectiveness is worth investigating. We hereby present a case of lung cancer of subtype adenocarcinoma where the patient was certain to die even if the patient could afford conventional allopathic treatment. Case Summary A 70 year old male patient of lung cancer of subtype adenocarcinoma diagnosed mainly by radiological examination attended the clinic of International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM. He was refused allopathic treatment because of his poor health condition, low weight (40 kg, old age (70 years and was not considered fit either for radio or chemotherapy. The herbal treatment with polyherbal combination consisting of medicinal herbs namely Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Immunity: combination of Vana Tulsi (Ocimum gratissimum + Krishna Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum + Katuki (Picrorrhiza kurroa was used as main agent for treating the lung cancer, while Breath Free: combination of Pushkarmool (Inula racemosa + Krishna Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum + Vibhatki + Pippali was used for symptomatic relief. These were continued for a period of two years. For other health benefits some common medicines like vitamins e.g. cobadex (forte TM capsule, Folic acid TM (5mg. Tablet were used once daily along with RB

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANATÓMICA DE LAS HOJAS DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Ofelia Sam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca tiene amplios y variados usos medicinales, debido a sus múltiples propiedades, motivo por el cual se decidió realizar el presente trabajo, con el objetivo de estudiar la anatomía foliar de plantas de albahaca blanca. El experimento se realizó en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA con plantas cultivadas en macetas. Las muestras de tejido foliar fueron cortadas a mano alzada y de la epidermis se tomaron impresiones de ambas superficies foliares. Se pudo apreciar que entre los parénquimas clorofílicos en ambas superficies de la hoja, se ven las cavidades que contienen los aceites esenciales de la albahaca. Una de las características importantes de estas cavidades es que se encuentran en ambas superficies. En las hojas analizadas se pudieron observar glándulas en diferentes estadios de crecimiento; esta es una característica muy importante, ya que pudieran variar según las condiciones en que se desarrollan las plantas.

  10. Bio-inspired ZnO nanoparticles from Ocimum tenuiflorum and their in vitro antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, N. John; Mahitha, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Raju, B. Deva Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Nanobiotechnology is emerging as a rapid growing field with its applications in nanoscience and technology for the purpose of built-up new materials at the nanoregime. Nanoparticles produced by plant extracts are more stable, and the rate of synthesis is faster than that in the case of other organisms. In this paper we report the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Structural, morphological, particle size, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, zeta potential, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence intensity. The UV-Vis spectrum showed an absorption peak at 380 nm that reflects surface plasmon resonance. The optical measurements were attributed to the band gap 3.19 eV at pH 12. The zeta potential value of -36.4 eV revealed the surface charge of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The antioxidant activity was estimated by both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assay. Green synthesized ZnO NPs showed maximum inhibition (65.23 %) and absorbance (0.6 a.u). This approach offers environmentally beneficial alternative by eliminating hazardous chemicals and promotes pollution prevention by the production of nanoparticles in their natural environment.

  11. Biosynthetic studies on linalool and linalyl acetate in Ocimum canum Sims and Mentha citrate Ehrh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelled valine, leucine, acetate and glucose were fed to O. Canum and M. citrata to study the biosynthesis of linalool and linalyl acetate. The precursors were fed to intact plants as well as to fresh stem cuttings for different periods of time. Valine was found to be the best precursor for the biosynthesis of linalool and lanalyl acetate in both the experimental plants. Maximum incorporation of valine was, however, observed when it was fed alongwith non-radioactive glucose. It is suggested that valine is possibly involved in the synthesis of dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate through nonmevalonoid pathway. The labelled precursors L-U-14C-valine, U-14C-glucose, 14U-C-acetate and DL-1-14C-valine were used in the study. (auth.)

  12. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial a...

  13. Determination of amino-acidic positions important for Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Marc; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Steyer, Damien; Bergdoll, Marc; Hugueney, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are one of the largest and most diversified families of natural compounds. Although they have found numerous industrial applications, the molecular basis of their synthesis in plants has, until now, not been fully understood. Plant genomes have been shown to contain dozens of terpene synthase (TPS) genes, however knowledge of their amino-acidic protein sequence in not sufficient to predict which terpene(s) will be produced by a particular enzyme. In order to investigate the structura...

  14. MILROY, Lesley. Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account of Sociolinguistic Method. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987. 230pp. MILROY, Lesley. Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account of Sociolinguistic Method. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987. 230pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Werlang Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesley Milroy's Observing and Analysing Natural Language is a recent addition to an ever growing number of publications in the field of Sociolinguistics. It carries the weight of one of the experienced authors in the current days in the specified field and should offer basic information to both newcomers and established investigators in natural language. Lesley Milroy's Observing and Analysing Natural Language is a recent addition to an ever growing number of publications in the field of Sociolinguistics. It carries the weight of one of the experienced authors in the current days in the specified field and should offer basic information to both newcomers and established investigators in natural language.

  15. Ação e caracterização química de óleos essenciais no manejo da antracnose do maracujá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dois métodos de inoculação de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em maracujá, testar a patogenicidade de diferentes isolados, o efeito fungitóxico e a composição química dos óleos essenciais das espécies medicinais alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham., capim-santo [Cymbopogon citratus (D. C. Stapf.], alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., no controle da antracnose [Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.], associado ao estádio de maturação de frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo. Avaliaram-se três experimentos, onde se testou a patogenicidade de seis isolados do fungo em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, outro com o mesmo delineamento em esquema fatorial 2x2 (suspensão de conídios e disco de micélio e frutos (verdes e maduros, com seis repetições. No tratamento com frutos, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x3+1, sendo cinco concentrações (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8µL mL-1 e três espécies medicinais, mais o tebuconazol, com cinco repetições. Fez-se a caracterização química dos óleos por cromatografia gasosa, com espectrometria de massas. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos. Os frutos maduros apresentaram maior diâmetro das lesões, quando inoculados com suspensão de conídios. O óleo de C. citratus proporcionou o menor diâmetro das lesões nos frutos, até a concentração de 6 µL mL-1. Na concentração de 8 µL mL-1, todos os óleos inibiram o desenvolvimento do fungo. O timol (30,24%, o citral (77,74% e o eugenol (92,89% foram componentes majoritários em L. sidoides, C. citratus e O. gratissimum, respectivamente.

  16. Maria Bonita: cultivar de manjericão tipo linalol Maria Bonita: a linalool type basil cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Fitzgerald Blank; Evanildes Menezes de Souza; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; José Welton Azevedo de Paula; Péricles Barreto Alves

    2007-01-01

    'Maria Bonita' é proveniente do acesso PI 197442, do Banco de Germoplasma North Central Regional PI Station, EUA. É uma cultivar de manjericão de copa arredondada, pétalas róseas e sépalas roxas, indicada para o Nordeste brasileiro. Apresenta hábito de crescimento ereto, o que favorece a colheita manual e mecanizada. A produtividade média de matéria seca de folhas e inflorescências foi de 20,97 g por planta, 26,34% superior à testemunha 'Genovese'. Possui teor de 4,96% de óleo essencial, e re...

  17. Inibição do desenvolvimento fúngico através da utilização de óleos essenciais de condimentos Inhibition fungi growth through of utilization essential oils of spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cláudio Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos inibitórios, "in vitro", de óleos essenciais dos condimentos, alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L., cebola (Allium cepa L., manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L., menta (Mentha piperita L. e orégano (Origanum vulgare L., sobre o desenvolvimento de fungos. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL-1. Como culturas de teste foram utilizados os fungos Fusarium sp.; Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm.; Aspergillus flavus Link e Aspergillus niger van Tieghem obtidos da micoteca do EcoCentro/EPAMIG em Lavras, MG. O óleo essencial do orégano inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados em todas as concentrações exceto o fungo A. niger que teve o seu desenvolvimento micelial inibido a partir da concentração de 1000 mg/mL-1,. Os óleos de alecrim, menta, cebola e manjericão tiveram um efeito pronunciado a partir da concentração de 1500 mg/mL-1.The objective of this research was to evaluate "in vitro" effect of essential oils of the condiments, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. , onion (Allium cepa L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., mint (Mentha piperita L. and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. about fungi development. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL-1. The fungi Fusarium sp; Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm; Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus niger van Tieghemwere obtained from the Fungal Culture Collection, EcoCentro/EPAMIG in Lavras, MG. The essential oil oregano inhibited completely the tested fungi development except the fungus A. niger that had its development inhibited starting from the concentrations of 1000 mg/mL-1. The rosemary, mint, onion and basil oils presented a pronounced effect starting from the concentration of 1500 mg/mL-1.

  18. A Case Study of Allelopathic Effect on Weeds in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most powerful and effective method of weed control is by chemical substances called herbicides. In recent years, they were published quite data on different side effects of herbicides on humans, animals, crops and the environment as a whole. Therefore, the increased interest for biological weed control lately is reasonable, since its improvement and expansion will contribute to limiting excessive use of herbicides, respectively their harmful effects and will support the successful implementation of complex weed control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of selected plant species, containing allelopathic active substances, on germination, growth and biomass of some widespread weeds in wheat. Experiments were carried out at laboratory conditions using seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., sort Sadovo 1 and most common weeds therein: Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L Pers, white pigweed (Chenopodium album L., twitch (Cynodon dactylon L. and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.. Allelopathic substances were extracted with distilled water from flowers of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., leaves of spearmint (Mentha longifolia (L Huds., and leaves of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Of the tested active allelopathic plants, the most negative impact on germination of all weeds seeds (including wheat, as well as on the development of plants exhibited the water extract of lavender. Lavender and basil had a stronger negative effect on white pigweed and twitch compared with both mint species. A significant inhibitory effect of spearmint even at low concentrations was recorded on the germination of all weed species tested while the wheat was slightly affected, which manifests this plant as a potential effective species in strategies for weed control management.

  19. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Subarnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L. leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L. herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L. bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb. rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%, 0.1 (55.72%, 0.5 (60.75%, and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%, respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837