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Sample records for basidiomycete phanerochaete chrysosporium

  1. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigu, Nomathemba Loice; Hirosue, Sinji; Nakamura, Chie; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium were identified by comprehensive screening of both catalytic potentials and transcriptomic profiling. Functional screening of P. chrysosporium P450s (PcCYPs) revealed that 14 PcCYP species catalyze stepwise conversion of anthracene to anthraquinone via intermediate formation of anthrone. Moreover, transcriptomic profiling explored using a complementary DNA microarray system demonstrated that 12 PcCYPs are up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of anthracene. Among the up-regulated PcCYPs, five species showed catalytic activity against anthracene. Based upon both catalytic and transcriptional properties, these five species are most likely to play major roles in anthracene metabolic processes in vivo. Thus, the combination of functional screening and a microarray system may provide a novel strategy for obtaining a thorough understanding of the catalytic functions and biological impacts of PcCYPs.

  2. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  3. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, E.; Ruiz-Duenas, F.J.; Ferreira, P.; Floudas, D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Canessa, P.; Larrondo, L.F.; James, T.Y.; Seelenfreund, D.; Lobos, S.; Polanco, R.; Tello, M.; Honda, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ryu, J.S.; Kubicek, C.P.; Schmoll, M.; Gaskell, J.; Hammel, K.E.; St John, F.J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, A.; Sabat, G.; Splinter BonDurant, S.; Syed, K.; Yadav, J.S.; Doddapaneni, H.; Subramanian, V.; Lavin, J.L.; Oguiza, J.A.; Perez, G.; Pisabarro, A.G.; Ramirez, L.; Santoyo, F.; Master, E.; Coutinho, P.M.; Henrissat, B.; Lombard, V.; Magnuson, J.K.; Kues, U.; Hori, C.; Igarashi, K.; Samejima, M.; Held, B.W.; Barry, K.W.; LaButti, K.M.; Lapidus, A.; Lindquist, E.A.; Lucas, S.M.; Riley, R.; Salamov, A.A.; Hoffmeister, D.; Schwenk, D.; Hadar, Y.; Yarden, O.; de Vries, R.P.; Wiebenga, A.; Stenlid, J.; Eastwood, D.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Berka, R.M.; Blanchette, R.A.; Kersten, P.; Martinez, A.T.; Vicuna, R.; Cullen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do

  4. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  5. Application of Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 - Enzyme Complex and Laccase in Biobleaching of Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching processes in textile industry require to keep fibers tenacity, partially to preserve the pectin and reducing the lignin content, that gives color to row flax fibers. The use of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 strain and pure Laccase from Biocatalyst in flax fibers treatment was studied. The whiteness of enzymatically-processed fibers was significantly improved and the residual quantity of nondegraded lignin was less than obtained with chemical processing. The structural changes in the flax fibers during enzyme treatment were determined with IR spectroscopy, which confirmed the lignin degradation.

  6. Manganese regulates expression of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J A; Glenn, J K; Gold, M H

    1990-01-01

    The appearance of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is dependent on the presence of manganese. Cultures grown in the absence of Mn developed normally and produced normal levels of the secondary metabolite veratryl alcohol but produced no MnP activity. Immunoblot analysis indicated that appearance of MnP protein in the extracellular medium was also dependent on the presence of Mn. Intracellular MnP protein was detectable only in cel...

  7. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, Elena; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Ferreira, Patrica; Floudas, Dimitrios; HIbbett, David S.; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F.; James, Tim Y.; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Lobos, Sergio; Polanco, Ruben; Tello, Mario; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takahito; Watanabe, Takashi; Ryu, Jae San; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika; Gaskell, Jill; Hammel, Kenneth E.; John, Franz J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Sabat, Grzegorz; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit S.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Perez, Gumer; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramirez, Lucia; Santoyo, Francisco; Master, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Lombard, Vincent; Magnuson, Jon Karl; Kues, Ursula; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Held, Benjamin W.; Barry, Kerrie W.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Schwenk, Daniel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Yarden, Oded; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Stenlid, Jan; Eastwood, Daniel; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Berka, Randy M.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Kersten, Phil; Martinez, Angel T.; Vicuna, Rafael; Cullen, Dan

    2011-12-06

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do so with relatively little cellulose degradation. To investigate the basis for selective ligninolysis, we conducted comparative genome analysis of C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium. Genes encoding manganese peroxidase numbered 13 and five in C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium, respectively. In addition, the C. subvermispora genome contains at least seven genes predicted to encode laccases, whereas the P. chrysosporium genome contains none. We also observed expansion of the number of C. subvermispora desaturase-encoding genes putatively involved in lipid metabolism. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis showed substantial up-regulation of several desaturase and MnP genes in wood-containing medium. MS identified MnP proteins in C. subvermispora culture filtrates, but none in P. chrysosporium cultures. These results support the importance of MnP and a lignin degradation mechanism whereby cleavage of the dominant nonphenolic structures is mediated by lipid peroxidation products. Two C. subvermispora genes were predicted to encode peroxidases structurally similar to P. chrysosporium lignin peroxidase and, following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, the enzymes were shown to oxidize high redox potential substrates, but not Mn2. Apart from oxidative lignin degradation, we also examined cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems in both fungi. In summary, the C. subvermispora genetic inventory and expression patterns exhibit increased oxidoreductase potential and diminished cellulolytic capability relative to P. chrysosporium.

  8. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  9. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  10. ADSORPTION OF CONGO RED DYE ON HAZELNUT SHELLS AND DEGRADATION WITH Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. Carletto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns the experimental evaluation of hazelnut shells as a low cost natural biosorbent. Adsorption of the direct azo dye Congo Red was performed within a concentrations range of 50-5000 mg/L. Hazelnut shells were employed as organic support for Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures to study the best cultural medium composition for the MnP production. The capability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to take macronutrients as carbon and nitrogen from hazelnut shells was demonstrated. Cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were carried out with hazelnut shells coming from Congo Red adsorption tests, showing that 43% of the adsorbed dye was degraded.

  11. Effect of nitrogen concentration in culture mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2005-01-01

    Effect of different nitrogen concentration in the mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied when glucose concentration was 10 g/L. The results showed that the medium contained 0.8 g/L ammonium tartrate is the best. It not only supply abundant nutrients for the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which make mycelia the best grow compared with the other medium, but also produce higher manganese-dependent peroxidase(Mnp) and laccase(Lac) activity. In addition, it is observed that the variation of mycelia surface is related to ligninolytic enzyme secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When the surface of mycelium pellets appeared burs, it predicts secondary metabolism begin. This experimentation demonstrated that when the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in nitrogen limited medium is equal to 100:8, growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is the best, it could achieve the maximum Mnp and Lac activity.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  13. A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑沛霖; 郑重鸣; FOOYinDin; JefferyPhilipObbard; 林建平

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolytic enzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in the presence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. The model can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some light is also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to the enzyme synthesis.

  14. Enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

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    Raziye Ozturk Urek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725 was monitored during growth in different media and growth conditions. The effect of some activators of MnP production, Mn2+, Tween 80, phenylmethylsulphonylfloride (PMSF, oxygen, temperature, pH, glycerol and nitrogen was studied. Supplementing the cultures with Tween 80 (0.05 %, v/v and Mn2+ (174 µM resulted a maximum MnP activity of 356 U/L which was approximately two times higher than that obtained in the control culture (without Tween 80. Decolourisation of Direct Blue 15 and Direct Green 6 (50 mg/L was also achieved with MnP.

  15. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Vincent; Ketter, Elodie; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Gelhaye, Eric; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  16. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Hervé

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  17. New substrates and activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Omega glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Morel, Mélanie; Lamant, Tiphaine; Gérardin, Philippe; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Omega glutathione transferases (GSTO) constitute a family of proteins with variable distribution throughout living organisms. It is notably expanded in several fungi and particularly in the wood-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, raising questions concerning the function(s) and potential redundancy of these enzymes. Within the fungal families, GSTOs have been poorly studied and their functions remain rather sketchy. In this study, we have used fluorescent compounds as activity reporters to identify putative ligands. Experiments using 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate as a tool combined with mass analyses showed that GSTOs are able to cleave ester bonds. Using this property, we developed a specific activity-based profiling method for identifying ligands of PcGSTO3 and PcGSTO4. The results suggest that GSTOs could be involved in the catabolism of toxic compounds like tetralone derivatives. Biochemical investigations demonstrated that these enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteine residue. To access the physiological function of these enzymes and notably during the wood interaction, recombinant proteins have been immobilized on CNBr Sepharose and challenged with beech wood extracts. Coupled with GC-MS experiments this ligand fishing method allowed to identify terpenes as potential substrates of Omega GST suggesting a physiological role during the wood-fungus interactions.

  18. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  19. Biochemical characterization and transcriptional analysis of the epoxide hydrolase from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Li; Yizheng Zhang; Hong Feng

    2009-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a model fungus used to investigate the sec-ondary metabolism and lignin degradation. Genomic sequencing reveals the presence of at least 18 genes encoding putative epoxide hydrolases (EHs). One cDNA encoding EH (designated as PchEHA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the transcripts of PchEHA could be detected under the ligninolytic and nonligninolytic con-ditions as well as amended with anthracene. The recom-binant enzyme exhibits broad hydrolytic activity toward several racemic epoxides including styrene oxide, epichlorohydrin, and 1,2-epoxybutane, but with different specificity. Using racemic styrene oxide as the substrate, the optimal pH and temperature are pH 9.0 and 40℃, respectively. The enzyme is not sensitive to EDTA, and is inhibited by H2O2, and several metal ions including Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ at various extents. Several organic cosoivents including acetone, dimethylsulfoxide, formamide, glycerol and ethanol at 10% (v/v) cause slight or no inhibition of the hydrolytic reaction. More importantly, the recombinant enzyme displays distinct enantioselective preference to several chiral epoxides. The enzyme showed good enantioselec-tivity toward chiral styrene oxide with preferential hydrolysis of (R)-enantiomer. PchEHA is likely a novel soluble EH based on the sequence analysis and catalytic properties, and is a great potential biocatalyst for the preparation of enantiopure styrene oxide in racemic kinetic resolution.

  20. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  1. INSITU LOCALIZATION OF THE SECRETION OF LIGNIN PEROXIDASES IN COLONIES OF PHANEROCHAETE-CHRYSOSPORIUM USING A SANDWICHED MODE OF CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOUKHA, SM; WOSTEN, HAB; ASTHER, M; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Protein secretion and growth were investigated in Phanerochaete chrysosporium by using cultures sandwiched between perforated polycarbonate membranes. Labelling of colonies with radioactive N-acetylglucosamine and L-methionine indicated a close correlation between growth and general protein secretio

  2. Biodegradation of colorants in refinery effluents : potential use of the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Carla; Bento, Luis San Miguel; Mota, M.

    1999-01-01

    The degradative ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium towards each of the four;main types of colorants present in regeneration effluents from ion exchange resins was investigated. The fungus was able to decolorise melanoidin, caramel and HADP (hexose alkaline degradation product) solutions by 74%, 87% and 80%,. respectively, and to reduce levels of phenolic compounds by 72%. Gel permeation chromatography studies showed that decolorisation was accompanied by effective degradation of the color...

  3. Purification and characteristics of a low-molecular-weight peptide possessing oxidative capacity for phenol from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Ming; ZHANG; Weican; LU; Xuemei; GAO; Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A new low-molecular-weight peptide with phenol oxidase activity, named Pc factor, was isolated and purified from liquid culture of a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Its molecular weight was about 600 Da estimated by gel-filtration. Three amino acids Glu, Gly and Val were detected in hydrolysate. Absorption peaks corresponding to amino acids and peptide were observed by UV and IR spectra analysis. And the signal of Cα of amino acid was also detected by 13C-NMR method. Pc factor had high thermostability and remained active in weakly alkalescent pH range. It could chelate Fe3+ and reduce it to Fe2+, but no hydroxyl radical HO` could be detected during the reaction process. It could oxidize phenolic lignin-model compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), 2,2(-azinobis (3-ethylbenzathiazoline-6-sulfinic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldazine in the absence of Mn2+ and H2O2. These characteristics differed greatly from those of manganese peroxidases. The oxidative catalysis of Pc factor can be enhanced by certain metal ions such as Cu2+ and Mn2+ etc., and O2 molecule was necessary for this reaction. In summary, Pc factor may function as an electron carrier in this novel oxidation-reduction system.

  4. Glutathione transferases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium: S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone reductase belongs to a new structural class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Prosper, Pascalita; Ngadin, Andrew; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Lamant, Tiphaine; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric

    2011-03-18

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a saprophytic basidiomycete, possesses a large number of cytosolic glutathione transferases, eight of them showing similarity to the Omega class. PcGSTO1 (subclass I, the bacterial homologs of which were recently proposed, based on their enzymatic function, to constitute a new class of glutathione transferase named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases) and PcGSTO3 (subclass II related to mammalian homologs) have been investigated in this study. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that both enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteinyl residue. This reaction leads to the formation of a disulfide bridge between the conserved cysteine and the removed glutathione from their substrate. The substrate specificity of each isoform differs. In particular PcGSTO1, in contrast to PcGSTO3, was found to catalyze deglutathionylation of S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone substrates. The three-dimensional structure of PcGSTO1 presented here confirms the hypothesis that it belongs not only to a new biological class but also to a new structural class that we propose to name GST xi. Indeed, it shows specific features, the most striking ones being a new dimerization mode and a catalytic site that is buried due to the presence of long loops and that contains the catalytic cysteine.

  5. Heat Shock Induction of Manganese Peroxidase Gene Transcription in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Julie A.; Li, Dan; Alic, Margaret; Gold, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is regulated by heat shock at the level of gene transcription. Nitrogen limitation and manganous ion [Mn(II)] previously have been shown to regulate mnp gene transcription. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrates that 45°C heat shock results in the accumulation of mnp mRNA, even in cells grown in the absence of Mn. Heat shock induces mnp gene transcription in 4- or 5-day-old cells, and m...

  6. A combined biological removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meihua; Zhang, Chaosheng; Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions by agricultural residues rice straw combined with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) was investigated. The results showed that over 99% of the total Cd(2+) (initial concentration of 150mgL(-1)) was removed at the optimal operating conditions (pH 5.0 at 35°C). We also found that P. chrysosporium could survive under Cd(2+) stress even with an initial Cd(2+) concentration of 250mgL(-1). But when Cd(2+) concentration increased to 250mgL(-1), fungus growth and reproduction were remarkably restrained, and as a result, Cd(2+) removal dropped to 59.2%. It was observed that the fungus biomass and activities of ligninolytic enzymes decreased at some degree under high concentration of Cd(2+) (above 100mgL(-1)). Also, we found that a moderate Cd(2+) stress (below 150mgL(-1)) could stimulate P. chrysosporium's production of the heavy metals chelator - oxalate. This study will provide useful information for the application of biological removal of heavy metal irons from wastewater.

  7. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J.

    2014-10-24

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L−1 in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30–400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness.

  8. [Effect of pH on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Zeng, Yong-gang; Qian, Yi

    2005-11-01

    Effect of different pH value on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium under non-sterile were investigated in agitated Erlenmeyer flasks. Results showed that nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH3.6 and pH4.4 were contaminated only by yeast fungi when the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated with spore inoculation under non-sterile condition for one day; however, nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH5.6 was contaminated not only by yeast, but also by bacteria. These contaminated yeast and bacteria reduced the dye decolorizing ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium . If after the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated under sterile condition for 5 days, it can decolorize over 70% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP within 45 hours under non-sterile condition, and this removal rate was close to or even higher than that under sterile condition. Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultured in the liquid medium with pH4.4 have the best decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition, and can decolorize up to 80% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP in 24 hours. In additions, it was observed that by using the Phanerochaete chrysosporium incubated in above nitrogen-limited liquid medium with different pH under sterile condition for 5 days, the system were also contaminated by the other bacteria and yeast during decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under non-sterile condition, but the amount of these bacteria and yeast in liquid medium were too little to influence the Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP. So that, when Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to decolorize reactive dyes under non-sterile condition, the incubation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium must be operated under sterile condition in order to achieve the higher decolorization.

  9. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  10. EFECTO DEL COBRE Y HIERRO SOBRE LA EXPRESION Y ACTIVIDAD ENZIMATICA DE LAS OXIDASAS MULTICOBRE DEL HONGO BASIDIOMICETE PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM.

    OpenAIRE

    CANESSA AGUILA, PAULO FRANCISCO

    2009-01-01

    Los basidiomicetes como Phanerochaete chrysosporium son un grupo de hongos filamentosos capaces de degradar la lignina, un biopolimero de estructura y composición altamente compleja, presente en la pared celular de las plantas leñosas. Durante la degradac 125p.

  11. Simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation from aqueous solutions by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Fan, Jiaqi; Zou, Zhengjun; Li, Hui; Hu, Xinjiang; Long, Fei [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ministry of Education, Changsha (CN). Key Lab. of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan Univ.)

    2011-08-15

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been recognised as an effective bioremediation agent due to its unique degradation to xenobiotic and biosorption ability to heavy metals. However, few studies have focused on the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in P. chrysosporium liquid cultures. The removal efficiencies were pH dependent and the maximum removal efficiencies were observed at pH 6.5 under an initial cadmium concentration of 5 mg/L and an initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 20 mg/L. The removal efficiencies for cadmium and 2,4-DCP reached 63.62% and 83.90%, respectively, under the optimum conditions. The high production levels of lignin peroxidase (7.35 U/mL) and manganese peroxidase (8.30 U/mL) resulted in an increase in 2,4-DCP degradation. The protein content decreased with increasing cadmium concentration. The surface characteristics and functional groups of the biomass were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the use of P. chrysosporium is promising for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and 2,4-DCP from liquid media. (orig.)

  12. Lignocellulose degradation during solid-state fermentation: Pleurotus ostreatus versus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerem, Z.; Friesem, D.; Hadar, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Rehovot (Israel))

    1992-04-01

    Lignocellulose degradation and activities related to lignin degradation were studied in the solid-state fermentation of cotton stalks by comparison two white rot fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium grew vigorously, resulting in rapid, nonselective degradation of 55% of the organic components of the cotton stalks within 15 days. In contrast, P. ostreatus grew more slowly with obvious selectivity for lignin degradation and resulting in the degradation of only 20% of the organic matter after 30 days of incubation. The kinetics of {sup 14}C-lignin mineralization exhibited similar differences. In cultures of P. chrysosporium, mineralization ceased after 18 days, resulting in the release of 12% of the total radioactivity as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. In P. ostreatus, on the other hand, 17% of the total radioactivity was released in a steady rate throughout a period of 60 days of incubation. Laccase activity was only detected in water extracts of the P. ostreatus fermentation. No lignin peroxidase activity was detected in either the water extract or liquid cultures of this fungus. 2-Keto-4-thiomethyl butyric acid cleavage to ethylene correlated to lignin degradation in both fungi. A study of fungal activity under solid-state conditions, in contrast to those done under defined liquid culture, may help to better understand the mechanism involved in lignocellulose degradation.

  13. Expression of lignin peroxidase H2 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by multi-copy recombinant Pichia strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WEN Xianghua

    2009-01-01

    The lipH2 gene, encoding the expression of lignin peroxidase, was cloned from Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, a yeast.The cDNA of LiPH2 was generated from total RNA extracted from P.chrysosporium by PCR with primers that do not contain a P.chrysosporium lignin peroxidase secretion signal.The gene was then successfully inserted into the expression vector pPICZα, resulting in the recombinant vector pPICZα-lipH2.The transformation was conducted in two ways.One was using the wild Pichia pastoris as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with single or low lipH2 gene copy.The second was using P.pastoris and single or low lipH2 gene copy as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with multi-copies of lipH2 genes.This study first expressed the gene lipH2 in P.pastoris and achieved the successful expression of the LiPH2 depending upon the generation of a recombinant strain that contains multiple copies.The lignin peroxidase activity reached a maximum of 15 U/L after 12 h induction.

  14. A single mating-type locus composed of homeodomain genes promotes nuclear migration and heterokaryosis in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T A

    2011-02-01

    The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies.

  15. Biosorption of lead by phanerochaete chrysosporium in the form of pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) in pellets was influenced by culture time, medium pH, C/N, surfactant concentration, spore number in inoculum, and shaking rate. The removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by this kind of mycelial pellets was studied. The results indicated that many factors affected biosorption. These factors included pH, Pb2+ concentration, co-ion, adsorption time, and chemical pretreatments of biomass. Under optimum biosorption conditions (pH 4.5, 27℃, 16h), the highest lead uptake of 108 mg/g, was observed with mycelial pellets of 1.5-1.7 mm in diameter which were treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution before adsorption. Pretreatment of biomass with NaOH further increased its biosorption capacity.

  16. Atypical features of a Ure2p glutathione transferase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Anne; Roret, Thomas; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2013-07-11

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are known to transfer glutathione onto small hydrophobic molecules in detoxification reactions. The GST Ure2pB1 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium exhibits atypical features, i.e. the presence of two glutathione binding sites and a high affinity towards oxidized glutathione. Moreover, PcUre2pB1 is able to efficiently deglutathionylate GS-phenacylacetophenone. Catalysis is not mediated by the cysteines of the protein but rather by the one of glutathione and an asparagine residue plays a key role in glutathione stabilization. Interestingly PcUre2pB1 interacts in vitro with a GST of the omega class. These properties are discussed in the physiological context of wood degrading fungi.

  17. Degradation of Diuron by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Role of Ligninolytic Enzymes and Cytochrome P450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline da Silva Coelho-Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated for its capacity to degrade the herbicide diuron in liquid stationary cultures. The presence of diuron increased the production of lignin peroxidase in relation to control cultures but only barely affected the production of manganese peroxidase. The herbicide at the concentration of 7 μg/mL did not cause any reduction in the biomass production and it was almost completely removed after 10 days. Concomitantly with the removal of diuron, two metabolites, DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methylurea] and DCPU [(3,4-dichlorophenylurea], were detected in the culture medium at the concentrations of 0.74 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. Crude extracellular ligninolytic enzymes were not efficient in the in vitro degradation of diuron. In addition, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, significantly inhibited both diuron degradation and metabolites production. Significant reduction in the toxicity evaluated by the Lactuca sativa L. bioassay was observed in the cultures after 10 days of cultivation. In conclusion, P. chrysosporium can efficiently metabolize diuron without the accumulation of toxic products.

  18. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  19. Fungal pretreatment by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for enhancement of biogas production from corn stover silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Li, Xin; Wu, Shubiao; He, Jing; Pang, Changle; Deng, Yu; Dong, Renjie

    2014-11-01

    Corn stover silage (CSS) was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid-state fermentation (SSF), to enhance methane production via subsequent anaerobic digestion (AD). Effects of washing of corn stover silage (WCSS) on the lignocellulosic biodegradability in the fungal pretreatment step and on methane production in the AD step were investigated with comparison to the CSS. It was found that P. chrysosporium had the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of CSS up to 19.9, 32.4, and 22.6 %, respectively. Consequently, CSS pretreated by 25 days achieved the highest methane yield of 265.1 mL/g volatile solid (VS), which was 23.0 % higher than the untreated CSS. However, the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in WCSS after 30 days of SSF increased to 45.9, 48.4, and 39.0 %, respectively. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses also demonstrated that the WCSS improved degradation of cell wall components during SSF. Correspondingly, the pretreatment of WCSS improved methane production by 19.6 to 32.6 %, as compared with untreated CSS. Hence, washing and reducing organic acids (such as lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) present in CSS has been proven to further improve biodegradability in SSF and methane production in the AD step.

  20. Transformation of low rank coal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P.; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1997-11-01

    There is evidence that the organic fraction of low rank coal (LRC) is chemically transformed by wood-rot fungi. These fungi and the oxidases they secrete have variously been shown to solubilise, polymerise, depolymerise and decolourise macromolecules derived from LRC. The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is able to depolymerise and decolourise alkali-soluble acid-precipitable LRC macromolecules (AS-coal), converting them to a form not recoverable by alkali washing. Transformation of AS-coal is enhanced in N-limiting media under hyperbaric oxygen and is believed to be due, at least in part, to oxidation by manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). The precise role these enzymes play is not yet clear but enzyme and mutant studies show AS-coal can be both polymerised and depolymerised by MnP and its mimetic Mn(III), without change to its absorbance at 400 nm. LiP decolourises AS-coal without apparently altering its molecular mass. Culture filtrates containing MnP and LiP acting on methylated AS-coal yield an array of low molecular mass moieties. Coal-derived monometers have not been recovered from cultures of P. chrysosporium, consistent with them being taken-up by the fungal cells. This suggests that cellular transformations may permit the diverse catabolic products derived from LRC to be converted to specific low molecular mass compounds in usable yield. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Biodegradation pathway and detoxification of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatizamir, Naeimeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana; Yakhchali, Bagher; Alikhani, Hossein A; Mohammadi, Leila

    2011-11-01

    The in vivo biodegradation of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised on cubes of nylon sponge and on sunflower-seed shells (SS) in laboratory-scale bioreactors was investigated. The SS cultivation led to the best results with a decolouration percentage of 90.3% in 72 h for an initial RB5 concentration of 100 mg/L. It was found that the addition of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol (VA) into the medium considerably increased the decolouration rate in SS cultivation. However, the addition of VA had no effect in the nylon cultivation. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that RB5 was transformed into one metabolite after 24 h. UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) also confirmed the biodegradation of RB5. Toxicity of RB5 solutions before and after fungal treatment was assayed using Sinorhizobium meliloti as a sensitive soil microorganism. P. chrysosporium transformed the toxic dye RB5 into a non-toxic product.

  2. Enzyme activities during degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Li, Jieming; Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Qingmin

    2009-10-01

    The degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soils by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced during degradation, were analyzed. The results showed that the 19-d percentage degradation ranged from 72.77+/-1.39% to 25.50+/-3.41% for the three compounds, and the maximum LiP and MnP activities ranged from 0.16+/-0.005 to 0.05+/-0.002 U g(-1) and from 1.92+/-0.03 to 0.54+/-0.03 U g(-1), respectively. Degradation percentage and enzyme activities both exhibited inverse relationships with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) of the compounds, indicating that LiP and MnP from P. chrysosporium may be the primary enzymes responsible for PAH degradation in soil. As the soil organic matter (SOM) content increased from 0.3% for Soil 1 to 19% for Soil 4, the 19-d degradation percentage of pyrene decreased from 66.20+/-2.72% to 32.42+/-1.05%, and correspondingly, the maximum of LiP and MnP activities increased from 0.05+/-0.002 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1) and from 0.34+/-0.03 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1), respectively. Hence, it is plausible to conclude that the P. chrysosporium appeared to degrade not only the PAHs with small molecular size but also the macromolecular SOM. When SOM differences are large, as in this study, SOM has greater influence on enzyme activity than low-level exotic pollutants.

  3. Biotransformation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: oxidation of alkyl side-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S; Lawrence, D L; Nuck, B A; Federle, T W; Reddy, C A

    2001-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which generally mineralizes substituted aromatics to CO2, transformed linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactants mainly at their alkyl side chain. Degradation of LAS was evidenced by a zone of clearing on LAS-containing agar plates and colorimetric analysis of liquid cultures. Disappearance of LAS was virtually complete within 10 days in low nitrogen (2.4 mM N), high nitrogen (24 mM N) and malt extract (ME) liquid media. After 5 days of incubation in ME medium, transformation of LAS was complete at concentrations < or = 4 mg l(-1), but decreased at higher concentrations. The LAS degradation was not dependent on lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs). Mineralization of 14C-ring-LAS to 14CO2 by P. chrysosporium was < 1% regardless of the culture conditions used. Thin layer chromatography and mass spectral analyses indicated that P. chrysosporium transformed LAS to sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs) through oxidative shortening of the alkyl side-chains. While LAS disappearance in the cultures was not dependent on LiPs and MnPs, transformation of the parent LAS moieties to SPCs was more extensive in low N medium that favors expression of these enzymes. The SPCs produced in LN cultures were shorter in chain- length than those produced in ME cultures. Also there was a notable shift in the relative abundance of odd and even chain length metabolites compared to the starting LAS particularly in the low N cultures suggesting the possible involvement of processes other than or in addition to beta-oxidation in the chain-shortening process.

  4. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium and its application in the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenzhen [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Zuo, Yanan; Guo, Zhi; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Song, Zhongxian [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Niu, Qiuya [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal and 2,4-DCP degradation. - Highlights: • PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) were fit for wastewater treatment. • Removal rates of Cd(II) and 2,4-DCP at optimum conditions were up to 78% and 95.4%. • 2,4-DCP removal rates were beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. • PVA was vital to Cd(II) removal besides the function groups in P. chrysosporium. • Maximum recovery of the Cd(II)-laden PPBs after reuse three times was 98.9%. - Abstract: A novel biosorbent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was applied to the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater, containing both cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The optimum removal efficiency achieved was 78% for Cd(II) and 95.4% for 2,4-DCP at initial concentrations of 20 mg/L Cd(II) and 40 mg/L 2,4-DCP. PPBs had significantly enhanced the resistance of P. chrysosporium to 2,4-DCP, leading to the degradation rates of 2,4-DCP beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. This research demonstrated that 2,4-DCP and secreted proteins might be used as carbon and nitrogen sources by PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of PPBs were dominant in Cd(II) binding. The mechanism underlying the degradation of 2,4-DCP into fumaric acid and 1-hexanol was investigated. The adsorption–desorption studies indicated that PPBs kept up to 98.9% of desorption efficiency over three cycles.

  6. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  7. The RT-PCR Analysis of Lignocellulytic Biodegradation-related Gene Expression of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Mingfeng(江明锋); Zhang Yizheng

    2004-01-01

    Expression of lignocellulytic biodegradation-related genes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in 10 kinds of defined media for 5 days and on fir wood chip for 2 to 8 weeks is analyzed by using the RT-PCR method. The result shows that an individual gene of lip gene family responds differently to different nutrient factors. The expression of lipD gene can be promoted by molecular O2 but suppressed by Mn2+. The influence of nitorgen is not the controlling factor for lipD gene expression. No clear relationship is found between nutrient factors and the expression of lipA gene which may be regulated by several nutrient factors through a complex system. Mnp3 gene is not strongly regulated by Mn2+ and other nutrient factors. It can be expressed in different media. CBHI gene family can not be expressed in the presence of glucose as the sole carbon source. Glx expression is regulated by Mn2+ and molecular O2, and depressed when Mn2+ concerntration goes up to 300 mg/L. The transcription patterns of lip gene family grown on fir wood chip are shown to be markedly different from those patterns in defined media. The expression of single lip gene changes with colonized time. No difference is observed between the expression pattern of mnp, cbh, glx gene in defined media and fir wood chips.

  8. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  9. Electrochemical evidence of self-substrate inhibition as functions regulation for cellobiose dehydrogenase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Leonard; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Gorton, Lo

    2009-09-01

    The reaction mechanism of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, adsorbed on graphite electrodes, was investigated by following its catalytic reaction with cellobiose registered in both direct and mediated electron transfer modes between the enzyme and the electrode. A wall-jet flow through amperometric cell housing the CDH-modified graphite electrode was connected to a single line flow injection system. In the present study, it is proven that cellobiose, at concentrations higher than 200 microM, competes for the reduced state of the FAD cofactor and it slows down the transfer of electrons to any 2e(-)/H(+) acceptors or further to the heme cofactor, via the internal electron transfer pathway. Based on and proven by electrochemical results, a kinetic model of substrate inhibition is proposed and supported by the agreement between simulation of plots and experimental data. The implications of this kinetic model, called pseudo-ping-pong mechanism, on the possible functions CDH are also discussed. The enzyme exhibits catalytic activity also for lactose, but in contrast to cellobiose, this sugar does not inhibit the enzyme. This suggests that even if some other substrates are coincidentally oxidized by CDH, however, they do not trigger all the possible natural functions of the enzyme. In this respect, cellobiose is regarded as the natural substrate of CDH.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation and extracellular enzyme secretion in agitated and stationary cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular enzyme secretion and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in agitated and shallow stationary liquid cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Veratryl alcohol and Tween80 were added to cultures as lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) inducer, respectively. Shallow stationary cultures were suitable for the production of enzyme, whereas agitated cultures enhanced overall biodegradation by facilitating interphase mass transfer of PAH into aqueous phases. The use of a LiP stimulator, veratryl alcohol, did not increase PAH degradation but significantly enhanced LiP activity. In contrast, Tween80 increased both MnP secretion and PAH degradation in shallow stationary cultures. On the other hand, high PAH degradation was observed in agitated cultures in the absence of detectable LiP and MnP activities. The results suggested that extracellular peroxidase activities are not directly related to the PAH degradation, and the increased solubility rather than enzyme activity may be more important in the promotion of PAH degradation.

  11. Transcriptional effect of a calmodulin inhibitor, W-7, on the ligninolytic enzyme genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takaiku; Kitaura, Hironori; Minami, Masahiko; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ueda, Akio; Suzuki, Kazumi; Irie, Toshikazu

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor, W-7, on the expression of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium to consider the role of cam gene, which was upregulated in parallel with the total activities of LiP and MnP in our previous transcriptomic analysis. The addition of 100 μM W-7 to the fungal cultures repressed the total activities of LiP and MnP, whereas the addition of 100 μM W-5, which is a control drug of W-7, retained approximately half of them, indicating that the effect of W-7 was attributable to CaM inhibition. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that most of lip and mnp isozyme genes predicted from whole-genome data were significantly inhibited by W-7 at the transcription level (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that CaM has an important role for the expression of isozyme genes of LiP and MnP at the transcription level.

  12. Effects of culture conditions on ligninolytic enzymes and protease production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes and protease by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated under different culture conditions. Different amounts of medium were employed in free and immobilized culture, together with two kinds of medium with different C/N ratios. Little lignin peroxidase (LiP) (< 2 U/L) was detected in free culture with nitrogen-limited medium (C/N ratio: 56/2.2 mmol/L), while manganese peroxidase (MnP) maximum activity was 231 and 240 U/L in 50 and 100 ml medium culture, respectively. Immobilized culture with 50 ml nitrogen-limited medium gave the highest MnP and LiP production with the maximum values of 410 and 721 U/L separately on day 5; however, flasks containing 100 ml nitrogen-limited medium only produced less MnP with a peak value of 290 U/L. Comparatively, carbon-limited medium (C/N ratio: 28/44 mmol/L) was adopted in culture but produced little MnP and LiP. Medium type had the greatest impact on protease production. Large amount of protease was produced due to glucose limitation. Culture type and medium volume influence protease activity corporately by affecting oxygen supply. The results implied shallow immobilized culture was a possible way to gain high production of ligninolytic enzymes.

  13. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  14. ABILITY OF Phanerochaete chrysosporium AND Trametes versicolor TO REMOVE Zn2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Solís Pacheco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungal biomass as an alternative for removing heavy metals has become increasingly important in recent years, replacing conventional methods based on chemical physical processes. In this study, we evaluated the biosorption of Zn2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+, which were analyzed to determine their effect on growth kinetic parameters of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 1267. Growth kinetics were performed in four liquid culture media: 1 Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB used as control, 2 YNB medium plus Pb2+ (0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1, 3 YNB medium plus Zn2+ (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 and 4 YNB medium plus Cr3+ (0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1. The flasks were incubated at 25 °C with shaking at 150 rpm. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES with prior acid digestion of the sample. The results demonstrated that Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 12679 are able to grow in the culture medium with Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at different concentrations. However, P. chrysosporium ATCC 32629 showed greater adaptability and ability to adsorb Cr3+ in the culture medium at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg L-1, whereas T. versicolor ATCC 12679 was capable of Pb2+ biosorption at concentrations of 0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1.

  15. Biodegradation, biosorption of phenanthrene and its trans-membrane transport by Massilia sp. WF1 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping eGu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing phenanthrene (PHE in the environment is critical to ecosystem and human health. Biodegradation, biosorption and the trans-membrane transport mechanism of PHE by a novel strain, Massilia sp. WF1, and an extensively researched model fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium were investigated in aqueous solutions. Results showed that the PHE residual concentration decreased with incubation time and the data fitted well to a first-order kinetic equation, and the t1/2 of PHE degradation by WF1, spores and mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium were about 2 hours, 87 days, and 87 days, respectively. The biosorbed PHE was higher in P. Chrysosporium than that in WF1, and it increased after microorganisms were inactivated and inhibited, especially in mycelial pellets. The detected intracellular auto-fluorescence of PHE by two-photon excitation microscopy also proved that PHE indeed entered into the cells. Based on regression, the intracellular (Kdin and extracellular (Kdout dissipation rate constants of PHE by WF1 were higher than those by spores and mycelial pellets. In addition, the transport rate constant of PHE from outside solution into cells (KinS/Vout for WF1 were higher than the efflux rate constant of PHE from cells to outside solution (KoutS/Vin, while the opposite phenomena were observed for spores and mycelial pellets. The amount of PHE that transported from outside solution into cells was attributed to the rapid degradation and active PHE efflux in the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium, respectively. Besides, the results under the inhibition treatments of 4 °C, and the presence of sodium azide, colchicine and cytochalasin B demonstrated that a passive trans-membrane transport mechanism was involved in PHE entering into the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium.

  16. To enhance the reproduction of Phanerochaete chrysosporium by adding natural lixiviums in liquid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gang; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2003-01-01

    Great promotion to the reproduction of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn by adding natural lixiviums such as from wood,maize core and potato in liquid medium was found in this research. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 10 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet reaches more than 80 g/L, which is 5 times more than that of without natural lixiviums. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 5 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet can reach 69.5 g/L, while the production in the medium without natural lixiviums is very low. When the liquid medium contained 1-20 g/L glucose as carbon source, the production of mycelium pellet in 3 d can only reach 12.5 g/L to 14.5 g/L. The fungus in the medium with potato lixiviums are easily contaminated by other microorganisms and in the medium with maize core lixiviums are easily bulking, while in the medium with wood lixiviums are neither easily contaminated nor bulking. Medium with wood lixiviums can produce more pellet than other medium, endure contamination and keep better sedimentation capacity. So that, wood lixivium is better additive to the culture of white rot fungi in liquid medium. Addition of the mixture of wood, maize core and potato lixiviums is of advantage to the production of mycelium pellet. The difference of the production in the medium with different amount of wood lixiviums showed little in the first 3 d, while it expanded after 3 d. Wood lixiviums stimulate the growth of P. chrysosporium instead of supply organics which fungi need.

  17. Mineralization of sulfonated azo dyes and sulfanilic acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Streptomyces chromofuscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszczynski, A; Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Goszczynski, S; Crawford, R L; Crawford, D L

    1992-11-01

    Five 14C-radiolabeled azo dyes and sulfanilic acid were synthesized and used to examine the relationship between dye substitution patterns and biodegradability (mineralization to CO2) by a white-rot fungus and an actinomycete. 4-Amino-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(3-sulfo-4-aminophenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid were used as representative compounds having sulfo groups or both sulfo and azo groups. Such compounds are not known to be present in the biosphere as natural products. The introduction of lignin-like fragments into the molecules of 4-amino-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(3-sulfo-4-aminophenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid by coupling reactions with guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) resulted in the formation of the dyes 4-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(2-sulfo-3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxy-azobenzene-4-azo)-[U-14C]benzenesulf oni c acid, respectively. The synthesis of acid azo dyes 4-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid also allowed the abilities of these microorganisms to mineralize these commercially important compounds to be evaluated. Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralized all of the sulfonated azo dyes, and the substitution pattern did not significantly influence the susceptibility of the dyes to degradation. In contrast, Streptomyces chromofuscus was unable to mineralize aromatics with sulfo groups and both sulfo and azo groups. However, it mediated the mineralization of modified dyes containing lignin-like substitution patterns. This work showed that lignocellulolytic fungi and bacteria can be used for the biodegradation of anionic azo dyes, which thus far have been considered among the xenobiotic compounds most resistant to biodegradation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. BIODEGRADATION OF DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2,2-BIS(4- CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the form...

  19. BIODEGRATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of [14C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([[14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculat...

  20. Effect of inducers and culturing processes on laccase synthesis in Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 and the constitutive expression of laccase isozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manavalan, Arulmani

    2006-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 constitutively secretes considerable level of extracellular enzyme laccase in defined growth medium. Effect of several inducers on laccase production was attempted and found that copper sulphate alone at 30 mM concentration accelerate the laccase production...

  1. EFFECTS OF CULTURE PARAMETERS ON DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLO- RO-2,2-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BIODEGRADATION BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lignin degrading system of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants to carbon dioxide. Current research is focused on ways to increase or optimize rates of biodegradation in order to a...

  2. Removal of phenol in phenolic resin wastewater by a novel biomaterial: the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet containing chlamydospore-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailei, Wang; Ping, Li; Yu, Qin; Hui, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A novel biomaterial, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet (CP) composed of chlamydospore-like cells (CLCs), was prepared and its potential in treating phenolic resin wastewater was evaluated. CP possesses higher phenol removal ability in contrast with mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium, and CLC can be seen as the naturally immobilized enzymes. At shake-flask level, the ideal pH value, temperature, and inoculation quantity of CP for treatment of 1430 mg/l phenol wastewater were pH 4-6, 30 °C, and 5.0 g/l, respectively, and the maximum specific removal rate, 41.1 mg phenol/g CP/h, was obtained in fixed bed reactor (FBR) when the flow rate of wastewater was 3.4 l/h. During the treatment, FBR harbored amounts of bacteria (135 genera) and eukaryotes, as analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial pollution not only decreased reactor performance but also had a negative impact on reusability of CP. Hot water treatment (80-85 °C) is effective to inhibit bacterial pollution, and heat resistance of CLC makes the repeated regrowing of CP be feasible. This work presents an innovative and low-cost biomaterial for phenol removal and will be helpful for the practical application of P. chrysosporium in wastewater treatment.

  3. Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Razia; Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Batool, Shaheera; Asad, Muhammad Javaid

    2011-01-01

    A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h and the extent of dye decolorization was determined at lambda(max) of the dye. The study revealed that P. chrysosporium caused 65% decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL in seven days. By process optimization, 97% colour removal could be achieved in three days using 0.005% (w/v) Drimarine Blue K2RL solution at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C in defined Kirk's medium with 0.9% (w/v) molasses and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate added as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Manganese peroxidase was found to be the major enzyme (560 IU/mL) involved in dye decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL by P. chrysosporium. The dye adsorption studies showed that the dye initially adsorbed on fungal mats disappeared later on, possibly by the action of MnP secreted by the fungus in secondary metabolism.

  4. Removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and other selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater using a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Batisson, Isabelle; Fick, Jerker; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Grabic, Roman

    2010-09-01

    The capacity of the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent xenobiotics has been largely reported in the literature. Beside other factors, one barrier to a wider use of this bioremediation fungus is the availability of effective formulations that ensure easy preparation, handling and application. In this series of laboratory experiments, we evaluated the efficiency of a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of P. chrysosporium for removal of four selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater samples. Addition of inoculated granules to samples of the wastewater treatment plant of Bologna significantly increased the removal of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), and the antibiotics, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazol, and ciprofloxacin. Similar effects were also observed in effluent water. Oseltamivir was the most persistent of the four active substances. After 30d of incubation, approximately two times more oseltamivir was removed in bioremediated wastewater than controls. The highest removal efficiency of the bioplastic formulation was observed with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Microbiological DNA-based analysis showed that the bioplastic matrix supported the growth of P. chrysosporium, thus facilitating its adaptation to unusual environment such as wastewater.

  5. Direct determination of lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Airi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we describe the application of an in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in the determination of enzyme activity in a crude culture medium containing lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). The method consists of a plug-plug reaction between lignin peroxidase and its substrate, veratryl alcohol, the separation of the product, veratraldehyde, from the other components including the enzyme and the culture medium, and the determination of the enzyme activity from the peak area of veratraldehyde produced by the plug-plug reaction. This method is more sensitive than conventional spectrophotometry since the background originates from the enzyme and the culture medium can be removed via MEKC separation. Veratraldehyde was separated at -10kV in a background electrolyte containing 50mM tartrate buffer (pH 2.5) and 50mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) after a plug-plug reaction in the capillary for 5min. The calibration curve of veratraldehyde was linear up to 4pmol (500μM) with a limit to quantification of 0.026pmol (3.2μM) (SN=10). The activity of lignin peroxidase was directly measured from the peak area of veratraldehyde. The activity of lignin peroxidase released from P. chrysosporium into the medium for 7 days was successfully determined to be 3.40UL(-1).

  6. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a widespread, potentially low cost renewable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol. Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, remains one of the main barriers to technical and commercial success of the processing technology. Existing pretreatment methods have largely been developed on the basis of physiochemical technologies which are considered relatively expensive and usually involve adverse environmental impacts. In this study, an environmentally benign alternative, microbial pretreatment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was explored to degrade lignin in cotton stalks and facilitate their conversion into ethanol. Two submerged liquid pretreatment techniques (SmC), shallow stationary and agitated cultivation, at three inorganic salt concentrations (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+, modified salts with Mn2+) were compared by evaluating their pretreatment efficiencies. Shallow stationary cultivation with no salt was superior to other pretreatment conditions and gave 20.7% lignin degradation along with 76.3% solids recovery and 29.0% carbohydrate availability over a 14 day period. The influence of substrate moisture content (65%, 75% and 80% M.C. wet-basis), inorganic salt concentration (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+ , modified salts with Mn2+) and culture time (0-14 days) on pretreatment effectiveness in solid state (SSC) systems was also examined. It was shown that solid state cultivation at 75% M.C. without salts was the most preferable pretreatment resulting in 27.6% lignin degradation, 71.1% solids recovery and 41.6% carbohydrate availability over a period of 14 days. A study on hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks treated microbially using the most promising SmC (shallow stationary, no salts) and SSC (75% moisture content, no salts) methods resulted in no increase in cellulose conversion with direct enzyme application (10.98% and 3

  7. Screening of static culture and comparison of batch and continuous culture for the textile dye biological decolorization by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Urra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the level of decolorization of 13 dyes were evaluated using static and agitated batch cultures and continuous cultures. A screening carried out under static conditions showed that the oxidative system has a certain affinity for azoic structures. For concentrations of 100 mg l-1 of Acid Black 1, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16 and Acid Red 27, decolorization percentages higher than 90% were obtained. In batch cultures with Acid Black 1 and Reactive Black 5 a significant increment in primary post-metabolism biomass was observed. For these last two dyes, it was possible to explore the response of the continuous system during 32 to 47 days, with concentrations between 25 to 400 mg l-1, obtaining decolorization percentages greater than 70% for 400 mg l-1.

  8. The effect of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress on the enzymes in white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihua; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Yan, Min; Chen, Anwei; Du, Jianjian; Huang, Jian; Yi, Bin; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Prevalence of heavy metals in the living environment causes chemical stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). However, the mechanisms involved in ROS defense are still under investigation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidative stress on the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP). A time-dependent change in all enzyme activities was observed following exposure to 50 μM cadmium and 25 μM lead. The lowest values were recorded at 4 h after exposure. Both cadmium and lead inhibited CAT and POD. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) levels increased under 50-100 μM cadmium or lead exposure and decreased when heavy metal concentration was under 50 μM; this suggested that ROS is not the only factor that alters the CYP450 levels. The cadmium removal rate in the sample containing 900 μM taxifolin (inhibitor of CYP450) and 100 μM cadmium was reduced to 12.34 %, 9.73 % lower than that of 100 μM cadmium-induced sample, indicating CYP450 may play an indirect but key role in the process of clearance of heavy metals. The pH of the substrate solution decreased steadily during the incubation process.

  9. Biodegradation of pyrene by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and enzyme activities in soils: effect of SOM, sterilization and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Liu, Haibin; Wang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    The impacts of soil organic matter (SOM), aging and sterilization on the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium during the biodegradation of pyrene in soils were investigated. The biodegradation of pyrene by P. chrysosporium decreased with increasing SOM content, whereas the maximum activities of LiP and MnP increased, which indicates that SOM outweighed pyrene in controlling enzyme production. Sterilization enhanced the degradation of pyrene due to the elimination of competition from indigenous microbes, whereas aging led to a reduction in the degradation of pyrene primarily through changes in its sorbed forms. Both sterilization and aging could reduce SOM content and alter its structure, which also influenced the bioavailability of pyrene and the enzyme activity. The sterilization and aging processes caused changes in the degradation of pyrene, and the enzyme activities were greater in soils with high SOM contents. MnP was related to the degradation of pyrene to a greater extent, whereas LiP was more related to the decomposition of SOM.

  10. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yee Liong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks with the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both types of pretreated materials were subjected to Trichoderma reesei ATCC 26921 enzyme hydrolysis. Glucose content from alkali-pretreated samples was 1.6-fold higher than fungus-pretreated samples. Hydrolysates from the pretreatments were fermented using the ethanol insensitive strain Escherichia coli K011. After 24 hours of fermentation, the ethanol yield from alkali-pretreated material was 1.5 times higher than the biological-pretreated material. It can be concluded that NaOH-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had a better ethanol yield compared to biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate, but biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had better ethanol conversion efficiency, which was 18.5 g/g. These results indicated that wild grass is capable of becoming an important biomass for small local bioethanol production.

  11. Manganese peroxidase production from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation and its decolorization of indigo carmine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huixing Li; Ruijing Zhang; Lei Tang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhonggui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to higher value products through fungal fermentation has economic and ecological benefits. In this study, to develop an effective strategy for production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation, the stimulators of MnP produc-tion were screened and their concentrations were optimized by one-at-a-time experiment and Box–Behnken design. The maximum MnP activity of 186.38 nkat·g−1 dry mass of the sample was achieved after 6 days of fer-mentation with the supplement of 79.5 mmol·L−1·kg−1 acetic acid, 3.21 ml·kg−1 soybean oil, and 28.5 g·kg−1 alkaline lignin, indicating that cassava residue is a promising substrate for MnP production in solid state fermen-tation. Meanwhile, in vitro decolorization of indigo carmine by the crude MnP was also carried out, attaining the ratio of 90.18%after 6 h of incubation. An oxidative mechanism of indigo carmine decolorization by MnP was pro-posed based on the analysis of intermediate metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Using the crude MnP produced from cassava residue for indigo carmine decolorization gives an effective approach to treat dyeing effluents.

  12. Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic azo dyes are extensively used in textile industry and are not easily degraded into the environment due to their complex structure. Due to the low degree of fixation of these dyes to fabrics, more than 10–15% of the dye does not bind to fabrics during colour processing and release into water bodies as effluent cause serious environmental pollution. White-rot fungus is found to be capable of degrading lignin which has a complex structure similar to azo dyes. In this study, the decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is capable of decolourizing synthetic dye bath effluent, was investigated. Maximum decolourization of 98% was achieved on the third day under normal conditions. The rate of decolourization carried out at different concentrations revealed that the increase in dye effluent concentration suppresses the percentage decolourization. The optimized amounts of nutrients were found to be 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.5% of glucose, manganese sulphate and ammonium salts, respectively. The addition of inducers such as starch and lignin increased enzyme production and the rate of decolourization.

  13. Study of the degradation of dyes by MnP of Phanerochaete chrysosporium produced in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Rodríguez Couto, S; Cameselle, C; Sanromán, M A

    2003-04-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes by the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a fixed-bed tubular bioreactor, filled with cubes of nylon sponge, operating in semi-solid-state conditions, was studied. Maximum individual manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities of 1293 and 225 U/l were detected. The in vitro decolourisation of two structurally different dyes (Poly R-478, crystal violet) by the extracellular liquid obtained in the above-mentioned bioreactor was monitored in order to determine its degrading capability. The concentration of some compounds (sodium malonate, manganese sulphate) from the reaction mixture was optimised in order to maximise the decolourisation levels. A percentage of Poly R-478 decolourisation of 24% after 15 min of dye incubation was achieved. On the other hand, a methodology for a long treatment of these dyes based on the continuous addition of MnP enzyme and H(2)O(2) was developed. Moreover, this enzymatic treatment was compared with a photochemical decolourisation process. The former allowed to maintain the degradation rate almost constant for a long time, resulting in a decolourisation percentage of 70% and 30% for crystal violet and Poly R-478, respectively, after 2 h of treatment. As for the latter, it was not able to degrade Poly R-478, whereas crystal violet reached a degradation of 40% in 2 h.

  14. Influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoyan; WEN Xianghua; FENG Yan

    2007-01-01

    The present work studied the influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a nitrogen-limited(C/N ratio is 56/8.8 mmol/L)medium.Several sets of shaking flask experiments were conducted.The results showed that 2g/L glucose feeding on the first day of the culture(24 h after the inoculation)stimulated both fungal biomass growth and enzyme production.The manganese peroxidase(MnP)activity was 2.5 times greater than that produced in cultures without glucose feeding.Furthermore,the glucose feeding mode in fed-batch culture was also investigated.Compared to cultures with glucose feeding every 48 h,cultures with glucose feeding of 1.5 g/L(final concentration)every 24 h produced more enzymes.The peak and total yield of MnP activity were 2.7 and 3 times greater compared to the contrast culture,respectively,and the enzyme was kept stable for 4 days with an activity of over 200 U/L.

  15. In vitro degradation of natural insoluble lignin in aqueous media by the extracellular peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.N.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hames, B.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Biomass Analysis Group; Grethlein, H.E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-03-20

    The lignin peroxidases (LIP) and manganese peroxidases (MNP) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium catalyze a wide range of lignin depolymerization reactions with lignin models and synthetic lignins in solution. However, their ability to degrade insoluble natural lignin in aqueous media has not been demonstrated. Insoluble isolated poplar lignin similar to natural lignin was treated in vitro in aqueous media for 12 h with LIP, MNP, and both. Treatment with MNP alone slightly increased the solid mass and produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived 2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone and 2-methoxyhydroquinone but did not appreciably decrease the total lignin content. Treatment with LIP alone did not decrease the mass but produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived p-hydroxybenzoic acid and slightly decreased the lignin content. Finally, treatment with LIP and MNP together decreased the solid mass by 11%, decreased the lignin content by 5%, and released low-concentration compounds with mass spectra containing the typical lignin-derived electron-impact fragments of mass 107, 137, 151, 167, and 181. These results suggest that MNP increases the effectiveness of LIP-mediated lignin degradation.

  16. A novel knotted cotton-thread carrier:Its potential use in achieving the biomass renewal of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve an innovative strategy to renew the biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system which can maintain white-rot fungi biomass, a novel knotted cotton-thread carrier was designed and made. By using a high-speed stirring apparatus under the conditions of 1400 r/min stirring speed for 6 min, mycelia immobilized on the knotted cotton-thread carriers were exfoliated completely and homogenized to a proper size. Furthermore, the homogenized mycelia from the immobilized mycelia can resume their growth on the knotted cotton-thread carriers in agitated flask cultures. The average regrowth biomass on the new carriers and the reused carriers was 0.0171 g/carrier and 0.0314 g/carrier, respectively. It proves that the knotted cotton-thread carrier performs perfectly in homogening the immobilized mycelia to achieve the biomass renewal of P. chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system.

  17. The Bio-degradation of Atrazine by Chlamydospore of Phanerochaete chrysosporium%黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子降解阿特拉津的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 秦雨; 李慧; 王海磊

    2016-01-01

    阿特拉津(atrazine)是一类普遍存在于环境中且难降解的污染物.本文探究了黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子对阿特拉津降解的最佳条件,包括温度、摇床转速、初始培养基pH及接种量.并在大田土壤盆栽实验中,研究P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子和土壤土著微生物对土壤中阿特拉津的降解情况.结果表明:P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子可以有效去除阿特拉津,在33℃、转速为180 r· min-1、pH值为7.0、接种量是4 g·L-1时,去除效果最好,去除率达90.77%.土壤盆栽实验结果表明:施用P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子28 d后,非灭菌土壤中阿特拉津去除率为97.8%,其中P.chrysosporium的降解贡献最为突出,去除能力为59.3%.而土著土壤微生物的去除率仅为20.7%,表明P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子对AT降解效果明显.

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ground corn stover for the production of fuel ethanol using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli K011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum and subsequent fermentation of the saccharification products to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli K011 were achieved. Prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production, solid-state fermentation was performed for four days on ground corn stover using either P. chrysosporium or G. trabeum to induce in situ cellulase production. During SSF with S. cerevisiae or E. coli, ethanol production was the highest on day 4 for all samples. For corn stover treated with P. chrysosporium, the conversion to ethanol was 2.29 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae as the fermenting organism, whereas for the sample inoculated with E. coli K011, the ethanol production was 4.14 g/100 g corn stover. Corn stover treated with G. trabeum showed a conversion 1.90 and 4.79 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 as the fermenting organisms, respectively. Other fermentation co-products, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, were also monitored. Acetic acid production ranged between 0.45 and 0.78 g/100 g corn stover, while no lactic acid production was detected throughout the 5 days of SSF. The results of our experiment suggest that it is possible to perform SSF of corn stover using P. chrysosporium, G. trabeum, S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 for the production of fuel ethanol.

  19. Characterization of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium glutathione transferase reveals a novel structural and functional class with ligandin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Prosper, Pascalita; Buée, Marc; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Gérardin, Philippe; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Lamant, Tiphaine; Meux, Edgar; Mathiot, Sandrine; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie

    2012-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes. A new fungal specific class of GST has been highlighted by genomic approaches. The biochemical and structural characterization of one isoform of this class in Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed original properties. The three-dimensional structure showed a new dimerization mode and specific features by comparison with the canonical GST structure. An additional β-hairpin motif in the N-terminal domain prevents the formation of the regular GST dimer and acts as a lid, which closes upon glutathione binding. Moreover, this isoform is the first described GST that contains all secondary structural elements, including helix α4' in the C-terminal domain, of the presumed common ancestor of cytosolic GSTs (i.e. glutaredoxin 2). A sulfate binding site has been identified close to the glutathione binding site and allows the binding of 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid. Competition experiments between 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid, which has fluorescent properties, and various molecules showed that this GST binds glutathionylated and sulfated compounds but also wood extractive molecules, such as vanillin, chloronitrobenzoic acid, hydroxyacetophenone, catechins, and aldehydes, in the glutathione pocket. This enzyme could thus function as a classical GST through the addition of glutathione mainly to phenethyl isothiocyanate, but alternatively and in a competitive way, it could also act as a ligandin of wood extractive compounds. These new structural and functional properties lead us to propose that this GST belongs to a new class that we name GSTFuA, for fungal specific GST class A.

  20. 载体吸附培养黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor) 对染料的脱色%Decolorization of dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on adsorptive carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 李学梅; 张文黎; 花清信; 苌道松; 徐颖; 李雪玲; 任四伟; 陈宣宇; 杨清香

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured on different carriers for continuous decolorization, the performance of different Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were researched and compared. In this paper, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor were cultured in liquid containing spherical sawdust, corncob and peanut shells under oscillation conditions. During few days of cultivation, large amount of bacteria was grew and attached on the carrier surface in membranous and lump state. After consecutive 4 rounds of decolorization, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor growing on sawdust carrier had significant advantage both in continuous decolorization and producing enzymes, so the optimal adsorptive carrier was sawdust. After consecutive 2 rounds and 12 d of reactive black RB5 decolorization, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium culture with sawdust as adsorptive carrier could achieve the decolorization of 97 %; after three rounds of dye supplemented, the cultures also could remove nearly 96% of M-3BE and the maximum production of manganese dependant pcroxidase enzyme (MnP) and lignin peroxidase enzyme (LiP) was 611, 1 477 U/L. In the actual application, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor culture with sawdust as carriers should be added to dye wastewater treatment system to strengthen the biological treatment effect.%比较研究了不同载体吸附培养的黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)和云芝(Trametes versicolor)对染料连续脱色的效果.结果表明:(1)白腐真菌黄孢原毛平革菌和云芝分别在含有球形的木屑、玉米芯和花生壳载体的液体环境中振荡培养,菌体以膜状或团状形式大量附着生长在载体表面.(2)连续4轮脱色过程中,不论黄孢原毛平革菌还是云芝,都是木屑为载体的培养液的持续脱色和产酶能力最好,宜选择木屑为载体.其中,木屑为载体的黄孢

  1. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  2. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of some fungicides on catalase produced and purified from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakçıoğlu, Berna; Tarhan, Leman

    2014-10-01

    In this study, in vitro and in vivo effects of some commonly used fungicides, antibiotics, and various chemicals on isolated and purified catalase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated. The catalase was purified 129.10-fold by using 60% ammonium sulfate and 60% ethanol precipitations, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange and Sephacryl-S-200 gel filtration chromatographies from P. chrysosporium growth in carbon- and nitrogen-limited medium for 12 days. The molecular weight of native purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was found to be 290 ± 10 kDa, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE results indicated that enzyme consisted of four apparently identical subunits, with a molecular weight of 72.5 ± 2.5 kDa. Kinetic characterization studies showed that optimum pH and temperature, Km and Vmax values of the purified catalase which were stable in basic region and at comparatively high temperatures were 7.5, 30°C, 289.86 mM, and 250,000 U/mg, respectively. The activity of purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was significantly inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetamide, EDTA, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was found that while antibiotics had no inhibitory effects, 45 ppm benomyl, 144 ppm captan, and 47.5 ppm chlorothalonil caused 14.52, 10.82, and 38.86% inhibition of purified catalase, respectively. The inhibition types of these three fungicides were found to be non-competitive inhibition with the Ki values of 1.158, 0.638, and 0.145 mM and IC50 values of 0.573, 0.158, 0.010 mM, respectively. The results of in vivo experiments also showed that benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil caused 15.25, 1.96, and 36.70% activity decreases after 24-h treatments compared to that of the control.

  3. Involvement of a new enzyme, glyoxal oxidase, in extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, P.J.; Kirk, K.

    1987-05-01

    The importance of extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in lignin degradation has become increasingly apparent with the recent discovery of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-requiring ligninases produced by white-rot fungi. Here the authors describe a new H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-producing activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium that involves extracellular oxidases able to use simple aldehyde, ..cap alpha..-hydroxycarbonyl, or..cap alpha..-dicarbonyl compounds as substrates. The activity is expressed during secondary metabolism, when the ligninases are also expressed. Analytical isoelectric focusing of the extracellular proteins, followed by activity staining, indicated that minor proteins with broad substrate specificities are responsible for the oxidase activity. Two of the oxidase substrates, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, were also identified, as their quinoxaline derivatives, in the culture fluid as secondary metabolites. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to lignin degradation and other proposed systems for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production in P. chrysosporium.

  4. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo Qian; Baoliang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated.A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium.The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation,which was significantly higher than that from regions of T.versicolor or P.chrysosporium alone.The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition.A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated.After a 48 hr incubation period,the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%,while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T.versicolor.The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS).These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  5. Biodegradation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: new insight into the degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a recalcitrant energetic chemical that tends to accumulate in soil, close to the surface. The present study describes the aerobic biodegradability of HMX using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When added to 7 day old static P. chrysosporium liquid cultures, HMX (600 nmol) degraded within 25 days of incubation. The removal of HMX was concomitant with the formation of transient amounts of its mono-nitroso derivative (1-NO-HMX). The latter apparently degraded via two potential routes: the first involved N-denitration followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage, and the second involved alpha-hydroxylation prior to ring cleavage. The degradation of 1-NO-HMX gave the ring-cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), nitrite (NO2 -), nitrous oxide (N2O), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Using [14C]-HMX, we obtained 14CO2 (70% in 50 days), representing three C atoms of HMX. Incubation of real soils, contaminated with either HMX (403 micromol kg(-1)) (military base soil) or HMX (3057 micromol kg(-1)), and RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)) (ammunition soil) with the fungus led to 75 and 19.8% mineralization of HMX (liberated 14CO2), respectively, also via the intermediary formation of 1-NO-HMX. Mineralization in the latter soil increased to 35% after the addition of glucose, indicating that a fungus-based remediation process for heavily contaminated soils is promising. The present findings improve our understanding about the degradation pathway of HMX and demonstrate the utility of using the robust and versatile fungus P. chrysosporium to develop effective remediation processes for the removal of HMX.

  6. Transport, fate, and stimulating impact of silver nanoparticles on the removal of Cd(II) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Yanan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Zhongwu; Yan, Ming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Guo, Zhi; Huang, Zhenzhen; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Appropriate concentration of AgNPs can stimulate the biological removal of Cd(II). • Added AgNPs were oxidatively dissolved and transported to the surface of fungus. • AgNPs have undergone coarsening in the process of transport. • Amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing groups were involved in transportion. - Abstract: Despite the knowledge about increasing discharge of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into wastewater and its potential toxicity to microorganisms, the interaction of AgNPs with heavy metals in the biological removal process remains poorly understood. This study focused on the effect of AgNPs (hydrodynamic diameter about 24.3 ± 0.37 nm) on the removal of cadmium (Cd(II)) by using a model white rot fungus species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Results showed that the biological removal capacity of Cd(II) increased with the concentration of AgNPs increasing from 0.1 mg/L to 1 mg/L. The maximum removal capacity (4.67 mg/g) was located at 1 mg/L AgNPs, and then decreased with further increasing AgNPs concentration, suggesting that an appropriate concentration of AgNPs has a stimulating effect on the removal of Cd(II) by P. chrysosporium instead of an inhibitory effect. Results of Ag{sup +} and total Ag concentrations in the solutions together with those of SEM and XRD demonstrated that added AgNPs had undergone oxidative dissolution and transported from the solution to the surface of fungal mycelia (up to 94%). FTIR spectra confirmed that amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing functional groups were involved in Cd(II) removal, AgNPs transportation, and the reduction of Ag{sup +} to AgNPs.

  7. Variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in continuous membrane bioreactor for Reactive Brilliant Red X3-B treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shang; CHEN Cheng; TAO Fang; HUANG Minsheng; MA Lihua; WANG Zhonghua; WU Linhui

    2009-01-01

    The influence of a Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B (RBR X-3B) dye on the peroxidase isoenzyme of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was determined, and the biofilm structure in a white rot fungal continuous membrane bioreactor (MBR) was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate in the continuous MBR were evaluated. The results showed that the 100 mg/L RBR X-3B could stimulate the production of the peroxidase isoenzyme in the shaking-flask culture. In addition, two new peroxidase isoenzyme bands with relative mobility (Rf) value of 0.27 and 0.28 appeared, but the activity was lower than the blank control of 11 d. In the continuous MBR, the system worked stably during the first 60 d, the main peroxidase isoenzyme bands existed and three new bands with Rf value of 0.10, 0.27, and 0.28 appeared. Meanwhile, the biofilm grew well and the average decolorization rate could reach 90.6%. But the bands of peroxidase isoenzyme decreased rapidly at day 65, only two bands with Rf value 0.24 and 0.26 existed, and the decolorization rate decreased to 78.3%. Therefore, 5 bottles of P. chrysosporium mycelial pellet were added into the MBR, and then the activity of the peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate had a slight recovery. Finally, the decolorization rate finally decreased to 75.2%. These results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm in continuous MBR by white rot fungi.

  8. Study of the degradation of methylene blue by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and reutilization of fermented residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Xu, Piao; Wei, Zhen; Li, Ningjie; Zhang, Chen; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of methylene blue (MB) by semi-solid-state fermentation of agricultural residues rice straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the reutilization of fermented residues was investigated. A maximum decolorization of 84.8% for an initial dye concentration of 0.4 g/L was observed at the optimal operating conditions (temperature 35 °C, pH 5). As compared to the previous results obtained using synthetic materials as substrate, the results in the present study revealed an excellent performance of the bioreactor in decolorizing the wastewater containing MB, which is due to this type of cultivation reproducing the natural living conditions of the white rot fungi. Among the two ligninolytic enzymes that are responsible to the decolorization, manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was found better correlated with decoloration percentage. Our results also provide a first step to recycling the fermented residues for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions, the maximum adsorption capacity of the fermented residues reached 51.4 mg/g.

  9. The putative endoglucanase PcGH61D from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a metal-dependent oxidative enzyme that cleaves cellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørge Westereng

    Full Text Available Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61, some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a metal-dependent oxidative mechanism that leads to generation of aldonic acids. The activity of this enzyme and its beneficial effect on the efficiency of classical cellulases are stimulated by the presence of electron donors. Experiments with reduced cellulose confirmed the oxidative nature of the reaction catalyzed by PcGH61D and indicated that the enzyme may be capable of penetrating into the substrate. Considering the abundance of GH61-encoding genes in fungi and genes encoding their functional bacterial homologues currently classified as carbohydrate binding modules family 33 (CBM33, this enzyme activity is likely to turn out as a major determinant of microbial biomass-degrading efficiency.

  10. Decolorization of mixtures of different reactive textile dyes by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida and inhibitory effect of polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazono, Koichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

    2005-03-01

    We tried to decolorize mixtures of four reactive textile dyes, including azo and anthraquinone dyes, by a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida. P. sordida decolorized dye mixtures (200 mg l-1 each) by 90% within 48 h in nitrogen-limited glucose-ammonium media. Decolorization of dye mixtures needed Mn2+ and Tween 80 in the media. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) played a major role in dye decolorization by P. sordida. Decolorization of dye mixtures by P. sordida was partially inhibited by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that wastewaters from textile industries often contain. This was caused by an inhibitory effect of PVA on the decolorization of Reactive Red 120 (RR120) with MnP reaction system. Second addition of Tween 80 to the reaction mixtures in the presence of PVA improved the decolorization of RR120. These results suggest that PVA could interfere with lipid peroxidation or subsequent attack to the dye.

  11. Biopulping of lignocarbohydrates residues of cymbopogon martini with phanerochaete chrysosporium: An approach towards energy conservation and waste utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, C. H.; Dharm, D.; Upadhyaya, J. S.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Garg, A. P. (Department of Paper Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur (India))

    2007-07-01

    Lignocarbohydrates residue of Cymboogon martini (Palma rosa grass), cultivated for palma rosa oil, is used for land filling after steam distillation which creates environmental problems. This hitherto unexploited source of lignocarbohydrates biomass can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp by soda and bio soda, alkali 02 and bio alkali 02 pulping processes. Lignocarbohydrates residue left after steam distillation was treated with P. chrysosporium at optimum conditions which degrades lignin, pentosan and holocellulose to 30.11, 62.25 and 18.60% respectively of the original composition of lignocarbohydrates residues of C. martini. Lignocellulosic residues of C. martini produces 44.73 % pulp yield with 22.12 kappa number at H factor 553.21, maximum cooking time 3 hours, maximum cooking temp 150 deg C, alkali dose 14 % (as Na{sub 2}0) and liquor to wood ratio of 5:1. The addition of 0.1 % AQ improves pulp yield by 0.72 % and reduces kappa number by 1.12 units. The 02 pressure 5 kg/cm2 improves pulp yield by 1.07 % and reduces kappa number by 1.65 units. The bio soda and bio alkali 02 pulping processes requires 11 % active alkali doses to get the same kappa number as for soda and alkali 02 pulps with a chemical saving of 3%. (orig.)

  12. The effectiveness of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi and Aspergillus niger or Phanerochaete chrysosporium treated organic amendments from olive residues upon plant growth in a semi-arid degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2010-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and a residue from dry olive cake (DOC) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) and treated with either Aspergillus niger (DOC-A) or Phanerochaete chrysosporium (DOC-P), were assayed in a natural, semi-arid soil using Trifolium repens or Dorycnium pentaphyllum plants. The effects of the AM fungi and/or DOC-A were compared with P-fertilisation (P) over eleven successive harvests to evaluate the persistence of the effectiveness of the treatments. The biomass of dually-treated plants after four successive harvests was greater than that obtained for non-treated plants or those receiving the AM inoculum or DOC-A treatments after eleven yields. The AM inoculation was critical for obtaining plant growth benefit from the application of fermented DOC-A residue. The abilities of the treatments to prevent plant drought stress were also assayed. Drought-alleviating effects were evaluated in terms of plant growth, proline and total sugars concentration under alternative drought and re-watering conditions (8th and 9th harvests). The concentrations of both compounds in plant biomass increased under drought when DOC-A amendment and AM inoculation were employed together: they reinforced the plant drought-avoidance capabilities and anti-oxidative defence. Water stress was less compensated in P-fertilised than in DOC-A-treated plants. DOC-P increased D. pentaphyllum biomass, shoot P content, nodule number and AM colonisation, indicating the greater DOC-transforming ability of P. chrysosporium compared to A. niger. The lack of AM colonisation and nodulation in this soil was compensated by the application of DOC-P, particularly with AM inoculum. The management of natural resources (organic amendments and soil microorganisms) represents an important strategy that assured the growth, nutrition and plant establishment in arid, degraded soils, preventing the damage that arises from limited water and nutrient supply.

  13. Systematic identification and evolutionary analysis of catalytically versatile cytochrome p450 monooxygenase families enriched in model basidiomycete fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajamohiddin Syed

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation. Any P450 family comprising a large number of member P450s compared to other P450 families indicates its natural selection over other P450 families by its important role in fungal physiology. Genome-wide comparative P450 analysis in the basidiomycete species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete carnosa, Agaricus bisporus, Postia placenta, Ganoderma sp. and Serpula lacrymans, revealed enrichment of 11 P450 families (out of 68 P450 families, CYP63, CYP512, CYP5035, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5141, CYP5144, CYP5146, CYP5150, CYP5348 and CYP5359. Phylogenetic analysis of the P450 family showed species-specific alignment of P450s across the P450 families with the exception of P450s of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete carnosa, suggesting paralogous evolution of P450s in model basidiomycetes. P450 gene-structure analysis revealed high conservation in the size of exons and the location of introns. P450s with the same gene structure were found tandemly arranged in the genomes of selected fungi. This clearly suggests that extensive gene duplications, particularly tandem gene duplications, led to the enrichment of selective P450 families in basidiomycetes. Functional analysis and gene expression profiling data suggest that members of the P450 families are catalytically versatile and possibly involved in fungal colonization of plant

  14. A novel P450-initiated biphasic process for sustainable biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil under nutrient-sufficient conditions by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shann, Jodi; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-10-15

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are resistant to biodegradation in soil. Conventionally, white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated for HMW-PAH degradation in soil primarily using nutrient-deficient (ligninolytic) conditions, albeit with limited and non-sustainable biodegradation outcomes. In this study, we report development of an alternative novel biphasic process initiated under nutrient-sufficient (non-ligninolytic) culture conditions, by employing an advanced experimental design strategy. During the initial nutrient-sufficient non-ligninolytic phase (16 days), the process showed upregulation (3.6- and 22.3-fold, respectively) of two key PAH-oxidizing P450 monooxygenases pc2 (CYP63A2) and pah4 (CYP5136A3) and formation of typical P450-hydroxylated metabolite. This along with abrogation (84.9%) of BaP degradation activity in response to a P450-specific inhibitor implied key role of these monooxygenases. The subsequent phase triggered on continued incubation (to 25 days) switched the process from non-ligninolytic to ligninolytic resulting in a significantly higher net degradation (91.6% as against 67.4% in the control nutrient-limited set) of BaP with concomitant de novo ligninolytic enzyme expression making it a biphasic process yielding improved sustainable bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. To our knowledge this is the first report on development of such biphasic process for bioremediation application of a white rot fungus.

  15. Effect of cyclodextrin on PAHs degradation by MnP enzymes produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium%三株白腐菌产锰过氧化物酶活性及其对多环芳烃的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娟; 罗坤; 周娟; 高士祥

    2007-01-01

    比较研究了β-环糊精(β-CD)对3株黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)CGMCC5.776、GIM3.383和GIM3.393产锰过氧化物酶(MnP)和降解多环芳烃(PAHs)的影响.结果表明:3株菌都能分泌出高活性的MnP,β-CD能显著提高MnP的活性.加入2.0 g/Lβ-CD的体系培养到第12天时.酶活性最高达到2 912.5 U/L;而且β-CD能显著提高PAHs的降解率,两者之间存在较好的相关性.加入1.0 g/L β-CD的体系对比不加β-CD的体系,PAHs的降解率提高了1~2倍.PAHs的降解同时受到MnP活性、PAHs表观溶解度和分子结构稳定性等因素的影响.

  16. Effects of Strains and Veratryl Alcohol on Degradation of Two Kinds of Dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium%菌种品系及VA对黄孢原毛平革菌降解两种染料的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧蓉

    2001-01-01

    The shallow static cultures of methylene blue and Biebrich scarlet with different strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed: to methylene blue, degradation efficiency of ME-446 was best, that of OGC101 was similar to BKM-F-1767; to Biebrich scarlet, the first was OGC101, the second M-446, and the last BKM-F-1767. The extraneous supply of VA was advantaged to decolorization and degradation of dyes during early stages, but a week later, there was no significant difference in the samples with addition of VA and without VA. The results showed that various strains had different abilities of decolorization and degradation; the VA that the intact fungus culture self-synthesized was enough to support the normal operation of degradative culture system.%黄孢原毛平革菌的不同品系与染料亚甲基蓝和比布列希猩红的浅层静培养表明,对于亚甲基蓝而言,ME-446降解能力最强,OGC101和BKM-F-1767相似;以比布列希猩红为底物,则OGC101最好,ME-446其次,最后为BKM-F-1767。虽然外源藜芦醇(vA)的补充在培养初期有利于染料脱色降解率的提高;但一周后,与不添加VA的样品比较,脱色降解率接近或相等。这说明菌的品系存在降解能力的差异;完整菌体自身合成的VA足以维持降解培养体系的正常运作。

  17. Biosorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in aqueous solution%黄孢原毛平革菌菌球对多环芳烃的生物吸附和生物降解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁; 陈宝梁; 朱利中

    2012-01-01

    以黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium,Pc)为代表,研究了死体和活体Pc菌球对水中菲、芘等多环芳烃(PAHs)的生物吸附和生物降解作用及其相对贡献,探讨了碳源、氮源浓度和共存Cu2+的影响,考察了连续多次输入下菲的生物吸附和生物降解作用,试图为准确掌握微生物作用下PAHs的迁移转化行为及其调控作用提供理论指导.结果表明,死体Pc菌球对水中菲、芘的去除机制为生物吸附,分配系数分别为4040和17500 L/kg.活体Pc菌球的去除机制包括生物吸附和生物降解,3d时生物吸附对水中菲、芘的去除率分别为19.71%和52.21%;随着作用时间延长(3~40 d),生物降解对菲、芘的去除作用逐渐增大(20.40%~60.62%和15.55%~49.21%),且菌体中PAHs残留量不断下降.富碳限氮营养条件下,活体Pc菌球对PAHs的去除作用和降解效果最优,在60 d时分别为99.55%和92.77%(菲),99.47%和83.97%(芘),主要源于富碳增加Pc菌体生物量而增强生物吸附、限氮则触发Pc对PAHs的生物降解作用.活体Pc菌球在富碳限氮强化条件下可连续多次去除和降解新输入的PAHs,其中单次生物降解率随循环次数(6 d/次)增加而增大,循环3次后菲的生物降解率高达90%.

  18. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the production of lignocellulase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium%铜绿假单胞菌对白腐菌产木质纤维素降解酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪萍萍; 袁兴中; 梁运姗; 曾光明; 黄华军; 祝慧娜; 晁阳; 孙婷

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the production of lignin peroxidase,manganese peroxidase and CMCase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a solid substrate fermentation process were studied.Effects of different concentrations of Ps.aeruginosa on other parameters,such as pH,surface tension of crude enzyme liquid,volatile organic matter concentration were also evaluated.The results showed that Ps.aeruginosa AB93066 at 5.72% increased the production of LiP,MnP and CMCase by 67.8%,57.9% and 17.8%,respectively while strain Ps.aeruginosa ATCC9027 at 2.86% increased the production of LiP,MnP and CMCase by 86.3%,49.3% and 43.7%,respectively.The surface tension of crude enzyme liquid from P.aeruginosa ATCC9027 was lower than that from Ps.aeruginosa AB93066.The addition of Ps.aeruginosa had no significant influence on the pH value.The volatile organic matter concentration was positively correlated with the enzymatic activity.%采用固态发酵的方法,考察了两株不同型号的铜绿假单胞菌(AB93066和ATCC9027)对白腐菌(黄孢原毛平革菌)产木质纤维素降解酶(木素过氧化物酶LiP、锰过氧化物酶MnP和羧甲基纤维素酶CMCase)的影响,并对酶提取液的pH值、表面张力及稻草降解残渣中挥发性有机质含量的变化进行了分析.结果表明,添加5.72%的AB93066可使LiP、MnP和CMCase酶活分别提高67.8%、57.9%和17.8%;而添加2.86%的ATCC9027时可使LiP、MnP和CMCase酶活分别提高86.3%、49.3%和43.7%.发酵过程中,添加ATCC9027的酶提取液的表面张力明显低于添加AB93066,添加铜绿假单胞菌对酶提取液的pH值无明显影响,而挥发性有机质含量的变化与酶活变化呈正相关关系.

  19. Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin-degrading fungus Phaerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.T.; Gold, M.H.; Renganathan, V. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting, secondary metabolic conditions, the white rat basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively mineralized the specifically [sup 14]C-ring-labeled azo dyes 4-phenylazophenol, 4-phenylazo-2-methoxyphenol, Disperse Yellow 3 [2-(4[prime]-acetamidophenylaso)-4-methylphenol], 4-phenylazoaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-phenylazoaniline, Disperse Orange 3 [4-(4[prime]-nitrophenylazo)-aniline], and Solvent Yellow 14 (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol). Twelve days after addition to cultures, the dyes had been mineralized 23.1 to 48.1%. Aromatic rings with substituents such as hydroxyl, amino, acetamido, or nitro functions were mineralized to a greater extent than unsubstituted rings. Most of the dyes were degraded extensively only under nitrogen-limiting, ligninolytic conditions. However, 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] phenol and 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] 2-methoxyphenol were mineralized to a lesser extent under nitrogen-sufficient, nonligninolytic conditions as well. These results suggest that P. chrysosporium has potential applications for the cleanup of textile mill effluents and for the bioremediation of dye-contaminated soil.

  20. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  1. 抗氮营养阻遏黄孢原毛平革菌pcR5305产酶条件优化%Optimizing Enzyme-production Conditions of Phanerochaete chrysosporium pcR5305 which Can be Resistant to Nitrogen Nutritional Repression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶友贤

    2014-01-01

    We optimized the enzyme-production nutritional medium and environment condition of the breeding strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium pcR5305 which can be resistant to nitrogen nutritional repression. Results show that pcR5305 had the best enzyme activity when it was grown at the following condition:the medium was mixed with ammoni-um tartrate 2.2g/L, glucose 20g/L, Mn2+0.2g/L and Tween 80 1g/L, and adding benzyl alcohol 5.2mmol/L after 24h, the cul-turing temperature was 37℃and the initial pH was 4.5. After 6d static cultured, the LiP activity could reached 2013.59U/L, and the MnP activity could reach 353.42U/L, increased respectively by 23.41% and 27.97% against the un-optimized cul-tured strains.%对选育的抗营养阻遏产酶黄孢原毛平革菌pcR5305菌株的产酶营养基质与环境条件进行了优化。实验结果表明pcR5305在37℃、初始pH4.5条件下,以酒石酸铵(富氮2.2g/L),葡萄糖(20g/L),Mn2+(0.2g/L),Tween 80(1g/L)为主要成分的优质培养基中培养24h后添加5.2mmol/L苯甲醇,pcR5305的产酶活性最高。上述条件下,该菌接种后静置培养6 d,LiP活力可达到2013.59U/L,MnP活力达到353.42U/L,分别提高了23.41%和27.97%。

  2. 全氟辛酸和雌二醇对黄孢原毛平革菌过氧化物酶活性的影响%Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Estradiol on the Peroxidase Enzyme Activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉娜; 毛晖; 曲东

    2013-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium(PC) was pure cultured with Kirk liquid medium,two typical persistent organic pollutants perfluorooctanoic acid(PFOA) and estradiol(E2) were chosen,the effects of PFOA and E2 on PC extracellular peroxidase activity and total enzyme activities were studied.The results showed that 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt(ABTS)was used as the substrate,and ABTS,H2O2,MnSO4,fungi solution were added in turn to citrate buffer with pH 3 to form a solution.The maximum bacterium activity was measured at 470 nm within 60 s reaction,which contained total activity of extracellular enzymes including lignin peroxidase (LiP),manganese peroxidase (MnP),laccase (Lac) and so on.Lip and MnP were two main extracellular enzymes secreted by PC in the culture system,while Lac enzyme activity was very low.Total enzyme activity increased with incubation time of PC.A small peak was observed between 20~30 days,while a big peak appeared between 50~60 days,and which decreased thereafter.Effects on activities of the two peroxidases(LiP and MnP) and total enzymes activities of broth were the same with addition of O.O1 mmol· L-1 PFOA,which was inhibited at beginning and promoted later.Effects with addition of 0.1 mmol· L-1 E2 on activities of the two peroxidases(LiP and MnP)and total enzyme activities of broth were the same,which executed consistent inhibition effects.%选取典型的持久性有机污染物全氟辛酸(PFOA)和雌二醇(E2),采用Kirk液体培养基对黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium,简称PC菌)纯培养的方式,以分光光度法测定了该体系中菌液总酶活性的变化规律,研究了PFOA和E2对其胞外过氧化物酶活性的影响.结果表明:(1)以“2,2-联氮基双(3-乙基苯并噻唑啉-6-磺酸)二铵盐”(ABTS)为底物,在pH为3的柠檬酸盐缓冲液中,依次加入ABTS、H2O2、MnSO4和菌液,在470 nm处测定60 s内反应的酶活性是其最大值,包含木质素过氧

  3. Biodegradation of Degradable Plastic Polyethylene by Phanerochaete and Streptomyces Species †

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placin...

  4. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D/Souza, T.M.; Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  5. Biodegradation of Gaseous Chlorobenzene by White-rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN WANG; JIN-YING XI; HONG-YING HU; XIANG-HUA WEN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on removal of gaseous chlorobenzene.Methods Fungal mycelium mixed with a liquid medium was placed into airtight bottles.A certain amount of chlorobenzene was injected into the headspace of the bottles under different conditions.At a certain interval,the concentrations in the headspace were analyzed to evaluate the degradation of chlorohenzene by P.chtysosporium.Results The degradation effects of P chrysosporium on chlorobenzene under different conditions were investigated.The difference in the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi and chlorobenzene degradation was observed.The data indicated that a lower temperature (28℃) would promote the degradation of chlorobenzene than the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi (37℃).A low nitrogen source concentration (30 mg N/L) had a better effect on degrading chlorohenzene than a high nitrogen source concentration (higher than 100 mg N/L).A high initial concentration (over 1100 mg/m3) of chlorobenzene showed an inhibiting effect on degradation by P.chrysosporium.A maximum removal efficiency of 95% was achieved at the initial concentration of 550 mg/m3.Conclusion P.chrysosporium has a rather good ability to remove gaseous chlorobenzene.A low nitrogen source concentration and a low temperature promote the removal of chlorohenzene by P.chrysosporium.However,a high initial chlorobenzene concentration can inhibit chlorobenzene degradation.

  6. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  7. Effect of Electric Field on Cell Growth, Permeability and Extracellular Enzymatic Reactions of Phanerochaete chrysosporium%电场对黄孢原毛平革菌生长、细胞通透性及其胞外酶反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福远; 苗长春; 韩慧龙; 金文标; 刘铮

    2007-01-01

    研究了交、直流电场对黄孢原毛平革菌Phanerochaete chrysosporuim的生长、细胞通透性及其所分泌的漆酶、木质素过氧化物酶及锰型过氧化物酶活力的影响. 结果表明,施加50 Hz, 50 mA交流电可显著地促进Phanerochaete chrysosporium的生长,经过10 d的培养,其干菌重为对照组的1.72倍;施加交、直流电都能够使细胞的通透性增强;施加交、直流电场在短时间内可显著提高3种胞外酶的活力,而时间过长则导致活力降低,电流强度为10 mA时的适宜加电时间为10 h.

  8. A case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis; possibility of basidiomycetous fungi as a causative antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    We herein report a case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis (SAM) caused by basidiomycetous (BM) fungi (probably Phanerochaete velutina). The patient with bronchial asthma that accompanied allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) fulfilled all 6 criteria for diagnosing SAM. In this case, the BM fungus may act as an allergen, reacting continually in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. The antifungal drug (itraconazole 50 mg/day) seemed to achieve a partial response. Basidiomycetous fungi may attract attention because of the possibility as a causative antigen in this new clinical concept of SAM.

  9. Sorption of heavy metals by four basidiomycetous fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, S. [Biotechnology Programme, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India); Rao, P.R.N. [Environmental Engineering Lab., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India); Bhattacharyya, B.C. [Biotechnology Programme, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [Environmental Engineering Lab., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India)

    1995-04-01

    Biosorptions of Pb{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} were investigated, with special emphasis on the first one, using live and dead fungal mycelia. Of the four fungi, namely Polyporus ostreiformis, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the last one was found to be most effective in Pb{sup 2+} removal. Total biosorption was effected in 6 days up to the Pb{sup 2+} concentration of 6 mg/l, with a specific uptake of 1.33 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g dry cell mass. The removal of other three metals varied between 28.8-73.3% from a medium containing 4 mg/l of each of the metals. (orig.)

  10. Noncovalent immobilization of manganese peroxidases from P. chrysosporium on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxi LI; Xianghua WEN

    2009-01-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnP) from Phaner-ochaete chrysosporium were adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). Four different loadings of MnP on MWNTs were investigated, and the maximum enzyme loading of 47.5 μg/mg of MWNTs was obtained in 12 h. The adsorbed MnP showed a catalytic activity of up to 0.1 U/mg of the weight of the system of MnP/MWNTs,with 23% of its original activity retained. The AFM image of the adsorbed enzymes indicated that a layer of MnP covered the surface of the MWNTs and retained its original three-dimensional shape. Amino-based nonspecific inter-actions may play the dominant role in the adsorption of MnP on MWNTs.

  11. Producción de enzimas lignolíticas por Basidiomycetes mediante la técnica de fermentación en sustrato sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Torres Angélica María

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La fermentación en sustrato sólido tiene amplias aplicaciones industriales; actualmente, las enzimas son emplea­das principalmente para la obtención de lácteos, edulcolorantes, fármacos, alimentos, licores, detergentes, etc. La degradación enzimática de la lignina es llevada a cabo por la acción de los hongos del género Basidiomycetes mediante un proceso no-específico y oxidativo de tres tipos diferentes de enzimas: Lacasa, Lignina-peroxidasa y Manganeso-peroxidasa; la no-especificidad de éstas es de gran importancia para la degradación de diversas sus­tancias recalcitrantes que muestran similitudes estructurales con la lignina como son los PAH's, PCB's, DDT, colo­rantes azoicos, etc. El trabajo de investigación se realizó utilizando reactores a nivel de matraces y teniendo como sustrato siete diferentes desechos agroindustriales de la región de Santander ( de los cuales se desconoce su pro­ducción de enzimas lignolíticas: tuza de mazorca, bagazo de caña, hoja de pina, cacota de cacao, cereza de café, tamo de arroz, salvado de trigo y paja de trigo. El objetivo general fue evaluar la capacidad de los Basidiomycetes: Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus floridae y Phanerochaete chrysosporium de crecer sobre los desechos agroindustriales y producir las enzimas lignolíticas: Lacasa, Lignina-peroxidasa y Manganeso-peroxidasa; mediante la técnica de fermentación sólida. Se encontró que la producción de enzimas lignolíticas en los sustratos mencionados fue sensible a la concentración de azúcares reductores, condiciones de pH, contenidos de humedad y, dependiente del tipo de inductor presente en el medio de cultivo. El sustrato que presentó una mejor producción de Lacasa y Manganeso-peroxidasa fue la paja de trigo. Se observó la producción de Lignina-peroxidasa en cultivos de tuza de mazorca y salvado de trigo. Palabras clave: enzimas inducibles; Lacasa; Mn-peroxidasa; Li-peroxidasa; desechos agroindustriales; represi

  12. Chrysosporium zonatum, a new Keratinophilic fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Musallam, A.; Tan, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Chrysosporium zonatum, spec, nov., a keratinophilic and cellulolytic species, is described from horse dung in Kuwait. It was found in association with Microsporum gypseum (Bodin) Guiart & Grigorakis, both species colonizing horse hair.

  13. Activity Regulation of Lignin Peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium in Nonionic Reversed Micellar Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan WANG; Xi Rong HUANG; Cai Xia LIU; Yue Zhong LI; Yin Bo QU; Pei Ji GAO

    2005-01-01

    The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) in reversed micelles of polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij30) changed with the molar ratio of water to the surfactant and the denaturant concentration of guanidinium chloride. At low water contents the activity of LiP could be enhanced by the denaturant at moderate concentration. This phenomenon, together with the spectral characteristics of the intrinsic fluorescence of LiP, suggested that the conformation of the active center of LiP was flexible.

  14. A series of Xerophilic Chrysosporium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1992-01-01

    Xerophilic Chrysosporium species related to C. farinicola were often isolated from uneaten provisions (pollen-and-nectar mixture) of mason bees (Osmia spp.). The fungi have an optimal growth rate on media which are 2 to 3 molar in regard to glucose, exhibit some growth up to 3.6 molar glucose, an......, and initiate a new increased growth rate when the glucose crystallizes out from these supersaturated media. Seven of these species and three varieties are described and separated into a Farinicola series of Chrysosporium species....

  15. Unexpected diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes in sapwood and leaves of Hevea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Gazis, Romina; Skaltsas, Demetra; Chaverri, Priscila; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Research on fungal endophytes has expanded dramatically in recent years, but little is known about the diversity and ecological roles of endophytic basidiomycetes. Here we report the analysis of 310 basidiomycetous endophytes isolated from wild and planted populations of the rubber tree genus, Hevea. Species accumulation curves were nonasymptotic, as in the majority of endophyte surveys, indicating that more sampling is needed to recover the true diversity of the community. One hundred eighteen OTUs were delimited, representing nine orders of Basidiomycota (Agaricales, Atheliales, Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales, Septobasidiales, Tremellales). The diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes found inhabiting wild populations of Hevea was comparable to that present in plantations. However, when samples were segregated by tissue type, sapwood of wild populations was found to contain a higher number of species than sapwood of planted trees. Seventy-five percent of isolates were members of the Polyporales, the majority in the phlebioid clade. Most of the species belong to clades known to cause a white-rot type of wood decay. Two species in the insect-associated genus Septobasidium were isolated. The most frequently isolated genera included Bjerkandera, Ceriporia, Phanerochaete, Phlebia, Rigidoporus, Tinctoporellus, Trametes (Polyporales), Peniophora, Stereum (Russulales) and Coprinellus (Agaricales), all of which have been reported as endophytes from a variety of hosts, across wide geographic locations. Literature records on the geographic distribution and host association of these genera revealed that their distribution and substrate affinity could be extended if the endophytic niche was investigated as part of fungal biodiversity surveys.

  16. Primary Cutaneous Chrysosporium Infection following Ear Piercing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonkiat Suchonwanit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosporium is a large genus of saprophytic fungi that is commonly found in the soil. Infection caused by this organism is rare in humans and typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. Primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection is relatively rare and has been reported in a heart transplant patient. The prognosis is usually favorable, but very poor in the setting of persistent profound immunosuppression. We herein report a case of primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection following ear piercing in an immunocompetent patient. It is important for clinicians to consider this condition in patients with slow-onset skin and soft tissue infection following cutaneous injury, even in an immunocompetent setting.

  17. Plant-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from basidiomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Mäkelä, Miia R; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-poly

  18. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  19. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. G. Machado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%; 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. chrysosporium used as reference. Extracellular extracts of 35 selected fungi grown on solid medium with sugar cane bagasse (BGS were evaluated for RBBR decolorization and peroxidase activity. All fungi showed peroxidase activities, but 5 of those were unable to decolorize the RBBR. Different patterns of ligninolytic enzymes were detected in 12 fungi extracts. Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP was produced by Peniophora cinerea, Psilocybe castanella, three strains of Trametes villosa, T. versicolor, Melanoporia nigra and Trichaptum byssogenum. All 12 fungi had laccase activity. Trogia buccinalis showed the highest RBBR decolorization and did not produce MnP activity. RBBR decolorization without MnP production was also observed for three strains of Lentinum tested. Higher levels of peroxidase and laccase cannot be related to high RBBR decolorization. RBBR decolorization by extracellular extract was also detected during the growth of P. castanella, L. crinitus, P. cinerea and two strains of T. Villosa in pentachlorophenol- and hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soils. These fungi showed higher RBBR decolorization when grown in the presence of organochlorine compounds than when in non contaminated soil.O corante azul brilhante Remazol R (RBBR foi usado como substrato para avaliar 125 fungos basidiomicetos isolados de ecossistemas tropicais brasileiros quanto a atividade ligninolítica. A descoloração do RBBR por extratos obtidos do crescimento de fungos em meio sólido e

  20. Comparison of different cellulolytic fungi for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1986-08-01

    The suitability of three ascomycetous fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Trichoderma reesei, as well as two basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, for bioconversion of apple distillery slop was compared. Trichoderma and Phanerochaete degraded raw fibres by 20%, producing filter cakes with 17% to 22% raw protein contents. Aspergillus spp. were superior in filtration time and COD reduction and were of the same efficiency in protein synthesis as Trichoderma and Phanerochaete, but did not degrade fibres. Pleurotus ostreatus did not degrade lignin under fermentation conditions used and could not compete with other fungi due to its slower growth.

  1. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  2. Characterisation of recombinant pyranose oxidase from the cultivated mycorrhizal basidiomycete Lyophyllum shimeji (hon-shimeji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamabhai Montarop

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flavin-dependent enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox has gained increased attention during the last years because of a number of attractive applications for this enzyme. P2Ox is a unique biocatalyst with high potential for biotransformations of carbohydrates and in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. Recently, it was shown that P2Ox is useful as bioelement in biofuel cells, replacing glucose oxidase (GOx, which traditionally is used in these applications. P2Ox offers several advantages over GOx for this application, e.g., its much broader substrate specificity. Because of this renewed interest in P2Ox, knowledge on novel pyranose oxidases isolated from organisms other than white-rot fungi, which represent the traditional source of this enzyme, is of importance, as these novel enzymes might differ in their biochemical and physical properties. Results We isolated and over-expressed the p2ox gene encoding P2Ox from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Lyophyllum shimeji. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+ and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta 2. We obtained active, flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in yields of approximately 130 mg per L of medium. The enzyme was purified by a two-step procedure based on anion exchange chromatography and preparative native PAGE, yielding an apparently homogenous enzyme preparation with a specific activity of 1.92 U/mg (using glucose and air oxygen as the substrates. Recombinant P2Ox from L. shimeji was characterized in some detail with respect to its physical and catalytic properties, and compared to the well-characterised enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes multicolor. Conclusion L. shimeji P2Ox shows properties that are comparable to those of P2Ox from white-rot fungal origin, and is in general characterised by lower Km and kcat values both for electron donor (sugar as well as electron acceptor (ferrocenium ion, 1,4-benzoquinone, 2

  3. Disseminated Chrysosporium infection in a German shepherd dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Chrysosporium spp. infection was diagnosed in a German shepherd dog based on a positive fungal culture and cytological findings of intralesional fungi associated with granulomatous splenitis and neutrophilic lymphadenitis. The clinical presentation that could mimic a multicentric lymphoma, including markedly enlarged lymph nodes and a very abnormal splenic appearance on ultrasound makes this case even more atypical. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement on oral posaconazole and remains clinically stable ten months after diagnosis.

  4. Cryopreservation of basidiomycete strains using perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, L; Lisá, L; Eichlerová, I; Nerud, F

    2001-12-01

    A new alternative method using perlite as a particulate solid carrier in the growth medium with a cryoprotectant was successfully tested for cryopreservation of several basidiomycete species from different genera (Armillaria, Pleurotus, Pluteus, Polyporus) which failed to survive or retain their properties in cryopreservation procedures routinely used in our laboratory. Frozen basidiomycete strains were kept in cryovials submerged in liquid nitrogen and were either immediately after the freezing process or after a 6-month storage thawed and checked for viability, purity and changes in growth, morphology and biochemical characteristics. All cultures survived the cryopreservation procedure and no negative effects of cryopreservation by this method have been observed after 6 months of storage in liquid nitrogen.

  5. Fatal cutaneous mycosis in tentacled snakes caused by the chrysosporium anamorph of nannizziposis vriesii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Sigler, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes......The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes...

  6. Production of fungal biomass immobilized loofa sponge (FBILS)-discs for the removal of heavy metal ions and chlorinated compounds from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Saeed, A; Edyvean, R G J; O'Sullivan, B; Styring, P

    2005-09-01

    A white rot basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was immobilized on loofa sponge (FBILS) discs. It removed ca. 37 and 71 mg Cd (II) g(-1) from 50 and 200 mg l(-1) aqueous solutions and up to 89% of 4-chloroanisole from a 10 mg l(-1) aqueous solution. FBILS are physically strong and chemically recalcitrant, resisting temperature, mechanical agitation, and variations in pH without alteration to shape, structure or texture.

  7. Influence Of Chrysosporium Spp. In The Prevalence Of Dermatophytes in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Gokul S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two soil samples were screened for the prevalence of Chrysosporium and dermatophytes. Out of the 75 positive samples 2 were M. gypseum and 73 were Chrysosporium spp.None of the soil samples yielded both Chrysosporium spp. and M. gypseum. The co- inoculation of Chrysosporium spp. with different species of dermatophytes (T. rubrum. T. Mentagrophytes. E. floccosum and M. gypseum in sterilized soil revealed that none of the dermatophytes except M. gypseum could be recovered after the 15th day of co- inoculation. Whereas, these organisms when inoculated alone in sterilized soil, could be recovered even upto 25 days. In the light of the above finding, we suggest that Chrysosporium spp. might pose a definite challenge to dermatophytes in their saprophytic existence in soil.

  8. PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR KERATINASE BY CHRYSOSPORIUM TROPICUM AND TRICHOPHYTON AJELLOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kačinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Keratinous wastes constitute a troublesome environmental contaminant that is produced in large quantities in companies processing of poultry and their further use has ecological significance. We can use for degradation of keratinous wastes enzymes or strains, which produce these enzymes. The aim of this study was isolation of keratinophilic fungi from the soil samples and optimalization of culture conditions of keratinase producing strains in vitro. For the isolation of our strains, we used hair - baiting method. From the all isolated strains, we used for other screening Chrysosporium tropicum (JK39 and Trichophyton ajelloi (JK82. Production of keratinase we monitored with different time of cultivation (7th, 14th, 21th days, sources of carbon (glucose, fructose, mannitol, sucrose, concentration of carbon sources (1%, 2% and cultivation temperature (20, 25, 30, 37ºC. Keratinase production was studied in a liquid medium containing chicken feathers as a source of keratin. We recorded the maximum production of keratinase (10.51 KU/ml by Chrysosporium tropicum on 21th day of incubation with 1% glucose at 25ºC.

  9. Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium produces gibberellins and promotes plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Iqbal, Ilyas; Na, Chae-In; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hwang, Young-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, In-Jung

    2009-08-01

    We isolated 10 endophytic fungi from the roots of drought stressed soybean cultivar Hwangkeumkong and bioassayed on waito-c rice and soybean seedlings, in order to identify plant growth-promoting fungi. The fungal isolate D-2-1 provided the best result for plant height and biomass promotion as compared to wild type Gibberella fujikuroi. The D-2-1 culture filtrate (CF) was analyzed for the presence of gibberellins (GAs) and it was observed that all physiologically active GAs, especially gibberellic acid, were present in higher amounts (GA1, 0.24 ng/ml; GA3, 8.99 ng/ml; GA4, 2.58 ng/ml and GA7, 1.39 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA15, GA19, and GA24. The fungal isolate D-2-1 was identified as a new strain of Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Plant growth promotion and GAs production capacity of genus Chrysosporium have been reported for the first time in this study.

  10. SEARCH PRODUCERS OF POLYPHENOLS AND SOME PIGMENTS AMONG BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov О. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available General content of polyphenols, carotenoids and melanin in basidiomycetes carpophorus was determined. 50 species were studied, 27 of which belong to the Polyporales form and 23 are to the Agaricales form. In order to determine the total content of phenolic substances spectrophotometric methods were used. Polyphenols were studied in alcoholic extracts through the modified Folin-Chokalteu procedure; melanin — by alkaline hydrolysis and calculated using a calibration curve (by pyrocatechol, carotenoids were studied in acetone extracts and calculated by the Vetshteyn formula. Statistical and cluster analysis of the data enabled to identify species of basidiomycetes that are perspective for biotechnology. The most promising in terms of total polyphenols, carotenoids and melanins of poliporal basidiomycetes are species Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum and Laetiporus sulphureus, and among agarikal fungi — Fistulina hepatica, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea and Tricholoma flavovirens. These species of Basidiomycetes were isolated in pure mycelia culture to find out their biosynthetic activity.

  11. Solid-state production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium using steam-exploded straw as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujian, X; Hongzhang, C; Zuohu, L

    2001-11-01

    In the used media mainly consisting of steam-exploded wheat straw, the straw, which could replace expensive veratryl alcohol, might act not only as nutrient, but also as inducer of lignin enzymes. The activities of the enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) were far higher than in submerged fermentation (SmF). Under optimal conditions of SSF, the maximum activities of the enzymes Lip and MnP were 2600 and 1375 U/L, respectively. Thus, this would pave the way for production and application of lignin enzymes on a large scale.

  12. ENDOGENOUS CYTOKININS IN MEDICINAL BASIDIOMYCETES MYCELIAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the cytokinins production by medicinal basidial mushrooms. Cytokinins were for the first time identified and quantified in mycelial biomass of six species (Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes versicolor, Fomitopsis officinalis, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Grifola frondosa, Sparassis crispa using HPLC. Trans- and cis-zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, isopentenyladenosine, isopentenyladenine were found but only one species (G. lucidum, strain 1900 contained all these substances. The greatest total cytokinin quantity was detected in F. officinalis, strain 5004. S. crispa, strain 314, and F. officinalis, strain 5004, mycelial biomass was revealed to have the highest level of cytokinin riboside forms (zeatin riboside and isopentenyladenosine. The possible connection between medicinal properties of investigated basidiomycetes and of cytokinins is discussed. S. crispa, strain 314, and F. officinalis, strain 5004, are regarded as promising species for developing biotechnological techniques to produce biologically active drugs from their mycelial biomass. As one of the potential technological approaches there is proposed fungal material drying.

  13. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  14. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE SORDIDA TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with creosote was performed at a wood-treating facility in south central Mississippi in the autumn of 1991. The effects of solid-phase bioremediation with Phanerochaete sordid...

  15. Recognizing filamentous basidiomycetes as agents of human disease: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhary, A.; Kathuria, S.; Agarwal, K.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous basidiomycetes (BM) are common environmental fungi that have recently emerged as important human pathogens, inciting a wide array of clinical manifestations that include allergic and invasive diseases. We reviewed 218 reported global cases of BM fungi. The most common etiologic agent was

  16. Mode of action of Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 a-l-arabinohydrolases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnel, S.; Westphal, Y.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The mode of action of four Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 a-l-arabinohydrolases was determined to enable controlled and effective degradation of arabinan. The active site of endoarabinanase Abn1 has at least six subsites, of which the subsites -1 to +2 have to be occupied for hydrolysis. Abn1 was able

  17. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  18. Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spribille, Toby; Tuovinen, Veera; Resl, Philipp; Vanderpool, Dan; Wolinski, Heimo; Aime, M Catherine; Schneider, Kevin; Stabentheiner, Edith; Toome-Heller, Merje; Thor, Göran; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Johannesson, Hanna; McCutcheon, John P

    2016-07-29

    For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen-one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations in phenotype. Basidiomycete lineages maintain close associations with specific lichen species over large geographical distances and have been found on six continents. The structurally important lichen cortex, long treated as a zone of differentiated ascomycete cells, appears to consistently contain two unrelated fungi.

  19. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding production in capacity and economic revenues of other groups of industrial microorganisms. Yeasts have wide-ranging fundamental and industrial importance in scientific, food, medical, and agricultural disciplines (Fig. 1). Saccharomyces is the most important genus of yeast from fundamental and applied perspectives and has been expansively studied. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) including members of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes also have substantial current utility and potential applicability in biotechnology. In an earlier mini-review, "Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the ascomycetes" (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97: 503-517, 2013), the extensive biotechnological utility and potential of ascomycetous yeasts are described. Ascomycetous yeasts are particularly important in food and ethanol formation, production of single-cell protein, feeds and fodder, heterologous production of proteins and enzymes, and as model and fundamental organisms for the delineation of genes and their function in mammalian and human metabolism and disease processes. In contrast, the roles of basidiomycetous yeasts in biotechnology have mainly been evaluated only in the past few decades and compared to the ascomycetous yeasts and currently have limited industrial utility. From a biotechnology perspective, the basidiomycetous yeasts are known mainly for the production of enzymes used in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis, for production of certain classes of primary and secondary metabolites such as terpenoids and carotenoids, for aerobic catabolism of complex carbon sources, and for bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenotoxicants. Notwithstanding, the basidiomycetous yeasts appear to have considerable potential in biotechnology owing to their catabolic utilities, formation of enzymes acting on recalcitrant substrates, and through the production of unique primary

  20. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules.

  1. DEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY WHITE ROT BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. PARMAR, P.N. MERVANA B.R.M. VYAS*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dyes released by the textile industries pose a threat to environmental quality. Ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetes can effectively degrade colored effluents and conventional dyes. White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP, which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.  The textile industry, by far the most avid user of synthetic dyes, is in need of eco-efficient solutions for its colored effluents. White rot basidiomycetous fungi comprise the only group of organisms known to completely degrade lignin. Ligninolytic enzymes have potential applications in a large number of fields, including the chemical, fuel, food, agricultural, paper, textile, cosmetic industrial sectors and more. This ligninolytic system of white-rot fungi is also directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds apart from textile dyes. Their capacities to remove xenobiotic substances make them a useful tool for bioremediation purposes. This paper reviews involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot basidiomycetes in the degradation of textiles dyes and xenobiotic compounds for their industrial and biotechnological applications.

  2. Genomic Analysis of Two-Component Signal Transduction Proteins in Basidiomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Lavín, JL; Binnewies, Tim Terence;

    2010-01-01

    proteins. Several TCS proteins are highly conserved among all the basidiomycetes, and other TCS proteins appear to be specific to particular species of basidiomycetes. Moreover, some species appear to have developed a unique histidine kinase group with unusual domain architecture, the Dual-histidine...

  3. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Thuillier; Ngadin, Andrew A.; Cécile Thion; Patrick Billard; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Eric Gelhaye; Mélanie Morel

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to c...

  4. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP with the white- rot fungi under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dawen; WEN Xianghua; QIAN Yi

    2004-01-01

    @@ In recent years, many researches indicate that white rot fungus is a promising microbe in wastewater treatment. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium in white rot fungi is the most extensively studied and discussed[1]. The extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi have the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo-pollutants such as chlorinated phenols and various types of synthetic dyes because of their nonspecific characteristics[2-6]. And some significant mineralization (20%-48%) was observed during degradation of azo dyes[7].

  5. The biodegradation of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters by Sawdust and by a Phanerochaetae chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, stirred and immobilized cultures. When P. Chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after the removal of polyphenols by adsorption in sawdust, which allows a 39% polyphenol removal. The use of a High lignin peroxides (Lip producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. Chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. And COD abatement reached 70%. The reduction of polyphenols reached its highest level at 62%. A significant effluent decolorization is apparent.Este trabajo describe la decoloración y la disminución de la demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín (OMW por Phanerochaetae chrysosporium, crecido en cultivos estáticos, agitados e inmovilizados. Cuando P. chrysosporium fue cultivado en agitación, no se observa ninguna decoloración de OMW crudo, la decoloración ocurre solamente después de eliminar los polifenoles mediante adsorción en el serrín (Disminución del 39% del contenido en polifenoles. La utilización de la lignina peroxidasa generada en el medio da lugar a la mayor decoloración de alpechín y a las eficiencias de eliminación de DQO más altas. Las pruebas de la decoloración realizadas en las muestras de OMW que fueron pretratadas por la adsorción de madera del serrín, y usaron cultivos inmovilizadas demostraron resultados mejores. Por tanto, la eficiencia de eliminación de DQO alcanzó un 70%. La reducción de los polifenoles alcanzó los niveles más altos siempre, i.e. 62%. Se observó una decoloración significativa del efluente.

  6. DESTRUCTION OF XENOBIOTICS BY CULTURE FILTRATE FROM XYLOTROPHIC BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the efficiency of pollutants biodegradation by xylotrophic basidiomycetes submerged cultures grown on standard glucose-peptone medium (GPM. The efficiency of pollutants biodegradation was determined by the model compound – dye Methyl Orange. The purpose of the work is screening of 19 species 81 strains xylotrophic basidiomycetes cultures on the indicator of the dye oxidative degradation efficiency and exploring the possibility of induction of this indicator by modifying the culture medium. The biodegradation efficiency was determined by following method. Assigned amount of culture filtrate (experiment or medium (control was added to the 0.001% solution of Methyl Orange in sodium acetate buffer. pH of the reaction mixture was 4.4 units. Samples were incubated at +40°C for 48 hours. Then pH of the reaction mixture was set up at 3.1 units using sodium acetate buffer and the optical density of solutions at a wavelength of 506 nm was measured. The efficiency of biodegradation was calculated by the difference of the optical density of control and experiment as a percentage. The most promising strains – F. velutipes F-1105, P. eryngii P-er, T. hirsuta Th-11 and D. quercina Dq-08 were selected. The composition of the glucose-peptone medium was modified for these strains by the introduction in the medium lignosulfonate, Tween 80, Kirk’s minerals solution and selecting the concentration of these components. According to the study for the purpose of pollutants degradation it is advisable to cultivate F. velutipes F-1105 strain on modified GPM, which further comprises at 1 l: lignosulfonate – 3.5 g; Tween 80 – 1.0 g, Kirk’s minerals solution – 70 ml; P. eryngii P-er strain – 5.0 g, 1.0 g, 70 ml; T. hirsuta Th-11 strain – 5.0 g, 1.0 g, 105 ml; and D. quercina Dq-08 strain – 6.5 g, 1.0 g, 105 ml, respectively. This allowed to increase the model compound degradation efficiency by the culture filtrate of strain F

  7. Wood-destroying Basidiomycetes, found on the elder woods in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim A. Safonov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of a study of wood-destroying basidiomycetes on two species of elder trees (Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incan, growing in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast. The comparative analysis of basidiomycetes on two species of elder trees was conducted. The reasons for structural differences of these complexes are discussed. It is consumed that the reason lies in growth conditions of the trees.

  8. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Børja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones.

  9. Basidiomycete cryopreservation on perlite: evaluation of a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-06-01

    A new cryopreservation method using perlite as a carrier was evaluated on a large set of mycelial cultures of basidiomycetes. The viability and some other characteristics--growth, macro- and micromorphology, and laccase production--of 442 strains were tested after 48-h and then after 3-year storage in liquid nitrogen using a perlite protocol (PP). All (100%) of them survived successfully both 48-h storage and 3-year storage in liquid nitrogen without noticeable growth and morphological changes. Also laccase production was unchanged. The viability and laccase production of a part (250) of these strains were compared with those of the strains subjected to an original agar plug protocol (OP). Using OP, 144 strains (57.6%) out of 250 survived a 3-year storage in liquid nitrogen. The results indicate that the cryopreservation protocol used significantly influences survival of the strains. Markedly better results were achieved using the PP.

  10. TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME BASIDIOMYCETES STRAINS IN GROWTH DYNAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fedotov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the study of total antioxidant activity (AOA in the growth dynamics of basidiomycetes strains in their periodic surface cultivation on glucose-peptone medium. Subjects of research are mycelium and culture filtrate (CF from 57 strains, 5 of which are belong to 5 types of Polyporales order, and 52 of which are belong to the 7 types of Agaricales order. In order to study the dynamics of growth used method for determining the weight of absolutely dry biomass accumulation (ADB. Total AOA of mycological material was evaluated by inhibition of lipid peroxidation products accumulation intensity in the model oxidation reaction of Tween-80 by air oxygen. It was found that the most productive in terms of the accumulation of ADB are strains F. velutipes F-610 and P. eryngii P-er. Lowest values of ADB accumulation recorded for strains P. ostreatus P-14 and P-192 and P. citrinopileatus P sіtr. Were selected the most productive strains of Basidiomycetes for the level of total AOA in mycelium and CF. There are strains P. eryngii P-er, P. citrinopileatus P sіtr, P. ostreatus P-035, F. hepatica Fh-08, A. cylindracea 960, P. ostreatus P-081, P-082, P-087, P. citrinopileatus P sіtr. Has not been established the dependence between the growth and the antioxidant activity of the 9- and 12-day fungal cultures. Selected producers of natural antioxidants may be used as biological agents in biotechnology.

  11. Substrate oxidation sites in versatile peroxidase and other basidiomycete peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Morales, María; García, Eva; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, María Jesús; Martínez, Angel T

    2009-01-01

    Versatile peroxidase (VP) is defined by its capabilities to oxidize the typical substrates of other basidiomycete peroxidases: (i) Mn(2+), the manganese peroxidase (MnP) substrate (Mn(3+) being able to oxidize phenols and initiate lipid peroxidation reactions); (ii) veratryl alcohol (VA), the typical lignin peroxidase (LiP) substrate; and (iii) simple phenols, which are the substrates of Coprinopsis cinerea peroxidase (CIP). Crystallographic, spectroscopic, directed mutagenesis, and kinetic studies showed that these 'hybrid' properties are due to the coexistence in a single protein of different catalytic sites reminiscent of those present in the other basidiomycete peroxidase families. Crystal structures of wild and recombinant VP, and kinetics of mutated variants, revealed certain differences in its Mn-oxidation site compared with MnP. These result in efficient Mn(2+) oxidation in the presence of only two of the three acidic residues forming its binding site. On the other hand, a solvent-exposed tryptophan is the catalytically-active residue in VA oxidation, initiating an electron transfer pathway to haem (two other putative pathways were discarded by mutagenesis). Formation of a tryptophanyl radical after VP activation by peroxide was detected using electron paramagnetic resonance. This was the first time that a protein radical was directly demonstrated in a ligninolytic peroxidase. In contrast with LiP, the VP catalytic tryptophan is not beta-hydroxylated under hydrogen peroxide excess. It was also shown that the tryptophan environment affected catalysis, its modification introducing some LiP properties in VP. Moreover, some phenols and dyes are oxidized by VP at the edge of the main haem access channel, as found in CIP. Finally, the biotechnological interest of VP is discussed.

  12. Comparative Analysis of 35 Basidiomycete Genomes Reveals Diversity and Uniqueness of the Phylum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Otillar, Robert; Fagnan, Kirsten; Boussau, Bastien; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Held, Benjamin; Nagy, Laszlo; Floudas, Dimitris; Morin, Emmanuelle; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Martin, Francis; Blanchette, Robert; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprobes including wood decaying fungi. To better understand the diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycete fungi including 6 newly sequenced genomes. The genomes of basidiomycetes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. A phylogenetic tree of Basidiomycota was generated using the Phyldog software, which uses all available protein sequence data to simultaneously infer gene and species trees. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) comprising proteins found in only one organism. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay among the members of Agaricomycotina subphylum. There is a correlation of the profile of certain gene families to nutritional mode in Agaricomycotina. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of such profiles, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has liginolytic class II fungal peroxidases. Furthermore, we find that both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics in growth assays. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the high value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  13. 黄孢原毛平革菌产酶的简化结构动力学模型%A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhongming(郑重鸣); FOO YinDin; Jeffery Philip Obbard; LIN Jianping(林建平); CEN Peilin(岑沛霖)

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaetechrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) andmanganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolyticenzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in thepresence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. Themodel can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some lightis also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to theenzyme synthesis.

  14. Enhanced biodecolorization of reactive dyes by basidiomycetes under static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Ismat; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the biodecolorization potential of basidiomycete fungi Trametes hirsuta, Pycnoporus sp., and Irpex sp. for different reactive dyes viz. Reactive Red 120, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange G, and Reactive Orange 16 under static and shaking conditions. The screening trials revealed that T. hirsuta exhibited maximum potential (83.75 %) for biodecolorization of RBBR dye under static conditions after the fifth day of incubation. However, the rate of biodecolorization of RBBR dye by Pycnoporus sp. was much slow and reached maximum (81.25 %) after 15 days of incubation under shaking conditions. By process optimization, enhanced decolorization (91.2 %) of RBBR by T. hirsuta was achieved at pH 5.5 within 24 h using a defined salt medium amended with p-coumaric acid under static conditions. pH was found to be an important parameter for the enzymatic system involved in RBBR dye decolorization by T. hirsuta and Pycnoporus sp. Biodecolorization of RBBR dye was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ, 578 nm) by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The shift in maximum wavelength toward shorter/longer wavelength in UV-vis scanning spectrum revealed the degradation of RBBR dye into different transformation products.

  15. Protease activity in cockroach and basidiomycete allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E

    1993-01-01

    Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.

  16. Halotolerance, ligninase production and herbicide degradation ability of basidiomycetes strains

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    R.L. Arakaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been recently recognized as organisms able to grow in presence of high salt concentration with halophilic and halotolerance properties and their ligninolytic enzyme complex have an unspecific action enabling their use to degradation of a number of xenobiotic compounds. In this work, both the effect of salt and polyols on growth of the basidiomycetes strains, on their ability to produce ligninolytic enzyme and diuron degradation were evaluated. Results showed that the presence of NaCl in the culture medium affected fungal specimens in different ways. Seven out of ten tested strains had growth inhibited by salt while Dacryopinax elegans SXS323, Polyporus sp MCA128 and Datronia stereoides MCA167 fungi exhibited higher biomass production in medium containing 0.5 and 0.6 mol.L-1 of NaCl, suggesting to be halotolerant. Polyols such as glycerol and mannitol added into the culture media improved the biomass and ligninases production by D. elegans but the fungus did not reveal consumption of these polyols from media. This fungus degraded diuron in medium control, in presence of NaCl as well as polyols, produced MnP, LiP and laccase.

  17. DESCRIPTION OF THE CULTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME LIGNICOLOUS BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES GROWN ON THREE SYNTHETIC MEDIA

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    PETRE Cristiana Virginia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of 12 species of lignicolous basidiomycetes were cultivated on potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar, incubated at 25 °C and carefully analyzed for a period of 5 weeks. Lignicolous basidiomycetes are fungi that produce potent enzymes and bioactive secondary metabolites which are successfully used in various industries: bioremediation of polluted environments, biodegradation of toxic substances, pharmacology or agriculture. The objective of this study was the description of the main characteristics of in vitro cultures of some lignicolous basidiomycetes species grown on synthetic media. The main characteristics followed were: the growth rate of the colonies, the general features of the mycelium: shape, color, surface aspect, reverse, the presence of fruiting bodies and exudates and the particular odor.

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INTERFACIAL TENSIOMETRY AND RHEOMETRY OF XYLOTROPHIC BASIDIOMYCETES CULTURE FLUID

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    Chaika A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tensio-rheometric characteristics of 63 strains belonging to 19 basidiomycetes species submerged culture filtrate were investigated by the axisymmetric pendent drop profile analysis. The method showed required high sensitivity with mycological material. It was found that the interfacial tensiometric and rheometric parameters depend significantly on culture species, hence it is proposed to use ones complex for systematic identification of cultures and as a selection criterion for biosurfactantsproducing strains of basidiomycetes. Correlations of tensio-rheometric characteristics both among themselves and with the culture growth and lipid peroxidation rates were found. This provides an integrated indicator of the submerged culture metabolic state. By the results of the study several strains of basidiomycetes — potential producers of biosurfactants with a high growth rate and intensity of lipid peroxidation were selected for biotechnological manufacture.

  19. Use of molecular markers for the study of wild fungus basidiomycetes

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    Blanca Estela Gómez Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular marker techniques in the study of wild basidiomycete, are increasingly applied to ecology projects, with special focus on analysis of genetic diversity. Often require specialized methods for extracting the DNA of organisms of natural environments, because of the complex compounds that are (carbohydrate polymers and contaminants from the environment (soil particles. Biological materials used were basidiocarps collected in the forest of Santa Rosa, Guanajuato. And mycelium isolated from these basidiocarps. In this work we used a DNA extraction method that allowed the PCR amplification, restriction enzyme digestion and Southern hybridization by non-radioactive method. The results were obtained: Amplification of the ITS1 region of ribosomal unit of the different species of Basidiomycetes. It was possible to observe the genetic diversity among different species of basidiomycetes and the mycelia. Furthermore, the results also suggest differences in DNA methylation between the vegetative mycelium and mycelium of basidiocarp. Finally it is noteworthy that there were no previous work on the application of methods of non-radioactive Southern hybridization for analysis of wild Basidiomycetes and this pioneering work in applying this technique.

  20. Hongos basidiomycetes: una contribución al conocimiento de 14 generos en norte de santander

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    Nancy Jackeline Sanchez-Sandoval

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article 14 genera of Basidiomycetes are reported tor Norte de Santander Department. These genera belong to 10 families and 5 orders: Agaricales, Boletales, Schizophyllales, Polyporales and Lycoperdales. The last order belongs to Gasteromycetes. The study was done in Chinócota county, during the years 2003-2004.

  1. Antitubercular Lanostane Triterpenes from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. BCC 16642.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Chinthanom, Panida; Sappan, Malipan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Boonpratuang, Thitiya; Choeyklin, Rattaket

    2016-01-22

    Sixteen new lanostane triterpenoids (1-16), together with 26 known compounds (17-42), were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. BCC 16642. Antitubercular activities of these Ganoderma lanostanoids against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra were evaluated, and structure-activity relationships are proposed.

  2. Hirsutane Sesquiterpenes from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Marasmiellus sp. BCC 22389.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Sappan, Malipan; Supothina, Sumalee; Boonpratuang, Thitiya

    2016-10-01

    Two new hirsutane sesquiterpenes, marasmiellins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Marasmiellus sp. BCC 22389. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The absolute configuration of marasmiellin B was determined by application of the modified Mosher's method.

  3. Hirsutane Sesquiterpenes from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Marasmiellus sp. BCC 22389

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    Masahiko Isaka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two new hirsutane sesquiterpenes, marasmiellins A (1 and B (2, were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Marasmiellus sp. BCC 22389. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The absolute configuration of marasmiellin B was determined by application of the modified Mosher’s method. Graphical Abstract

  4. EFFECT OF NITROGEN NUTRITION SOURCES ON CAROTENOIDS SYNTHESIS FOR SOME BASIDIOMYCETES STRAINS

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    A. K. Veligodska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain nitrogen compounds - components of glucose-peptone medium (GPM on the accumulation of carotenoids by some strains was investigated by surface cultivating basidiomycetes. The total carotenoid content was set in acetone extracts of mycological material spectrophotometrically and calculated using the Vetshteyn formula. As the nitrogen-containing components used GPM with 9 compounds, such as peptone, DL-valine, L-asparagine, DL-serine, DL-tyrosine, L-proline, L-alanine, urea, NaNO3. The effect on the accumulation of specific compounds both in the mycelium and in the culture fluid of carotenoids by culturing certain strains of Basidiomycetes was identified. Adding to standard glucose-peptone medium peptone at 5 g/l causes an increase of carotenoid accumulation by strain L. sulphureus Ls-08, and in a concentration of 4 g/l by strains of F. hepatica Fh-18 and F. fomentarius Ff-1201. In order to increase the accumulation of carotenoids in the mycelium  we suggested to make a standard glucose-peptone medium with proline or valine for cultivating of L. sulphureus Ls- 08 strain; alanine for F. fomentarius Ff-1201 strain; proline, asparagine and serine - for strain Fh-18 of F. hepatica. The results can be implemented in further optimization of the composition of the nutrient medium for culturing strains of Basidiomycetes wich producing carotenoids. Keywords: nitrogen-containing substances, Basidiomycetes, mycelium, culture filtrate, carotenoids

  5. Basidiomycete cultures on perlite survive successfully repeated freezing and thawing in cryovials without subculturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Nerud, Frantisek

    2007-06-01

    Mycelial basidiomycete cultures on perlite in cryovials survived successfully three successive cycles of freezing, storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and thawing without noticeable changes. This indicates that using perlite as a carrier for cryopreservation could in most cases overcome difficulties caused by interrupted supply of LN or electric power during the storage. Cultures on perlite can also be reused for successive inoculations.

  6. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharides extracted from the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Todorovic, N.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of hot water extract (HWE), hot water extracted polysaccharides (HWP) and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides (HWAE) were obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. All extracts contained both a- and ß-glucans as determined by Megazyme ß-gl

  7. Biological potential of extracts of the wild edible Basidiomycete mushroom Grifola frondosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Vunduk, N.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovlejevic, D.; Zizak, Z.; Pavlovic, V.; Levic, S.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides (FP) and hot alkali extract (FNa) obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Grifola frondosa were examined for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. The structural properties of FP and FNa samples were investigated by FT-IR and high

  8. First records of xylophilous Basidiomycetes (Fungi in Mondaí, Santa Catarina (Southern Brazil

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    Clarice Loguercio-Leite

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic survey of xylophilous Basidiomycetes resulted in the identifi cation of 21 species belonging to the families Boreostereaceae Jülich (1, Ganodermataceae Donk (2, Hymenochaetaceae Imazeki & Toki (6, Meripilaceae Jülich (2, Podoscyphaceae Reid (1, Polyporaceae Fr.: Corda (8 and Schizophyllaceae Quél. (1. All species are new records for Mondaí.

  9. Cryopreservation of cryosensitive basidiomycete cultures by application and modification of perlite protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Sukenobe, Junji; Nakagiri, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Homolka's perlite protocol (HPP) for cryopreservation of fungal cultures was evaluated in 12 strains (7 species) of cryosensitive basidiomycete cultures maintained in NBRC culture collection by investigating viability, time to recover, and basic morphological study after freezing and storing at -80 degree C for 6 months. The viability of the fungal strains was 60 percent in Phallus hadriani and 100 percent in remaining 11 strains, indicating the efficacy of HPP method for cryopreservation of some cryosensitive basidiomycetes. The HPP method was modified by changing the addition of cryoprotectant (glycerol) from prior precultivation to post precultivation, limiting the cryoprotectant exposure time to 48 hours, and increasing the glycerol concentration from 5 percent to 12 percent. The viability of P. hadriani strain increased from 60 percent to 100 percent with the modified perlite protocol after storage at -80 degree C for 6 months.

  10. Efficient and simple electro-transformation of intact cells for the basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yuta; Ikarashi, Mizuki; Horiuchi, Junichi; 小西, 正朗

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An electroporation procedure for the species was investigated to develop an efficient transformation method for the basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62, a strong biosurfactant-producing host. Results: A plasmid, pUXV1emgfp including green fluorescence protein as a reporter gene, was constructed to determine the transformation and expression of foreign genes. Optimal electroporation conditions achieved 44.8 transformants μg−1 plasmid competency (intact cells) without p...

  11. Aromadendrane and cyclofarnesane sesquiterpenoids from cultures of the basidiomycete Inonotus sp. BCC 23706.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Yangchum, Arunrat; Supothina, Sumalee; Boonpratuang, Thitiya; Choeyklin, Rattaket; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Prabpai, Samran

    2015-10-01

    Twelve aromadendrane sesquiterpenoids, inonotins A-L, and a previously unknown cyclofarnesane, i.e., inonofarnesane, together with two known compounds, were isolated from cultures of the wood-rotting basidiomycete Inonotus sp. BCC 23706. Inonotin I is identical to a previously reported compound with an incorrect structure. Structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallography. The absolute configurations of inonotin D and inonofarnesane were determined by application of the modified Mosher's method.

  12. Alliacane sesquiterpenoids from submerged cultures of the basidiomycete Inonotus sp. BCC 22670.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Sappan, Malipan; Supothina, Sumalee; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Komwijit, Somjit; Boonpratuang, Thitiya

    2017-02-04

    Nine alliacane sesquiterpenoids, inonoalliacanes A-I, were isolated from culture broth of the basidiomycete Inonotus sp. BCC 22670. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The absolute configuration of inonoalliacane F was determined by application of the modified Mosher's method. Inonoalliacane A, the most abundant sesquiterpene constituent, exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, whereas inonoalliacane B showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1.

  13. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Kátia M.G.; Dácio R. Matheus; Bononi,Vera L. R.

    2005-01-01

    Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%); 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. c...

  14. Kinesin-3 in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis transports organelles along the entire microtubule array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Gero

    2015-01-01

    The molecular motor kinesin-3 transports early endosomes along microtubules in filamentous fungi. It was reported that kinesin-3 from the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa use a subset of post-translationally modified and more stable microtubules. Here, I show that kinesin-3 from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis moves along all hyphal microtubules. This difference is likely due to variation in cell cycle control and associated organization of the microtubule array.

  15. REGULATION OF THE SYNTHESIS OF POLYPHENOLIC SUBSTANCES BY SOME BASIDIOMYCETES STRAINS

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    O. V. Fedotov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of specific carbon-containing compounds as additional components glucose-peptone medium (GPM, the intensity of the polyphenolic substances and carotenoids synthesis by some strains was investigated by surface cultivating basidiomycetes. The total content of polyphenolic substances set out in alcoholic extracts of the modified procedure by Folin-Chokalteu and in acetone carotenoids extracts of mycological material by spectrophotometric method and calculated by Vetshteyn formula. In GPM we used 13 carbonaceous components compounds belonging to mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides and carboxylic acids The effect of the 13 carbon-containing compounds on the accumulation of biomass, carotenoids and polyphenols Basidiomycetes strains L. sulphureus Ls-08, F. fomentarius Ff-1201 and F. hepatica Fh-18 was identified. For the purpose of inducing the synthesis of carotenoids by strains Ls-08 and Fh-18 may recommend changes in the standard GPS by fructose, and for strain Ff-1201 by sucrose. In order to induce synthesis of polyphenols strains Ff-1201 and Fh-18 to make appropriate standard GPS by mannose and for strain Ls-08 by sucrose. Keywords: Basidiomycetes, mycelium, culture filtrate, polyphenols, carotenoids

  16. Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghazi, Lamiae; Record, Eric; Suárez, Antonio; Gomez-Vidal, José A; Martínez, José; de la Rubia, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications.

  17. Clinical significance and molecular characterization of nonsporulating molds isolated from the respiratory tracts of bronchopulmonary mycosis patients with special reference to basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2013-10-01

    Nonsporulating molds (NSMs), especially basidiomycetes, have predominantly been reported as human pathogens responsible for allergic and invasive disease. Their conventional identification is problematic, as many isolates remain sterile in culture. Thus, inconclusive culture reports might adversely affect treatment decisions. The clinical significance of NSMs in pulmonary mycoses is poorly understood. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and D1/D2 domain of the larger subunit (LSU) of 52 NSMs isolated from respiratory specimens. The basidiomycetes were the predominant NSMs, of which Schizophyllum commune was the most common agent in allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM), followed by Ceriporia lacerata in invasive fungal disease. Porostereum spadiceum, Phanaerochaete stereoides, Neosartorya fischeri, and Marasmiellus palmivorus were the other molds observed. Application of ITS and LSU region sequencing identified 92% of the isolates. The antifungal susceptibility data revealed that all basidiomycetes tested were susceptible to amphotericin B and resistant to caspofungin, fluconazole, and flucytosine. Except for 3 isolates of S. commune and a solitary isolate of M. palmivorus, all basidiomycetes had low MICs for itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Basidiomycetes were isolated from patients with ABPM, invasive pulmonary mycosis/pneumonia, or fungal balls. In addition, the majority of the basidiomycetes were isolated from patients with chronic respiratory disorders who were sensitized to one of the basidiomycetous fungi and demonstrated precipitating antibodies against the incriminating fungi, indicating an indolent tissue reaction. Thus, isolation of basidiomycetes from the lower respiratory tract could be significant, and it is important to monitor these patients in order to prevent subsequent lung damage.

  18. The cell end marker Tea4 regulates morphogenesis and pathogenicity in the basidiomycete fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinluck, Michael; Woraratanadharm, Tad; Lu, Ching-yu; Quintanilla, Rene H; Banuett, Flora

    2014-05-01

    Positional cues localized to distinct cell domains are critical for the generation of cell polarity and cell morphogenesis. These cues lead to assembly of protein complexes that organize the cytoskeleton resulting in delivery of vesicles to sites of polarized growth. Tea4, an SH3 domain protein, was first identified in fission yeast, and is a critical determinant of the axis of polarized growth, a role conserved among ascomycete fungi. Ustilago maydis is a badiomycete fungus that exhibits a yeast-like form that is nonpathogenic and a filamentous form that is pathogenic on maize and teozintle. We are interested in understanding how positional cues contribute to generation and maintenance of these two forms, and their role in pathogenicity. We identified a homologue of fission yeast tea4 in a genetic screen for mutants with altered colony and cell morphology and present here analysis of Tea4 for the first time in a basidiomycete fungus. We demonstrate that Tea4 is an important positional marker for polarized growth and septum location in both forms. We uncover roles for Tea4 in maintenance of cell and neck width, cell separation, and cell wall deposition in the yeast-like form, and in growth rate, formation of retraction septa, growth reversal, and inhibition of budding in the filamentous form. We show that Tea4::GFP localizes to sites of polarized or potential polarized growth in both forms, as observed in ascomycete fungi. We demonstrate an essential role of Tea4 in pathogencity in the absence of cell fusion. Basidiomycete and ascomycete Tea4 homologues share SH3 and Glc7 domains. Tea4 in basidiomycetes has additional domains, which has led us to hypothesize that Tea4 has novel functions in this group of fungi.

  19. Prenylhydroquinone-Derived Secondary Metabolites from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Lentinus similis BCC 52578.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Sappana, Malipan; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-08-01

    Two new prenylhydroquinone-derived compounds, Ientinospirol (1) and 1-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-l-butanone (2), were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Lentinus similis BCC 52578, together with the known compounds panepoxydone (3), panepoxydione (4), isopanepoxydone (5), 2,2-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2H-chromene (6), and (3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-methoxychroman (7). Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against all cell-lines tested, while the other compounds were inactive.

  20. Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known.

  1. A comparison of hypoglycemic activity of three species of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunchao; Liu, Tongjun

    2009-02-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of three fungi of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium was studied in this paper. Alloxan- and adrenalin-induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The blood glucose and the sugar tolerance were determined. After the mice were administered (ig) with Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium, the blood glucose of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice decreased (p hypoglycemic effects of Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium on hyperglycemic animals are significant; it may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people.

  2. Inhibition of growth and sporulation of Penicillium expansum by extracts of selected Basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Florianowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A screening of antifungal activity of 33 Basidiomycetes strains was realized with their extracts. The influence of aqueous extracts of fruit-bodies of the testeded fungi after addition of spores or hyphae of Penicillium expansum on growth and sporulation of the fitopathogen in vitro was estimated. The species: Hydnum repandum L.: Fr., Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kummer, Coprinus comatus (Műll Fr. S.F. Gray, Coprinus atramentarius (Bull: Fr. Fr. and Lactarius turpis (Weinm. Fr. reduced the mycelial growth and inhibited sporulation of this pathogen.

  3. Functional Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation in the Basidiomycete White Rot Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tegelaar, Martin [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Henrissat, Bernard [Univ. of Marseille (France); Brewer, Heather M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wosten, Han A. B. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Grigoriev, Igor V. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lugones, Luis G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    White and brown rot fungi are among the most important wood decayers in nature. Although more than 50 genomes of Basidiomycete white and brown rots have been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, there is still a lot to learn about how these fungi degrade the tough polymers present in wood. In particular, very little is known about how these fungi regulate the expression of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation. Here, we used transcriptomics, proteomics, and promoter analysis in an effort to gain insight into the process of lignocellulose degradation.

  4. Antifungal activity of some metabolites of higher fungi (Basidiomycetes - an overview

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    Teresa Florianowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of compounds of different chemical structures showing antifungal activity were isolated from higher fungi (Basidiomycetes fruit bodies. Among the microflora against which the examined metabolites showed effective activity, there are pathogenic organisms for people as well as for animals: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra, Aspergillus fumigatus and pathogens attacking plants: Penicillium chrysogenum, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Fusarium culmorum, Trichoderma lignorum and Verticillium dahlae. Searching for fungal metabolites having antifungal activity creates possibilities of using them against a range of fungal pathogens of clinical, agronomic and environmental significance.

  5. VITAMIN EFFECT ON THE SYNTHESIS ОF POLYPHENOLIC SUBSTANCES BY BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veligodska A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of certain vitamins on the intensity of the synthesis of polyphenolic compounds and carotenoids by some Basidiomycetes strains, such as Laetiporus sulphureus Ls-08, Fomes fomentarius Ff-1201 and Fistulina hepatica Fh-18. The registration of accumulation of dry biomass and content of polyphenols and carotenoids in the mycelia and culture filtrate of strains that were cultivated on glucose-peptone substrates (GPS with vitamins was performed. The vitamins A, E, C, B1, B12, and PP at the concentration of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.05 g/l were applied as modification of GPS. We founded the species effect on the synthesis of vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids. We suggested separate application of vitamins A, E, B1, and B12 at concentration of 0.01 g/ l to induce the synthesis of polyphenols and carotenoids. Results of the study will be used to develop a modification of GPS for the cultivation of strains of polyphenolic substances of basidiomycete origin.

  6. REGULATION OF THE SYNTHESIS OF POLYPHENOLIC SUBSTANCES BY SOME BASIDIOMYCETES STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov O. V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of specific carbon-containing compounds as additional components glucose-peptone medium (GPM, the intensity of the polyphenolic substances and carotenoids synthesis by some strains was investigated by surface cultivating basidiomycetes. The total content of polyphenolic substances set out in alcoholic extracts of the modified procedure by Folin-Chokalteu and in acetone carotenoids extracts of mycological material by spectrophotometric method and calculated by Vetshteyn formula. In GPM we used 13 carbonaceous components compounds belonging to mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides and carboxylic acids The effect of the 13 carbon-containing compounds on the accumulation of biomass, carotenoids and polyphenols Basidiomycetes strains L. sulphureus Ls-08, F. fomentarius Ff-1201 and F. hepatica Fh-18 was identified. For the purpose of inducing the synthesis of carotenoids by strains Ls-08 and Fh-18 may recommend changes in the standard GPS by fructose, and for strain Ff-1201 by sucrose. In order to induce synthesis of polyphenols strains Ff-1201 and Fh-18 to make appropriate standard GPS by mannose and for strain Ls-08 by sucrose.

  7. Molecular characterization of a lipoxygenase from the basidiomycete mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Yuji; Toyama, Shungo; Kuribayashi, Takashi; Joh, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of the gene PoLOX1 encoding a lipoxygenase (LOX) and its corresponding genomic DNA were isolated from the basidiomycete mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus strain H1. The deduced amino acid sequence of PoLOX1 showed similarity to a valencene dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus, putative LOX-like proteins from ascomycete, basidiomycete, and deuteromycete fungi, and known LOXs from plants, animals, and bacteria. PoLOX1 also contained the LOX iron-binding catalytic domain in the C-terminal region, but not the polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) domain, which is usually found in the N-terminal region of eukaryotic LOXs. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that PoLOX1 was interrupted by one intron, and that the promoter region included TATA and CAAT boxes. Southern blot analysis indicated that PoLOX1 is a member of a small gene family comprising highly similar genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that it is transcribed more abundantly in the stipes of the fruit bodies than in the caps.

  8. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants.

  9. Diversity and associations between Drosophilidae (Diptera species and Basidiomycetes in a Neotropical forest

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    FELIPE B. VALER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drosophilidae is one of the most representative families of insects that occurs in fungal fruiting bodies of Basidiomycetes; however, the diversity and community structure of mycophagous Drosophilidae in the Neotropical region is poorly known. The aims of the present study were to describe the diversity of mycophagous Drosophilidae and to investigate its colonization of fungal hosts in a forest of southern Brazil. From 120 fungal samples (patches of mushrooms of 17 Basidiomycetes genera, flies were recorded emerging from 70 samples and collected in adult stages of 25 fungal samples, for a total of 4897 drosophilids belonging to 31 species and 5 genera. Drosophila Fallén was the most species-rich genus, whereas Hirtodrosophila Duda was the dominant genus. Studies performed in the Holarctic region indicate that mycophagous drosophilid have generalist habits; however, our results showed that most drosophilids use fewer than two fungal hosts, and most species of Hirtodrosophila and Leucophenga were restricted to abundant fungal species, suggesting a specialization for these resources. The most specialized fauna emerged from Auricularia, which was the most frequent fungal genus in our collection, and this result supports the assumption that specialization depends on the availability of fungal resources over time.

  10. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  11. Novel root-fungus symbiosis in Ericaceae: sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza formed by a hitherto undescribed basidiomycete with affinities to Trechisporales.

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    Martin Vohník

    Full Text Available Ericaceae (the heath family are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed 'sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza', discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet

  12. Novel Root-Fungus Symbiosis in Ericaceae: Sheathed Ericoid Mycorrhiza Formed by a Hitherto Undescribed Basidiomycete with Affinities to Trechisporales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J.; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed ‘sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza’, discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain

  13. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiao; Ogata, Makoto; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1) ) is a potent mycotoxin with mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic, and immunosuppressive properties. In order to develop a bioremediation system for AFB(1) -contaminated foods by white-rot fungi or ligninolytic enzymes, AFB(1) was treated with manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. AFB(1) was eliminated by MnP. The maximum elimination (86.0%) of AFB(1) was observed after 48 h in a reaction mixture containing 5 nkat of MnP. The addition of Tween 80 enhanced AFB(1) elimination. The elimination of AFB(1) by MnP considerably reduced its mutagenic activity in an umu test, and the treatment of AFB(1) by 20 nkat MnP reduced the mutagenic activity by 69.2%. (1) H-NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis suggested that AFB(1) is first oxidized to AFB(1) -8,9-epoxide by MnP and then hydrolyzed to AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol. This is the first report that MnP can effectively remove the mutagenic activity of AFB(1) by converting it into AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol.

  14. SCREENING OF CONTENT AND DYNAMIC OF ACCUMULATION OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES

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    A. K. Veligodska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the total content of polyphenolic substances in Basidiomycetes carpophores from 50 species, of which 27 belong to the order Polyporales and 23 to the order Agaricales. Introduced 23 strains of 8 species of Basidiomycetes. Methods. Gathered wild carpophores dried and crushed to a particle size of 0,1 till 0,01 mm and searching strains were cultured in Erlenmeyyers flasks by surface method on standard glucose-peptone culture medium. Determination of total content of polyphenolic compounds was carried out in ethanol extracts of mycological material by a modified method of Folin-Chokalteu. Completely dry biomass of carpophores and mycelium was determined gravimetrically. Results. There was identified the species of polyporal fungi Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomes fomentarius and types of agarical mushrooms Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea, Tricholoma flavovirens, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Fistulina hepatica high in polyphenolic compounds. It was determined the content of polyphenols ranging from more than 60 mg / g completely dry biomass. For introduced strains established dynamics of growth and accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in the mycelium and culture filtrate during fermentation on glucose-peptone medium. All cultures reach a maximum accumulation of biomass on the 12th day of growth. Shizophyllum commune Sc-1101 and 10 and F. velutipes F-202 have been identified as the most productive strains. The lowest accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was recorded for strain P. ostreatus P-192 and strain F. fomentarius Ff-09. Cultures have investigated individual value growth such as biomass accumulation in the applied cultivation conditions, which probably reflects the suitability of the medium for their growth and genotypic characteristics. Strains are overwhelmingly able to accumulate polyphenolic compounds in both mycelium and

  15. Effects of glucose on the Reactive Black 5 (RB5 decolorization by two white rot basidiomycetes

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    Tony Hadibarata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacities of glucose in the decolorization process of an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5, by two white rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 were investigated. The results indicated that the dye degradation by the two fungi was extremely correlated with the presence of glucose in the culture and the process of fungi growth. Decolorization of 200 mg dye/l was increased from 62% and 69% to 100% within 20–25 h with the increase of glucose from 5 to 15 g/l, and the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP increased by 2–9 fold in this case. Hydrogen peroxide of 0.55 mg/l and 0.43 mg/l were detected in 10 h in Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 cultures.

  16. Chamigrane Sesquiterpenes from a Basidiomycetous Endophytic Fungus XG8D Associated with Thai Mangrove Xylocarpus granatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choodej, Siwattra; Teerawatananond, Thapong; Mitsunaga, Tohru; Pudhom, Khanitha

    2016-01-01

    Six new chamigrane sesquiterpenes, merulinols A‒F (1‒6), and four known metabolites (7‒10) were isolated from the culture of the basidiomycetous fungus XG8D, a mangrove-derived endophyte. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR, while the structures of 1 and 2 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines, MCF-7, Hep-G2, and KATO-3. Compounds 3 and 4 selectively displayed cytotoxicity against KATO-3 cells with IC50 values of 35.0 and 25.3 μM, respectively. PMID:27428984

  17. Chamigrane Sesquiterpenes from a Basidiomycetous Endophytic Fungus XG8D Associated with Thai Mangrove Xylocarpus granatum

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    Siwattra Choodej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Six new chamigrane sesquiterpenes, merulinols A‒F (1‒6, and four known metabolites (7‒10 were isolated from the culture of the basidiomycetous fungus XG8D, a mangrove-derived endophyte. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR, while the structures of 1 and 2 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines, MCF-7, Hep-G2, and KATO-3. Compounds 3 and 4 selectively displayed cytotoxicity against KATO-3 cells with IC50 values of 35.0 and 25.3 μM, respectively.

  18. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

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    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

  19. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene

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    Sônia C. Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2 of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2Δ mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet–C (UVC radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2Δ mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2Δ mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

  20. A deviation from the bipolar-tetrapolar mating paradigm in an early diverged basidiomycete.

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    Marco A Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles at the MAT locus (bipolar system. However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecular recognition systems, each encoded by one MAT region, constrain the selection of sexual partners. Heterozygosity at both MAT regions is a pre-requisite for mating in both bipolar and tetrapolar basidiomycetes. Tetrapolar mating behaviour results from the absence of genetic linkage between the two regions bringing forth up to thousands of mating types. The subphylum Pucciniomycotina, an early diverged lineage of basidiomycetes encompassing important plant pathogens such as the rusts and saprobes like Rhodosporidium and Sporidiobolus, has been so far poorly explored concerning the content and organization of MAT loci. Here we show that the red yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor has a mating system unlike any previously described because occasional disruptions of the genetic cohesion of the bipolar MAT locus originate new mating types. We confirmed that mating is normally bipolar and that heterozygosity at both MAT regions is required for mating. However, a laboratory cross showed that meiotic recombination may occur within the bipolar MAT locus, explaining tetrapolar features like increased allele number and evolution rates of some MAT genes. This pseudo-bipolar system deviates from the classical bipolar-tetrapolar paradigm and, to our knowledge, has never been observed before. We propose a model for MAT evolution in the Basidiomycota in which the pseudo-bipolar system may represent a hitherto unforeseen gradual form of transition from an ancestral tetrapolar

  1. Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens.

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    Lehlohonolo Benedict Qhanya

    Full Text Available Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s, heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence. Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea, Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala, revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea to 14 (M. osmundae. Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms, possibly reflecting the characteristics of their order. Further comparison of P450 families with basidiomycete non-pathogens confirmed that biotrophic plant pathogens harbour the unique P450 families in their genomes. The CYP63, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5137 and CYP5341 P450 families were expanded in A. mellea when compared to other Agaricomycotina saprophytes and the CYP5221 and CYP5233 P450 families in P. graminis and M. laricis-populina. The present study revealed that expansion of these P450 families is due to paralogous evolution of member P450s. The presence of unique P450 families in these organisms serves as evidence of how a host

  2. Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Matowane, Godfrey; Chen, Wanping; Sun, Yuxin; Letsimo, Elizabeth Mpholoseng; Parvez, Mohammad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence). Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea), Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis) and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala), revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea) to 14 (M. osmundae). Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms, possibly reflecting the characteristics of their order. Further comparison of P450 families with basidiomycete non-pathogens confirmed that biotrophic plant pathogens harbour the unique P450 families in their genomes. The CYP63, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5137 and CYP5341 P450 families were expanded in A. mellea when compared to other Agaricomycotina saprophytes and the CYP5221 and CYP5233 P450 families in P. graminis and M. laricis-populina. The present study revealed that expansion of these P450 families is due to paralogous evolution of member P450s. The presence of unique P450 families in these organisms serves as evidence of how a host

  3. Isolation and structure identification of bioactive metabolite C3438A of psychrophilic fungi Chrysosporium sp. C3438 isolated from soil of south pole%南极土壤嗜冷真菌Chrysosporium sp.C3438活性代谢产物C3438A的分离及结构鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 王文翔; 王丽萍; 胡继兰

    2002-01-01

    以对精原细胞法是否有活性作为筛选模型,对南极土壤嗜冷真菌Chrysosporium sp.C3438经低温发酵的活性产物进行了深入的化学研究,首次从南极土壤微生物代谢产物中分离得到Ferrichrome.

  4. Structural Variation (SV Markers in the Basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea and Their Application in the Construction of a Genetic Map

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    Wei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers and genetic maps are useful tools in genetic studies. Novel molecular markers and their applications have been developed in recent years. With the recent advancements in sequencing technology, the genomic sequences of an increasingly great number of fungi have become available. A novel type of molecular marker was developed to construct the first reported linkage map of the edible and economically important basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea by using 104 structural variation (SV markers that are based on the genomic sequences. Because of the special and simple life cycle in basidiomycete, SV markers can be effectively developed by genomic comparison and tested in single spore isolates (SSIs. This stable, convenient and rapidly developed marker may assist in the construction of genetic maps and facilitate genomic research for other species of fungi.

  5. Parasitic macrofungi (Basidiomycetes on fruit shrubs and trees in the Tarnów town (S Poland

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    Marcin Piątek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of 6 years of research carried out in the Tarnów town, southern Poland, are presented. Total number of 27 species of Basidiomycetes were recorded on 7 species of fruit shrubs and trees. Some of them were found on hosts new for Poland, on Malus domestica - Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma australe, Meripilus giganteus, Stereum hirsutum and Volvariella bombycina; on Juglans regia - Ganoderma applanalum and Hineola auricula-judae.

  6. Systematic Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Catalytically Versatile Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Families Enriched in Model Basidiomycete Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Khajamohiddin Syed; Karabo Shale; Nataraj Sekhar Pagadala; Jack Tuszynski

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to id...

  7. PRODUCING OF ENZYME PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF ENZYME PREPARATION OF PEROXIDASE AND CATALASE OF SOME SPECIES OF BASIDIOMYCETES

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotov O. V.; Voloshko T.E.

    2013-01-01

    A method for obtaining of enzyme preparations of enzyme preparations (EP) of peroxidases and catalases fungal extracellular and inracellular origin from cultures of Basidiomycetes was developed. The strains Flammulina velutipes F-vv, Agrocybe cylindracea167; Fistulina hepatica Fh-08 and Pleurotus ostreatus P-208 and P-01 were used as producers of oxidoreductases. Strains were grown on modified glucose-peptone media. Fractionation was carried out by salting out the enzymes with ammonium sulfat...

  8. Versatile applications of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii (Berk.) Maas G. (Higher Basidiomycetes): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Oh, Deuk-Sil; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii has become attractive as a natural health product because of its antihypertensive effects on human health. Moreover, the food industry is especially interested in the preparation of the nutritional tonic of this mushroom. Various studies on this mushroom have shown that it has antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antioxidant effects. The aim of this review is to report the present findings from studies on this mushroom and to discuss its future prospects.

  9. Biogeography, Host Specificity, and Molecular Phylogeny of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Phaffia rhodozyma and Its Sexual Form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, José Paulo; Libkind, Diego; Ruffini, Alejandra; Alves, Leonor; van Broock,Maria

    2006-01-01

    Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 73, No.4 Phaffia rhodozyma (sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is a basidiomycetous yeast that has been found in tree exudates in the Northern Hemisphere at high altitudes and latitudes. This yeast produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with biotechnological importance because it is used in aquaculture for fish pigmentation. We isolated X. dendrorhous from the Southern Hemisphere (Patagonia, Argentina), where it was associated with ...

  10. KUALITAS KERTAS SENI DARI PELEPAH TANAMAN SALAK MELALUI “BIOCHEMICAL” JAMUR Phanerochaete crysosporium DAN Pleurotus ostreatus DENGAN VARIASI LAMA PEMASAKAN DALAM NaOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triastuti Rahayu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kertas seni atau biasa disebut kertas daur ulang merupakan kertas yang biasa digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan kerajinan tangan. Biasanya terbuat dari limbah tanaman yang mengandung serat tinggi. Limbah pelepah tanaman salak yangtidak termanfaatkan mengandung serat tinggi yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan kertas seni. Bahan baku tersebut diproses melalui biopulping jamur Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kualitas kertas seni dari pelepah tanaman salak melalui biokraft jamur Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus dengan variasi lama pemasakan dalam NaOH dengan parameter penelitian uji daya tarik, daya sobek dan uji sensoris (tekstur, warna, kenampakan serat dan daya terima masyarakat. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan dua faktor, faktor 1 yaitu lama pemasakan dalam NaOH 15% (P1=1 jam, P2= 2 jam dan faktor 2 yaitu lama inkubasi (L1= 30 hari, L2= 45 hari dengan 4 perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas kertas seni terbaik adalah pada perlakuan P2L1 (lama pemasakan 2 jam dan lama inkubasi 30 hari yaitu 0,243 N/mm2 yang merupakan hasil uji daya tarik dan 18,711 N yang merupakan daya sobek tertinggi, tekstur halus, warna coklat muda, kenampakan serat kurang jelas dan panelis suka terhadap kertas ini.

  11. Better One-Eyed than Blind--Challenges and Opportunities of Biomass Measurement During Solid-State Fermentation of Basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudler, Susanne; Bley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, especially basidiomycetes, produce a wide range of metabolites, many of which have potential biotechnological and industrial applications. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is very suitable for the cultivation of basidiomycetes since it mimics the natural habitat of these fungi. Some of the major advantages of SSF are the robustness of the process, the use of low-cost residual materials as substrates, and the reduced usage of water. However, monitoring key variables is difficult, which makes process control a challenge. Specifically, it is very difficult to determine the biomass during SSF process involving basidiomycetes. This is problematic, as the biomass is normally a key variable in mass and energy balance equations. Further, the success of fungal SSF processes is often evaluated, in part, based on the growth of the fungus. Direct determination of the dry weight of biomass is impossible and indirect quantification techniques must be used. Over the years, various determination techniques have been developed for the quantification of fungal biomass in SSF processes. The current review gives an overview of various direct and indirect biomass determination methods, discussing their advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Survey of ectomycorrhizal, litter-degrading, and wood-degrading Basidiomycetes for dye decolorization and ligninolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casieri, Leonardo; Anastasi, Antonella; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-11-01

    Basidiomycetes are essential in forest ecology, being deeply involved in wood and litter decomposition, humification, and mineralization of soil organic matter. The fungal oxidoreductases involved in these processes are today the focus of much attention with a view to their applications. The ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of 300 isolates of Basidiomycetes were assessed, taking into account the degradation of model dyes in different culture conditions and the production of oxidoreductase enzymes. The tested isolates belong to different ecophysiological groups (wood-degrading, litter-degrading, ectomycorrhizal, and coprophilous fungi) and represent a broad systematic and functional biodiversity among Basidiomycetes occurring in deciduous and evergreen forests of northwest Italy (Piedmont Region). The high number of species tested and the use of different culture conditions allowed the investigation of the degradation activity of several novel species, neglected to date. Oxidative enzyme activities varied widely among all ecophysiological groups and laccases were the most commonly detected enzymes. A large number of isolates (86%), belonging to all ecophysiological groups, were found to be active against at least one model dye; the wood-degrading fungi represented the most efficient group. Noteworthily, also some isolates of litter-degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi achieved good decolorization yield. The 25 best isolates were then tested against nine industrial dyes commonly employed in textile industries. Three isolates of Bjerkandera adusta efficiently decolorized the dyes on all media and can be considered important candidates for application in textile wastewater treatment.

  13. Phanerochaete sordida YK-624胞外酶的特性及其对纸浆的漂白作用%Properties of Extracellular Enzymes from Phanerochaete Sordida YK-624 and Its Application in KP Bleaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧芳; 李忠正; 近藤隆一郎

    2004-01-01

    Phanerochaete sordida YK-624进行液体培养得到胞外酶液,从纸浆的生物漂白角度考察其酶学性质.对在漂白过程中可能涉及到的锰过氧化物酶(MnP)、过氧化物酶(LiP)、漆酶(Laccase)、木聚糖酶和纤维素酶的活性进行了测定.结果表明,其中主要表现为锰过氧化物酶的活性,未检测到纤维素酶和木聚糖酶的活性.这种酶液进行生物漂白不会造成纤维强度等性质的下降.本文对其中占主要活性成分的锰过氧化物酶的影响因素进行了探讨,发现温度、H2O2浓度、pH值对其活性影响较大,温度对酶液的稳定性也有较大影响.其发挥较佳活性的条件是:温度30℃、H2O2浓度1.0mmol/L、pH值4.5.Mn2+浓度对其活性影响较小.利用液体培养的胞外酶液对几种未漂浆进行了生物漂白,结果表明,在各自最佳条件下,硫酸盐阔叶木浆白度可提高30.4%ISO,碱法杨木/麦草(30/70)混合浆白度可提高17.9%SBD,碱法稻草浆白度可提高12.1%SBD.

  14. SCREENING OF CONTENT AND DYNAMIC OF ACCUMULATION OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veligodska A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the total content of polyphenolic substances in Basidiomycetes carpophores from 50 species, of which 27 belong to the order Polyporales and 23 to the order Agaricales. Introduced 23 strains of 8 species of Basidiomycetes. Methods. Gathered wild carpophores dried and crushed to a particle size of 0,1 till 0,01 mm and searching strains were cultured in Erlenmeyyers flasks by surface method on standard glucose-peptone culture medium. Determination of total content of polyphenolic compounds was carried out in ethanol extracts of mycological material by a modified method of Folin-Chokalteu. Completely dry biomass of carpophores and mycelium was determined gravimetrically. Results. There was identified the species of polyporal fungi Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomes fomentarius and types of agarical mushrooms Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea, Tricholoma flavovirens, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Fistulina hepatica high in polyphenolic compounds. It was determined the content of polyphenols ranging from more than 60 mg / g completely dry biomass. For introduced strains established dynamics of growth and accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in the mycelium and culture filtrate during fermentation on glucose-peptone medium. All cultures reach a maximum accumulation of biomass on the 12th day of growth. Shizophyllum commune Sc-1101 and 10 and F. velutipes F-202 have been identified as the most productive strains. The lowest accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was recorded for strain P. ostreatus P-192 and strain F. fomentarius Ff-09. Cultures have investigated individual value growth such as biomass accumulation in the applied cultivation conditions, which probably reflects the suitability of the medium for their growth and genotypic characteristics. Strains are overwhelmingly able to accumulate polyphenolic compounds in both mycelium and

  15. The temperature dependance of photoinhibition in the tropical basidiomycete lichen Cora pavonia E. Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxson, D S

    1987-09-01

    The response of net photosynthesis (NP) and dark respiration to periods of high insolation exposure was examined in the tropical basidiomycete lichen Cora pavonia. Photoinhibition of NP proved quite dependant on temperature. Rates of light saturated NP were severely impaired immediately after pretreatment high light exposure at temperatures of 10, 20 and 40°C, while similar exposure at 30°C resulted in only minimal photoinhibition. Apparent quantum yield proved an even more sensitive indicator of photoinhibition, reduced in all temperature treatments, although inhibition was again greatest at low and high temperatures. Concurrent exposure to reduced O2 tensions during high light exposure mitigated some of the deleterious effects of high light exposure at 10 and 20°C, suggesting an interaction of O2 with the inactivation of photosynthetic function. This represents the first reported instance of light dependant chilling stress in lichens, and may be an important limitation on the distribution of this and other tropical lichen species. This narrow range of temperatures within which thalli of C. pavonia can withstand periods of high insolation exposure coincides with that faced by hydrated thalli during rare periods of high insolation exposure within the cloud/shroud zone on La Soufrière, and points to the necessity of considering periods of atypical or unusual climatic events when interpreting patterns of net photosynthetic response, both in tropical and in north temperate lichen species.

  16. A novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketani, Aya; Nakamura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Yuya; Awai, Koichiro; Shioi, Yuzo

    2013-03-01

    A serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from basidiocarps of the edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes was characterized. The protease was purified to near homogeneity by three steps of chromatography using acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (Ac-YVAD-MCA) as a substrate. The enzyme was termed FvSerP (F. velutipes serine protease). This enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the caspase-specific inhibitor, Ac-YVAD-CHO, as well as moderately inhibited by serine protease inhibitors. Based on the N-terminal sequence, the cDNA of FvSerP was identified. The deduced protease sequence was a peptide composed of 325 amino acids with a molecular mass of 34.5 kDa. The amino acid sequence of FvSerP showed similarity to neither caspases nor to the plant subtilisin-like serine protease with caspase-like activity called saspase. FvSerP shared identity to the functionally unknown genes from class of Agaricomycetes, with similarity to the peptidase S41 domain of a serine protease. It was thus concluded that this enzyme is likely a novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities belonging to the peptidase S41 family and distributed in the class Agaricomycetes. This enzyme possibly functions in autolysis, a type of programmed cell death that occurs in the later stages of development of basidiocarps with reference to their enzymatic functions.

  17. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment.

  18. Characterization of basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils of the Urmia Lake National Park, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarnejad, Lachin; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah; Di Mauro, Simone; Onofri, Andrea; Buzzini, Pietro; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-11-01

    Urmia Lake, located in northwest Iran, is an oligotrophic and extremely hypersaline habitat that supports diverse forms of life. Owing to its unique biodiversity and special environmental conditions, Urmia Lake National Park has been designated as one of the biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This study was aimed to characterize basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils surrounding the Urmia Lake National Park using a polyphasic combination of molecular and physiological data. Soil samples were collected from eight sites in Lake Basin and six islands insides the lake. Yeast strains were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. When D1/D2 domain sequencing did not resolve the identity of the species, strain identification was obtained by ITS 1 & 2 sequencing. Twenty-one species belonging to the genera Cystobasidium, Holtermanniella, Naganishia, Rhodotorula, Saitozyma, Solicoccozyma, Tausonia, Vanrija, and Vishniacozyma were identified. Solicoccozyma aeria represented the dominant species. The ability of isolates to grow at 10 and 15 % of NaCl was checked; about two-thirds of the strains grew at 10 %, while about 13 % of the isolates grew in medium with 15 % NaCl. this study is the first study on the culturable yeast diversity in hypersaline soils surrounding an Asian lake.

  19. Injury-induced biosynthesis of methyl-branched polyene pigments in a white-rotting basidiomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Daniel; Nett, Markus; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Horn, Uwe; Blanchette, Robert A; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2014-12-26

    A stereaceous basidiomycete was investigated with regard to its capacity to produce yellow pigments after physical injury of the mycelium. Two pigments were isolated from mycelial extracts, and their structures were elucidated by ESIMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR methods. The structures were identified as the previously undescribed polyenes (3Z,5E,7E,9E,11E,13Z,15E,17E)-18-methyl-19-oxoicosa-3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-octaenoic acid (1) and (3E,5Z,7E,9E,11E,13E,15Z,17E,19E)-20-methyl-21-oxodocosa-3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19-nonaenoic acid (2). Stable-isotope feeding with [1-(13)C]acetate and l-[methyl-(13)C]methionine demonstrated a polyketide backbone and that the introduction of the sole methyl branch is most likely S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent. Dose-dependent inhibition of Drosophila melanogaster larval development was observed with both polyenes in concentrations between 12.5 and 100 μM. GI50 values for 1 and 2 against HUVEC (K-562 cells) were 71.6 and 17.4 μM (15.4 and 1.1 μM), respectively, whereas CC50 values for HeLa cells were virtually identical (44.1 and 45.1 μM).

  20. Measuring the Electronic Properties of DNA-Specific Schottky Diodes Towards Detecting and Identifying Basidiomycetes DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vengadesh; Rizan, Nastaran; Al-Ta'Ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Tan, Yee Shin; Tajuddin, Hairul Annuar; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of semiconducting behavior of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in a large number of literatures in the study of DNA electronics. Sequence-specific electronic response provides a platform towards understanding charge transfer mechanism and therefore the electronic properties of DNA. It is possible to utilize these characteristic properties to identify/detect DNA. In this current work, we demonstrate a novel method of DNA-based identification of basidiomycetes using current-voltage (I-V) profiles obtained from DNA-specific Schottky barrier diodes. Electronic properties such as ideality factor, barrier height, shunt resistance, series resistance, turn-on voltage, knee-voltage, breakdown voltage and breakdown current were calculated and used to quantify the identification process as compared to morphological and molecular characterization techniques. The use of these techniques is necessary in order to study biodiversity, but sometimes it can be misleading and unreliable and is not sufficiently useful for the identification of fungi genera. Many of these methods have failed when it comes to identification of closely related species of certain genus like Pleurotus. Our electronics profiles, both in the negative and positive bias regions were however found to be highly characteristic according to the base-pair sequences. We believe that this simple, low-cost and practical method could be useful towards identifying and detecting DNA in biotechnology and pathology.

  1. Polysaccharide production by submerged and solid-state cultures from several medicinal higher Basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Sandra; Sanchez, Oscar Julian; Levin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides produced by microorganisms represent an industrially unexploited market. An important number of polysaccharides have been isolated from fungi, especially mushrooms, with many interesting biological functions, such as antitumor, hypoglycemic, and immunostimulating activities. In the search of new sources of fungal polysaccharides, the main goal of this research was to test the ability of several species of basidiomycetes, among them various edible mushrooms, to produce both extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs). Among 10 species screened for production of EPSs in submerged cultures with glucose, soy oil, and yeast extract, the best results were obtained with Ganoderma lucidum (0.79 g/L EPS) and Pleurotus ostreatus (0.75 g/L EPS). Agitation strongly improved EPS production in most of the studied strains. Eight of 10 species assayed successfully developed basidiomes during synthetic "bag-log" cultivation on a substrate consisting of oak sawdust and corn bran. This work describes for the first time the environmental factors required for fruiting of 4 species under such conditions: Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applanatum, Trametes versicolor, and T. trogii. IPSs were extracted from the carpophores. The IPS content of the carpophores varied from 1.4% (G. applanatum) up to 5.5% and 6% in G. lucidum and Grifola frondosa, respectively.

  2. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thuillier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione-S-transferase (GST proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints.

  3. Functional diversification of fungal glutathione transferases from the ure2p class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Anne; Ngadin, Andrew A; Thion, Cécile; Billard, Patrick; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric; Morel, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints.

  4. Metabolites from nematophagous fungi and nematicidal natural products from fungi as alternatives for biological control. Part II: metabolites from nematophagous basidiomycetes and non-nematophagous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In this second section of a two-part mini-review article, we introduce 101 further nematicidal and non-nematicidal secondary metabolites biosynthesized by nematophagous basidiomycetes or non-nematophagous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Several of these compounds have promising nematicidal activity and deserve further and more detailed analysis. Thermolides A and B, omphalotins, ophiobolins, bursaphelocides A and B, illinitone A, pseudohalonectrins A and B, dichomitin B, and caryopsomycins A-C are excellent candidates or lead compounds for the development of biocontrol strategies for phytopathogenic nematodes. Paraherquamides, clonostachydiol, and nafuredins offer promising leads for the development of formulations against the intestinal nematodes of ruminants.

  5. Biomass measurement by flow cytometry during solid-state fermentation of basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudler, Susanne; Böhmer, Ulrike; Weber, Jost; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a robust process that is well suited to the on-site cultivation of basidiomycetes that produce enzymes for the treatment of lignocellulosics. Reliable methods for biomass quantification are essential for the analysis of fungal growth kinetics. However, direct biomass determination is not possible during SSF because the fungi grow into the substrate and use it as a nutrient source. This necessitates the use of indirect methods that are either very laborious and time consuming or can only provide biomass measurements during certain growth periods. Here, we describe the development and optimization of a new rapid method for fungal biomass determination during SSF that is based on counting fungal nuclei by flow cytometry. Fungal biomass was grown on an organic substrate and its concentration was measured by isolating the nuclei from the fungal hyphae after cell disruption, staining them with SYTOX(®) Green, and then counting them using a flow cytometer. A calibration curve relating the dry biomass of the samples to their concentrations of nuclei was established. Multiple buffers and disruption methods were tested. The results obtained were compared with values determined using the method of ergosterol determination, a classical technique for fungal biomass measurement during SSF. Our new approach can be used to measure fungal biomass on a range of different scales, from 15 mL cultures to a laboratory reactor with a working volume of 10 L (developed by the Research Center for Medical Technology and Biotechnology (fzmb GmbH)). © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of pumpkin juice fermentation by the basidiomycetous fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Dong; Zhou, Chunli; Song, Yi; Zhang, Yuyu; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-02-01

    A new protocol for processing of pumpkin juice was set up which included fermentation by the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum at 28 °C for 7 d. The growth curve of G. lucidum in pumpkin juice was successfully (R(2)  = 0.99) fitted by a 4-parameter logistic model and the ideal highest biomass was estimated to be 4.79 g/L. G. lucidum was found to have a significant acidification effect on pumpkin juice. The lowest pH (4.05 ± 0.05) and highest total titratable acidity (14.31 ± 0.16 mL 0.1 M NaOH/100 mL) were found on the 4th day during fermentation. Sugars in pumpkin juice fermented with G. lucidum showed a significant decrease, especially glucose and fructose. On the contrary, the release of exo-polysaccharides and free amino acids greatly enriched the pumpkin juice. The variation of color index and viscosity also mirrored the above behavior. Based on headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 68 volatile compounds were identified, including 17 esters, 14 alcohols, 13 phenyl compounds, 11 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 3 acids, 1 furan, and 1 benzothiazole. The pumpkin juices fermented for different days were markedly differentiated with principal component analysis and the fermentation process was tentatively divided into 3 periods: the booming (from the 1st to 4th day), steady (from the 5th to 6th day), and decline (the 7th day) period.

  7. Trinitrotoluene and mandarin peels selectively affect lignin-modifying enzyme production in white-rot basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil; Kobakhidze, Aza; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Five white-rot basidiomycetes (WRB) species have been evaluated for their potential to tolerate and to degrade 0.2 mM 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as well as to produce laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) in presence of this xenobiotic. The tested fungal strains produced laccase in both glycerol and mandarin peels-containing media, whereas in the glycerol-containing medium only Cerrena unicolor strains and Trametes versicolor BCC 775 secreted MnP. Replacement of glycerol by milled mandarin peels 3- to 45-fold increased laccase activity, promoted C. unicolor strains and T. versicolor MnP secretion and induced this enzyme production by Fomes fomentarius BCC 38 and Funalia trogii BCC 146. Differential response of the WRB strains to the TNT addition was observed. In particular, laccase activity of C. unicolor increased 2- to 3-fold in both media whereas no stimulation of the laccase production was revealed in cultivation of F. fomentarius. TNT practically did not affect the MnP activity. Two strains of C. unicolor followed by T. versicolor producing laccase and MnP almost completely removed 0.2 mM TNT from the synthetic medium. Increase of TNT concentration from 0 to 0.4 mM in the mandarin peels-based medium and from 0 to 0.3 mM in the glycerol-containing medium stimulated C. unicolor BCC 300 laccase production from 92.4 to 240.7 U/ml and from 17.1 to 48.6 U/ml, respectively. This strain has been resistant to the TNT high concentration and has ability to remove 85 % of initial 0.3 mM TNT content during 6 days of the submerged cultivation.

  8. Structure and Biochemestry of Laccases from the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete, Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A.Reddy, PI

    2005-06-30

    and ligated G.lucidum DNA was done using ABI Geneamp XL PCR kit in Ribocycler. The 5 conserved copper binding region of laccase was used for designing forward primer (5TCGACAATTCTTTCCTGTACG3) and reverse primer (5 TGGAGATGGG ACACT GGCTTATC 3). The PCR profile was 95 C for 3min, 94 C for 1min, 57 C for 30 sec and 68 C for 5min. for 30 cycles, and the final extension was at 72 C for 10min. The resulting {approx}2.7 Kb inverse PCR fragment was cloned into ZERO TOPOII blunt ligation vector (INVITROGEN) and screened on Kanamycin plates. Selected putative clones containing inserts were digested with a battery of restriction enzymes and analyzed on 1% agarose gels. Restriction digestion of these clones with BamHI, PstI, SalI, PvuII, EcoRI, and XhoI revealed 8 distinct patterns suggesting gene diversity. Two clones were sequenced using overlapping primers on ABI system. The sequences were aligned using Bioedit program. The aa sequences of the clones were deduced by Genewise2 program using Aspergillus as the reference organism. Eukaryotic gene regulatory sequences were identified using GeneWise2 Program. Laccase sequence alignments and similarity indexes were calculated using ClustalW and BioEdit programs. Blast analysis of two distinct BamHI clones, lac1 and lac4, showed that the proteins encoded by these clones are fungal laccase sequences. The coding sequence of lac1gene is interrupted by 6 introns ranging in size from 37-55 nt and encodes a mature protein consisting of 456 aa (Mr: 50,160), preceded by a putative 37-aa signal sequence. This predicted Mr is in agreement with the range of Mrs previously reported by us for the laccases of G. lucidum. The deduced aa sequence of LAC1 showed relatively high degree of homology with laccases of other basidiomycetes. It showed 96% homology to full-length LAC4 protein and 47-53% similarity to unpublished partial laccase sequences of other G. lucidum strains. Among the other basidiomycete laccases, LAC1 showed the highest similarity

  9. Ubc2, an Ortholog of the Yeast Ste50p Adaptor, Possesses a Basidiomycete-Specific Carboxy terminal Extension Essential for Pathogenicity Independent of Pheromone Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins involved in the MAP kinase pathway controlling mating, morphogenesis and pathogenicity have been identified previously in the fungus Ustilago maydis. One of these, the Ubc2 adaptor protein, possesses a basidiomycete-specific structure. In addition to containing SAM and RA domains typical of...

  10. Influence of pH on the growth, laccase activity and RBBR decolorization by tropical basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Moreira Neto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungi Lentinus crinitus and Psilocybe castanella are being evaluated in a bioremediation process of soils contaminated with organochlorine industrial residues in the Baixada Santista, São Paulo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of pH on the fungal growth, in vitro decolorization of anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR and laccase activity. The pH of the culture medium influenced the growth of L. crinitus and P. castanella, which presented less growth at pH 5.9 and pH 2.7, respectively. The fungi were able to modify the pH of the culture medium, adjusting it to the optimum pH for growth which was close to 4.5. Decolorization of the RBBR was maximal at a pH of 2.5 to 3.5. Higher laccase activity was observed at pH 3.5 and pH 4.5 for L. crinitus and P. castanella, respectively. pH was found to be an important parameter for both the growth of these fungi and the enzymatic system involved in RBBR decolorization.Os fungos basidiomicetos Lentinus crinitus e Psilocybe castanella estão sendo avaliados em processo de biorremediação de solos contaminados com resíduos industriais organoclorados, na Baixada Santista, SP. O presente estudo avaliou a influência do pH no crescimento, na descoloração in vitro do corante Azul Brilhante de Remazol R (RBBR e na atividade de lacase durante cultivo destes fungos, de forma a subsidiar a otimização do processo. O pH do meio influenciou o crescimento de L. crinitus e de P. castanella, com menor biomassa em pH 5,9 e pH 2,7, respectivamente. Os fungos foram capazes de modificar o pH inicial do meio de cultura, de modo a ajustá-lo ao valor ótimo de crescimento, próximo a 4,5. Descoloração in vitro do RBBR foi máxima em pH 2,5 e 3,5. Maiores atividades de lacase foram obtidas em pH 3,5 e em pH 4,5 para L. crinitus e P. castanella, respectivamente. Evidenciou-se que o pH é um parâmetro importante para o crescimento destes fungos, atividade de lacase

  11. Structure and Biochemestry of Laccases from the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete, Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A.Reddy, PI

    2005-06-30

    and ligated G.lucidum DNA was done using ABI Geneamp XL PCR kit in Ribocycler. The 5 conserved copper binding region of laccase was used for designing forward primer (5TCGACAATTCTTTCCTGTACG3) and reverse primer (5 TGGAGATGGG ACACT GGCTTATC 3). The PCR profile was 95 C for 3min, 94 C for 1min, 57 C for 30 sec and 68 C for 5min. for 30 cycles, and the final extension was at 72 C for 10min. The resulting {approx}2.7 Kb inverse PCR fragment was cloned into ZERO TOPOII blunt ligation vector (INVITROGEN) and screened on Kanamycin plates. Selected putative clones containing inserts were digested with a battery of restriction enzymes and analyzed on 1% agarose gels. Restriction digestion of these clones with BamHI, PstI, SalI, PvuII, EcoRI, and XhoI revealed 8 distinct patterns suggesting gene diversity. Two clones were sequenced using overlapping primers on ABI system. The sequences were aligned using Bioedit program. The aa sequences of the clones were deduced by Genewise2 program using Aspergillus as the reference organism. Eukaryotic gene regulatory sequences were identified using GeneWise2 Program. Laccase sequence alignments and similarity indexes were calculated using ClustalW and BioEdit programs. Blast analysis of two distinct BamHI clones, lac1 and lac4, showed that the proteins encoded by these clones are fungal laccase sequences. The coding sequence of lac1gene is interrupted by 6 introns ranging in size from 37-55 nt and encodes a mature protein consisting of 456 aa (Mr: 50,160), preceded by a putative 37-aa signal sequence. This predicted Mr is in agreement with the range of Mrs previously reported by us for the laccases of G. lucidum. The deduced aa sequence of LAC1 showed relatively high degree of homology with laccases of other basidiomycetes. It showed 96% homology to full-length LAC4 protein and 47-53% similarity to unpublished partial laccase sequences of other G. lucidum strains. Among the other basidiomycete laccases, LAC1 showed the highest similarity

  12. Conversion of BAC Clones into Binary BAC (BIBAC) Vectors and Their Delivery into Basidiomycete Fungal Cells Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2014-09-19

    The genetic transformation of certain organisms, required for gene function analysis or complementation, is often not very efficient, especially when dealing with large gene constructs or genomic fragments. We have adapted the natural DNA transfer mechanism from the soil pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, to deliver intact large DNA constructs to basidiomycete fungi of the genus Ustilago where they stably integrated into their genome. To this end, Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones containing large fungal genomic DNA fragments were converted via a Lambda phage-based recombineering step to Agrobacterium transfer-competent binary vectors (BIBACs) with a Ustilago-specific selection marker. The fungal genomic DNA fragment was subsequently successfully delivered as T-DNA through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into Ustilago species where an intact copy stably integrated into the genome. By modifying the recombineering vector, this method can theoretically be adapted for many different fungi.

  13. Metabolism of pyrene by the basidiomycete crinipellis stipitaria and identification of pyrenequinones and their hydroxylated precursors in strain JK375

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M.; Kremer, S.; Anke, H.; Sterner, O. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1994-10-01

    The metabolism of pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, by submerged cultures of the basidiomycete Crinipellis stipitaria was studied. After incubation for 68 h at 25[degrees]C in a 20-liter fermentor with complex medium and 20 mg of pyrene per liter, five metabolites were detected. The compounds were isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography on RP18 and DIOL gels. By, UV, infrared, and [sup 1]H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1,6-dihydroxypyrene, 1,8-dihydroxypyrene, 1,6-pyrenequinone, and 1,8-pyrenequinone were identified 1,6- and 1,8-dihydroxypyrene were obtained from fungal cultures for the first time. The formation of these metabolites was confirmed by investigations with [4,5,9,10-[sup 14]C]pyrene. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  15. Rhodotorula subericola sp. nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species isolated from bark of Quercus suber (cork oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloch, C; Villa-Carvajal, M; Alvarez-Rodríguez, M L; Coque, J J R

    2007-07-01

    Two yeasts strains, Y-31(T) and Y-20B, pertaining to a previously unknown yeast species were isolated from bark of cork oak in Spain. Physiological characterization revealed a pattern of assimilation of carbon and nitrogen compounds compatible with members of the genus Rhodotorula. From sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene, Rhodotorula cycloclastica and Rhodotorula philyla were related to the unknown species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene showed that the novel species clustered in a branch together with R. cycloclastica. The name Rhodotorula subericola sp. nov. is proposed, with isolate Y-31(T) (=CECT 11976(T)=CBS 10442(T)) the type strain of this novel taxon in the Microbotryum lineage, subclass Microbotryomycetidae, class Urediniomycetes of basidiomycetous yeasts.

  16. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eleni; Aguiar, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Caio César; Bonfá, Maricy Raquel B; da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL(-1)) and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) (7 and 8 U mL(-1), respectively), when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60ºC while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55ºC. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes.

  17. Clinical Significance and Molecular Characterization of Nonsporulating Molds Isolated from the Respiratory Tracts of Bronchopulmonary Mycosis Patients with Special Reference to Basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Meis, Jacques F.; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Nonsporulating molds (NSMs), especially basidiomycetes, have predominantly been reported as human pathogens responsible for allergic and invasive disease. Their conventional identification is problematic, as many isolates remain sterile in culture. Thus, inconclusive culture reports might adversely affect treatment decisions. The clinical significance of NSMs in pulmonary mycoses is poorly understood. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and D1/D2 domain of the larger sub...

  18. Molecular cloning of functional genes for high growth-temperature and salt tolerance of the basidiomycete Fomitopsis pinicola isolated in a mangrove forest in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Hiraide, Masakazu; Shibuya, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Several functional genes encoding putative proteins, heat shock protein 70, sphingosine phosphate lyase, and Na+/H+ antiporter, were cloned from the basidiomycete Fomitopsis pinicola, a wood-rotting fungus isolated in the tropical mangrove forest of Pohnpei Island of the Federated States of Micronesia. The deduced amino acid sequences of the obtained genes involved in heat shock resistance, lipid synthesis, and salt tolerance showed diverse similarities to other homologous proteins. Molecular phylogenetic trees of these proteins suggested that encoded proteins of the cloned genes of F. pinicola differed remarkably from other homologs in various organisms, even fungal proteins. Putative candidates for other genes related to several cellular metabolisms were also amplified, implying the possible existence of those genes in F. pinicola. This is the first report of possibly functional genes derived from a basidiomycetous mushroom growing in tropical islands such as Micronesia. The genes found in this study might play important roles in the cellular survival of the basidiomycete F. pinicola under severe environmental conditions.

  19. Wood and humus decay strategies by white-rot basidiomycetes correlate with two different dye decolorization and enzyme secretion patterns on agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrasa, José M; Blanco, María N; Esteve-Raventós, Fernando; Altés, Alberto; Checa, Julia; Martínez, Angel T; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    During several forays for ligninolytic fungi in different Spanish native forests, 35 white-rot basidiomycetes growing on dead wood (16 species from 12 genera) and leaf litter (19 species from 10 genera) were selected for their ability to decolorize two recalcitrant aromatic dyes (Reactive Blue 38 and Reactive Black 5) added to malt extract agar medium. In this study, two dye decolorization patterns were observed and correlated with two ecophysiological groups (wood and humus white-rot basidiomycetes) and three taxonomical groups (orders Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales). Depending on the above groups, different decolorization zones were observed on the dye-containing plates, being restricted to the colony area or extending to the surrounding medium, which suggested two different decay strategies. These two strategies were related to the ability to secrete peroxidases and laccases inside (white-rot wood Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales) and outside (white-rot humus Agaricales) of the fungal colony, as revealed by enzymatic tests performed directly on the agar plates. Similar oxidoreductases production patterns were observed when fungi were grown in the absence of dyes, although the set of enzyme released was different. All these results suggest that the decolorization patterns observed could be related with the existence of two decay strategies developed by white-rot basidiomycetes adapted to wood and leaf litter decay in the field.

  20. Enrichment of perforate septal pore caps from the basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani by combined use of French press, isopycnic centrifugation, and Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Kenneth G A; van Peer, Arend F; Wösten, Han A B; Verkleij, Arie J; Boekhout, Teun; Müller, Wally H

    2007-12-01

    Septal pore caps occur in many filamentous basidiomycetes located at both sides of the dolipore septum and are at their base connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. The septal pore cap ultrastructure has been described extensively by the use of electron microscopy, but its composition and function are not yet known. To enable biochemical and functional analyses in the future, we here describe an enrichment method for perforate septal pore caps from Rhizoctonia solani. Our method is based on the combined use of French press and isopycnic centrifugation, using a discontinuous sucrose gradient followed by a treatment with Triton X-100. Enrichment was monitored by the use of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Using the same isolation method, smaller septal pore caps were isolated from two other basidiomycetes as well. Furthermore, we showed pore-occluding material co-purified with the septal pore caps. This observation supports the hypothesis that septal pore caps play a key role in the plugging process of the septal pores in filamentous basidiomycetes.

  1. Seleção de Basidiomycetes da Amazônia para produção de enzimas de interesse biotecnológico Screening of basidiomycetes from Amazonia for the production of biotechnological interest enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenires Queiroz de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos têm sido bastante usados como produtores de diferentes substâncias de interesse econômico, tais como: enzimas, antibióticos, vitaminas, aminoácidos e esteróides. Este estudo teve como objetivo detectar a produção de enzimas por linhagens de Basidiomycetes, oriundas de áreas de floresta da Amazônia. Para a produção de enzimas, os fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido adicionado de substrato indutor (0,5%, pH ajustado para cada enzima e incubados a 28 °C, sob agitação a 140 rpm, durante 96 ou 120 horas. A massa micelial foi separada for filtração e os filtrados foram inoculados em cup plates de 6 mm de diâmetro, perfurados na superfície de meios de cultura sólidos, adequados para a detecção das enzimas amilases, proteases, celulases, fenoloxidases e pectinases em placa de Petri. As placas foram incubadas à temperatura de 28 °C por 24 horas, e reveladas para observação dos halos indicativos da atividade enzimática. Foi verificada também a atividade da amilase e protease produzida pelos fungos, crescidos em meio líquido, com diferentes fontes nutricionais. Foi possível detectar a produção de celulases e proteases por todos os isolados, 40% produziram amilases, 50% produziram fenoloxidases e 10% produziram pectinases. Quanto à atividade da amilase, o substrato farelo de trigo foi o que proporcionou os maiores halos de degradação, destacando-se os fungos Daedalea sp. 4E6 e Daedalea sp. 1A, Stereaceae 22B e Pycnoporus sanguineus 12B. Considerando os substratos testados para produção de proteases, o substrato concentrado protéico de peixe se destacou como a melhor fonte protéica. Os fungos P. sanguineus 12B, Stereaceae 22B e Cantharellus guyanensis 4Bl foram os melhores produtores de protease.Mushrooms, edible basidiomycetes, have been extensively used as producers of different substances of economical interest, such as enzymes, antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, and steroids. The objective of this

  2. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles of metals and metalloids by basidiomycetes. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by using purified fungal phenol oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchinkina, Elena P; Loshchinina, Ekaterina A; Vodolazov, Ilya R; Kursky, Viktor F; Dykman, Lev A; Nikitina, Valentina E

    2017-02-01

    The work shows the ability of cultured Basidiomycetes of different taxonomic groups-Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Grifola frondosa-to recover gold, silver, selenium, and silicon, to elemental state with nanoparticles formation. It examines the effect of these metal and metalloid compounds on the parameters of growth and accumulation of biomass; the optimal cultivation conditions and concentrations of the studied ion-containing compounds for recovery of nanoparticles have been identified. Using the techniques of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray phase analysis, the degrees of oxidation of the bioreduced elements, the ζ-potential of colloidal solutions uniformity, size, shape, and location of the nanoparticles in the culture fluid, as well as on the surface and the inside of filamentous hyphae have been determined. The study has found the part played by homogeneous chromatographically pure fungal phenol-oxidizing enzymes (laccases, tyrosinases, and Mn-peroxidases) in the recovery mechanism with formation of electrostatically stabilized colloidal solutions. A hypothetical mechanism of gold(III) reduction from HAuCl4 to gold(0) by phenol oxidases with gold nanoparticles formation of different shapes and sizes has been introduced.

  3. Enhanced textile dye decolorization by marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 using integrated statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Vieira, Gabriela A L; Collins, Catherine; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina C; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Murray, Patrick; Sette, Lara D

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the biotechnological potential of the marine-derived fungus Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 was investigated in relation to Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye decolorization and degradation using an integrated statistical design composed of Plackett-Burman design (P&B), central composite design (CCD), and response surface methodology (RSM). RB5 dye was effectively decolorized (94 %) in saline conditions, without any detection of mutagenic compounds, and simultaneously, 57 % of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in 7 days. The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) was not detected during the process. The gene expression of laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzymes produced during the process was evaluated, and results from this experiment coupled with LC-MS analyses revealed that in the early stage of dye decolorization, a higher MnP gene expression and significant enzymatic activity was detected in Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063 with the formation of p-Base and TAHNDS compounds. This paper reports innovative data related to the textile dye decolorization by the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063, showing the metabolites formed and enzymatic action throughout the process in saline condition. The strategy used showed to be an efficient statistical approach that provides an attractive solution for the screening and simultaneous optimization of the degradation process.

  4. Dioszegia antarctica sp. nov. and Dioszegia cryoxerica sp. nov., psychrophilic basidiomycetous yeasts from polar desert soils in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Russell J.; Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Barrett, A.; Iszard, M.; Fonseca, A.

    2010-01-01

    During a survey of the culturable soil fungal population in samples collected in Taylor Valley, South Victoria Land, Antarctica, 13 basidiomycetous yeast strains with orange-coloured colonies were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial LSU rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains belong to the Dioszegia clade of the Tremellales (Tremellomycetes, Agaricomycotina), but did not correspond to any of the hitherto recognized species. Two novel species, Dioszegia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain ANT-03-116T =CBS 10920T =PYCC 5970T) and Dioszegia cryoxerica sp. nov. (type strain ANT-03-071T =CBS 10919T =PYCC 5967T), are described to accommodate ten and three of these strains, respectively. Analysis of ITS sequences demonstrated intrastrain sequence heterogeneity in D. cryoxerica. The latter species is also notable for producing true hyphae with clamp connections and haustoria. However, no sexual structures were observed. The two novel species can be considered obligate psychrophiles, since they failed to grow above 20 °C and grew best between 10 and 15 °C.

  5. Discovery of novel xylosides in co-culture of basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum by integrated metabolomics and bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Tan, Ling-Ling; Sadilek, Martin; Fan, Huan; Hu, Bo; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Bin; Yang, Song

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptomic analysis of cultured fungi suggests that many genes for secondary metabolite synthesis are presumably silent under standard laboratory condition. In order to investigate the expression of silent genes in symbiotic systems, 136 fungi-fungi symbiotic systems were built up by co-culturing seventeen basidiomycetes, among which the co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum demonstrated the strongest coloration of confrontation zones. Metabolomics study of this co-culture discovered that sixty-two features were either newly synthesized or highly produced in the co-culture compared with individual cultures. Molecular network analysis highlighted a subnetwork including two novel xylosides (compounds 2 and 3). Compound 2 was further identified as N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide 2-O-β-D-xyloside and was revealed to have the potential to enhance the cell viability of human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line of Beas-2B. Moreover, bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis of T. versicolor revealed a potential candidate gene (GI: 636605689) encoding xylosyltransferases for xylosylation. Additionally, 3-phenyllactic acid and orsellinic acid were detected for the first time in G. applanatum, which may be ascribed to response against T.versicolor stress. In general, the described co-culture platform provides a powerful tool to discover novel metabolites and help gain insights into the mechanism of silent gene activation in fungal defense. PMID:27616058

  6. Transcription analysis of pyranose dehydrogenase from the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus and characterization of the recombinantly expressed enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a litter degrading basidiomycete commonly found in humic-rich environments. It is used as model organism and cultivated in large scale for food industry. Due to its ecological niche it produces a variety of enzymes for detoxification and degradation of humified plant litter. One of these, pyranose dehydrogenase, is thought to play a role in detoxification and lignocellulose degradation. It is a member of the glucose-methanol-choline family of flavin-dependent enzymes and oxidizes a wide range of sugars with concomitant reduction of electron acceptors like quinones. In this work, transcription of pdh in A. bisporus was investigated with real-time PCR revealing influence of the carbon source on pdh expression levels. The gene was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed a higher affinity towards disaccharides compared to other tested pyranose dehydrogenases from related Agariceae. Homology modeling and sequence alignments indicated that two loops of high sequence variability at substrate access site could play an important role in modulating these substrate specificities.

  7. PRODUCING OF ENZYME PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF ENZYME PREPARATION OF PEROXIDASE AND CATALASE OF SOME SPECIES OF BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov O.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for obtaining of enzyme preparations of enzyme preparations (EP of peroxidases and catalases fungal extracellular and inracellular origin from cultures of Basidiomycetes was developed. The strains Flammulina velutipes F-vv, Agrocybe cylindracea167; Fistulina hepatica Fh-08 and Pleurotus ostreatus P-208 and P-01 were used as producers of oxidoreductases. Strains were grown on modified glucose-peptone media. Fractionation was carried out by salting out the enzymes with ammonium sulfate at 40-70% saturation of peroxidases and 80% of saturation - for catalase. These solutions protein fractions was further purified by dialysis and gel filtration on Molselekt granules G-50 and G-75. The enzyme solution was subjected to freeze-drying. The individual characteristics of the enzyme preparations were found. The individual characteristics of the enzyme preparations are the activity of enzymes, the protein content and amino-acid composition of enzyme preparations. It was established that strain F. velutipes F-vv was an active producer of intracellular and strain of A. cylindracea 167 was an active producer of extracellular peroxidase. The strains of P. ostreatus P-01 and P-208 were the active producers of extracellular catalase, and the strainsof F. hepatica Fh-08 were active producers of intracellular catalase. The developed methods for producing of enzymes catalase and peroxidase preparations of extra-and intracellular origin provided new antioxidant enzymes, which have their own properties and application prospects in various sectors of industry and science research.

  8. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris of X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from basidiomycete Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Ibarra, J Antonio; Chávez-Camarillo, Griselda; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes

    2014-03-01

    Dipeptidyl aminopeptidases are enzymes involved in the posttranslational control of bioactive peptides. Here we identified the gene dapUm in Ustilago maydis by homology with other fungal dipeptidyl aminopeptidases. Analysis of the dapUm-deduced amino acid sequence indicated that it encodes for membrane-type serine protease with a characteristic prolyl oligopeptidase catalytic motif triad: Ser, Asp, His. In order to overexpress the DapUm, the gene encoding for it was cloned and transformed into Pichia. Using this system, we observed a ∼ 125-kDa recombinant protein with an optimal enzymatic activity at pH 6.0 and at 40 °C for the Ala-Pro-p-nitroanilide substrate and an experimental pH of 6.9. U. maydis DapUm was specifically inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Pefabloc, confirming the presence of a serine residue in the active site. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the cloning and expression of a DPP IV dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from a basidiomycete organism. Moreover, the use of recombinant DapUm will allow us to further study and characterize this enzyme, in addition to testing chemical compounds for pharmaceutical purposes.

  9. Potential of Basidiomycetous Fungi Isolated from Gunung Barus Forest North Sumatera in Decolorization of Wastewater of Textile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, E.; Priyani, N.; Suryanto, D.; Naimah, Z.

    2017-03-01

    A study of basidiomycetous fungi in decolorization of wastewater of textile industry has been started in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to obtain potential isolates and to examine their decolorization acitity. The fungi were isolated from local forest, Gunung Barus Forest, in North Sumatera and screened their ligninolytic activity qualitatively by bavendam method and the waste was obtained from local textile industry in Medan. Nineteen fungal isolates grew on plate agar medium containing 100% of waste supplemented with 2% glucose, and 6 of those exhibited good growth when glucose in the media was reduced to 1%. Surprisingly, these six potential isolates grew, although relatively at lower rate, when glucose was not included in the media. Meanwhile, there was no substantial decolorization of media could be observed on all plates cultures. Analyses of decolorization on liquid condition containing 25% of wastewater and no glucose showed that fungal grew at the bottom culture flask. All 6 isolates exhibited decolorization activity. Interestingly, mass of mycelia growth at the bottom absorbed dyes and dissolved suspended solid which was seemingly separated from very clean solution medium surrounding. These results indicated that the cultures utilized carbon source from waste and the extracellular matrixes produced by fungal isolates might involve in decolorization of textile wastewater.

  10. High-coverage ITS primers for the DNA-based identification of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes in environmental samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Toju

    Full Text Available The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as a prerequisite procedure. By extensively surveying ITS sequences in public databases, we designed new ITS primers with improved coverage across diverse taxonomic groups of fungi compared to existing primers. An in silico analysis based on public sequence databases indicated that the newly designed primers matched 99% of ascomycete and basidiomycete ITS taxa (species, subspecies or varieties, causing little taxonomic bias toward either fungal group. Two of the newly designed primers could inhibit the amplification of plant sequences and would enable the selective investigation of fungal communities in mycorrhizal associations, soil, and other types of environmental samples. Optimal PCR conditions for the primers were explored in an in vitro investigation. The new primers developed in this study will provide a basis for ecological studies on the diversity and community structures of fungi in the era of massive DNA sequencing.

  11. Two-component signal transduction in Agaricus bisporus: a comparative genomic analysis with other basidiomycetes through the web-based tool BASID2CS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, José L; García-Yoldi, Alberto; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2013-06-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are signal transduction mechanisms present in many eukaryotes, including fungi that play essential roles in the regulation of several cellular functions and responses. In this study, we carry out a genomic analysis of the TCS proteins in two varieties of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The genomes of both A. bisporus varieties contain eight genes coding for TCS proteins, which include four hybrid Histidine Kinases (HKs), a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein and three Response Regulators (RRs). Comparison of the TCS proteins among A. bisporus and the sequenced basidiomycetes showed a conserved core complement of five TCS proteins including the Tco1/Nik1 hybrid HK, HPt protein and Ssk1, Skn7 and Rim15-like RRs. In addition, Dual-HKs, unusual hybrid HKs with 2 HK and 2 RR domains, are absent in A. bisporus and are limited to various species of basidiomycetes. Differential expression analysis showed no significant up- or down-regulation of the Agaricus TCS genes in the conditions/tissue analyzed with the exception of the Skn7-like RR gene (Agabi_varbisH97_2|198669) that is significantly up-regulated on compost compared to cultured mycelia. Furthermore, the pipeline web server BASID2CS (http://bioinformatics.unavarra.es:1000/B2CS/BASID2CS.htm) has been specifically designed for the identification, classification and functional annotation of putative TCS proteins from any predicted proteome of basidiomycetes using a combination of several bioinformatic approaches.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Álvarez-Cervantes; Gerardo Díaz-Godínez; Yuridia Mercado-Flores; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Miguel Angel Anducho-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to...

  13. Biotechnological modification of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    A literature search of organisms capable of degrading lignin was conducted. Four fungi were selected for study and these were Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Chrysosporium pruinosum, Phlebia tremellosus and Trametes versicolor. Other organisms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus florida and Lentinus edodes were also tested in preliminary experiments. All cultures were screened for their ability to degrade the lignin component of aspen sawdust and also lignin extracted from steam-exploded wood. This type of screen was followed by analysis of culture filtrates for the presence of ligninase, the marker enzyme for lignin degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and consequently chosen for further studies in fermentors. Considerable efforts were directed to production of ligninase in fermentors. Only when Chrysosporium pruinosum was pre-cultured in a shake flask for 4 days and then transferred to a fermentor could ligninase activity be detected. The enzyme from shake flasks has been concentrated ready for use in bench-scale studies on cell-free depolymerization of lignin. 13 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. High level secretion of laccase (LccH from a newly isolated white rot basidiomycete, Hexagonia hirta MSF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha eKandhasamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Newer and novel laccases attract considerable attention due to its promising and valuable multiple applications in biotech industry. This present investigation documents, for the first time, on high level extracellular secretion of laccase (LccH in newly isolated wood-degrading basidiomycete Hexagonia hirta MSF2. LccH was optimally active at 40°C in citrate phosphate buffer with a pH of 3.4. Optimized Cu2+ in glucose yeast extract (GY medium enhanced the LccH production by H. hirta to 1944.44 U.ml-1. A further increment in LccH activity of 5671.30 U.ml-1 was achieved by the addition of a phenolic inducer, 2,5 Xylidine. Zymogram and sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE analysis of LccH revealed that LccH is a monomer with a molecular mass of 66 kDa. MALDI-TOF-MS based peptide mass fingerprinting and comparative modelling of the amino acid sequence of LccH showed that it was closer to Trametes sp. AH28-2 (PDB: 3KW7 with 48% identity, 95% coverage, 0.011 alignment score and RMSD of 0.497Å. Crude LccH delignified lignocellulosic biomass such as wood and corncob, to a level of 28.6 and 16.5 % respectively. Such high level secretion, thermal and solvent stability of LccH make H.hirta a potential candidate not only for LccH production and biodelignification but also generation of lignin derived aromatic feed stock chemicals for industrial and environmental applications.

  15. The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis has two plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases related to fungi and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Martínez, Leobarda; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Miranda, Manuel; Mendez, Tavis L; Matus-Ortega, Macario Genaro; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Guerra-Sánchez, Guadalupe

    2013-10-01

    The fungal and plant plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases play critical roles in the physiology of yeast, plant and protozoa cells. We identified two genes encoding two plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, one protein with higher identity to fungal (um02581) and the other to plant (um01205) H⁺-ATPases. Proton pumping activity was 5-fold higher when cells were grown in minimal medium with ethanol compared to cells cultured in rich YPD medium, but total vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was the same in both conditions. In contrast, the activity in cells cultured in minimal medium with glucose was 2-fold higher than in YPD or ethanol, implicating mechanisms for the regulation of the plasma membrane ATPase activity in U. maydis. Analysis of gene expression of the H⁺-ATPases from cells grown under different conditions, showed that the transcript expression of um01205 (plant-type) was higher than that of um02581 (fungal-type). The translation of the two proteins was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Unlike baker's yeast and plant H⁺-ATPases, where the activity is increased by a short incubation with glucose or sucrose, respectively, U. maydis H⁺-ATPase activity did not change in response to these sugars. Sequence analysis of the two U. maydis H⁺-ATPases revealed the lack of canonical threonine and serine residues which are targets of protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H⁺-ATPases, suggesting that phosphorylation of the U. maydis enzymes occurs at different amino acid residues.

  16. Biogeography, host specificity, and molecular phylogeny of the basidiomycetous yeast Phaffia rhodozyma and its sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libkind, Diego; Ruffini, Alejandra; van Broock, Maria; Alves, Leonor; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2007-02-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma (sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is a basidiomycetous yeast that has been found in tree exudates in the Northern Hemisphere at high altitudes and latitudes. This yeast produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with biotechnological importance because it is used in aquaculture for fish pigmentation. We isolated X. dendrorhous from the Southern Hemisphere (Patagonia, Argentina), where it was associated with fruiting bodies of Cyttaria hariotii, an ascomycetous parasite of Nothofagus trees. We compared internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenies of P. rhodozyma and its tree host (Betulaceae, Corneaceae, Fagaceae, and Nothofagaceae) and found them to be generally concordant, suggesting that different yeast lineages colonize different trees and providing an explanation for the phylogenetic distance observed between the type strains of P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous. We hypothesize that the association of Xanthophyllomyces with Cyttaria derives from a previous association of the yeast with Nothofagus, and the sister relationship between Nothofagaceae and Betulaceae plus Fagaceae correlates with the phylogeny of X. dendrorhous strains originating from these three plant families. The two most basal strains of X. dendrorhous are those isolated from Cornus, an ancestral genus in the phylogenetic analysis of the host trees. Thus, we question previous conclusions that P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous represent different species since the polymorphisms detected in the ITS and intergenic spacer sequences can be attributed to intraspecific variation associated with host specificity. Our study provides a deeper understanding of Phaffia biogeography, ecology, and molecular phylogeny. Such knowledge is essential for the comprehension of many aspects of the biology of this organism and will facilitate the study of astaxanthin production within an evolutionary and ecological framework.

  17. Fungal secretomes--nature's toolbox for white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouws, Henning; Wattenberg, Andreas; Zorn, Holger

    2008-09-01

    Adapting their metabolism to varying carbon and nitrogen sources, saprophytic fungi produce an arsenal of extracellular enzymes, the secretome, which allows for an efficient degradation of lignocelluloses and further biopolymers. Based on fundamental advances in electrophoretic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric techniques on the one hand and the availability of annotated fungal genomes and sophisticated bioinformatic software tools on the other hand, a detailed analysis of fungal secretomes has become feasible. While a number of reports on ascomycetous secretomes of, e.g., Aspergillus, Trichoderma, and Fusarium species are already available, studies on basidiomycetes have been mainly focused on the two model organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinopsis cinerea so far. Though an impressive number and diversity of fungal biocatalysts has been revealed by secretome analyses, the identity and function of many extracellular proteins still remains to be elucidated. A comprehensive understanding of the qualitative and quantitative composition of fungal secretomes, together with their synergistic actions and kinetic expression profiles, will allow for the development of optimized enzyme cocktails for white biotechnology.

  18. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  19. Computational studies on LiP H isolated from Ganoderma lucidum GD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parambayil Nayana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a basidiomycete fungus that produces ligninase for the modification of lignin. Lignin peroxidase (LiP is a glycoprotein that acts on the recalcitrant cell wall component lignin. In the present study, the phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma lucidum GD88 with the partial coding sequence (cds of other LiP isoforms was performed using MEGA6. After determination of the open reading frame, the +3 frame nucleotide sequence was converted to protein using the EMBOSS Transseq and the secondary structure was predicted using the Chou and Fasman Secondary Structure Prediction server (CFSSP. Protein modeling was also performed by SWISS-MODEL. The obtained result shows that the lipH partial cds of Ganoderma lucidum GD88 is homologous to the lipD gene of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The secondary structure prediction result revealed that the percent content of the helix (67 is higher than the percent contents of sheet (53.4 and turns (13.6. According to the generated model, LiP H protein is a homodimer with chains A and B. The heme acts as a ligand and plays a major role in structure stabilization.

  20. Solid-state fermentation as a strategy to improve the bioactive compounds recovery from Larrea tridentata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sílvia; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2013-11-01

    Chemical composition of Larrea tridentata leaves was determined and elevated content of lignin (35.96 % w/w) was found. The present study was proposed in order to evaluate the extraction of bioactive compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of L. tridentata leaves. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used in the experiments due to its ability to degrade lignin. The concentration of total phenolic compounds in the extracts produced by SSF was determined. Additionally, the extracts were characterized regarding the concentration of flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid and antioxidant activity. SSF was not an efficient process to recover phenolic compounds from L. tridentata leaves. However, this process was very efficient when used as a pretreatment before the plant extraction with organic solvent (methanol). By submitting the plant to SSF and subsequently to extraction with 90 % (v/v) methanol, the recovery of phenolic compounds was improved by 33 % when compared to the results obtained by methanolic extraction of the non-fermented plant. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed a major disorganization and porosity of the plant structure after fermentation, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicated a possible solubilization of some constituents of lignocellulose fraction after this process, which may have favored the solvent action in the later stage.

  1. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  2. Bioaccumulation of the artificial Cs-137 and the natural radionuclides Th-234, Ra-226, and K-40 in the fruit bodies of Basidiomycetes in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioupi, Vasiliki; Florou, Heleny; Kapsanaki-Gotsi, Evangelia; Gonou-Zagou, Zacharoula

    2016-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of artificial Cs-137 and natural radionuclides Th-234, Ra-226, and K-40 by Basidiomycetes of several species is studied and evaluated in relation to their substratum soils. For this reason, 32 fungal samples, representing 30 species of Basidiomycetes, were collected along with their substratum soil samples, from six selected sampling areas in Greece. The fungal fruit bodies and the soil samples were properly treated and the activity concentrations of the studied radionuclides were measured by gamma spectroscopy. The measured radioactivity levels ranged as follows: Cs-137 from Ra-226 from <0.3 to 1.0 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1) F.W., and K-40 from 56.4 ± 3.0 to 759.0 ± 28.3 Bq kg(-1) F.W. The analysis of the results supported that the bioaccumulation of the studied natural radionuclides and Cs-137 is dependent on the species and the functional group of the fungi. Fungi were found to accumulate Th-234 and not U-238. What is more, potential bioindicators for each radionuclide among the 32 species studied could be suggested for each habitat, based on their estimated concentration ratios (CRs). The calculation of the CRs' mean values for each radionuclide revealed a rank in decreasing order for all the species studied.

  3. Effect of long-term preservation of basidiomycetes on perlite in liquid nitrogen on their growth, morphological, enzymatic and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Eichlerová, Ivana; Valášková, Vendula; Baldrian, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The macro- and micro-morphological features, mycelial extension rate, enzymatic activities and possible genetic changes were studied in 30 selected strains of basidiomycetes after 10-year cryopreservation on perlite in liquid nitrogen (LN). Comparisons with the same strains preserved by serial transfers on nutrient media at 4°C were also conducted. Production of ligninolytic enzymes and hydrogen peroxide was studied by quantitative spectrophotometric methods, whereas semiquantitative API ZYM testing was used to compare the levels of a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes. Our results show that cryopreservation in LN did not cause morphological changes in any isolate. The vitality of all fungi was successfully preserved and none of the physiological features were lost, even though the extension rate and enzyme activity were slightly affected. Moreover, sequence analysis of eight strains did not detect any changes in their genetic features after cryopreservation. These findings suggest that the perlite-based freezing protocol is suitable for long-term preservation of large numbers of basidiomycetes.

  4. Substantial production of drosophilin A methyl ether (tetrachloro-1,4-dimethoxybenzene) by the lignicolous basidiomycete Phellinus badius in the heartwood of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Wilkens, Barry; Groy, Thomas L.; Glaeser, Jessie A.

    2015-04-01

    Toxic organohalogen pollutants produced as by-products of industrial processes, such as chloroform and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, also have significant natural sources. A substantial terrestrial source of halogenated organics originates from fungal decay of wood and leaf litter. Here we show that the lignicolous basidiomycete Phellinus badius deposits up to 30,000 mg of the halogenated metabolite drosophilin A methyl ether (DAME, tetrachloro-1,4-dimethoxybenzene) per kilogram of decayed heartwood in the mesquite Prosopis juliflora. DAME occurs as clusters of glassy crystals up to 1 mm long within the decayed heartwood. In addition, the Phellinus badius basidiocarps contain an average of 24,000 mg DAME/kg dried fruiting body, testifying to the significant translocation and accumulation of Cl accompanied by DAME biosynthesis. The high DAME concentrations attest to the substantial Cl content of the heartwood, which averages near 5,000 ppm, with Cl/K near 1:1, consistent with an inorganic chloride precursor. Phellinus badius has a circumglobal distribution in the tropics and subtropics, where it is widely distributed on hardwoods and commonly associated with decay of mesquite. There is the potential for extensive DAME formation within decayed heartwood worldwide given the extensive range of Phellinus badius and its propensity to form DAME within mesquites. Further, DAME production is not limited to Phellinus badius but occurs in a range of lignicolous basidiomycetes, suggesting a significant natural reservoir for this chloroaromatic with potential environmental implications.

  5. Trichosporon wieringae sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast from soil, and assimilation of some phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and other non-conventional carbon sources by saprophytic Trichosporon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    A morphological and physiological description of an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species isolated from soil, named Trichosporon wieringae, is presented. The phylogenetic position within the genus, based on nuclear base sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit of rDNA and of the ITS re

  6. Fungicides affect the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and the peripheral growth unit (PGU) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J

    2006-10-01

    This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments.

  7. [Total Peroxidase and Catalase Activity of Luminous Basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in Comparison with the Level of Light Emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil'naya, O A; Ronzhin, N O; Medvedeva, S E; Bondar, V S

    2015-01-01

    The peroxidase and catalase activities in the mycelium of luminous basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in normal conditions and under stress were compared. An increase in the luminescence level was observed under stress, as well as an increase in peroxidase and catalase activities. Moreover, the peroxidase activity in extracts of A. borealis mycelium was found to be almost one and a half orders of magnitude higher, and the catalase activity more than two orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the N. nambi mycelium. It can be suggested that the difference between the brightly luminescent and dimly luminescent mycelium of N. nambi is due to the content of H2O2 or other peroxide compounds.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cervantes, Jorge; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-04

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to determine that the proteins under study were classified into the GH10 and GH11 families, based on the regions of highly conserved amino acids, 233-318 and 180-193 respectively, where glutamate residues are responsible for the catalysis.

  9. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  10. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  11. GenBank blastx search result: AK061841 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061841 001-040-E04 S69963.1 mnp2=manganese peroxidase isozyme 2 {heat-shock elements, metal response eleme...nts} [Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Genomic, 3297 nt].|PLN PLN 2e-12 +3 ...

  12. Optimization of an Innovative Biofiltration System as a VOC Control Technology for Aircraft Painting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-20

    Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and...degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. Cladosporium resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones...2002). Cladosporium Cladosporium Exophiala Mucor Phanerochaete resinae sphaerospermum lecanii-corni rouxii chrysosporium No carbon source Glucose

  13. Studies on the production of fungal peroxidases in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpo

  14. Testing the Tolerance and Growth of eleven Trichoderma Strains to crude oil, naphthalene and phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argumedo-Delira, R.; Alarcon, A.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Pena-Cabriales, J. J.

    2009-07-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) are major organic contaminants in soils, and are subjected to degradation process mediated by either rhizospheric or soil microorganisms. Filamentous fungi such as cunninghamella elegans and Phanerochaete chrysosporium have a significant role on degradation of organic contaminants in soils. (Author)

  15. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi.

  16. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts on the miRNA Profile and Telomerase Activity of the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Oyku; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; Kalmis, Erbil; Kayalar, Husniye; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Atay, Sevcan; Ak, Handan

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushroom that exerts anticancer effects through several different mechanisms. This study investigated the effects of G. lucidum on the telomerase activity and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of MCF-7 cells. According to the cytotoxicity results, the G. lucidum ether extract exhibits the highest cytotoxic potency; therefore it was chosen for the subsequent telomerase activity assay and miRNA profiling. The telomerase activity observed in the cells treated with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of G. lucidum ether extract (100 µg/mL in dimethyl sulfoxide) was 32.2% lower than that of the control cells treated with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. Among 1066 miRNAs, the most downregulated miRNA was hsa-miR-27a* (4.469-fold), and the most upregulated miRNA was hsa-miR-1285 (10.462-fold). A database search revealed the predicted miRNAs that target the catalytic subunit of the telomerase enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase, and only miR-3687 (upregulated 2.153-fold) and miR-1207-5p (upregulated 2.895-fold) were changed by at least 2-fold. The miRNA profile changes demonstrated in this study provide a data set regarding their effects on the pathways that regulate telomerase activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with G. lucidum. These data should aid the development of novel cancer treatment strategies.

  17. Effect of growth substrate, method of fermentation, and nitrogen source on lignocellulose-degrading enzymes production by white-rot basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Penninckx, Michel

    2008-11-01

    The exploration of seven physiologically different white rot fungi potential to produce cellulase, xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) showed that the enzyme yield and their ratio in enzyme preparations significantly depends on the fungus species, lignocellulosic growth substrate, and cultivation method. The fruit residues were appropriate growth substrates for the production of hydrolytic enzymes and laccase. The highest endoglucanase (111 U ml(-1)) and xylanase (135 U ml(-1)) activities were revealed in submerged fermentation (SF) of banana peels by Pycnoporus coccineus. In the same cultivation conditions Cerrena maxima accumulated the highest level of laccase activity (7,620 U l(-1)). The lignified materials (wheat straw and tree leaves) appeared to be appropriate for the MnP secretion by majority basidiomycetes. With few exceptions, SF favored to hydrolases and laccase production by fungi tested whereas SSF was appropriate for the MnP accumulation. Thus, the Coriolopsis polyzona hydrolases activity increased more than threefold, while laccase yield increased 15-fold when tree leaves were undergone to SF instead SSF. The supplementation of nitrogen to the control medium seemed to have a negative effect on all enzyme production in SSF of wheat straw and tree leaves by Pleurotus ostreatus. In SF peptone and ammonium containing salts significantly increased C. polyzona and Trametes versicolor hydrolases and laccase yields. However, in most cases the supplementation of media with additional nitrogen lowered the fungi specific enzyme activities. Especially strong repression of T. versicolor MnP production was revealed.

  18. Characterization of a gene coding for a putative adenosine deaminase-related growth factor by RNA interference in the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Shuichi; Yamada, Masato; Shibata, Kou; Okuhara, Toru; Yoshida, Masumi; Inatomi, Satoshi; Taguchi, Goro; Shimosaka, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    A full-length cDNA coding for a putative adenosine deaminase (Fv-ada) was isolated from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. Fv-ada encodes a polypeptide consisting of 537 amino acid residues, which has a consensus sequence conserved among adenosine deaminase-related growth factors (ADGF) found in several metazoa, including chordates and insects. Fv-ada transcript was detected at all stages of growth in dikaryotic F. velutipes cells, with a peak at the primordial stage. Heterologous expression of Fv-ada in the yeast Pichia pastoris produced recombinant Fv-ADA that catalyzed the conversion of adenosine to inosine. Dikaryotic mycelia from F. velutipes were transformed with the binary plasmid pFungiway-Fv-ada, which was designed to suppress the expression of Fv-ada through RNA interference. The growth rates of the resulting transformants were retarded in response to the degree of suppression, indicating that Fv-ada plays an important role in the mycelial growth of F. velutipes. These results suggested that ADGF could function as growth factors in fungi, as is seen in other eukaryotes.

  19. Producción de enzimas lignolíticas por Basidiomycetes mediante la técnica de fermentación en sustrato sólido

    OpenAIRE

    García Torres Angélica María; Torres Sáe Rodrigo Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    La fermentación en sustrato sólido tiene amplias aplicaciones industriales; actualmente, las enzimas son emplea­das principalmente para la obtención de lácteos, edulcolorantes, fármacos, alimentos, licores, detergentes, etc. La degradación enzimática de la lignina es llevada a cabo por la acción de los hongos del género Basidiomycetes mediante un proceso no-específico y oxidativo de tres tipos diferentes de enzimas: Lacasa, Lignina-peroxidasa y Manganeso-peroxidasa; la no-especificidad de ést...

  20. Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, R.; Leisola, M.S.A.; Fiechter, A.

    1988-10-01

    Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in agitated cultures Bjerkandera adusta showed highest lignin degradation rates. Metabolites accumulating during the degradation of veratryl alcohol were analyzed and compared. Peroxidase production seems to be a common feature of all the tested fungi. Polyclonal antibodies against the lignin peroxidase with pl of 4.65 from P. chrysosporium reacted with the extracellular peroxidases of C. pruinosum, C. versicolor and B. adusta, but not with those of Pleurotus ostreatus.

  1. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  2. Solid State production of manganese peroxidases using arecanut husk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Rajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The lignocellulosic biomass from arecanut husk (Areca catechu Linnaeus was evaluated as a new substrate for cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sp for solid state fermentation of manganese peroxidase (MnP. Arecanut had a moisture content of 79.84 % for ripe nut husk whereas green nut husk had 68.39 % moisture and a pH of 5.0, 3.0 and 7.0 for raw, ripe and dry husk. Reducing sugar content was 14.31, 19.21 and 1.77(mg/g of husk for raw, ripe and dry nut husk, respectively. Non reducing sugar was 1.04(mg/g of husk for raw and 0.68 (mg/g of husk for dry husk. Solid state fermentation carried out at different pH showed optimum enzyme production at pH 6.0 (52.60 IU/g for P.chrysosporium and pH 5.0 (44.08 IU/g for Phanerochaete sp. Optimum temperature was 30 ± 2º C for both the organisms. Lower concentration of MnSO4 (0.1 mM MnSO4 induced maximum enzyme production in P.chrysosporium whereas Phanerochaete sp. required 1 mM MnSO4 for induction. Absence of carbon and nitrogen stimulated enzyme production in P.chrysosporium while Phanerochaete sp. needed nitrogen. Enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography.

  3. Biodegradation of reactive textile dyes by basidiomycetous fungi from brazilian ecosystems Biodegradação de corantes têxteis reativos fungos basidiomicetos do ecossistema brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.G. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Trametes villosa and Pycnoporus sanguineus to decolorize reactive textile dyes used for cotton manufacturing in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated. Growth and decolorization halos were determined on malt extract agar containing 0.002g L-1 of the dye. T. villosa decolorized all 28 of the tested dyes while P. sanguineus decolorized only 9. The effect of culture conditions (shaking and dye and nitrogen concentration on the degradation of Drimaren Brilliant Blue dye was evaluated during growth of the fungi in liquid synthetic medium. Shaking favored degradation and decolorization was not repressed by nitrogen. In pure culture, T. villosa and P. sanguineus decolorized synthetic effluent consisting of a mixture of 10 dyes. Higher decolorization of the synthetic effluent was observed when a mixed culture of the two fungi was used. This study demonstrated differences between tropical basidiomycete species in terms of their ability to degrade reactive dyes, and reinforces the potential of this group of fungi for the decolorization of textile effluents.O potencial de Trametes villosa e Pycnoporus sanguineus de descolorir corantes têxteis reativos utilizados na manufatura de algodão no estado de Minas Gerais foi avaliado. Halos de crescimento e descoloração foram determinados em agar extrato malte (MEA com 0,002g L-1 do corante. T. villosa descoloriu os 28 corantes testados e P. sanguineus apenas 9. A influência de condições de cultivo (agitação, concentração de corante e concentração de nitrogênio na degradação do corante azul brilhante Drimaren foi avaliada durante crescimento dos fungos em meio líquido sintético. Agitação favoreceu a degradação e não foi observada repressão da descoloração pelo nitrogênio. Em cultura pura, T. villosa e P. sanguineus descoloriram efluente sintético constituído por uma mistura de dez corantes. Maior descoloração do efluente sintético foi observada no cultivo

  4. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of the Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Sixteen Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Varshney, Vinay K; Harsh, N S K; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting bodies and the submerged cultured mycelia of 16 higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms- Agaricus bisporus, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinus tigrinus, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Polyporus arcularius, Russula brevipes, Schizophyllum commune, Sparassis crispa, and Spongipellis unicolor-from different taxonomic groups were examined for their antioxidant capacity (AOXC) and total phenolics content (TPC). Extraction of the freeze-dried and pulverized fruiting bodies and mycelia with methanol and water (8:2, v/v), followed by evaporation of the solvent under a vacuum, created their extracts, which were analyzed for their AOXC and TPC using a DPPH· scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The fruiting bodies and the culture mycelia of all the mushroom species exhibited varied antioxidant capacity; however, the fruiting bodies had more potent DPPH· scavenging than the corresponding mycelia irrespective of the mushroom species, as evident by the effective concentrations of extract that scavenges 50% of DPPH· (EC50) of the former (0.56-1.24 mg mL-1) being lower than those of the latter (2.51-8.39 mg mL-1). TPC in the fruiting bodies (6.08-24.85 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE] g-1) were higher than those in the mycelia (4.17-13.34 mg GAE g-1). AOXC of the fruiting bodies (r = -0.755) and the culture mycelia (r = -0.903) also was correlated to their TPC. Among the cultured mycelia, A. bisporus, A. mellea, L. tigrinus, P. ostreatus, and S. crispa were highly promising in terms of their highest TPC (10.55, 13.34, 11.00, 10.37, and 10.19 mg GAE g-1, respectively) and the lowest EC50 values (3.33, 2.85, 2.51, 3.65, and 3.17 mg mL-1, respectively) as they relate to the development of antioxidants.

  5. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Reverse Transcription-PCR Analysis of the Regulation of the Manganese Peroxidase Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Gettemy, Jessica M.; Ma, Biao; Alic, Margaret; Gold, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) gene expression in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is regulated by nutrient nitrogen levels and by Mn(II), the substrate for the enzyme, as well as by heat shock and other factors. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of total RNA can distinguish the mRNAs of each of the three sequenced P. chrysosporium mnp genes, i.e., mnp1, mnp2, and mnp3. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrates that each of the three transcripts is present at a similar low basal le...

  7. Cryptococcus ibericus sp. nov., Cryptococcus aciditolerans sp. nov. and Cryptococcus metallitolerans sp. nov., a new ecoclade of anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species from an extreme environment associated with acid rock drainage in São Domingos pyrite mine, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2009-09-01

    In this report, we describe three novel asexual basidiomycetous yeast species, Cryptococcus aciditolerans sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10872T=SDY 081T), Cryptococcus ibericus sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10871T=SDY 022T) and Cryptococcus metallitolerans sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10873T=SDY 190T), which were isolated from acid rock drainage collected at the São Domingos mine in southern Portugal. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular sequence data indicated that the novel species belong to the order Filobasidiales of the class Tremellomycetes and form a well-separated clade, next to Cryptococcus gastricus and Cryptococcus gilvescens. Since the novel species also share a peculiar ecology, being able to thrive under extreme environmental conditions characterized by very low pH and high concentrations of heavy metals, we designate this combination of phylogenetic and ecological characteristics as an ecoclade.

  8. Biotransformacion de Residuos Lignocelulosicos con Hongos Pleurotus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grisel Maria Ortega Arias-Carbajal; Gloria Bueno García; Dionisio Betancourt Rodríguez; Ivis Álvarez; Ana Lidia González

    2005-01-01

    En los últimos años se han estudiado numerosos microorganismos capaces de degradar los componentes de las maderas, considerándose como agentes degradadores de la lignina en la naturaleza. Los hongos del grupo de Phanerochaete chrysosporium y otros basidiomicetos, que incluso pueden ser cultivados a escala comercial, como son los Agaricus bisporus y Pleurotus, ambos comestibles, metabolizan con cierta selectividad la fracción de lignina del complejo lignocelulósico dejando un residuo de pudric...

  9. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hy...

  10. BLEACHING OF SULFONATED CMP FROM BIO-TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw chemi-mechanical pulp was pretreated with a crude xylanase which was secreted by white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium prior to hydrogen peroxide bleaching. The process of xylanase pretreatment and hydrogen peroxide bleaching was optimized. The xylanase treated pulp achieved a brightness gain of 5.8% ISO over the untreated pulp. The xylanase treatment was found to liberate reducing sugars and facilitating lignin removal. Fiber morphology of pulp treated with xylanase was also studied by SEM.

  11. Enzymatic production of microthecin by aldos-2-ulose dehydratase from 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose and stability studies of microthecin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Shukun; Andreassen, Mikkel; Lundt, Inge

    2008-01-01

    .2.2.13) from glycogen and starch by aldos-2-ulose dehydratase (AUDH; EC 4. 2.1.110). In the current study, the yield and purity of microthecin was examined with respect to pH and buffers using AUDH purified from the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that AUDH had a Km of 5.4 and 4.9 mM towards...

  12. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Kátia M.G.; Dácio R. Matheus; Bononi,Vera L. R.

    2005-01-01

    Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye was used as substrate to evaluate ligninolytic activity in 125 basidiomycetous fungi isolated from tropical ecosystems. The extracellular RBBR decolorizing activity produced when selected fungi were grown in solid media and in soil contaminated with organochlorines was also evaluated. A total of 106 fungi decolorized the RBBR during the growth in malt extract agar (MEA, 2%); 96 fungi showed a mycelia growth and decolorization activity stronger than the P. c...

  13. Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Using Forced-Aeration Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory simulation studies and a composting pilot study were conducted to evaluate the capacity of three strains of fungi, indigenous fungus Fusarium sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus Versicolor, to remediate petroleum-contaminated soils. In laboratory, the fungi were inoculated into a liquid culture medium and the petroleum-contaminated soil samples for incubation of 40 and 50 days, respectively.In the 200-day pilot study, nutrient contents and moisture were adjusted and maintained under aerobic condition in composting units using concrete container (118.5 cm × 65.5 cm × 12.5 cm) designed specially for this study. The laboratory simulation results showed that all the three fungi were effective in degrading petroleum in the liquid culture medium and in the soil. At the end of both the laboratory incubations, the degradation rates by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 66% after incubation in liquid culture for 50 days. This was further demonstrated in the composting pilot study where the degradation rate by P. chrysosporium reached 79% within 200 days, higher than those of the other two fungi (53.1% and 46.1%), indicating that P. chrysosporium was the best fungus for bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum. Further research is required to increase degradation rate.Key Words: bioremediation, composting, fungi, petroleum, soil

  14. Investigation of the response of wood-rotting fungi to copper stress by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis with ICP MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchina, V.; Szpunar, J. [Group of Bio-inorganic Analytical Chemistry, CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J. [Laboratory of the Biochemistry of the Wood-Rotting Fungi, Institute of Microbiology ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-02-01

    A method based on the coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for screening the changes in the bioligand composition of wood-rotting fungi as a function of their exposure to copper stress. Strains of four different species of wood-rotting fungi: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Schizophyllum commune, Daedalea quercina and Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Only one, namely Ph. chrysosporium, showed any significant difference in terms of the fingerprint of Cu-binding ligands between control and exposed cells which suggest trapping of Cu(II) by cell walls as the only resistance mechanisms. In the case of Ph. chrysosporium the bioinduction of a new Cu-binding ligand was demonstrated. The presence of a new compound in the SE chromatographic fraction of interest was confirmed by CZE-ICP MS. Attempts to identify the new compound by electrospray MS/MS failed because of insufficient sensitivity. (orig.)

  15. Could basidiomycetes fungi be an alternative for the treatment of fibrous feedstuffs? application of enzymatic complexes and future prospects Fungos basidiomicetos podem ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de alimentos fibrosos? aplicação de complexos enzimáticos e perspectivas futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel António Machado Rodrigues; Rui Manuel Furtado Bezerra; José Albino Gomes Alves Dias; Cristina Vitória de Miranda Guedes; Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira; Fernando Nunes

    2010-01-01

    This presentation intends to make a brief description of the studies being investigated by our research group in the area valorization of fibrous feed utilizing the white-rot fungi (basidiomycetes fungi) enzyme complexes.Esta apresentação pretende fazer uma breve descrição dos estudos que têm sido investigados pelo nosso grupo de pesquisa na área de valorização de alimentos fibrosos, utilizando o fungo de podridão branca (fungos basidiomicetos) complexos enzimáticos.

  16. Could basidiomycetes fungi be an alternative for the treatment of fibrous feedstuffs? application of enzymatic complexes and future prospects Fungos basidiomicetos podem ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de alimentos fibrosos? aplicação de complexos enzimáticos e perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel António Machado Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation intends to make a brief description of the studies being investigated by our research group in the area valorization of fibrous feed utilizing the white-rot fungi (basidiomycetes fungi enzyme complexes.Esta apresentação pretende fazer uma breve descrição dos estudos que têm sido investigados pelo nosso grupo de pesquisa na área de valorização de alimentos fibrosos, utilizando o fungo de podridão branca (fungos basidiomicetos complexos enzimáticos.

  17. Screening of basidiomycetes for the production of exopolysaccharide and biomass in submerged culture Triagem de basidiomicetos para a produção de exopolissacarídeos e biomassa em cultura líquida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Maziero

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six strains of Basidiomycetes, including native Brazilian fungi isolated from different ecosystems and edible mushrooms, were screened for production of exopolysaccharides and biomass in submerged culture. Agaricus sp. (CCB 280 and Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Hohn (CCB 179 were the highest exopolysaccharide producers (6.01 and 3.54 g dry w./l respectively after 7 days of incubation. The best producer of biomass was Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. (CCB 473 with 16.68 g dry w./l in 14 days of incubation. When the culture filtrate was submitted to freezing prior to polysaccharide precipitation, a gelatinous fraction was formed.Este trabalho diz respeito à produção de exopolissacarídeos e biomassa por basidiomicetos em cultura líquida. O "screening" foi realizado com 56 linhagens incluindo fungos nativos de diferentes ecossistemas do Brasil e de fungos comestíveis. Agaricus sp. (CCB 280 e Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Hohn (CCB 179 foram os melhores produtores de exopolissacarídeo (6,01 e 3,54 g peso seco/l respectivamente, em 7 dias de incubação. O melhor produtor de biomassa foi Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. (CCB 473 com 16,68 g peso seco/l em 14 dias de incubação. Quando o filtrado cultural foi submetido à congelamento antes da precipitação do polissacarídeo, formou-se uma fração gelatinosa.

  18. A Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids Consisted of 4-O-β-D-Mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-Erythritol as the Sugar Moiety in a Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kishimoto, Takahide; Morita, Tomotake

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) belong to the glycolipid biosurfactants and are produced by various fungi. The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces diastereomer type of MEL-B, which contains 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol (R-form) as the sugar moiety. In this respect it differs from conventional type of MELs, which contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol (S-form) as the sugar moiety. While the biosynthetic gene cluster for conventional type of MELs has been previously identified in Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma antarctica, the genetic basis for MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis is unknown. Here, we identified a gene cluster involved in MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis. Among these genes, PtEMT1, which encodes erythritol/mannose transferase, had greater than 69% identity with homologs from strains in the genera Ustilago, Melanopsichium, Sporisorium and Pseudozyma. However, phylogenetic analysis placed PtEMT1p in a separate clade from the other proteins. To investigate the function of PtEMT1, we introduced the gene into a P. antarctica mutant strain, ΔPaEMT1, which lacks MEL biosynthesis ability owing to the deletion of PaEMT1. Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified the biosynthetic product as MEL-A with altered sugar conformation. These results indicate that PtEMT1p catalyzes the sugar conformation of MELs. This is the first report of a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of diastereomer type of MEL. PMID:27327162

  19. A Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids Consisted of 4-O-β-D-Mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S-Erythritol as the Sugar Moiety in a Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Saika

    Full Text Available Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs belong to the glycolipid biosurfactants and are produced by various fungi. The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces diastereomer type of MEL-B, which contains 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S-erythritol (R-form as the sugar moiety. In this respect it differs from conventional type of MELs, which contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R-erythritol (S-form as the sugar moiety. While the biosynthetic gene cluster for conventional type of MELs has been previously identified in Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma antarctica, the genetic basis for MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis is unknown. Here, we identified a gene cluster involved in MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis. Among these genes, PtEMT1, which encodes erythritol/mannose transferase, had greater than 69% identity with homologs from strains in the genera Ustilago, Melanopsichium, Sporisorium and Pseudozyma. However, phylogenetic analysis placed PtEMT1p in a separate clade from the other proteins. To investigate the function of PtEMT1, we introduced the gene into a P. antarctica mutant strain, ΔPaEMT1, which lacks MEL biosynthesis ability owing to the deletion of PaEMT1. Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified the biosynthetic product as MEL-A with altered sugar conformation. These results indicate that PtEMT1p catalyzes the sugar conformation of MELs. This is the first report of a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of diastereomer type of MEL.

  20. Enzymatic Strategies and Carbon Use Efficiency of a Litter-Decomposing Fungus Grown on Maize Leaves, Stems, and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Gainvors-Claisse, Angélique; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C), and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE), these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems, and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63), intermediate in the roots (0.40), and lowest in the stems (0.38). However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 μg C in the leaves, 246 μg C in the roots, and 1541 μg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots). The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems). The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the enzymes and

  1. A kingdom-specific protein domain HMM library for improved annotation of fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stephen G

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pfam is a general-purpose database of protein domain alignments and profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, which is very popular for the annotation of sequence data produced by genome sequencing projects. Pfam provides models that are often very general in terms of the taxa that they cover and it has previously been suggested that such general models may lack some of the specificity or selectivity that would be provided by kingdom-specific models. Results Here we present a general approach to create domain libraries of HMMs for sub-taxa of a kingdom. Taking fungal species as an example, we construct a domain library of HMMs (called Fungal Pfam or FPfam using sequences from 30 genomes, consisting of 24 species from the ascomycetes group and two basidiomycetes, Ustilago maydis, a fungal pathogen of maize, and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In addition, we include the Microsporidion Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an obligate intracellular parasite, and two non-fungal species, the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum, both plant pathogens. We evaluate the performance in terms of coverage against the original 30 genomes used in training FPfam and against five more recently sequenced fungal genomes that can be considered as an independent test set. We show that kingdom-specific models such as FPfam can find instances of both novel and well characterized domains, increases overall coverage and detects more domains per sequence with typically higher bitscores than Pfam for the same domain families. An evaluation of the effect of changing E-values on the coverage shows that the performance of FPfam is consistent over the range of E-values applied. Conclusion Kingdom-specific models are shown to provide improved coverage. However, as the models become more specific, some sequences found by Pfam may be missed by the models in FPfam and some of the families represented in the test set are not present in FPfam

  2. Primordium formation in Hydropus subalpinus (Tricholomatales, Basidiomycetes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clémençon, H.

    2004-01-01

    Hydropus subalpinus is exocarpic amphiblemate. The pubescence of the stipe is a cauloblema that sometimes forms a spurious partial veil in young primordia. The pileoblema becomes a gelatinised pileipellis with a few more or less erect cells on the pileus and a few layers of periclinal physalohyphae

  3. Validation and application of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of RBBR decolorization, a model for highly toxic molecules, using several fungi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2012-11-01

    A novel analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for evaluation of fungi efficacy to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye solution was developed, validated and applied. The method shows high sensibility allowing the detection of 4.6 pM of RBBR. Four fungal strains were tested in liquid medium, three strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. All fungi were able to degrade the dye, with efficiencies ranging from 40% for P. chrysosporium up to 99% for A. flavus during a 30-day incubation period. During the experiment, increased accumulation of degradation products was observed in A. flavus cultures containing RBBR. Through the use of full scan HPLC-MS technique it was possible to propose the biogenesis of the microbial metabolic degradation pathway. Screening using microorganisms and RBBR may be hereafter used to investigate microbial biodegradation of high toxicity molecules such as dioxins.

  4. Diversification of fungal specific class a glutathione transferases in saprotrophic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Prosper, Pascalita; Favier, Frédérique; Harvengt, Luc; Didierjean, Claude; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinus cinereus demonstrated functional diversity in saprotrophic fungi. The three-dimensional structures of three P. chrysosporium isoforms feature structural differences explaining the functional diversity of these enzymes. Competition experiments between fluorescent probes, and various molecules, showed that these GSTs function as ligandins with various small aromatic compounds, derived from lignin degradation or not, at a L-site overlapping the glutathione binding pocket. By combining genomic data with structural and biochemical determinations, we propose that this class of GST has evolved in response to environmental constraints induced by wood chemistry.

  5. Diversification of fungal specific class a glutathione transferases in saprotrophic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mathieu

    Full Text Available Glutathione transferases (GSTs form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinus cinereus demonstrated functional diversity in saprotrophic fungi. The three-dimensional structures of three P. chrysosporium isoforms feature structural differences explaining the functional diversity of these enzymes. Competition experiments between fluorescent probes, and various molecules, showed that these GSTs function as ligandins with various small aromatic compounds, derived from lignin degradation or not, at a L-site overlapping the glutathione binding pocket. By combining genomic data with structural and biochemical determinations, we propose that this class of GST has evolved in response to environmental constraints induced by wood chemistry.

  6. Changes in enzymatic activities and microbial properties in vermicompost of water hyacinth as affected by pre-composting and fungal inoculation: a comparative study of ergosterol and chitin for estimating fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, P

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, three different fungal species, viz. Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were inoculated in 7 day and 15 day partially decomposed water hyacinth to study their effect on enzymatic activities, microbial respiration and fungal biomass of the final stabilized product. The results suggested that increasing the duration of pre-composting from 7 days to 15 days did not show any significant effect on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes. Inoculation of fungi significantly (P vermicomposts. Inoculation of P. chrysosporium in initial organic waste registered the highest chitin content in vermicompost. A comparison of fungal biomass and chitin content revealed a conversion factor of 2.628 with a standard deviation of 0.318. Due to significant correlation (r = 0.864), this conversion factor allows for the calculation of fungal biomass from chitin, which is comparatively more stable than ergosterol.

  7. SOIL FUNGI: POTENTIAL MYCOREMEDIATORS OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Avasn Maruthi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The continual expansion of urbanization and industrial activity has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of lignocellulosic residues throughout the world. In particular, large quantities of paper and bagasse are largely produced in Visakhapatnam. In this work we present the study of the degradability of these substrates with fungi. Three cultures of soil fungi were screened for their ability to degrade cellulose. Aspergillus flavus degraded the most, as shown by the highest CO2 release. Further, Aspergillus flavus was tested with the standard fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium for cellulose degradation, which showed nearly equivalent potential.

  8. Inmovilización de hongos ligninolíticos para la remoción del colorante negro reactivo 5

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    Jorge Andrés Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Immobilising lignilolytic fungus for removing reactive black 5 dye Resumen: La presencia de colorantes azoicos en aguas residuales de la industria textil es un problema ambiental y sanitario, porque muchos de estos compuestos son cancerígenos. Los tratamientos biológicos son una alternativa para la remoción de ese tipo de colorantes. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres hongos de podredumbre blanca, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus y Phanerochaete chrysosporium sobre la decoloración de un agua que contiene colorante negro reactivo 5 (NR5, ampliamente usado en la industria textil. Se estudió la inmovilización de estos hongos en dos soportes, espuma de poliuretano y estropajo (L. cylíndrica para seleccionar el mejor soporte y el hongo con mayor capacidad para la decoloración. Ambos soportes fueron igualmente efectivos, pero se seleccionó estropajo por ser un producto natural. El hongo que generó los mayores porcentajes de decoloración en 4 días fue Trametes versicolor, con 96%, 98% y 98% para agua con concentración de NR5 300 ppm, 150 ppm y 75 ppm, respectivamente. La actividad lacasa para cada concentración de NR5 fue 8 U L-1, 7 U L-1 y 5 U L-1.Palabras clave: , Trametes versicolor; Pleurotus ostreatus y Phanerochaete chrysosporium Luffa cylindrinca; espuma de poliuretano y negro reactivo 5. Abstract: Waste water from the textile industry represents a major environmental and health problem because it contains azo dyes whose carcirogenic effect has been tested in research. Biological treatment represents a valuable alternative for removing these dyes. The effect of Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium rot fungi on decoloration of water containing reactive black five (NR5 textile dye was evaluated in this work. Immobilising the fungi on polyurethane foam and luffa sponge (Luffa cylindrica supports was studied in order to select the best support and the fungi having the best

  9. Inmovilización de hongos ligninolíticos para la remoción del colorante negro reactivo 5

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Andrés Fernández; Lina María Henao; Aura Marina Pedroza-Rodríguez; Balkys Quevedo-Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Immobilising lignilolytic fungus for removing reactive black 5 dye Resumen: La presencia de colorantes azoicos en aguas residuales de la industria textil es un problema ambiental y sanitario, porque muchos de estos compuestos son cancerígenos. Los tratamientos biológicos son una alternativa para la remoción de ese tipo de colorantes. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres hongos de podredumbre blanca, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus y Phanerochaete chrysosporium sobre la ...

  10. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R.L. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-28

    This project addresses the solubilization of low-rank coal (leonardite) by lignin degrading fungi. During this reporting period efforts were focused on determining the effect of pH on coal solubilization by oxalate ion and other biologically important compounds that might function as metal chelators, on the role of laccase in coal solubilization and metabolism, on decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and T. versicolor in solid agar media, and on solubilization of coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  11. Effect of inoculation during different phases of agricultural waste composting on spectroscopic characteristics of humic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红丽; 曾光明; 罗琳; 张嘉超; 喻曼; 秦普丰

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium(P. chrysosporium), was inoculated during different phases of agricultural waste composting and its effect on the spectroscopic characterization of humic acid(HA) was studied. Three runs were used in this study: Run A was the control without inoculating, and Runs B and C were inoculated P. chrysosporium during the first and the second fermentation phase, respectively. The elemental analysis, ultra-violet spectroscopy(UV), fluorescence spectra, Fourier transform infra-red(FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance(13C-NMR) of HA all lead to the same conclusion, that is, the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA increases after 42 days composting. However, the inoculation during different phases presents different effects. P. chrysosporium increases the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA when it is inoculated during the second fermentation phase, while it does not produce an obvious change on the humification degree of HA when it is inoculated during the first fermentation phase.

  12. Effect of inoculation during different phases of agricultural waste composting on spectroscopic characteristics of humic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红丽; 曾光明; 罗琳; 张嘉超; 喻曼; 秦普丰

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium), was inoculated during different phases of agricultural waste composting and its effect on the spectroscopic characterization of humic acid (HA) was studied. Three runs were used in this study: Run A was the control without inoculating, and Runs B and C were inoculatedP. chrysosporium during the first and the second fermentation phase, respectively. The elemental analysis, ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV), fluorescence spectra, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) of HA all lead to the same conclusion, that is, the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA increases after 42 days composting. However, the inoculation during different phases presents different effects.P. chrysosporium increases the degree of aromatization and polymerization of HA when it is inoculated during the second fermentation phase, while it does not produce an obvious change on the humification degree of HA when it is inoculated during the first fermentation phase.

  13. Transformation behavior of lead fractions during composting of lead-contaminated waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xiao; XU Xiang-min; HUANG Dan-lian; ZENG Guang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The transformation behaviors of Pb fractions during composting of Pb-polluted waste without inoculants and with the inoculants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied. Results show that the active Pb ions with high toxicity and transferability are transformed into the inactive Pb with low toxicity and transferability, confirming that Pb ions can be efficiently immobilized during composting without or with the inoculants. The soluble-exchangeable Pb in composting without inoculants reaches 49.0 mg/kg at day 60, while that with the inoculants is reduced to 0 mg/kg dry mass compost. The higher contents of organic-bound Pb (59.0 mg/kg) and residual Pb (69.2 mg/kg) with low toxicity are found after 60-day composting with inoculants, compared with those without inoculants. The above data indicate the better immobilization effect of Pb and the greater alleviation of Pb hazards in composting with the inoculants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium than without inoculants, which may be due to the more microbial biomass and the higher pH value in composting of Pb-polluted waste with inoculants.

  14. Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.E. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden); Henrysson, T. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor PRL 572, Trametes versicolor MUCL 28407, Pleurotus ostreatus MUCL 29527, Pleurotus sajor-caju MUCL 29757 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM 1556 were investigated for their ability to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a, h]anthracene in soil. The fungi were grown on wheat straw and mixed with artificially contaminated soil. The results of this study show that, in a heterogeneous soil environment, the fungi have different abilities to degrade PAH, with Trametes showing little or no accumulation of dead-end metabolites and Phanerochaete and Pleurotus showing almost complete conversion of anthracene to 9,10-anthracenedione. In contrast to earlier studies, Phanerochaete showed the ability to degrade the accumulated 9,10-anthracenedione while Pleurotus did not. This proves that, in a heterogeneous soil system, the PAH degradation pattern for white-rot fungi can be quite different from that in a controlled liquid system. (orig.)

  15. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutrotsios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent’s decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64% followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW’s phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.

  16. Lignolytic Enzymes of a Mushroom Stereum ostrea Isolated from Wood Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of lignolytic enzymes by the mushroom fungus Stereum ostrea in liquid medium under conditions of vegetative growth was examined for 10 days in comparison to the reference culture Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Though growth and secretion of extracellular protein by S. ostrea were comparable to those of P. chrysosporium, yields of laccase enzyme by S. ostrea were higher than laccase titres of P. chrysosporium by more than 2 folds on the peak production time interval (IVth day of incubation. S. ostrea yielded titres of 25 units of laccase/ml as against 8.9 units of laccase/ml on the IVth day of incubation. Stereum ostrea also exhibited activities of other lignolytic enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP and manganese peroxidase (MnP, higher than the reference culture. Growth of S. ostrea on the medium in the presence of Remazol orange 16 resulted in the decolourisation of dye, confirming the presence of lignolytic enzymes. S. ostrea appears to be a promising culture with complete lignolytic system.

  17. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics.

  18. 三种白腐菌及其组合菌种木质素降解酶比较研究%Comparative studies on lignin degradation enzymes produced by three species of white-rot fungi and combination of the strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段传人; 朱丽平; 姚月良

    2009-01-01

    朱红栓菌Trametes cinnabarina、糙皮侧耳Pleurotus ostreatus、黄孢原毛平革菌Phanerochaete chrysosporium是产生木质素降解酶能力强的菌株.对三种白腐菌及其组合菌种产生木质素降解酶能力和行为进行了比较分析和研究.结果表明,最佳培养方式为液体振荡培养;最佳培养基为酵母膏液体培养基.在产漆酶(laccases,lacs)方面,Pleurotus ostreatus和Phanerochaete chrysosporium的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第6天出现峰值,酶活达到450U/L;在产锰过氧化物酶(manganese peroxidases,maps)方面,Trametes cinnabarina和Pleurotus ostreatus的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第10天出现峰值,酶活达到1050U/L;在产木质素过氧化物酶(lignin peroxidases,lips)方面,Trametes cinnabarina和Phanerochaete chrysosporium的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第8天出现产酶峰值,酶活达到2990U/L.筛选结果表明,组合菌种比单菌种产生的三种主要木质素降解酶的活性强,这为白腐菌高效产酶提供了一条新的途径,并为白腐菌研究领域的后续工作奠定基础.%Trametes cinnabarina, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are high-yielding strains producing lignin degradation enzymes. Comparative studies on lignin degradation enzymes produced by these three species of white-rot fungi and combination of the swains were conducted. The results showed that liquid-shaking culture was the best culture method, yeast extract liquid medium was the best medium. As far as laccase (lacs) production was concerned, the enzyme activities of lacs produced by the combination of Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 450U/L on day 6; the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidases (mnps) produced by the combination of Trametes cinnabarina and Pleurotus ostreatus were the highest, reaching 1050U/L on day 10; the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidases (lips) produced by the combination of Trametes cinnabarina and

  19. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  20. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes Produção de ligninases por linhagens de fungos Basidiomicetos usando resíduos agrícolas lignocelulósicos e aplicação das enzimas na descoloração de corantes sintéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL-1 and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP and lignin peroxidase (LiP (7 and 8 U mL-1, respectively, when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60°C while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55°C. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes.Fungos decompositores de madeira, do grupo Basidiomicetes, coletados na "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, pertencentes a ordem Aphyllophorales e identificados como Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp. SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 e Phellinus rimosus SXS47 foram estudados para a produção de ligninases por FES (fermentação em estado sólido usando farelo de trigo ou palha de arroz como meio de cultura. A espécie C

  1. Low carbon/nitrogen ratio increases laccase production from basidiomycetes in solid substrate cultivation Reduzida relação carbono/nitrogênio aumenta a produção de lacase por basidiomicetos em cultivo de semissólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Clarissa D'Agostini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetes are laccase producers used for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic byproducts in fermentative processes and could be used on biofuel production or ruminant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentrations of non-protein nitrogen sources on laccase production and mycelial growth of Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei. The fungi were grown on soybean hulls to which urea (U, ammonium sulfate (AS or mixture of AS:U (1:1 were added to achieve carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratios of 5, 15, 20 or 30. The average longitudinal mycelial growth was measured and laccase activity was determined by the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. Higher C/N ratios increased mycelial growth and decreased laccase production. The highest activities were obtained with a C/N ratio of 5. P. ostreatus, L. edodes and A. blazei produced more laccase when AS, AS:U and U, respectively, were added. In addition, C/N ratios lower than 30 induced laccase syntheses, inhibited mycelial growth and were a better condition for pre-hydrolysis of plant residues.Basidiomicetos são produtores de lacases utilizadas na hidrólise de subprodutos lignocelulósicos em processos fermentativos e pode ser utilizado na produção de biocombustíveis ou na alimentação de ruminantes. Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de fontes e concentrações de nitrogênio não-protéico na produção de lacase e no crescimento micelial de Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei. Os fungos foram cultivados em cascas de soja com adição de uréia (U, sulfato de amônio (AS ou AS:U (1:1 de forma a manter a relação carbono/ nitrogênio (C/N de 5, 15, 20 ou 30. O crescimento micelial longitudinal médio foi medido, e a atividade da lacase foi determinada pela oxidação do ácido 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico. O crescimento micelial foi diretamente proporcional à relação C/N, enquanto a

  2. Cadinane sesquiterpenoids from the basidiomycete Stereum cf. sanguinolentum BCC 22926.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyapaiboonsri, Taridaporn; Yoiprommarat, Seangaroon; Nopgason, Rujirek; Komwijit, Somjit; Veeranondha, Sukitaya; Puyngain, Pucharapa; Boonpratuang, Thitiya

    2014-09-01

    Stereumins Q-U, together with known stereumins A, B, K, L, and N, as well as ent-strobilols E and G were isolated from the culture of Stereum cf. sanguinolentum BCC 22926. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of stereumins A and Q, as well as ent-strobilol E were established by application of the modified Mosher's method. Stereumin T displayed antibacterial activity against Bacilluscereus with a MIC value of 3.97μM.

  3. Gravitropism of basidiomycetous fungi — On Earth and in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, V. D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to achieve perfect positioning of their lamellae for spore dispersal, fruiting bodies of higher fungi rely on the omnipresent force gravity. Only accurate negatively gravitropic orientation of the fruiting body cap will guarantee successful reproduction. A spaceflight experiment during the STS-55 Spacelab mission in 1993 confirmed that the factor gravity is employed for spatial orientation. Most likely every hypha in the transition zone between the stipe and the cap region is capable of sensing gravity. Sensing presumably involves slight sedimentation of nuclei which subsequently causes deformation of the net-like arrangement of F-actin filament strands. Hyphal elongation is probably driven by hormone-controlled activation and redistribution of vesicle traffic and vesicle incorporation into the vacuoles and cell walls to subsequently cause increased water uptake and turgor pressure. Stipe bending is achieved by way of differential growth of the flanks of the upper-most stipe region. After reorientation to a horizontal position, elongation of the upper flank hyphae decreases 40% while elongation of the lower flank slightly increases. On the cellular level gravity-stimulated vesicle accumulation was observed in hyphae of the lower flank.

  4. Interspecific interactions between wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, L.

    1996-05-01

    Studies of competition and succession in communities of wood-decomposing fungi were carried out using laboratory tests with different approaches. Based on results of these tests, an attempt to biologically control Heterobasidion annosum was made in field. Competitive interactions between six species of wood decay fungi were studied using a system of preinoculated wood blocks in unsterilized soil. Two of the species were root-rotting pathogens with a primary resource capture strategy, and four were primarily saprotrophic cord-forming species assumed to use secondary resource capture strategy. Of the species tested, Resinicium bicolor was the most successful in spreading through the soil, and it replaced other species, including the pathogens. When R. bicolor was absent other cord-forming species were able to expand their domain. A new system for measuring competitive success was developed. `Pie slices` were cut from round wood-discs, and after preinoculation, the pieces were paired in all possible combinations on water agar. In this way, inoculum size could be varied while the size of the contact area remained the same. Large mycelia had more competitive success than did smaller ones when paired with the same species. In a pilot study, R. bicolor was most successful in replacing the opposing species and H. annosum had the least success. In general, species found late in the succession were strong competitors, while earlier colonizers had less success. Species acting as selective replacers of primary decay species were found to be more competitive than the latter. 134 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  5. Septal Pore Caps in Basidiomycetes, Composition and Ultrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, K.G.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, including Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, form mycelia that consist of a network of apical growing hyphae. These hyphae are separated into cellular compartments by septa that have pores of about 70 to 500 nm in diameter. The cytoplasm within the mycelium is thus continuous (coenocyt

  6. Transgene expression in the basidiomycete root pathogen Armillaria mellea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward development of a genetic transformation system for Armillaria mellea, we used particle bombardment to identify promoters for driving transgene expression. The plasmid tested was pYES-hph-004iGFP, on which the green fluorescence protein gene, gfp, is linked to the Agaricus bisporus gpdII promo...

  7. Decolorization of synthetic dyes and textile effluents by basidiomycetous fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwaniyan, S.; Kharb, D.; Raghukumar, C.; Kuhad, R.C.

    on the oxidativepolymerizationofguaiacol(VasdevandKuhad 1994; Dhawan and Kuhad 2004). The reaction mixture contained 10 mM guaiacol in 100 mM citrate phos- phate buffer at pH 5.5. The molar extinction coefficient of tetraguaiacol at 470 nm (26.6×10 3 mol −1 cm −1 )was used for activity... and 100 mM sodium tartrate at pH 4.5. Oxidation of DMP was measured by using molar extinction coefficient (ε 469 )of27,500M −1 cm −1 for DMP (Martínez et al. 1996). One unit of MnP activity was defined as the amount of MnP that transforms 1 μmol DMP...

  8. The genus Lentinus (Basidiomycetes from India - an annotated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapan Kumar Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of species of genus Lentinus has been presented in this paper. On scrutiny of the latest authentic literature and mycobank record, out of a total of 41 documented species from India, 20 were found to be valid species while 21 were invalid species which were found to be synonyms. 

  9. Optimization and kinetics evaluation of biodegradation of synthetic azo reactive dye by fungal consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, V; Sivakumar, V

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater containing direct dyes discharged from various industries, in particular, textile industry, often cause many environmental problems. Among the various effluent treatment methods, biological methods found to be cost effective and do not end up in secondary pollutants. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the decolorization of cibacron yellow S-3R, an azo reactive dye by using fungal cultures such as Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Myrothecium verrucaria. The fungi were able to decolorize individually the azo reactive dye cibacron yellow S-3R to an extent of nearly in the range 75 - 85%, whereas the mixed fungal consortium was able to decolorize to an extent of nearly 95%.The study is extended with the kinetics of decolorization of Cibacron yellow S-3R using mixed fungal consortium containing equal proportions of the cultures. The experimental results show that decolorization kinetics follow second order rate equation.

  10. The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

    1995-12-31

    White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  12. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Robin A; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-11-01

    Woody plants convert the energy of the sun into lignocellulosic biomass, which is an abundant substrate for bioenergy production. Fungi, especially wood decayers from the class Agaricomycetes, have evolved ways to degrade lignocellulose into its monomeric constituents, and understanding this process may facilitate the development of biofuels. Over the past decade genomics has become a powerful tool to study the Agaricomycetes. In 2004 the first sequenced genome of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed a rich catalog of lignocellulolytic enzymes. In the decade that followed the number of genomes of Agaricomycetes grew to more than 75 and revealed a diversity of wood-decaying strategies. New technologies for high-throughput functional genomics are now needed to further study these organisms.

  13. Utilization of a chemical-mechanical pulp with improved properties from poplar wood in the composition of packing papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonov, I.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to obtain a chemical-mechanical pulp (CMP from poplar wood with improved properties, to be used in packing papers in place of more expensive softwood or hardwood pulp. For improving the CMP quality indicators, a preliminary treatment of the pulp has been carried out with a mixture of oxidizing enzymes produced from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase. The two types of fiber materials obtained were double-stage bleached and then ground to 30oSR. It was found that preliminary enzyme treatment yielded CMP with improved physical, mechanical, and optical properties. The enzyme-pretreated CMP also refined faster, thus reducing the electricity consumption. Bleached CMP from poplar wood, obtained after preliminary enzyme treatment, could be successfully utilized at levels up to 40% in the composition of various packaging papers.

  14. Biological liquefaction characteristics of Jurassic weak & non-stick coal in Hengshan, North Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Mei-li; CHEN Hong-gui; JIANG Su-rong

    2008-01-01

    Jurassic weak & non-stick coal in Hengshan of North Shaanxi Province waspretreated by the nitric acid. Then, it was biodegraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.The biodegradation role of the white-rot fungus for coal is extremely significant. Orthogo-nal test demonstrate that liquefied time, liquefaction temperature and the amount of fun-gus liquids etc. are the main factors affecting the coal biodegradation rate. The best tech-nical condition of the coal biological liquefaction was got. Comparing the coal sample be-fore biodegradation with that after biodegradation, it is found that the ash of the coal resi-due after biodegradation reduces significantly, H and O contents increase, C and N con-tents decrease. The biodegradation change the coal macromolecular structure.

  15. Wastewater Treatment for Removal of Recalcitrant Compounds:A Hybrid Process for Decolorization and Biodegradation of Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolyn Palma; Andrea Carvajal; Carlos Vasquez; Elsa Contreras

    2011-01-01

    While conventional wastewater treatments for urban effluents are fairly routine and have proved highly effective,industrial wastewater requires more complex and specific treatments.This paper provides a technological strategy for removal of recalcitrant contaminants based on a hybrid treatment system.The model effluent containing a binary mixture of synthetic dyes is treated by a combination of a preliminary physicochemical stage followed by a biological stage based on ligninolytic enzymes produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.This proposal includes biosorption onto peat as pretreatment,which decreases the volume and concentration to be treated in the biological reactor,thereby obtaining a completely decolorized effluent.The treated wastewater can therefore be reused in the dyeing baths with the consequent saving of water resources.

  16. The GSTome Reflects the Chemical Environment of White-Rot Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Deroy

    Full Text Available White-rot fungi possess the unique ability to degrade and mineralize all the different components of wood. In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules. To cope with these molecules, wood decay fungi have developed a complex detoxification network including glutathione transferases (GST. The interactions between GSTs from two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and an environmental library of wood extracts have been studied. The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood. These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life.

  17. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  19. Microbial dynamics and enzyme activities during rapid composting of municipal solid waste - a compost maturity analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, M P; Prince William, S P M; Bhattacharyya, J K; Chakrabarti, T; Devotta, S

    2008-09-01

    An investigation was carried out in the laboratory to find out the microbial dynamics and enzyme activities during rapid composting of municipal solid waste (MSW). Various treatments such as aeration (A), addition of chemical agents (glucose (G) and acetic acid (AA) and application of cellulolytic microbial (M) inoculum (Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma reesei) were used to facilitate the decomposition of MSW. The result of the present investigation revealed that the degradation of organic substrates were quick (within 9-12 days) in case of rapid composting as indicated by the reduction (below 20) in C/N ratio. Whereas, normal composting took more than 20 days to attain C/N ratio of below 20. Estimation of selected enzymes (amylase, protease, phosphatase and cellulase) provided information on the substrate specific degradation profiles of various labile substrates contained in organic waste.

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis and characterization of waste lignocellulosic biomass produced after dye bioremediation under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Kadam, Avinash A; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2014-09-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) adsorbes 60% Reactive Blue172 (RB172). Providensia staurti EbtSPG able to decolorize SCB adsorbed RB172 up to 99% under solid state fermentation (SSF). The enzymatic saccharification efficiency of waste biomass after bioremediation of RB172 process (ddSCB) has been evaluated. The cellulolyitc crude enzyme produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium used for enzymatic hydrolysis of native SCB and ddSCB which produces 0.08 and 0.3 g/L of reducing sugars respectively after 48 h of incubation. The production of hexose and pentose sugars during hydrolysis was confirmed by HPTLC. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on SCB and ddSCB has been evaluated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. Thus, during dye biodegradation under SSF causes biological pretreatment of SCB which significantly enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Adsorption of dye on SCB, its bioremediation under SSF produces wastes biomass and which further utilized for enzymatic saccharification for biofuel production.

  1. Pengaruh Penambahan Jamur Pelapuk Putih (White Rot Fungi pada Proses Pengomposan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Nasrul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Composting is nowadays a general treatment method for agriculture waste such as empty fruit bunch. This research article reported the composting process of the empty fruit bunches. The effect of addition of white rot fungi (Phanerochaete Chrysosporium as an activator on composting product was studied. Experiment results indicated that white rot fungi is a good activator to improve degradation process of the empty fruit bunch become an organic fertilizer. White rot fungi has capable to increase composting period become shorter in compare with original composting without addition of white rot fungi. The organic fertilizer product as regulation issued by the Standar Nasional Indonesia (NSI can be achieved in duration of 3 months, while for original process without addition of white rot fungi longer degradation time is necessary. Keyword: Composting, empty fruit bunch, white rot fungi

  2. Fungal biodegradation of anthracene-polluted cork: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Patrícia; Olivella, Maria À; Camarero, Susana; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Cano, Laura; De Las Heras, Francesc X

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of cork waste in adsorbing aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been previously reported. Biodegradation of contaminated cork using filamentous fungi could be a good alternative for detoxifying cork to facilitate its final processing. For this purpose, the degradation efficiency of anthracene by three ligninolytic white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus) and three non-ligninolytic fungi which are found in the cork itself (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum and Mucor racemosus) are compared. Anthracene degradation by all fungi was examined in solid-phase cultures after 0, 16, 30 and 61 days. The degradation products of anthracene by P. simplicissimum and I. lacteus were also identified by GC-MS and a metabolic pathway was proposed for P. simplicissimum. Results show that all the fungi tested degraded anthracene. After 61 days of incubation, approximately 86%, 40%, and 38% of the initial concentration of anthracene (i.e., 100 µM) was degraded by P. simplicissimum, P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, respectively. The rest of the fungi degraded anthracene to a lesser extent (PAH-contaminated cork.

  3. Effect of microbial pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R.; Chinn, Mari [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Campus Box 7625, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7625 (United States); Howell, Noura [North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Durham, NC 27715 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The potential of microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade lignin and facilitate fuel ethanol production was investigated under two culture conditions: submerged cultivation (SmC) and solid state (SSC) cultivation. Although microbial pretreatments showed significant lignin degradation (LD) (19.38% and 35.53% for SmC and SSC, respectively), a study on hydrolysis and fermentation of the microbial-pretreated cotton stalks showed no increase in cellulose conversion (10.98% and 3.04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared to untreated cotton stalks (17.93%). Solid state cultivation demonstrated better selectivity of 0.82 than 0.70 with submerged pretreatment. Washing of pretreated cotton stalks did not significantly increase cellulose conversion. However, heating and washing remarkably improved (P<0.05) cellulose conversion to 14.94% and 17.81% for SmC and SSC 14 day pretreatment, respectively. Ethanol yields, up to 0.027 g ethanol g{sup -1} initial cotton stalks, were low for all untreated and pretreated samples mainly due to the low cellulose conversion. Although potential and some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment using P. chrysosporium have been explored in this study, additional investigation is still required especially to improve the selectivity for preferential LD and to optimize hydrolysis efficiency. The mechanism of catalytic binding of cellulolytic enzymes to cotton stalks as affected by the presence of fungal mycelia also warrants further study. (author)

  4. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Rani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85% followed by Nigrosin (77.47%, Malachite green (72.77% and dye mixture (33.08% under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15% followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%, Malachite green (83.25% and mixture (78.4%. The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  5. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  6. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  7. Screening of white-rot fungi manganese peroxidases: a comparison between the specific activities of the enzyme from different native producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Juho; Taskila, Sanna; Isomäki, Ritva; Ojamo, Heikki

    2012-11-29

    In this study manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzymes from selected white-rot fungi were isolated and compared for potential future recombinant production. White-rot fungi were cultivated in small-scale in liquid media and a simplified process was established for the purification of extracellular enzymes.Five lignin degrading organisms were selected (Bjerkandera sp., Phanerochaete (P.) chrysosporium, Physisporinus (P.) rivulosus, Phlebia (P.) radiata and Phlebia sp. Nf b19) and studied for MnP production in small-scale. Extracellular MnP activity was followed and cultivations were harvested at proximity of the peak activity. The production of MnPs varied in different organisms but was clearly regulated by inducing liquid media components (Mn2+, veratryl alcohol and malonate). In total 8 different MnP isoforms were purified.Results of this study reinforce the conception that MnPs from distinct organisms differ substantially in their properties. Production of the extracellular enzyme in general did not reach a substantial level. This further suggests that these native producers are not suitable for industrial scale production of the enzyme. The highest specific activities were observed with MnPs from P. chrysosporium (200 U mg-1), Phlebia sp. Nf b19 (55 U mg-1) and P. rivulosus (89 U mg-1) and these MnPs are considered as the most potential candidates for further studies. The molecular weight of the purified MnPs was estimated to be between 45-50 kDa.

  8. Fermented Apple Pomace as a Feed Additive to Enhance Growth Performance of Growing Pigs and Its Effects on Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran M. Ajila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace is a by-product from the apple processing industry and can be used for the production of many value-added compounds such as enzymes, proteins, and nutraceuticals, among others. An investigation was carried out to study the improvement in the protein content in apple pomace by solid-state fermentation using the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium by tray fermentation method. The effect of this protein in terms of how it enriched apple pomace as animal feed for pigs has also been studied. There was a 36% increase in protein content in the experimental diet with 5% w/w fermented apple pomace. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food was increased from 43.5 ± 2.5 to 83.1 ± 4.4 in the control group and the efficiency of conversion of feed increased from 55.4 ± 4.5 to 92.1 ± 3.6 in the experimental group during the animal feed experiment. Similarly, the effect of a protein enriched diet on odor emission and greenhouse gas emission has also been studied. The results demonstrated that the protein enrichment of apple pomace by solid state cultivation of the fungus P. chrysosporium makes it possible to use it as a dietary supplement for pigs.

  9. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by fungal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Sarabjeet Singh [Department of Biotechnology, General Shivdev Singh Diwan Gurbachan Singh Khalsa College, Patiala, Punjab (India); Goyal, Dinesh [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab (India)

    2010-10-15

    Chromium compounds are released by industrial processes including leather production, mining, petroleum refining, in textile industry and dyeing. They are a significant threat to the environment and public health because of their toxicity. Removal of hexavalent chromium by living biomass of different fungi was effective in the order of Aspergillus terricola>Aspergillus niger>Acremonium strictum>Aureobasidium pullulans>Paecilomyces variotii>Aspergillus foetidus>Cladosporium resinae>Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Non-living dried fungal biomass showed higher potential for metal removal than living cells. Among all fungi dead biomass of P. chrysosporium, C. resinae and P. variotii had the maximum specific chromium uptake capacity, which was 11.02, 10.69 and 10.35 mg/g of dry biomass respectively at pH 4.0-5.0 in batch sorption. Removal of Cr(VI) by P. chrysosporium from multi-metallic synthetic solution as well as chrome effluent was significant by bringing down the residual concentration to 0.1 mg/L in the effluent, which falls within the permissible range and its removal was not affected by the presence of other metal ions such as Fe, Zn and Ni. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis revealed the presence of carboxylate (C=O) and amine (-NH{sup +}{sub 3}-NH{sup +}{sub 2}) functional groups commonly present on the cell surface of all fungi, with possible involvement in chromium binding. The result indicates that non-living fungal biomass either obtained as a by-product of fermentation industry or mass produced using inexpensive culture media can be used for bioremediation of Cr(VI) from chrome effluent on large scale. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Heterologous expression of a lectin from Pleurocybella porrigens (PPL) in Phanerochaete sordida YK-624

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Omae, Saori; Takeshima, Yoshino; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Microbiological Methods. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Microbiological Methods, VOL100, May 2014. DOI...

  11. Taxonomic study of keratinophilic fungi isolated from soil and some mammals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D

    1988-03-01

    In France, most of the researches have showed the distribution of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in the soil and in the coat of wild mammals. During these last years, we have also practiced numerous investigations about the distribution of such fungi. The isolated species are: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton ajelloï, Trichophyton simii, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum cookei, Microsporum nanum, Microsporum persicolor, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma cuniculi, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma multifidum, Ctenomycès serratus, Chrysosporium parvum, Chrysosporium indicum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium asperatum, Chrysosporium pannorum. A key to these species is proposed: it attempts to provide an aid in identifying geophilic dermatophytes and related fungi (belonging to the Chrysosporium genus).

  12. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  13. Evaluation of the types of starch for preparation of LDPE/starch blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Maria Vinhas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated in relation the growth, and the amylolytic activity of mixed and isolated cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Talaromyces wortmanni on different types of starch. The thermal and mechanical properties in polyethylene/starch blends (proportion: 80/20 (w/w before and after inoculation of the mixed cultures were evaluated. The regular starch Amidex 3 and the modified starch Fox5901 stood out in relation to the cellular growth and production of the amylase enzyme. In spite of the short time that the blends were exposed to the fungi, the microorganisms promoted physical and chemical changes in the structure of the blend, modifying its thermal and mechanical properties. The alteration of the degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties of the blends could be indications of the modification caused by the biodegradation process.Nesse trabalho foi realizado um estudo sobre diferentes tipos de amido quanto ao crescimento, e a atividade amilolítica de culturas mistas e isoladas dos fungos Phanerochaete chrysosporium e Talaromyces wortmannii. Avaliaram-se também as propriedades térmicas e mecânicas das blendas de polietileno/amido anfótero (na proporção 80/20 (m/m antes e apos a inoculação das culturas mistas desses fungos.O amido regular Amidex 3 e o amido modificado Fox5901 foram os que se destacaram quanto ao crescimento celular e produção da enzima amilase. Apesar do pouco tempo de exposição dos filmes com os fungos, pode-se concluir que os microrganismos promovem mudanças físicas e químicas na estrutura da blenda, modificando suas propriedades térmicas e mecânicas. A alteração do grau de cristalinidade e das propriedades mecânicas das blendas podem ser indícios da modificação provocada pelo processo de biodegradação.

  14. Vegetal waste degradation by microbial strains inoculation Degradación de residuos vegetales mediante inoculación con cepas microbianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Grijalva Vallejos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/03/31 - Accepted: 2013/06/02Vegetal waste treatment product of urban, agricultural and industrial processes has severaltechnical problems and constitutes a significant environmental concern. Among them are thepersistence of crop protection products in high concentrations in plant material and the lack ofmicroorganisms that can tolerate such compounds and efficiently decompose the substrate.Bacteria and mainly white rot fungi are the main decomposers of lignin because of their ability tosynthesize extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes in large quantities. Trichodermareesei, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium strains are modelstrains whose hight degradation efficiency with lignocellulose materials even in the presence ofpollutants has been proven. Several studies such as directed mutagenesis, co-culturing andheterologous expression have been done in order to improve the content of some enzymes(cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in model strains, additionally it has been done newgenetic searches to find other microorganisms with this potential. Its main applications are theindustrial production of ethanol and some seconday metabolites under controlled conditions infermentation processes. This review provides an overview about strategies and methodologiescurrently used for vegetal waste utilization by inoculation of microbial strains.(Recibido: 2013/03/31 - Aceptado: 2013/06/02El tratamiento de los residuos vegetales producto de desechos urbanos, procesos agrícolas eindustriales enfrenta varios problemas técnicos y constituye una preocupación ambientalimportante. Entre ellos se destacan la permanencia de productos fitosanitarios en altasconcentraciones en el material vegetal unido a la carencia de microorganismos que puedantolerar dichos compuestos y logren descomponer eficientemente el sustrato. Las bacterias yprincipalmente los hongos de la podredumbre blanca son los mejores

  15. A biodegradabilidade da blenda de poli(β-Hidroxibutirato-co-Valerato/amido anfótero na presença de microrganismos The Biodegradation of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate/amphiprotic starch in the presence of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjane S. Coelho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento do consumo de plásticos vem gerando grandes problemas ambientais, pois um polímero, uma vez descartado no ambiente, necessita de mais de cem anos para se degradar. O plástico ideal deve apresentar propriedades industriais desejáveis e, ao mesmo tempo ser degradável num período considerado satisfatório. Busca-se desenvolver plásticos com boas propriedades para embalagens e que possam ser biodegradados quando descartados ao ambiente. Neste trabalho avaliamos a biodegradação da blenda do copolímero poli(β-hidroxibutirato-co-valerato, PHB-HV, que é um termoplástico natural, biodegradável e biocompatível, e do amido anfótero, na proporção de 75 e 25% m/m, respectivamente. Os resultados foram obtidos através do teste de Sturm, uma metodologia para a avaliação da biodegradação na presença de uma cultura mista dos fungos Phanerochaete chrysosporium e Talaromyces wortmannii. Os resultados evidenciam a biodegradação da blenda em função do tempo, de acordo com os resultados do teste de Sturm, com o aparecimento de grupos carboxílicos terminais. Foi detectado também o aparecimento de nova simetria cristalina na estrutura polimérica.The increasing consumption of plastics has generated environmental problems because it takes more than a hundred years for a discarded polymer to degrade. The ideal plastic should present desirable industrial properties and be degradable within a satisfactory time period. Researches is conducted to plastics with good properties for packaging, but that are biodegradable when discarded to the environment. In this work we evaluated the biodegradation of the blend of the copolymer poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate, PHB-HV, which is a natural, biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic, and of the starch amphiprotic, in the proportion of 75 and 25% m/m, respectively. The results were obtained through the Sturm test, a methodology for the evaluation of biodegradation in the presence

  16. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  17. Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment.

  18. Effects of calmodulin on expression of lignin-modifying enzymes in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetomi, Takashi; Sakamoto, Takaiku; Tokunaga, Yoshitaka; Kameyama, Toru; Honda, Yoichi; Kamitsuji, Hisatoshi; Kameshita, Isamu; Izumitsu, Kousuke; Suzuki, Kazumi; Irie, Toshikazu

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we suppressed the expression of genes encoding isozymes of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) using a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor, W7, in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium; this suggested that CaM positively regulates their expression. Here, we studied the role of CaM in another white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, which produces MnP and versatile peroxidase (VP), but not LiP. W7 upregulated Mn(2+)-dependent oxidation of guaiacol, suggesting that CaM negatively regulates the production of the enzymes. Suppression of CaM in P. ostreatus using RNAi also led to upregulation of enzyme activity, whereas overexpression of CaM in P. ostreatus caused downregulation. Real-time RT-PCR showed that MnP1-6 and VP3 levels in the CaM-knockdown strain were higher than those in the wild-type strain, while MnP-5 and -6 and VP1 and 2 levels in the CaM-overexpressing strain were lower than in the wild type. Moreover, we also found that another ligninolytic enzyme, laccase, which is not produced by P. chrysosporium, was negatively regulated by CaM in P. ostreatus similar to MnP and VP. Although overexpression of CaM did not reduce the ability of P. ostreatus to digest beech wood powder, the percentage of lignin remaining in the digest was slightly higher than in the wild-type strain digest.

  19. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  20. A dedicated vector for efficient library construction and high throughput screening in the hyphal fungus Chrysosporium lucknowense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoes, J.C.; Punt, P.J.; Burlingame, R.; Bartels, J.; Dijk, R. van; Slump, E.; Meens, M.; Joosten, R.; Emalfarb, M.

    2007-01-01

    A self-replicating vector was designed that enables the construction of complex libraries in the fungus Chiysosporium lucknowense. The circular vector is linearized in vivo and results in a transformation frequency up to 13,000 transformants/ug ofplasmid DNA. Upon prolonged cultivation of the transf

  1. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for biorefinery pu

  2. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-03-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest's fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod.

  3. Modulation of inflammation-related genes of polysaccharides fractionated from mycelia of medicinal basidiomycete Antrodia camphorata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yen-ying WU; Chin-chu CHEN; Charng-cherng CHYAU; Sin-yi CHUNG; Yi-wen LIU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of water soluble-ethanol precipitation fraction (AC-1) and alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation fraction (AC-2) from Antrodia camphorata (Polyporaceae, Aphyllophorales) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-in-duced gene activation in mouse macrophages. Methods: The AC-1 and AC-2fractions were prepared, and their effects on LPS-induced gene expression were monitored by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Results: Our results indicated thatAC-2, but not AC-1 dose-dependently (50--200 mg/L) inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production as well as the protein and the mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene. Neither AC-1 nor AC-2 inhibited LPS-inducedcyclooxygenase-2 gene expression. Using the cytokine array assay, it showed that AC-2 also had the ability to inhibit LPS-induced the protein expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, the monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-5, and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTES). Like iNOS, AC-2 inhibiting LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-10 secretion resulted from inhibiting their mRNA expression. Conclusion: It was suggested that alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitated the polysaccharide fraction of A camphorata and had the ability to inhibit LPS-induced iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-5, and RANTES expression in mouse macrophages.

  4. Lignin-modifying enzymes of Flavodon flavus, a basidiomycete isolated from a coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; DeSouza, T.M.; Thorn, R.G.; Reddy, C.A.

    polymer to carbon dioxide and water in the terrestrial environment, while bacteria are believed to be relatively unimportant in this process (8, 21). Three major classes of extracellular enzymes designated man- ganese-dependent peroxidases (MNPs), lignin... peroxidases (LIPs), and laccases are believed to be important in the fungal degradation of lignin (8, 10, 18, 21). LIPs and MNPs are heme proteins, while laccases are copper-containing proteins. Some wood-degrading fungi contain all three classes of lignin...

  5. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica producing extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotake Morita

    Full Text Available Pseudozyma antarctica is a non-pathogenic phyllosphere yeast known as an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs, multi-functional extracellular glycolipids, from vegetable oils. To clarify the genetic characteristics of P. antarctica, we analyzed the 18 Mb genome of P. antarctica T-34. On the basis of KOG analysis, the number of genes (219 genes categorized into lipid transport and metabolism classification in P. antarctica was one and a half times larger than that of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (140 genes. The gene encoding an ATP/citrate lyase (ACL related to acetyl-CoA synthesis conserved in oleaginous strains was found in P. antarctica genome: the single ACL gene possesses the four domains identical to that of the human gene, whereas the other oleaginous ascomycetous species have the two genes covering the four domains. P. antarctica genome exhibited a remarkable degree of synteny to U. maydis genome, however, the comparison of the gene expression profiles under the culture on the two carbon sources, glucose and soybean oil, by the DNA microarray method revealed that transcriptomes between the two species were significantly different. In P. antarctica, expression of the gene sets relating fatty acid metabolism were markedly up-regulated under the oily conditions compared with glucose. Additionally, MEL biosynthesis cluster of P. antarctica was highly expressed regardless of the carbon source as compared to U. maydis. These results strongly indicate that P. antarctica has an oleaginous nature which is relevant to its non-pathogenic and MEL-overproducing characteristics. The analysis and dataset contribute to stimulate the development of improved strains with customized properties for high yield production of functional bio-based materials.

  6. Ethanol production from high cellulose concentration by the basidiomycete fungus Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Tomoko; Ichinose, Hitomi; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru; Takabatake, Koji; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Ethanol production by Flammulina velutipes from high substrate concentrations was evaluated. F. velutipes produces approximately 40-60 g l(-1) ethanol from 15% (w/v) D-glucose, D-fructose, D-mannose, sucrose, maltose, and cellobiose, with the highest conversion rate of 83% observed using cellobiose as a carbon source. We also attempted to assess direct ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse cellulose (SCBC) by F. velutipes. The hydrolysis rate of 15% (w/v) SCBC with commercial cellulase was approximately 20%. In contrast, F. velutipes was able to produce a significant amount of ethanol from 15% SCBC with the production of β-glucosidase, cellobohydrolase, and cellulase, although the addition of a small amount of commercial cellulase to the culture was required for the conversion. When 9 mg g(-1) biomass of commercial cellulase was added to cultures, 0.36 g of ethanol was produced from 1 g of cellulose, corresponding to an ethanol conversion rate of 69.6%. These results indicate that F. velutipes would be useful for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol.

  7. The community structure of macroscopic basidiomycetes (Fungi) in Brazilian mangroves influenced by temporal and spatial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Melo, Georgea Santos; Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Gibertoni, Tatiana Baptista

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves are transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and marine environments, and are dis- tinguished by a high abundance of animals, plants, and fungi. Although macrofungi occur in different types of habitat, including mangroves, little is known about their community structure and dynamic. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of macrofungi in a number of Brazilian mangroves, and the relation- ship between such diversity, precipitation and area of collection. A total of 32 field trips were undertaken from 2009 to 2010, and macrofungi were studied in four 250 x 40 m transects: Timbó and Santa Cruz Channel on the Northern coast, and Maracaipe and Ariquindá on the Southern coast. All basidiomata found along the transects were placed in paper bags, air-dried and identified using existing literature. It was found that Northern areas predominantly featured Avicennia schaueriana mangroves, while Rhizophora mangle dominated in Southern transects. A total of 275 specimens were collected, and 33 species, 28 genera, 14 families and six orders were represented. Overall abundance and species richness did not vary significantly among areas, but varied according to time, being higher during the rainy season. Subtle differences in composition were observed over time and between areas, probably due to variations in plant species occurrence. Further studies with collections during months of greater precipitation in transects dominated by different mangrove species of the same ecosystem are suggested to assess the overall diversity of mycobiota in these ecosystems.

  8. [Polymorphism of endocellular isoenzymes Schizophyllum commune Fr. (Basidiomycetes) in territory of Donetsk area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, S M

    2011-01-01

    Results of research of endocellular isoenzyme polymorphism of Schizophyllum commune Fr. cultures growing on the territory of Donetsk region are presented. Description of AMY, ADH, GPDH, GDH, SDH, EST electrophoretic spectrum has been carried out. The enzyme systems ADH, GPDH and GDH were monomorphic. The greatest variety of endocellular isoforms was shown for EST. Well defined six zones were detected and for three of them the polymorphism was peculiar.

  9. Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yeou Lung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM and mycelia-free broth (MEB and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as evidenced by low EC50 values (< 10 mg/mL. Total flavonoid is mainly found in hot water extracts; however, total phenol is rich in methanol and hot water extracts from mycelia. Ascorbic acid and total phenol contents are well correlated with the reducing power and the scavenging effect on superoxide anions. Total flavonoid content is dependent on the antioxidant activity and the chelating effect on ferrous ions. Total antioxidant component contents are closely related to the antioxidant activity and the scavenging superoxide anion ability. Results confirm that extracts with good antioxidant properties from fermenting products by A. mellea are potential good substitutes for synthetic antioxidants and can be applied to antioxidant-related functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Amaurocine: Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis protein produced by the basidiomycete Amauroderma camerarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mariana; Seixas, Adriana; Peres de Carvalho, Maira; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral STD worldwide. This infection can lead to severe health conditions, especially when women are affected. Metronidazole and tinidazole are the only choices of treatment. In this sense, natural bioactive compounds against T. vaginalis are an interesting approach in the search for more efficient therapies. Herein, amaurocine, a 12 kDa protein, produced by the mushroom Amauroderma camerarium was purified and tested against T. vaginalis, including two fresh clinical isolates. Amaurocine presented MIC values at 2.6 μM against the ATCC isolate 30236, and 5.2 μM against the fresh clinical isolates, TV-LACH1 and TV-LACM2. Furthermore, besides increasing human neutrophils nitric oxide release, amaurocine presented a low toxicity toward those cells, suggesting it exerts a proinflammatory character.

  11. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of oligosaccharides from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Isaac; Campos-Pena, Victoria; Montiel, Elizur; Rodriguez, Veronica; Aguirre-Moreno, Alma; Leon-Rivera, Ismael; Del Rio-Portilla, Federico; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Villeda-Hernandez, Juana

    2013-01-01

    An oligosaccharide fraction isolated from the mycelium of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLOS) was separated by size-exclusion chromatography. The chemical structure of GLOS consists of a disaccharide repeating unit [-4-β-1-Galf(1-6)-O-(β-Glcp)-1-]n (n=3,4). In addition, this study was undertaken to determine the possible anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of GLOS (10-80 mg/kg) on kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. The behavioral alterations and histopathology of hippocampal neurons were studied. Our results show that GLOS inhibited convulsions in rats from KA-induced seizures, reduced the degeneration pattern in the CA3 region of rats, decreased astrocytic reactivity, and reduced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α induced by KA. These results indicate a potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of GLOS.

  12. Influence of Mushroom-Basidiomycetes Ganoderma Lucidum on the Cognitive Function of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unzira Kapysheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the fungus G. Lucidum, thanks to the presence in its composition of a large group of polysaccharides that provide energy and strengthens the immune system, terpenes, and amino acids that affect the operation of almost all human body systems, including the brain blood circulation, it has had a positive effect on the cognitive function of the respondents – it improves memory for numbers on the images, heightened attention and response to an external signal, increased mobility and balance the basic nervous processes in the cerebral cortex.

  13. Effect of mushroom-basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum on the cognitive function of the brain experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unzira N. Kapysheva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term use of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum -bazidiomitseta restores and preserves the balance of the nervous processes, reduces anxiety, improves spatial orientation and accelerates the process of securing long-shaped memory in experimental animals. Also receiving Ganoderma improves the general condition of the body, activates the metabolism, but the trend is the manifestation of age-related changes in cognitive functions of the brain persists, although to a lesser degree.

  14. Development of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) polysaccharides injection formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuji; He, Anle; Liu, Yanhong; Xie, Baogui; Li, Ye; Deng, Youjin; Liu, Xinrui; Liu, Qichao

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical and pharmacological research has demonstrated that Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) have significant anticancer, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. To investigate the effect of injecting GLPS into hosts for clinical studies, aqueous polysaccharide extracts from G. lucidum fruit bodies were purified by deproteinization using the Sevage method, anion-exchange chromatography elution (cellulose DEAE-52 chromatography), dialysis, ethanol precipitation, and active carbon and millipore membrane filtration techniques. The purified GLPS were used for injection in mice. Polysaccharide indexes, protein, tannin, heavy metal, arsenic salt, oxalate, potassium ion, resin, pH, ignition residue measurements, evaluation criterion for allergic reactions, and total solids content of the GLPS injection were all performed using the reference methods in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Our results showed that polysaccharide was the key component of injection mixtures. The ignition residue and total solids content in the injection mixture were 1.4% and 2.4%, respectively. The other indices were all within the expected safety ranges. Furthermore, studies from mice functional assays showed that the injection mixture improved the antifatigue capacity of mice without any effect on weight loss/gain. In addition, the injection mixture was safe, which was confirmed by allergy testing in guinea pigs. The development of a GLPS injection offers a novel approach for future medicinal mushroom utilization and holds great commercial promise.

  15. Basidiomycetes capability to degrade endosulfan and chlorpyrifos in a complex matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Niell, Silvina; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, Verónica; Rivero, Anisleidy; Pareja, Lucía; Cerdeiras, M. Pía

    2012-01-01

    Los hongos de la podredumbre blanca y marrón de la madera han demostrado presentar una alta capacidad para degradar compuestos xenobióticos. Estas propiedades están determinadas por la batería de enzimas extracelulares que pueden transformar los compuestos a CO2 y H2O. Compuestos como el endosulfán y el clorpirifós han sido considerados en Uruguay de importancia dado su uso indiscriminado en los cultivos agrícolas como la soja, cereales, frutas, entre otros. Estos compuestos son considerados ...

  16. Chloride channel-dependent copper acquisition of laccase in the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The CLC chloride channel gene CLC-A of the pathogen yeast Cryptococcus neoformans was previously reported to be critical for multicopper laccase activity and growth at an elevated pH.This study reports that copper homeostasis was impaired in the clc-a mutant.This was demonstrated by the substantial decrease of the intracellular quantity of copper under copper-limited growth as determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.CLC-A is a critical factor in copper homeostasis which is required for copper acquisition of laccase in C.neoformans.

  17. Differential regulation of genes encoding manganese peroxidase (MnP) in the basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manubens, Augusto; Avila, Marcela; Canessa, Paulo; Vicuña, Rafael

    2003-09-01

    We previously identified and characterized three mnp genes coding for manganese peroxidase (MnP) in the white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. In this work, we assessed transcript levels of mnp genes in liquid cultures of this fungus grown under various conditions. In the absence of Mn(2+), mnp1 and mnp2 mRNA were detected by Northern hybridization, irrespective of the lack of extracellular MnP activity. Addition of Mn(2+) to the cultures led to a marked increase in both transcripts, the highest titers being observed at 10 micro M Mn(2+). mnp1 mRNA was not detected at Mn(2+ )concentrations above 80 micro M, whereas mnp2 mRNA was still observed at 320 micro M Mn(2+). Differential regulation of these genes was confirmed by the addition of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ag(+) and Cd(2+). These metal ions dramatically elevated both transcripts and also allowed the detection of the mnp3 transcript. In most cases, the increase in mRNA levels was partially abolished by the simultaneous presence of Mn(2+), although the latter was strictly required to detect extracellular MnP activity. However, the lignin-related compound syringic acid specifically increased the mnp1 transcript, although only in the absence of Mn(2+). These results indicate that there is no clear correlation between mnp mRNA levels and MnP activity. In addition, they strongly suggest that Mn(2+) plays a post-transcriptional role which is essential for the presence of active MnP in the extracellular fluid.

  18. Effect of manganese on the secretion of manganese-peroxidase by the basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Rodrigo A; Canessa, Paulo; Manubens, Augusto; Vicuña, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    The ligninolytic machinery of the widely used model fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes the enzymes manganese-peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lcs). In this work the effect of Mn(II) on the secretion of MnP was studied. Cultures grown in the absence of Mn(II) showed high levels of mnp transcripts. However, almost no MnP enzyme was detected in the extracellular medium, either by enzymatic activity assays or Western blot hybridizations. In the corresponding mycelia, immuno-electron microscopy experiments showed high levels of MnP enzyme within intracellular compartments. These results suggest that in addition to its well-known effect on transcription regulation of mnp genes, manganese influences secretion of MnP to the extracellular medium. Experiments carried out in the presence of cycloheximide confirmed that the metal is required to secrete MnP already synthesized and retained within the cell.

  19. Production and regulation of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes of Poria-like wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsovský, M; Popelárová, P; Baldrian, P

    2009-01-01

    The wood-decomposing fungal species Antrodia macra, A. pulvinascens, Ceriporiopsis aneirina, C. resinascens and Dichomitus albidofuscus were determined for production of laccase (LAC), Mn peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), endo-l,4-P-beta-glucanase, endo-l,4-beta-xylanase, cellobiohydrolase, 1,4-beta-glucosidase and 1,4-beta-xylosidase. The results confirmed the brown-rot mode of Antrodia spp. which did not produce the activity of LAC and MnP. The remaining species performed detectable activity of both enzymes while no strain produced LiP. Significant inhibition of LAC production by high nitrogen was found in all white-rot species while only MnP of D. albidofuscus was regulated in the same way. The endoglucanase and endoxylanase activities of white-rotting species were inhibited by glucose in the medium while those of Antrodia spp. were not influenced by glucose concentration. The regulation of enzyme activity and bio-mass production can vary even within a single fungal genus.

  20. Three novel degraded steroids from cultures of the Basidiomycete Antrodiella albocinnamomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Qiong-Ying; Li, Zheng-Hui; Wei, Kun; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2014-09-01

    Three novel degraded steroids, named albocisterols A-C (1-3), have been isolated from cultures of Antrodiella albocinnamomea. Their structures were defined by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The mixture of compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B).

  1. Effects of Selenium Presence in Mycelia of Ganoderma species (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Their Medicinal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Ivan; Stajić, Mirjana; Stanojković, Tatjana; Knežević, Aleksandar; Vukojević, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to research the antifungal, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential of Ganoderma applanatum and Ganoderma lucidum mycelial extracts as well as the possible effect of Se enrichment on these activities. Both Se-enriched and nonenriched extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum showed fungi static activity, while a fungicidal effect was not noted. The extracts exhibited significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging capacity, while the effect of Se on this potential was stimulatory in G. applanatum (1.3%-33.9% without Se and 3.1%-67.1% in Se enrichment) and inhibitory in G. lucidum (1.4%-71.6% and 1.3%-48.6% without and with Se, respectively). Only phenols in G. applanatum and phenols and flavonoids in G. lucidum were holders of antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic activity against both HeLa and LS174 cell lines was very low in comparison with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum.

  2. Antibiotics from basidiomycetes. 26. Phlebiakauranol aldehyde an antifungal and cytotoxic metabolite from Punctularia atropurpurascens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke, H; Casser, I; Steglich, W; Pommer, E H

    1987-04-01

    Phlebiakauranol aldehyde and the corresponding alcohol were isolated from cultures of Punctularia atropurpurascens. The aldehyde but not the alcohol exhibited strong antifungal activity against several phytopathogens as well as antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Two acetylated derivatives prepared from the aldehyde showed only very weak antifungal and antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic activities. We therefore assume, that the aldehyde group together with the high number of hydroxyl groups are responsible for the biological activity of the compound.

  3. Biochemical Characteristics of Three Laccase Isoforms from the Basidiomycete Pleurotus nebrodensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianghe; Tian, Guoting; Zhao, Yongchang; Zhao, Liyan; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-02-06

    The characterization of three laccase isoforms from Pleurotus nebrodensis is described. Isoenzymes Lac1, Lac2 and Lac3 were purified to homogeneity using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and a gel filtration step on Superdex 75. The molecular weights of the purified laccases were estimated to be 68, 64 and 51 kDa, respectively. The isoenzymes demonstrated the same optimum pH at 3.0 but slightly different temperature optima: 50-60 °C for Lac1 and Lac3 and 60 °C for Lac2. Lac2 was always more stable than the other two isoforms and exposure to 50 °C for 120 min caused 30% loss in activity. Lac2 was relatively less stable than the other two isoforms when exposed to the pH range of 3.0-8.0 for 24 h, but inactivation only occurred initially, with around 70% residual activity being maintained during the whole process. Oxidative ability towards aromatic compounds varied substantially among the isoforms and each of them displayed preference toward some substrates. Kinetic constants (Km, Kcat) were determined by using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay, with Lac3 showing the best affinity and Lac2 displaying the highest catalytic efficiency. Amino acid sequences from peptides derived from digestion of isoenzymes showed great consistency with laccases in the databases.

  4. Isolation of a natural solopathogenic strain of Sporisorium reilianum f.sp. zeae (Ustilaginaceae, Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, S K; Naudan, M; Roux, C

    2008-01-01

    Sporisorium reilianum f.sp. zeae (Kühn) Langdon and Fullerton (Basidiomycota, Ustilaginaceae) is the causal agent of head smut of maize and sorghum. The parasitism is initiated by the fusion of two compatible sporidia which give rise to the formation of dikaryotic pathogen hyphae. However, in Ustilaginaceae, some fuzzy diploid strains could also be formed. These strains are solopathogen as they can infect a host in absence of crossing with a compatible haploid sporidia. A solopathogenic strain of S. refilianum was obtained using an original protocol. Sporidia were isolated from germinated teliospores and spread on solid medium to identify stable fuzzy solopathogenic strain. Confocal observations of the solopathogenic strain (SRZS1) after nucleus staining with propidium iodide indicates that they are formed by rounded shape cells which are monokaryotic. A CAPS approach was used to analysis the matb gene of S. reilianum. The presence of two matb loci in SRZS1 showed that this monocaryotic strain is diploid. The pathogenicity of SRZS1 was investigated by maize infection. Our results confirmed that SRZS1 is infectious, induces some typical symptoms in maize but could not sporulate and form sori.

  5. 一种新的杀线虫担子菌%A New Nematicidal Basidiomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国红; 张克勤

    2001-01-01

    YLl4是一种首次发现具杀线虫活性的担子菌,12 h内对松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)的致病率达90%以上,是一株有应用前景的线虫生防菌.本试验观察了该菌对线虫的致病过程,证明其杀线虫机制是产生杀线虫毒素.经液体发酵,活性组分存在于发酵液中,不需线虫诱导能稳定生成,为水溶性,对热不敏感.

  6. Espécies raras de Phallales (Agaricomycetidae, Basidiomycetes) no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Anileide Gomes; Silva,Bianca Denise Barbosa; Araújo,Ricardo Souza; Baseia,Iuri Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Seis espécies interessantes de Phallales são registradas para a Mata Atlântica: Aseroë floriformis Baseia & Calonge, Geastrum setiferum Baseia, Ileodictyon cibarium Tulasne ex Raoul, Laternea triscapa Turpin, Phallus pygmaeus Baseia e Staheliomyces cinctus E. Fischer. Adicionalmente, são fornecidas chave de identificação e comentários sobre a taxonomia e ecologia dessas espécies.

  7. Biodegradation of Aged Residues of Atrazine and Alachlor in a Mix-Load Site Soil by Fungal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia E. M. Chirnside

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils from bulk pesticide mixing and loading (mix-load sites are often contaminated with a complex mixture of pesticides, herbicides, and other organic compounds used in pesticide formulations that limits the success of remediation efforts. Therefore, there is a need to find remediation strategies that can successfully clean up these mix-load site soils. This paper examined the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine; AT and alachlor (2-chloro-2, 6-diethyl-N-[methoxymethyl]-acetanilide in contaminated mix-load site soil utilizing an extracellular fungal enzyme solution derived from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, grown in a packed bed bioreactor. Thirty-two percent of AT and 54% of AL were transformed in the biometers. The pseudo first-order rate constant for AT and AL biodegradation was 0.0882 d−1 and 0.2504 d−1, respectively. The half-life (1/2 for AT and AL was 8.0 and 3.0 days, respectively. Compared to AT, the initial disappearance of AL proceeded at a faster rate and resulted in a greater amount of AL transformed. Based on the net Co2 evolved from the biometers, about 4% of the AT and AL initially present in the soil was completely mineralized.

  8. Evolution of several soil properties following amendment with olive mill wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Mekki; Abdelhafidh Dhouib; Sami Sayadi

    2009-01-01

    Occurrences of olive mill wastewater (OMW) amendment on several chemical and biochemical properties of soil were investigated. Compared to the control, soils amended with untreated and treated OMW (by an integrated process based on aerobic fungal pre-treat-ment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSMZ 6909 followed by anaerobic treatment) showed high levels of organic and mineral mat-ters. Soil amended with untreated OMW presented low levels of total and inorganic nitrogen (0.38 and 0.08 mg g~(-1) dry soil). Treated OMW contained little content of pollutants (COD=4 gl~(-1); phenolic compounds=0.6 gl~(-1)); so, organic matter brought by these res-idues was rapidly mineralized in the soil. The number of heterotrophic bacteria was increased (from 54×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil in control soil to 123×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil) in response to the OMW amendment, mainly after C/N ratio correction. Untreated OMW applica-tion improved the soil carbon content (2.18 times higher), while the specific respiration remained very low. However, the treated OMW application positively affected the soil-specific respiration that increased from 6.1 in control soil to 9.75 in soil amended with treated OMW. This phenomenon was accompanied by an enhancement of nitrifiers number, urease and ammonium oxidases activities.

  9. EDXRF Analysis of Some Fungal Species for the Uptake Capacity of 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb Metal Ions From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF analysis of eight fungi species, namely, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma fasciculatum, Penicillin Janthinellum, Aspergillus awamori, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Rhizopus arrhizus for the uptake capacity of 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb metals ions from aqueous solution have been reported. Fungal samples having superior ion removal capacity through bioaccumulation and biosorption were obtained from sites contaminated with heavy metals. The detection limit in EDXRF set up was improved considerably using selective absorbers in the path of incident photons from the X-ray tube to reduce the background in the desired energy region. It has been observed that all fungi species under present study have greater affinity for 82Pb ions as compared to 28Ni and 48Cd metal ions. The Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Trichoderma fasciculatum fungi species were identified to be more efficient for removal of heavy metal ions from waste water. The measured uptake capacity of Trichoderma longibrachiatum for 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb ions from aqueous solution is 0.52 mg/g, 0.97 mg/g, and 6.4 mg/g, respectively, and for Trichoderma fasciculatum it is 0.43 mg/g, 0.79 mg/g, and 3.5 mg/g, respectively. This indicated the potential of these identified fungi species as biosorbent for removal of high metal ions from waste water and industrial effluents.

  10. Multiple roles for lignin peroxidases in the biodegradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Chang, C.W.; Tatarko, M. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The wood-rotting fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of environmentally-persistent organic pollutants to carbon dioxide. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus are due, in part, to lignin peroxidases, oxidative enzymes that are secreted in response to nutrient deprivation. Lignin peroxidases catalyze the initial oxidation of many of the organic pollutants that are degraded by this fungus. They also mediate the initial oxidation of N,N,N{prime},N{prime},N{double_prime},N{double_prime}-hexamethylpararosaniline, several azo dyes and certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Lignin peroxidases also mediate oxidative dechlorination. For example, lignin peroxidases oxidize pentachlorophenol to 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione. Similarly, these enzymes mediate oxidative oligomerization of 4-chloroaniline, resulting in production of several dimers, trimers and tetramers and net dechlorination of the aromatic ring. Interestingly, many, but not all, of the reactions mediated by lignin peroxidases are also mediated by other plant, fungal and oxidation of an intermediate. In the case of phenanthrene degradation, lignin peroxidases do not mediate the initial oxidation. However, these enzymes do mediate the oxidation of 9-phenanthrol, forming phenanthrene-9,10-dione. 92 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  12. SACCHARIFICATION BY FUNGI AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY BACTERIA USING LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ajeet Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant, renewable and inexpensive energy resources for bioethanol production. These materials are mainly composed of three groups of polymers namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sugar rich fractions of interest for use in fermentation processes such as ethanol production. Cellulase production by the different fungi like Trichoderma reesei (MTCC-4876, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MTCC-787 and Aspergillus awamori (MTCC-6652 were studied using different substrates (rice straw, wheat straw and rice husk by keeping the concentration constant at 5g/ 150 ml. The subculture medium was a salt solution consisting of KH2PO4, CaCl2, etc. Fungal cells were sub-cultured in an orbital shaker (180 rpm at 30°C for 1-2 generations (two days for each generation and were then used as inoculums. The maximum cellulase production and saccharification observed in the presence of combination of fungi with treated rice straw. Further Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was used for carrying out fermentation of sugars to ethanol production. Among the three raw materials studied the ethanol yield was observed to be the highest in rice straw ( 9.5 g/l .

  13. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  14. Microsomal transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Juan; Valderrama, Brenda; Albores, Arnulfo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    The enzymatic mechanism for the transformation of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) by different white-rot fungi strains was studied. With the exception of Ganoderma applanatum 8168, all strains from a collection of 17 different fungi cultures were able to deplete parathion. Three strains showing the highest activities were selected for further studies: Bjerkandera adusta 8258, Pleurotus ostreatus 7989 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 3641. These strains depleted 50 to 96% of terbufos, azinphos-methyl, phosmet and tribufos after four-days exposure to the pesticides. In order to identify the cellular localization of the transformation activity, the extracellular and microsomal fractions of Pleuronts ostreatus 7989 were evaluated in vitro. While the activities of ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) were detected in the extracellular fraction, no enzymatic modification of any of the five pesticides tested could be found, suggesting the intracellular origin of the transformation activity. In accordance with this observation the microsomal fraction was found able to transform three OPPs with the following rates: 10 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for phosmet, 5.7 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for terbufos, and 2.2 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for azinphos-methyl. The products from these reactions and from the transformation of trichlorfon and malathion, were identified by mass-spectrometry. These results, supported by specific inhibition experiments and the stringent requirement for NADPH during the in vitro assays suggest the involvement of a cytochrome P450.

  15. Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2014-02-01

    The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8).

  16. The nature of tryptophan radicals involved in the long-range electron transfer of lignin peroxidase and lignin peroxidase-like systems: Insights from quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Caterina; Pogni, Rebecca; Basosi, Riccardo; Sinicropi, Adalgisa

    2012-05-01

    A catalytically active tryptophan radical has been demonstrated to be involved in the long-range electron transfer to the heme cofactor of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium although no direct detection by EPR spectroscopy of the tryptophan radical intermediate has been reported to date. An engineering-based approach has been used to manipulate the microenvironment of the redox-active tryptophan site in LiP and Coprinus cinereus Peroxidase (CiP), allowing the direct evidence of the tryptophan radical species. In light of the newly available EPR experimental data, we performed a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics computational study to characterize the tryptophan radicals in the above protein matrices as well as in pristine LiP. The nature of the tryptophan radicals is discussed together with the analysis of their environment with the aim of understanding the different behavior of pristine LiP in comparison with that of LiP and CiP variants.

  17. Biodelignification of lignocellulose substrates: An intrinsic and sustainable pretreatment strategy for clean energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Gonçalves, Bruna C M; Strap, Janice L; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a promising sugar feedstock for biofuels and other high-value chemical commodities. The recalcitrance of LB, however, impedes carbohydrate accessibility and its conversion into commercially significant products. Two important factors for the overall economization of biofuel production is LB pretreatment to liberate fermentable sugars followed by conversion into ethanol. Sustainable biofuel production must overcome issues such as minimizing water and energy usage, reducing chemical usage and process intensification. Amongst available pretreatment methods, microorganism-mediated pretreatments are the safest, green, and sustainable. Native biodelignifying agents such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporous cinnabarinus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus can remove lignin, making the remaining substrates amenable for saccharification. The development of a robust, integrated bioprocessing (IBP) approach for economic ethanol production would incorporate all essential steps including pretreatment, cellulase production, enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol. IBP represents an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, low energy and low capital approach for second-generation ethanol production. This paper reviews the advancements in microbial-assisted pretreatment for the delignification of lignocellulosic substrates, system metabolic engineering for biorefineries and highlights the possibilities of process integration for sustainable and economic ethanol production.

  18. Enzyme production by wood-rot and soft-rot fungi cultivated on corn fiber followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir K; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2009-05-27

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert lignocellulosic corn fiber into fermentable sugars at a moderate temperature (37 °C) with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum), and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used for in situ enzyme production to hydrolyze cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber by either white- or brown-rot fungi followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with coculture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown a possibility of enhancing wood rot saccharification of corn fiber for ethanol fermentation. The laboratory-scale fungal saccharification and fermentation process incorporated in situ cellulolytic enzyme induction, which enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose components of corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, and trisaccharides). The yeast fermentation of the hydrolyzate yielded 7.8, 8.6, and 4.9 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol per 100 g initial corn fiber) is equivalent to 35% of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. This research has significant commercial potential to increase net ethanol production per bushel of corn through the utilization of corn fiber. There is also a great research opportunity to evaluate the remaining biomass residue (enriched with fungal protein) as animal feed.

  19. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of <8 eV (measured by electron impact). The reaction products contain hydroxyl and keto groups. In one case, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, yielding anthraquinone from 9-methylanthracene, was detected. Kinetic constants and stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  20. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionations of alkane compounds and crude oil during aerobically microbial degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xianzhi; ZHANG Gan; CHEN Fanzhong; LIU Guoqing

    2004-01-01

    Normal alkane compounds dodecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane, tetracosane, isoprenoid alkane pristane and a crude oil sample were aerobically biodegraded with a pure bacterial strain GIM2.5 and white rot fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium-1767 to monitor the kinetic fractionation of the molecular stable carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes in the course of biodegradation. Both δ13C (V-PDB) and δ D (V-SMOW) remained stable for the standard alkane compounds and n-alkane components (from n-C13 to n-C25) of the crude oil, generally varying in the range of ±0.5‰ and ±5‰ respectively, within the range of the instrumental precisions, especially for those molecularly heavier than n-C16 during microbial degradation. These results indicate that molecular stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fingerprints can be promising indicators for tracing the sources of petroleum-related contaminants in the environment, especially in the case of severe weathering when they are difficult to be unambiguously identified by the chemical fingerprints alone.

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Tayssir; Rouissi, Tarek; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Cledon, Maximiliano; Sarma, Saurabhjyoti; Verma, Mausam

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of chemicals. They represent an important concern due to their widespread distribution in the environment, their resistance to biodegradation, their potential to bioaccumulate and their harmful effects. Several pilot treatments have been implemented to prevent economic consequences and deterioration of soil and water quality. As a promising option, fungal enzymes are regarded as a powerful choice for degradation of PAHs. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta are most commonly used for the degradation of such compounds due to their production of ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. The rate of biodegradation depends on many culture conditions, such as temperature, oxygen, accessibility of nutrients and agitated or shallow culture. Moreover, the addition of biosurfactants can strongly modify the enzyme activity. The removal of PAHs is dependent on the ionization potential. The study of the kinetics is not completely comprehended, and it becomes more challenging when fungi are applied for bioremediation. Degradation studies in soil are much more complicated than liquid cultures because of the heterogeneity of soil, thus, many factors should be considered when studying soil bioremediation, such as desorption and bioavailability of PAHs. Different degradation pathways can be suggested. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes having common catalytic cycles. One molecule of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the resting enzyme withdrawing two electrons. Subsequently, the peroxidase is reduced back in two steps of one electron oxidation. Laccases are copper-containing oxidases. They reduce molecular oxygen to water and oxidize phenolic compounds.

  2. Reactions of the class II peroxidases, lignin peroxidase and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase, with hydrogen peroxide. Catalase-like activity, compound III formation, and enzyme inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Alexander N P; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Brisset, Nigel C; Smith, Andrew T; Arnao, Marino B; Acosta, Manuel

    2002-07-26

    The reactions of the fungal enzymes Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase (LiP) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) have been studied. Both enzymes exhibited catalase activity with hyperbolic H(2)O(2) concentration dependence (K(m) approximately 8-10 mm, k(cat) approximately 1-3 s(-1)). The catalase and peroxidase activities of LiP were inhibited within 10 min and those of ARP in 1 h. The inactivation constants were calculated using two independent methods; LiP, k(i) approximately 19 x 10(-3) s(-1); ARP, k(i) approximately 1.6 x 10(-3) s(-1). Compound III (oxyperoxidase) was detected as the majority species after the addition of H(2)O(2) to LiP or ARP, and its formation was accompanied by loss of enzyme activity. A reaction scheme is presented which rationalizes the turnover and inactivation of LiP and ARP with H(2)O(2). A similar model is applicable to horseradish peroxidase. The scheme links catalase and compound III forming catalytic pathways and inactivation at the level of the [compound I.H(2)O(2)] complex. Inactivation does not occur from compound III. All peroxidases studied to date are sensitive to inactivation by H(2)O(2), and it is suggested that the model will be generally applicable to peroxidases of the plant, fungal, and prokaryotic superfamily.

  3. Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A; Hussin, S Nahdatul I S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal.

  4. Loofa sponge immobilized fungal biosorbent: a robust system for cadmium and other dissolved metal removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Edyvean, R G J

    2005-10-01

    The potential of loofa sponge discs to immobilize fungal biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (a known biosorbent) was investigated as a low cost biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution. A comparison of the biosorption of Cd(II) by immobilized and free fungal biomass from 10 to 500 mg l(-1) aqueous solutions showed an increase in uptake of over 19% when the biomass is immobilized (maximum biosorption capacity of 89 and 74 mg Cd(II) g(-1) biomass for immobilized and free biomass respectively at a solution pH of 6). Equilibrium was established within 1h and biosorption was well defined by the Langmuir isotherm model. The immobilized biomass could be regenerated using 50 mM HCl, with up to 99% metal recovery and reused in ten biosorption-desorption cycles without significant loss of capacity. This study suggests that such an immobilized biosorbent system has the potential to be used in the industrial removal/recovery of cadmium and other pollutant metal ions from aqueous solution.

  5. Effects of fungal pretreatment and steam explosion pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, T; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, F; Kuwahara, M; Watanabe, T

    1995-12-20

    The effects of consecutive treatments by a lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by steam explosion for the enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass were studied experimentally, and the optimal operational conditions for obtaining the maximum saccharification were evaluated. Beech wood-meal was treated by the fungus for 98 days and then by high steam temperatures of 170-230 degrees C with steaming times of 0-10 min. The treatment of the wood-meal by fungus prior to steam explosion enhanced the saccharification of wood-meal. The treated wood-meal was separated into holo-cellulose, water soluble material, methanol soluble lignin, and Klason lignin. The saccharification decreased linearly with the increase in the amount of Klason lignin. It was estimated by the equation for the saccharification of exploded wood-meal expressed as a function of steam temperature and steaming time that the maximum saccharification of wood-meal was obtained by consecutive treatments such as fungal treatment for 28 days and then steam explosion at a steam temperature of 215 degrees C and a steaming time of 6.5 min. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Evolutionary divergence of Ure2pA glutathione transferases in wood degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roret, Thomas; Thuillier, Anne; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular systems of detoxification are crucial for the survival of wood degrading fungi. Within these systems, glutathione transferases could play a major role since this family of enzymes is specifically extended in lignolytic fungi. In particular the Ure2p class represents one third of the total GST number in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. These proteins have been phylogenetically split into two subclasses called Ure2pA and Ure2pB. Ure2pB can be classified as Nu GSTs because of shared structural and functional features with previously characterized bacterial isoforms. Ure2pA can rather be qualified as Nu-like GSTs since they exhibit a number of differences. Ure2pA possess a classical transferase activity, a more divergent catalytic site and a higher structural flexibility for some of them, compared to Nu GSTs. The characterization of four members of this Ure2pA subclass (PcUre2pA4, PcUre2pA5, PcUre2pA6 and PcUre2pA8) revealed specific functional and structural features, suggesting that these enzymes have rapidly evolved and differentiated, probably to adapt to the complex chemical environment associated with wood decomposition.

  7. Characterization of three mnp genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and report of additional class II peroxidases in the order hymenochaetales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L; Hibbett, David S

    2010-10-01

    We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.13) containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only.

  8. Lignin degradation by a white-rot fungus lacking lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, C.B.; Eriksson, K.E.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been the organism of choice for studies of lignin degradation and much of this work has focused on two phenol oxidases, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), secreted by the fungus under ligninolytic conditions. However, many white-rot fungi, including a number of aggressive lignin degraders, seem to operate without expressing LiP activity. Laccase is another phenol oxidase that white-rot fungi often produce. However, the role played by laccase in lignin degradation has remained obscured since its low redox potential appeared to make it incapable of oxidizing non-phenolic lignin constituents. We have identified, Pychnoporus cinnabarinus lacking both LiP and MnP, but a high producer of laccase, to degrade lignin as efficiently as UP producing fungi. We have found that P. cinnabarinus, to overcome the redox potential barrier for laccase, produces a mediator for oxidation of non-phenolic lignin structures. This is the first description of how laccase may be used in a biological system for the degradation of lignin.

  9. Peroxide Bleaching of Bagasse Kraft Pulp with Enzymes Pretreatment%木腐菌胞外酶漂白蔗渣硫酸盐浆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 陈嘉翔; 詹怀宇; 高培基

    1999-01-01

    利用木腐菌Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446和LIP14菌株所产胞外酶结合H2O2对蔗渣硫酸盐浆进行几种漂序漂白实验,结果表明酶处理段放在氧脱木素后漂白效果较好;ME446酶和LIP14酶处理使蔗渣硫酸盐浆氧脱木素浆终漂白度分别比对照提高4.2%ISO和6.0%ISO,LIP14酶漂白效果好于ME446酶,表明锰依赖过氧化物酶(MnP)在硫酸盐浆漂白中作用重要;木腐菌胞外酶中纤维素酶活力有损漂白浆强度,应用中应予以控制;酶处理结合碱抽提能有效降低漂白浆卡伯值,但漂白浆终漂白度不一定因此有所提高.

  10. Oxidation of wheat straw lignin by fungal lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ingo, M.J.; Kurek, B. [Laboratorie de Chimie Biologique, Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    1996-10-01

    Lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and laccase from Pleurotus eryngii were separately used to degrade alkali wheat straw lignin (AL). In order to characterize the catalytic action of the different enzymes, the chemical structure and the hydrodynamic properties of the treated lignin were analyzed by thioacidolysis-gas chromatography and molecular size exclusion chromatography. The results confirmed that only LiP was able to degrade guiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) structures in non-phenolic methylated lignins. However, provided that some phenolic terminal structures are present, MnP and laccase were able to degrade the non-phenolic portion of the polymer linked by {beta}-O-4 alkyl aryl ether bonds. This suggested that the oxidative reactions catalyzed in alkali straw lignin could progress through bond cleavages generating phenoxy radicals. The molecular size distribution of both thioacidolysis products and the oxidized polymer showed that AL underwent condensation side-reactions regardless of the enzyme treatment, but only LiP oxidation led to the increase in the hydrodynamic volume of the recovered lignin. This indicated that modification of enzymes by bonding patterns in lignin is not always associated with alterations in the spatial network of the polymer.

  11. Encapsulation of ligninolytic enzymes and its application in clarification of juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara-Chatti, Fatma; Brar, Satinder K; Ajila, C M; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valero, J R

    2013-04-15

    The thermal stability, physico-chemical properties and effect on juice clarification of hydrogel formulations of ligninolytic enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were evaluated. The results showed that enzyme entrapment increase significantly (Penzymes at 4 and 75 °C. At 75 °C, maximum activity decreased to non detectable values of 7.9% for free laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), respectively; to 94%, 97%, 93% for laccase, MnP and LiP entrapped into Polyacrylamide/pectin, 94%, 98%, 88% for laccase, MnP and LiP encapsulated respectively into polyacrylamide/ gelatine and to 87%, 91%, 87% for laccase, MnP and LiP entrapped, respectively into polyacrylamide/carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). When particle size and viscosity of the formulation increased, enzyme stability increased. The polyphenolic reduction and clarity amelioration in mixed juice of berry and pomegranate was more significant (p>0.05) using encapsulated enzymes treatment than free enzymes. This suggested that enzymatic treatment was efficient for the juice clarification.

  12. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish lignites and characterization of the products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesim Basaran; Adil Denizli; Billur Sakintuna; Alpay Taralp; Yuda Yurum [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2003-08-01

    The effect of some white-rot fungi on the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of two low-rank Turkish coals and the chemical composition of the liquid products and the microbial mechanisms of coal conversion were investigated. Turkish Elbistan and Beypazari lignites were used in this study. The white-rot fungi received from various laboratories used in the bio-liquefaction/solubilization of the lignites were Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Coriolus versicolor. FT-IR spectra of raw and treated coal samples were measured, and bio-liquefied/solubilized coal samples were investigated by FT-IR and LC-MS techniques. The Coriolus versicolor fungus was determined to be most effective in bio-liquefying/solubilizing nitric acid-treated Elbistan lignite. In contrast, raw and nitric acid-treated Beypazari lignite seemed to be unaffected by the action of any kind of white-rot fungi. The liquid chromatogram of the water-soluble bio-liquefied/solubilized product contained four major peaks. Corresponding mass spectra of each peak indicated the presence of very complicated structures. 17 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Ethanol production via in situ fungal saccharification and fermentation of mild alkali and steam pretreated corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Pometto, Anthony L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-11-01

    The effect of mild alkali and steam pretreatments on fungal saccharification and sequential simultaneous-saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn fiber to ethanol was studied. The corn fiber was pretreated with: (i) 2% NaOH (w/w) at 30 degrees C for 2h and (ii) steaming at 100 degrees C for 2h. Ethanol yields were 2.6g, 2.9g and 5.5g ethanol/100g of corn fiber, respectively, for Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trichoderma reesei saccharification and sequential SSFs. SSF with commercial cellulase enzyme - Spezyme-CP had 7.7g ethanol/100g corn fiber. Mild alkali pretreatment resulted in higher glucose yields following fungal saccharification of corn fiber. However, the ethanol yields were comparatively similar for untreated and mild alkali pretreated corn fiber. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber with fungi can be improved to either eliminate or reduce the dosage of commercial cellulase enzymes during SSF.

  14. Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals.

  15. Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, Kenneth E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ralph, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hunt, Christopher G. [U.S. Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States); Houtman, Carl J. [U.S. Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-09-06

    This work focused on new methods for the detection of oxidation in natural substrates during the deconstruction of lignocellulose by microoganisms. Oxidation was the focus because all known biological systems that degrade lignin are oxidative. The detection methods involved the used of (a) micrometer-scale beads carrying a fluorescent dye that is sensitive to oxidation, (b) 13C-labeled synthetic lignins whose breakdown products can be assessed using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and (c) a fluorometric stain that is highly sensitive to incipient oxidation during microbial attack. The results showed (a) that one white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, produces diffusible oxidants on wood, and that the onset of oxidation is coincident with the marked up-regulation of genes that encode ligninolytic peroxidases and auxiliary oxidative enzymes; (b) that a more selectively ligninolytic white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, produces a highly diastereoselective oxidative system for attack on lignin; (c) that a brown rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, uses extracellular hydroquinone metabolites to drive the production of lignocellulose-oxidizing free radicals; (d) that both white rot and brown rot fungi produce highly diffusible mild oxidants that modify lignocellulose at the earliest stage of substrate deconstruction; and (e) that lignin degradation in a tropical soil is not inhibited as much as expected during periods of flooding-induced hypoxia, which indicates that unknown mechanisms for attack on lignin remain to be discovered.

  16. [Keratinophilic fungal flora isolated from small wild mammals and rabbit-warren in France. Discussion on the fungal species found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Guiguen, C; Couatarmanac'h, A; Launay, H; Reecht, V; de Bièvre, C

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi was investigated in 237 small wild mammals and 125 european rabbit. The purpose of the investigation was to determine what were the species of fungi present in the these animals. Four species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum persicolor. Trichophyton terrestre was the most frequently isolated and it occurred more frequently than its presence could be explained by the contamination from soil. Members of the genus Chrysosporium were found in many animals: Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium multifidum, Chrysosporium pannorum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma cuniculi, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium parvum. Wild small mammals and european rabbits in France, not only act as carrier of keratinophilic fungi and allied dermatophytes but also provide a suitable habitat for their survival as saprophytes. The recurrence of numerous species present on the coat, isolated fort the first time in France was remarkable.

  17. Effects of pH and Temperature on Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase Production and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; Kongsaeree, Puapong; Schilke, Karl; Lajoie, Curtis; Kelly, Christine

    The enzyme manganese peroxidase (MnP) is produced by numerous white-rot fungi to overcome biomass recalcitrance caused by lignin. MnP acts directly on lignin and increases access of the woody structure to synergistic wood-degrading enzymes such as cellulases and xylanases. Recombinant MnP (rMnP) can be produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris αMnP1-1 in fed-batch fermentations. The effects of pH and temperature on recombinant manganese peroxidase (rMnP) production by P. pastoris αMnP1-1 were investigated in shake flask and fed-batch fermentations. The optimum pH and temperature for a standardized fed-batch fermentation process for rMnP production in P. pastoris ctMnP1-1 were determined to be pH 6 and 30 °C, respectively. P. pastoris αMnP1-1 constitutively expresses the manganese peroxidase (mnp1) complementary DNA from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the rMnP has similar kinetic characteristics and pH activity and stability ranges as the wild-type MnP (wtMnP). Cultivation of P. chrysosporium mycelia in stationary flasks for production of heme peroxidases is commonly conducted at low pH (pH 4.2). However, shake flask and fed-batch fermentation experiments with P. pastoris αMnP1-1 demonstrated that rMnP production is highest at pH 6, with rMnP concentrations in the medium declining rapidly at pH less than 5.5, although cell growth rates were similar from pH 4-7. Investigations of the cause of low rMnP production at low pH were consistent with the hypothesis that intracellular proteases are released from dead and lysed yeast cells during the fermentation that are active against rMnP at pH less than 5.5.

  18. Decomposição fúngica de ácido tânico e outros compostos em efluente agroindustrial = Fungic decomposition of tannic acid and other compounds from agri-industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalino Perovano Filho

    2011-04-01

    production of enzymes that degrade tannic acid, such as laccase, while Mucor sp. was better to remove the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and the total phenol content, followed by Cladosporium sp., Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Geotrichum candidum.

  19. Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in Amanita muscaria, a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Tulloss, Rodham E; Laursen, Gary A; Sazanova, Nina A; Taylor, D L

    2008-08-01

    A growing number of molecular studies show that many fungi have phylogeographic structures and that their distinct lineages are usually limited to different continents. As a conservative test of the extent to which wind-dispersed mycorrhizal fungi may exhibit phylogeographic structure, we chose to study Amanita muscaria, a host-generalist, widespread, wind-dispersed fungus. In this paper, we document the existence of several distinct phylogenetic species within A. muscaria, based on multilocus DNA sequence data. According to our findings, A. muscaria has strong intercontinental genetic disjunctions, and, more surprisingly, has strong intracontinental phylogeographic structure, particularly within North America, often corresponding to certain habitats and/or biogeographic provinces. Our results indicate that the view of A. muscaria as a common, widespread, easily identifiable, ecologically plastic fungus with a wide niche does not correctly represent the ecological and biological realities. On the contrary, the strong associations between phylogenetic species and different habitats support the developing picture of ecoregional endemisms and relatively narrow to very narrow niches for some lineages.

  20. Fire and the production of Astraeus odoratus (Basidiomycetes sporocarps in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forests of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan H. Kennedy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Astraeus (Diplocystidiaceae forms ectomycorrhizal associations with many tree species and is a common gasteromycete in tropical and temperate ecosystems worldwide. In Thailand, Astraeus is most prevalent in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest (DOF in the north and north-east and its ecology is uniquely associated with fire. Rural villagers often burn the seasonally dry DOF ground vegetation causing significant environmental disturbance to promote the growth of Astraeus sporocraps—a local culinary delicacy and important source of household income. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the practice of burning DOF stimulates the production of Astraeus sporocarps in DOF. Burned and unburned Astraeus habitat was surveyed over two years at two sites in Chiang Mai province and one site in Mae Hong Son province. Changes in soil fungi after a fire as well as vascular vegetation growing with Astraeus were studied. All sporocarps collected were identified as Astraeus odoratus. Astraeus sporocarps were found in both burned and unburned areas in 2010. In 2011, an unusually wet year, no sporocarps were found in burned or unburned areas. The top 2 cm of soil experienced high temperatures which killed fungi, but lower depths were well insulated from the heat. A wide range of vascular flora grew in Astraeus habitat, the most common tree species being Dipterocarpus tuberculatus var. tuberculatus and Dipterocarpus obtusifolius var. obtusifolius. This study shows that Astraeus can produce sporocarps without fire and future work can focus on more environmentally benign methods of harvesting this popular mushroom.

  1. Anxiolytic Effects of Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Ischemia-Induced Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Gao, Xiulan; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xiaojie; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Ying; Yu, Haitao; Cui, Guangcheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the anxiolytic effects Agaricus brasiliensis extract (AbSE) on ischemia-induced anxiety using the plus-maze test and the social interaction test. The animals were treated orally with AbSE (4, 8, and 10 mg/kg/d, respectively) for 30 d, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral ischemia. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin in the cerebral cortex of rats, as well as oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels were analyzed, respectively. The rota-rod test was carried out to exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures related to anxiety disorders, and the catalepsy test was carried out to investigate whether AbSE induces catalepsy. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of AbSE presented anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test and the social interaction test. Furthermore, AbSE did not induce extrapyramidal symptoms in the catalepsy test. The mechanism underlying the anxiolytic effect of AbSE might be increased brain monoamine levels and plasma corticosterone levels and decreased oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

  2. Antioxidant potential and antioxidant compounds of extracts from the medicinal sulphur polypore, Laetiporus sulphureus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in submerged cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Ming-Yeou; Huang, Wei Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Fermented products, dried mycelia broth, and mycelia-free broth of Laetiporus sulphureus submerged cultures were extracted with ethanol and hot water under optimal culture conditions and investigated for their antioxidant properties. Ethanolic extracts from dried mycelia broth (EEM) and mycelia-free broth (EEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) show extraordinary antioxidant properties for all EC50 values below 10 mg/mL except for EEM, as measured by the scavenging effects on DPPH radicals and chelating effects on ferrous ions. Ascorbic acid is rich in EEB and α-tocopherol, and total flavonoids are abundant in EEM. Total phenols are mainly found in EEB and HWEM. There is a high correlation between total phenol content and EC50 values. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the reducing power is 0.994; the R2 of the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals is 0.992; the R2 of the chelating effects on ferrous ions is 0.949; and the R2 of the scavenging effect on superoxide anions is 0.995. These results suggest that extracts of L. sulphureus fermented products are of considerable application potential in antioxidant-related pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  4. Antigenotoxic potential of aqueous extracts from the chanterelle mushroom, Cantharellus cibarius (higher Basidiomycetes), on human mononuclear cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Espinoza, Claudia; Garcia-Nieto, Edelmira; Esquivel, Adriana Montoya; Gonzalez, Monica Montiel; Bautista, Efrain Velasco; Ezquerro, Carmen Calderon; Santacruz, Libertad Juarez

    2013-01-01

    Cantharellus cibarius is one of the most important wild, edible, and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms growing at La Malinche National Park, Tlaxcala, Mexico; therefore, the assessment of its biological properties is of great interest to know its potential as an alternative treatment to chemopreventive strategies when it is consumed as part of a diet. Comet assay was used to evaluate the antigenotoxic properties of several concentrations of aqueous extracts (0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% w/v) prepared at room temperature (22 ± 2°C). As a test system we used human mononuclear cells exposed to methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) in vitro according to 3 different protocols: previous, simultaneous, and posterior. Previous (0.0125%) and simultaneous (0.1%) treatments resulted in the highest inhibitory efficiency. In the former, the cells assessed showed a tail length of 94.9 ± 64 µm; in the latter, the tails measured 106.2 ± 40 µm. Resulting percentages of reduction in damage were 236% and 196.1%, respectively. We did not obtain a dose-dependent response. The mean tail length for each protocol (previous, 133.1 ± 80 µm; simultaneous, 127.8 ± 57 µm; posterior, 146.3 ± 74 µm) was statistically significant with regard to the positive control (MMS).

  5. An application of wastewater treatment in a cold environment and stable lipase production of Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsuji

    Full Text Available Milk fat curdle in sewage is one of the refractory materials for active sludge treatment under low temperature conditions. For the purpose of solving this problem by using a bio-remediation agent, we screened Antarctic yeasts and isolated SK-4 strain from algal mat of sediments of Naga-ike, a lake in Skarvsnes, East Antarctica. The yeast strain showed high nucleotide sequence homologies (>99.6% to Mrakia blollopis CBS8921(T in ITS and D1/D2 sequences and had two unique characteristics when applied on an active sludge; i.e., it showed a potential to use various carbon sources and to grow under vitamin-free conditions. Indeed, it showed a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal rate that was 1.25-fold higher than that of the control. We considered that the improved BOD removal rate by applying SK-4 strain was based on its lipase activity and characteristics. Finally, we purified the lipase from SK-4 and found that the enzyme was quite stable under wide ranges of temperatures and pH, even in the presence of various metal ions and organic solvents. SK-4, therefore, is a promising bio-remediation agent for cleaning up unwanted milk fat curdles from dairy milk wastewater under low temperature conditions.

  6. Antioxidant Potential of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivated on Artocarpus heterophyllus Sawdust Substrate in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, P; Lal, Merlin Rajesh; Maheshwari, Uma; Krishnan, Sreeram

    2015-01-01

    The artificial cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (MTCC1039) using Artocarpus heterophyllus as sawdust substrate was optimized and free radical scavenging activities of the generated fruiting bodies were investigated. The choice of A. heterophyllus as substrate was due to its easy availability in South India. Sawdust supplemented with dextrose medium yielded better spawn hyphae and early fruiting body initiation (15 days). The biological yield obtained was 42.06 ± 2.14 g/packet and the biological efficiency was 8.41 ± 0.48%. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts of fruiting body were analyzed for radical scavenging activity. Methanolic extract showed maximum scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 290 μg/ml) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid (IC50 = 580 μg/ml), whereas aqueous extract had better scavenging for ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50 = 5 μg/ml). Total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in methanolic extract (p < 0.01). A positive correlation existed between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results indicated that fruiting bodies of G. lucidum cultivated in sawdust medium possess antioxidant property, which can be exploited for therapeutic application.

  7. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) and its main compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirian, Mahdi; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Esfahani, Hamid Reza Monsef; Samadi, Nasrin; Hosseini, Seyed Aboulfazl; Asghari, Ali; Manayi, Azadeh; Mousazadeh, Ali; Asef, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Emran; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are considered one of the richest sources of natural antibiotics, and various species of them inhibit the growth of a wide diversity of microorganisms. Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known medicinal mushroom. has many pharmacological and biological activities including an antimicrobial effect, although few studies have investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of its purified compounds. The chemical structure of the purified compounds from the hexane fraction was elucidated as ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate, ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-yl acetate (isopyrocalciferol acetate), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol, and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol (ergostrol). In addition, the structure of ganodermadiol was demonstrated after purification from the chloroform fraction. The fractions inhibited Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 6.25 mg/mL, but were ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria in the tested concentrations. The results were comparable for isolated compounds, whereas the mixture of ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate and isopyrocalciferol acetate was weakly effective against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration, 10 mg/mL). It could be assumed that the antimicrobial effect of crude fractions is the consequence of mixing triterpenoid and steroid compounds.

  9. Inhibitory activity of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) on transformed cells by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Márquez, Eva; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Bermudez-Morales, Victor H; Burgete-García, Ana I; León-Rivera, Ismael; Montiel-Arcos, Elizur; García-Villa, Enrique; Gariglio, Patricio; Madrid-Marina V, Vicente; Ondarza-Vidaurreta, Raul N

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extracts of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, obtained from three localities (China; and Morelos and Michoacan, Mexico) on cervical cells transformed by human papillomavirus (HeLa and SiHa) and C-33A cancer cells. The cells were plated in DMEM medium supplemented, and were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of G. lucidum for 24 h. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT colorimetric assay and viability by trypan blue assay. Inhibitory dose was determined (IC50) of the three different extracts of G. lucidum in the culture cell lines mentioned above. The apoptosis process was confirmed by nuclear DNA fragmentation and the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. The results showed that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three localities produced inhibition in the proliferation of VPH transformed cells; they also induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A cancer cells. Therefore, it was found that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three different locations produced inhibitory effect on cancer cells and may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of this disease.

  10. Chemical Constituents of the Basidiomycetes Marasmius maximus Hongo%大皮伞化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛芸

    2013-01-01

    大皮伞(Marasmius maximus Hongo)是食用菌类,在我国各地均有分布,对其主要化学成分进行研究具有重要的意义.通过运用多种分离与分析方法(CC、TLC、prep.TLC、MPLC、HPLC等)以及波谱学技术(1D NMR、2D NMR、MS、HR-MS、UV/Vis等)并借助必要的化学手段对其发酵液进行化学成分的研究,共分离得到5个化合物.分别为:麦角甾-4,6,8 (14)22-四烯-3-酮、(22E,24R)-麦角甾-7,22-二烯-3β,5α,6β-三醇、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯、三亚麻油酸甘油酯、5-Hydroxymethl-1-2-呋喃甲醛.

  11. Notes on Basidiomycetes of Jilin Province (Ⅳ)%吉林省担子菌补记(四)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    图力古尔; 李玉

    2003-01-01

    报道了吉林省新分布担子菌6种,即刺孢蜡蘑Laccaria tortilis (Bolt.) S.F.Gray,大型皮伞Marasmius maximus Hongo,粗毛原迷孔菌Protodaedalea hispida Imazeki,巢孔菌 Poronidulus conchifer (Schw.) Murr.中华散尾菌Lysurus sinensis Lioyd和袋形地星Geastrum saccatum (Fr.) Fisch..其中,原迷孔菌属和巢孔菌属为吉林省新记录属.

  12. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Schizophyllum commune, an Emerging Basidiomycete in Bronchopulmonary Mycoses

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra N.; Roy, Pradip; Randhawa, Harbans S.; Meis, Jacques F.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune (n = 30) showed lowest geometric mean MICs of isavuconazole (0.19 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.2 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.24 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.29 μg/ml) and high geometric mean MICs of fluconazole (19.39 μg/ml) and flucytosine (17.28 μg/ml). Five cases (of 8) of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis that were treated with itraconazole had no recrudescence after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. One case each of invasive pulmonary mycosis and fungal ball were treated success...

  13. Molecular characterization and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of Schizophyllum commune, an emerging basidiomycete in bronchopulmonary mycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra N; Roy, Pradip; Randhawa, Harbans S; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-06-01

    Schizophyllum commune (n = 30) showed lowest geometric mean MICs of isavuconazole (0.19 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.2 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.24 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.29 μg/ml) and high geometric mean MICs of fluconazole (19.39 μg/ml) and flucytosine (17.28 μg/ml). Five cases (of 8) of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis that were treated with itraconazole had no recrudescence after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. One case each of invasive pulmonary mycosis and fungal ball were treated successfully with voriconazole and itraconazole.

  14. Protective Effects of Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom from Korea, Phellinus linteus (Higher Basidiomycetes), on Osteoporosis In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ho; Chung, Min-Yu; Shin, Ji Young; Han, Daeseok

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of Phellinus linteus (ethanol extract) against osteoporosis was investigated using the Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cell line and osteoclasts. A nontoxic concentration of Ph. linteus (10-2 to 10-8 mg mL-1) increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (EC 3.1.3.1) activity to a larger extent than soy did. Ph. linteus also attenuated the number and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. These results indicate that Ph. linteus likely regulated both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, contributing to the protection against osteoporosis. The protective effect of Ph. linteus was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Histological analysis indicates that Ph. linteus improved trabecular bone mass and reduced osteoclast frequency without affecting lipid droplet accumulation in the femur of OVX rats. A Ph. linteus supplementation for 12 weeks also significantly increased serum ALP activity and reduced urinary deoxypyridinoline level in OVX rats. Ultimately, we found that 12-week Ph. linteus supplementation increased the bone accumulation of minerals, including calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Collectively, Ph. linteus protected against osteoporosis by balancing the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which was particularly associated with increased ALP activity in vitro and in vivo and mineral accumulation in bone.

  15. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  16. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  17. Regioselective oxygenation of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and other aliphatic compounds by a basidiomycete heme-thiolate peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Babot, Esteban D; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Martínez, Angel T; del Río, José C

    2011-10-01

    Reaction of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, sterols, sterol esters and triglycerides with the so-called aromatic peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita was investigated using GC-MS. Regioselective hydroxylation of C(12)-C(20) saturated/unsaturated fatty acids was observed at the ω-1 and ω-2 positions (except myristoleic acid only forming the ω-2 derivative). Minor hydroxylation at ω and ω-3 to ω-5 positions was also observed. Further oxidized products were detected, including keto, dihydroxylated, keto-hydroxy and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Fatty alcohols also yielded hydroxy or keto derivatives of the corresponding fatty acid. Finally, alkanes gave, in addition to alcohols at positions 2 or 3, dihydroxylated derivatives at both sides of the molecule; and sterols showed side-chain hydroxylation. No derivatives were found for fatty acids esterified with sterols or forming triglycerides, but methyl esters were ω-1 or ω-2 hydroxylated. Reactions using H(2)(18)O(2) established that peroxide is the source of the oxygen introduced in aliphatic hydroxylations. These studies also indicated that oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl and carboxyl groups is produced by successive hydroxylations combined with one dehydration step. We conclude that the A. aegerita peroxygenase not only oxidizes aromatic compounds but also catalyzes the stepwise oxidation of aliphatic compounds by hydrogen peroxide, with different hydroxylated intermediates.

  18. Tritirachium candoliense sp. nov., a novel basidiomycetous fungus isolated from the anoxic zone of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Boekhout, T.; Muller, W.H.; Stoeck, T.

    30 scanning electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun (FEI Europe, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) at an acceleration voltage of 5 kV. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM) selected samples from 5-day-old oxic colonies and 3- month... (Venable and Coggshall 1965), and viewed with a transmission electron microscope Tecnai 12 (FEI Europe, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) at an acceleration voltage of 120 kV. All the organic solvents used were of HPLC/analytical grade. 2.4 Nutritional...

  19. 吉林省担子菌补记(六)%Notes on Basidiomycetes of Jilin Province (Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建瑞; 图力古尔

    2004-01-01

    报道了6个吉林省新记录担子菌,即青绿湿伞[Hygrocybe psittacina(Schaeff.:Fr.)Wünsche],梭柄金钱菌[Collybia fusipes(Bull.:Fr.)Quél.],黄褐盔孢菌[Galerina helvoliceps(Berk.et Curt.)Sing.],内鬼笔(Endophallus yunnanensis Zang et Petersen),粉托鬼笔[Phallus hadriani(Vent.)Pers.]和蓖齿地星(Geastrum pectinatum Pers.).其中,内鬼笔属为吉林省新记录属,青绿湿伞、梭柄金钱菌、内鬼笔和篦齿地星为首次在我国东北地区发现.标本存放在吉林农业大学标本馆(HMJAU)内.

  20. 蓝黄红菇的化学成分%The Constituents of the Basidiomycetes Russula cyanoxantha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锦明; 董泽军; 刘吉开

    2000-01-01

    从野生真菌蓝黄红菇Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff. Fr.子实体中分得6个化合物,经光谱法分别鉴定为4个麦角甾醇:5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol 1,5α,8α-epidioxy-(24S)-ergosta-6-en-3β-ol 2,(24S)-ergosta-7-ene-3β,5α,6β-triol 3,(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol 4 (cerevisterol)以及D -阿洛醇 (D-allitol)和硬脂酸 (stearic acid ).其中化合物1 、2为麦角甾醇过氧化物.3和D -阿洛醇为首次发现存在于高等真菌中.

  1. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth.

  2. Mycelial growth rate and macro- and micromorphological characteristics of medicinal species of genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keypour, Somayeh; Riahi, Hossein; Safaie, Naser; Borhani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mycelial growth rate is a distinguishing quality that demonstrates continuous variation in different isolates collected from various hosts and locations. The objectives of this research were (1) to reinvestigate the previous identification of Iranian species, and (2) to recognize the best native isolate(s) for cultivation of different Ganoderma species. Of 78 samples collected from different hosts and sites, only 43 mycelia could be purified and examined for further study. Growth rate (GR; Δd/Δt) and growth coefficient (GC; dgh/t) were analyzed by growing isolate culture on 2% malt-extract agar medium (pH 5.5) incubated at 25°C. Macro- and micromorphological studies on mycelia and fruiting bodies such as basidiospore and cutis microcharacters as well as fruiting body quality were used for precise identification. Results revealed that samples belonged to 4 species: G. lucidum, G. applanatum, G. resinaceum, and G. australe. Among all samples, the isolate morphologically identified as G. applanatum showed the best GR (12 mm/day) and good GC (128 mm/day), followed by the 2 other isolates identified as G. resinaceum (GRs and GCs of 11 and 55 mm/day and 10.9 and 43.6 mm/day, respectively).

  3. Current Advances in the Antimicrobial Potential of Species of Genus Ganoderma (Higher Basidiomycetes) against Human Pathogenic Microorganisms (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra K; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Nagaonkar, Dipali; dos Santos, Carolina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma spp. are very important therapeutic mushrooms and have been used traditionally for 4000 years in the treatment of various human disorders. Different species of Ganoderma possess bioactive compounds, which have already demonstrated antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Various bioactive compounds such as triterpenoids, colossolactones, and polysaccharides, which are responsible for the antimicrobial potential of the genus, are discussed here in detail. Some Ganoderma spp. have been reported to be potential agents for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have demonstrated antimicrobial activity and also are reviewed herein. The main aim of this review is to discuss the possible use of Ganoderma extracts and their active principles in antimicrobial therapy.

  4. 吉林省担子菌补记(八)%Notes on Basidiomycetes of Jilin Province (Ⅷ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    图力古尔

    2007-01-01

    报道了6个吉林省新记录担子菌,即辅毛鬼伞[Coprinus radians (Desm.:Fr.)Fr.]、金黄拟蜡伞[Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (Wulf.:Fr.) Maire]、黄柄小菇[Mycena epipterygia(Scop.:Fr.)S.F.Gray]、黏柄小菇[Mycena rorida(Scop.:Fr.)Quél.]、长齿白齿耳菌[Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii(Berk.) Mass.]和大刷革[Xylobolus princeps (Jungh.) Boidin].其中,黏柄小菇同时为中国新记录种,其他5种首次在我国东北地区发现,拟蜡伞属和白齿耳菌属为吉林省新记录属.标本保存于吉林农业大学菌物标本馆(HMJAU).

  5. Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of submerged culture of the culinary-medicinal golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, was studied using a one-factor-at-a-time, two-stage stimulation and central composite rotatable design to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 22 were a temperature of 25°C, an inoculation ratio of 5%, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and adjustment of the initial pH value to 10. The biomass and ergothioneine content were 8.28 g/L and 10.65 mg/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The addition of an amino acid precursor increased the ergothioneine content of mycelia; cysteine was the most effective. In addition, the results obtained from central composite rotatable design showed that the recommended combination for cysteine, histidine, and methionine was 8, 4, and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. The predicted ergothioneine content was 13.90 mg/g dw, whereas the experimental maximal ergothioneine content was 14.57 mg/g dw. With the addition of complex precursors and under optimal culture conditions, mycelia harvested at days 16-20 had higher ergothioneine content. Accordingly, the information obtained could be used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content.

  6. Haematopoiesis radioprotection in Balb/c mice by an aqueous mycelium extract from the Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, G; Morris, H J; Tamayo, V; Lebeque, Y; Beltrán, Y; Marcos, J; Moukha, S; Creppy, E E; Bermúdez, R C

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the radioprotective activity of an aqueous extract from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium administered to Balb/c mice. Male mice were whole-body irradiated on day 0 ((60)Co, at 0.43 Gy/min) and divided into two groups. The extract was administered intraperitoneally to one group (100 mg/kg) on days - 10 to - 6 and - 2 to +1 with respect to the irradiation. The irradiated-control group was injected with saline solution; non-irradiated mice were used as negative controls. The radioprotective effect was evident by increases in bone marrow cellularity (5.1 × 10(6)/femur vs. 1.1 × 10(6)/femur in saline-control mice, p < 0.05), leucocyte counts (10.5 × 10(9)/L vs. 4.5 × 10(9)/L, p < 0.05), and spleen cellularity (11.2 × 10(7)/spleen vs. 6.2 × 10(7)/spleen, p < 0.05). The extract stimulated macrophage phagocytic activity as judged by a faster rate of carbon clearance in terms of absorbance ratios (1.62 vs. 2.01, p < 0.05). Therefore, this extract may be a candidate therapeutic agent with radioprotective activity for haematopoiesis damage, particularly to cells involved in immune function.

  7. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.

  8. Transcriptome analysis and its application in identifying genes associated with fruiting body development in basidiomycete Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Zhang

    Full Text Available To elucidate the mechanisms of fruit body development in H. marmoreus, a total of 43609521 high-quality RNA-seq reads were obtained from four developmental stages, including the mycelial knot (H-M, mycelial pigmentation (H-V, primordium (H-P and fruiting body (H-F stages. These reads were assembled to obtain 40568 unigenes with an average length of 1074 bp. A total of 26800 (66.06% unigenes were annotated and analyzed with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, Gene Ontology (GO, and Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG databases. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs from the four transcriptomes were analyzed. The KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the mycelium pigmentation stage was associated with the MAPK, cAMP, and blue light signal transduction pathways. In addition, expression of the two-component system members changed with the transition from H-M to H-V, suggesting that light affected the expression of genes related to fruit body initiation in H. marmoreus. During the transition from H-V to H-P, stress signals associated with MAPK, cAMP and ROS signals might be the most important inducers. Our data suggested that nitrogen starvation might be one of the most important factors in promoting fruit body maturation, and nitrogen metabolism and mTOR signaling pathway were associated with this process. In addition, 30 genes of interest were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR to verify their expression profiles at the four developmental stages. This study advances our understanding of the molecular mechanism of fruiting body development in H. marmoreus by identifying a wealth of new genes that may play important roles in mushroom morphogenesis.

  9. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  10. Disruption of seven hypothetical aryl alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and construction of a multiple knock-out strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delneri, D; Gardner, D C; Bruschi, C V; Oliver, S G

    1999-11-01

    By in silicio analysis, we have discovered that there are seven open reading frames (ORFs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose protein products show a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity to the aryl alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Yeast cultures grown to stationary phase display a significant aryl alcohol dehydrogenase activity by degrading aromatic aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols. To study the biochemical and the biological role of each of the AAD genes, a series of mutant strains carrying deletion of one or more of the AAD-coding sequences was constructed by PCR-mediated gene replacement, using the readily selectable marker kanMX. The correct targeting of the PCR-generated disruption cassette into the genomic locus was verified by analytical PCR and by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) followed by Southern blot analysis. Double, triple and quadruple mutant strains were obtained by classical genetic methods, while the construction of the quintuple, sextuple and septuple mutants was achieved by using the marker URA3 from Kluyveromyces lactis, HIS3 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and TRP1 from S. cerevisiae. None of the knock-out strains revealed any mutant phenotype when tested for the degradation of aromatic aldehydes using both spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specific tests for changes in the ergosterol and phospholipids profiles did not reveal any mutant phenotype and mating and sporulation efficiencies were not affected in the septuple deletant. Compared to the wild-type strain, the septuple deletant showed an increased resistance to the anisaldehyde, but there is a possibility that the nutritional markers used for gene replacement are causing this effect.

  11. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, T.P.S., E-mail: pgalindo@ua.pt [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, R. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freitas, A.C.; Santos-Rocha, T.A.P. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Rasteiro, M.G.; Antunes, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Rodrigues, D. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M.; Gonçalves, F. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2013-08-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP.

  12. Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Cullen

    2010-04-21

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of simple sequence repeats in the model medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Xu, Haibin; Song, Jingyuan; Xu, Jiang; Zhu, Yingjie; Chen, Shilin

    2013-01-10

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in gene function and genome organization. We identified SSRs in the genome of Ganoderma lucidum and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. We also compared the SSRs in G. lucidum with six other Agaricomycetes genomes: Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Schizophyllum commune and Serpula lacrymans. Based on our search criteria, the total number of SSRs found ranged from 1206 to 6104 and covered from 0.04% to 0.15% of the fungal genomes. The SSR abundance was not correlated with the genome size, and mono- to tri-nucleotide repeats outnumbered other SSR categories in all of the species examined. In G. lucidum, a repertoire of 2674 SSRs was detected, with mono-nucleotides being the most abundant. SSRs were found in all genomic regions and were more abundant in non-coding regions than coding regions. The highest SSR relative abundance was found in introns (108 SSRs/Mb), followed by intergenic regions (84 SSRs/Mb). A total of 684 SSRs were found in the protein-coding sequences (CDSs) of 588 gene models, with 81.4% of them being tri- or hexa-nucleotides. After scanning for InterPro domains, 280 of these genes were successfully annotated, and 215 of them could be assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. SSRs were also identified in 28 bioactive compound synthesis-related gene models, including one 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), three polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and 24 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs). Primers were designed for the identified SSR loci, providing the basis for the future development of SSR markers of this medicinal fungus.

  14. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l⁻¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l⁻¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l⁻¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up.

  15. Catalytic activity of lignin peroxidase and partition of veratryl alcohol in AOT/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Huang, Xirong; Li, Yuezhong; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji

    2006-04-01

    The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and the partition of its optimum substrate veratryl alcohol (VA) in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles were studied in this paper to understand the microheterogeneous effect of the medium on the catalytic properties of LiP hosted in the reverse micelle. Results showed that LiP from Phanerochaete chrysosporium could express its activity in the reverse micelles, but its activity depended, to a great extent, on the composition of the reverse micelles. Optimum activity occurred at a molar ratio of water to AOT (omega0) of 11, a pH value of 3.6, and a volume ratio of isooctane to toluene of 7-9. Under optimum conditions, the half-life of LiP was circa 12 h. The dependence of LiP activity on the volume fraction of water in the medium (theta), at a constant omega0 value of 11, indicated that VA was mainly solubilized in the pseudophase of the reverse micelle. Based on the pseudobiphasic model and the corresponding kinetic method, a linear line can be obtained in a plot of apparent Michaelis constant of VA vs theta, and the partition coefficient of VA between the pseudophase and the organic solvent phase was determined to be 35.8, which was higher than that (22.3) between bulk water and the corresponding mixed organic solvent. H2O2 inhibited LiP at concentrations higher than 80 microM; this concentration value seems to be different from that in aqueous solution (about 3 mM). The differences mentioned above should be ascribed to the microheterogeneity and the interface of the AOT reverse micelle.

  16. Substrate oxidation by dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) from wood- and litter-degrading agaricomycetes compared to other fungal and plant heme-peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liers, Christiane; Pecyna, Marek J; Kellner, Harald; Worrich, Anja; Zorn, Holger; Steffen, Kari T; Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, René

    2013-07-01

    Catalytic and physicochemical properties of representative fungal dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) of wood- (WRF) and litter-decomposing white-rot fungi (LDF) are summarized and compared, including one recombinant Mycetinis scorodonius DyP (rMscDyP; LDF), the wild-type Auricularia auricula-judae DyP (AauDyP; WRF), and two new DyPs secreted by the jelly fungi Exidia glandulosa (EglDyP; WRF) and Mycena epipterygia (MepDyP; LDF). Homogeneous preparations of these DyPs were obtained after different steps of fast protein liquid chromatography, and they increase the total number of characterized fungal DyP proteins to eight. The peptide sequences of AauDyP, MepDyP, and EglDyP showed highest homologies (52-56%) to the DyPs of M. scorodonius. Five out of the eight characterized fungal DyPs were used to evaluate their catalytic properties compared to classic fungal and plant heme peroxidases, namely lignin peroxidase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PchLiP; WRF), versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera adusta (BadVP; WRF), and generic peroxidases of Coprinopsis cinerea (CiP) and Glycine max (soybean peroxidase=SBP). All DyPs tested possess unique properties regarding the stability at low pH values: 50-90% enzymatic activity remained after 4-h exposition at pH 2.5, and the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic substrates (lignin model compounds) was optimal below pH 3. Furthermore, all DyPs efficiently oxidized recalcitrant dyes (e.g., Azure B) as well as the phenolic substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Thus, DyPs combine features of different peroxidases on the functional level and may be part of the biocatalytic system secreted by fungi for the oxidation of lignin and/or toxic aromatic compounds.

  17. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  19. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  20. Bio-Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mine by Fungi: Batch and Fixed Bed Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Soleimanifar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD containing high concentrations of iron and sulphate, low pH and variableconcentrations of heavy metals leads to many environmental problems. The concentrations of Cu and Mnare high in the AMD of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman province, south of Iran. In thisstudy, the bio-remediation of Cu and Mn ions from acid mine drainage was investigated using two nativefungi called Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium which were extracted from the soil andsediment samples of the Shour River at the Sarcheshmeh mine. The live fungi was first harvested andthen killed by boiling in 0.5 N NaOH solution. The biomass was finally dried at 60 C for 24 h andpowdered. The optimum biosorption parameters including pH, temperature, the amount of biosorbent andcontact time were determined in a batch system. The optimum pH varied between 5 and 6. It was foundthat the biosorption process increased with an increase in temperature and the amount of biosorbent.Biosorption data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good match.Kinetic studies were also carried out in the present study. The results show that the second-order kineticsmodel fits well the experimental data. The biosorption experiments were further investigated with acontinuous system to compare the biosorption capacities of two systems. The results show thatbiosorption process using a continuous system increases efficiency up to 99%. A desorption process waseventually performed in order to recover Copper and Manganese ions. This process was successful andfungi could be used again.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  2. Identification and expression analysis of a new glycoside hydrolase family 55 exo-β-1,3-glucanase-encoding gene in Volvariella volvacea suggests a role in fruiting body development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yongxin; Xie, Baogui; Yang, Zhiyun; Chen, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhi; Deng, Youjin; Jiang, Yuji; van Peer, Arend F

    2013-09-15

    The edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in South East Asia and is predominantly harvested in the egg stage. Rapid stipe elongation and cap expansion result in a swift transition from the egg to elongation and maturation stage, which are subjected to fast senescence and deterioration. In other mushrooms, β-1,3-glucanases have been associated with degradation (softening) of the cell wall during stipe elongation and senescence. We present a new glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) exo-β-1,3-glucanase gene, exg2, and highly conserved deduced EXG2 protein. The 3D model and presumed catalytic residues of V. volvacea EXG2 are identical to Lentinula edodes EXG2 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Lam55A, supporting similar enzymatic functions. In addition to previous association to stipe elongation and senescence, our data clearly indicates a role for cap (pileus) expansion. Digital gene expression, quantitative PCR and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification analysis showed low exg2 and EXG2 levels in primordia, button, egg and elongation stages and significantly increased levels in the maturation stage. Subsequent relative quantitative PCR analysis designated expression of exg2 to the stipe in the elongation stage and to the pileus and stipe in the maturation stage. EXG2 cell wall softening activity, close correlation of exg2 expression with the principal expanding mushroom tissues and a strong conservation of expression patterns and protein sequences in other mushrooms, make V. volvacea exg2 an important candidate for future studies on mechanisms of fruiting body expansion and senescence causing commodity value loss.

  3. Study on the effect of metal ions towards biodegradation pathway of decabrominated diphenyl ether by white rot fungus%金属离子影响白腐菌降解十溴联苯醚的途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宝燕; 尹华; 彭辉; 叶锦韶; 龙焰; 彭素芬

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to find the influence approaches of metal ions on the degradation of organic pollutants by microorganisms. An aerobic strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium which is capable of decomposing many kinds of aromatic compounds, was selected for the biodegradation of decabrominated diphenyl ether ( BDE209). The effects of metal ions (Cu2+ , Fe2 + , Zn2+ , Mn2 + ) on the biodegradation of BDE209 were investigated. An orthogonal experiment including four factors (Fe2+ , Mn2+ , Cu2+ , Zn2+ ) and five levels (0, 0.01 mmol/L, 0.05 mmol/L, 0.1 mmol/L, 0.2 mmol/L) was designed to optimize the reaction system. The results showed that the optimum combination of the factors was Cu2+ (0.05 mmol/L) , Fe2+ (0.2 mmol/L), Zn2+ (0.01 mmol/L), Mn2+ (0.1 mmol/L). For the treatment of 1 mg/L BDE209, 86.76% degradation efficiency was obtained with 1.74 g biomass. The effect curves of metal ions on the fungus growth and BDE209 degradation were plotted and then compared with one another. Under the condition of low concentration metal ions, BDE209 degradation had a significantly positive correlation with the fungus growth, but at higher levels the relation was different . In other words, high concentration biomass could not produce maximum biodegradation efficiency. The effect of metal ions on degrading process was further explored in the terras of pH value, extracellular enzymes and metals concentration of the fungus. Metal ions altered the pH value of degrading system to which promoted the growth of fungus and accelerated the activity of extracellular enzymes, and thus improved the degradation efficiency of BDE209. Main extracellular enzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium including Iignin Peroxidase (LdP), Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac) were analyzed in relation to BDE209 degrading efficiency. The results showed that the breakage of BDE209 had stronger dependence on Lac than the others and Cu had great influence on production and activity of Lac. A large portion

  4. Inducción fúngica de la biorremediación de suelos contaminados con combustibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopretti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La biorremediación de suelos ha sido en los últimos años una de las aplicaciones de los procesos de la biotecnología industrial que se ha desarrollado en busca de soluciones  naturales y eficientes al problema de la contaminación.Varios son los microorganismos que viven en condiciones extremas, desarrollando estrategias metabólicas que les permiten tener sus vías metabólicas aptas para vivir y reproducirse. Dentro de estas estrategias  se encuentra la acción de enzimas hidrolíticas, oxidativas y depolimerizantes que permiten modificar sustratos complejos como lo son los derivados del petróleo  y entre ellos los combustibles.En el presente trabajo se estudió la acción de dos hongos Gloeophylum trabeum y Phanerochaetes chrysosporium actuando en forma consorcial sobre sustratos  contaminados con gasoil y nafta.Se prepararon 4 reactores de fermentación sólida: dos de ellos blanco, contaminados sin inducción, y de los otros dos uno con nafta y el otro con gasoil inoculados ambos con 100cc de medio de propagación con micelios de P.chrysosporium y 50cc de medio de crecimiento con pellets de G. trabeum. Se extrajeron muestras cada 15 días y se evaluó  en el material de cada reactor características fisicoquímicas como %C, humedad y pH.También se realizó la evaluación microbiológica por siembra en placa y dilución en placa con agar malta al 1,25%. En todos los casos se obtuvieron micelios.Por último se determinó la actividad de enzimas lacasa  y peroxidasa. La actividad lacasa se determinó por espectrometría usando 0.5mM de ABTS como sustrato en 0,1M de buffer acetato de sodio pH5 y 1 ml de extracto obtenido por extracción salina. La determinación de actividad Mn peroxidasa se realizó con 0.01% de rojo fenol como sustrato en buffer succinato de sodio 0.1M en presencia de 1 ml de extracto enzimático, MnSO4 0.1M y H2O2 0.1M.Las actividad  de éstas enzimas permitió obtener moléculas mas pequeñas producto de la

  5. Antioxidant and antiedema properties of solid-state cultured honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (higher Basidiomycetes), extracts and their polysaccharide and polyphenol contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean Teik

    2013-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal honey mushroom or Mi-Huan-Ku, Armillaria mellea (AM), is a popular ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine for treating diseases of geriatric patients. This study aimed to examine the effect of cultured substrates on the mycelial growth of AM and evaluate its antioxidant and antiedema activities as well as its total polysaccharide and polyphenol contents. Results showed that AM grew best on the maize medium and worst on the potato medium. AM ethanol extract (AM-EtOH) showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than AM aqueous extract (AM-H₂O). However, they were weak in metal chelation and reducing power. AM-EtOH but not AM-H₂O at 200 mg/kg showed antiedema activity in rats. The total β-glucan content of AM-H₂O and AM-EtOH was 21.95% and 3.50%, respectively. AM-EtOH showed higher phenol but lower flavonoid content than AM-H₂O. These results indicate that maize is a good source of substrate for mass production of AM mycelia, and its potency of DPPH radical scavenging and antiedema activities was contributed mainly by the phenolic compounds, not the level of polysaccharide content.

  6. Yield performance of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), using different waste materials as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Majid; Tavana, Maryam; Farsi, Mohammad; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    In this research the effect of sawdust, malt extract, and wheat bran on yield, biological efficiency (BE), and mycelia growth of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated. Three kinds of sawdust (beech, poplar, and hornbeam) as basal medium were mixed with two levels of wheat bran (5% and 10% w/w) and malt extract (2.5% and 5% w/w) as medium supplement for production of G. lucidum in factorial experiments on the basis of completely randomized design with three replications. The results showed that various kinds of sawdust affect fruiting body yield, BE, and mycelia growth rate significantly. The highest fruiting body yield and BE (102.58 g/kg and 12.89%, respectively) were found using hornbeam sawdust. The beech sawdust promotes the mycelia growth rate more than other sawdust. Analysis of variance showed that there is a significant interaction between the sawdust type and wheat bran, sawdust type and malt extract, and wheat bran and malt extract as far as yield and BE of G. lucidum was concerned. A final comparison of the different formulae indicated that the best combinations for high yield (142.44 g/kg) and BE (18.68%) were obtained in a combination of poplar sawdust with 5% malt extract and 10% wheat bran. The highest mycelia growth rate (10.6 mm/day) was obtained in a combination of beech sawdust with 2.5% malt extract and 10% wheat bran.

  7. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologicallt resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of th

  8. Systematics of the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast genus Trichosporon Behrend with the description of the five novel species: Trichosporon vadense, T. smithiae, T. dehoogii, T. scarabaeorum and T. gamsii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Scorzetti, G.; Fell, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees of the anamorphic basichomycetous yeast genus Trichosporon Behrend, based on molecular sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and the D1/D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal (26S) DNA, are presented. This study includes three novel species from soils, T

  9. Trichosporon porosum comb. nov., an anarmorphoc basidiomycetous yeast inhabiting soil, related to the loubieri/laibachii group of species that assimilate hemicelluloses and phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Scorzetti, G.; Fell, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Several isolates representing the genus Trichosporon were collected over a 6-year period from soils in The Netherlands. Based on classical growth tests with carbon and nitrogen compounds these were identical. Three of these (CBS 8396, CBS 8397 and CBS 8522) were subjected to molecular analysis of th

  10. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologically resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J

    2005-02-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of the D1D2 region of the large subunit (26S) and of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA showed relationship to the Bulleromyces clade of the genus Cryptococcus (order Tremellales) with some Tremella spp. as the closest relatives. A traditional morphological and physiological description of the strain is given. Data on the assimilation of some C2 compounds and polysaccharides are provided and compared with those of other type strains of novel species of the C. laurentii complex.

  11. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologicallt resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of the D1D2 region of the large subunit (26S) and of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA showed relationship to the Bulleromyces clade of the genus Cryptococcus (order Tremellales) with some Tremella spp. a...

  12. Pleurotus opuntiae (Durieu et Lév.) Sacc. (higher Basidiomycetes) and other species related to Agave and Opuntia plants in Mexico-taxonomy, distribution, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Marcelo; Guzmán, Gastón; Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus opuntiae is an important mushroom from xerophytic temperate regions of Mexico, as parasite or saprobe on Agave and Opuntia. Discussions on the taxonomic relationships of P opuntiae with P djamor, P. agaves, P. levis, and P. yuccae are presented, of which P. agaves is a synonym of P. opuntiae, and P. yuccae is a synonym of P. djamor. This latter and P levis are close species of P. opuntiae. The traditional uses of P opuntiae and P. djamor as food and remedy for several health problems, and also to get a traditional alcoholic drink from the Agave, are also considered.

  13. Structural elucidation of novel bioactive compound (2-chloro-1-(2-chlorocyclopropyl-2-(4-nitrophenylethanone from basidiomycetous fungus Lentinus squarrosulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While screening for bioactive compounds from macrofungi of Western Ghats of Karnataka, Lentinus squarrosulus a member of polyporaceae was collected and mycelium of the fungus was obtained on potato dextrose agar medium and cultured in a liquid medium (containing 2% glucose, 1% peptone and 2% yeast extract for 20 days on a rotary shaker for the production of secondary metabolites. The cell free culture fluid (100ml was subjected to solvent extraction with dichloromethane (100ml and the extract was evaluated for antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion method and cytotoxic activity of the extract was also determined by MTT and SRB assay on MCF7 cell line. The results revealed that the dichloromethane extract was inhibitory against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilus and also fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani and Trichoderma harzianum. The extract showed 13-27% cell inhibition at 63-1000 µg/ml concentration by MTT and SRB assays on MCF7 cell line. The structural elucidation of the compound by spectroscopic NMR (1H and C13, IR and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the presence of 2-chloro-1-(2-chlorocyclopropyl-2-(4-nitrophenylethanone responsible for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.

  14. The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus : a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Lomascolo, Anne; Chabrol, Olivier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Boukhris-Uzan, Eva; Piumi, François; Kües, Ursula; Ram, Arthur F J; Murat, Claude; Haon, Mireille; Benoit, Isabelle; Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Drula, Elodie; Kwon, Min Jin; Gouret, Philippe; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Lombard, Vincent; Mariette, Jérôme; Noirot, Céline; Park, Joohae; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Sigoillot, Jean Claude; Wiebenga, Ad; Wösten, Han A B; Martin, Francis; Coutinho, Pedro M; de Vries, Ronald P; Martínez, Angel T; Klopp, Christophe; Pontarotti, Pierre; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Wosten, Han

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and whi

  15. Effect of cost-effective substrates on growth cycle and yield of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) from Northwestern Himalaya (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheetal; Jandaik, Savita; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-01-01

    To find a cost-effective alternative substrate, the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum was grown on sawdusts of sheesham, mango, and poplar. Optimum spawn level was determined by spawning in substrates at various levels (1, 2, 3, and 4%). To determine the effect of supplementation, substrates were supplemented with wheat bran, rice bran and corn flour at different concentrations (10, 20, and 30%). Duration of growth cycle, mushroom yield, and biological efficiency data were recorded. Among substrates, mango sawdust was superior, with 1.5-fold higher yields than poplar sawdust, which was the least suitable. However with respect to fructification, mango sawdust produced the first primordia earlier (21±1 days) compared with the other investigated substrates. 3% spawn level was found to be optimal irrespective of the substrate. Yield and biological efficiency (BE) were maximally enhanced by supplementation with wheat bran, whereas rice bran was the least suitable supplement among those tested. Growth cycle shortened and mushroom yield increased to a maximum at the 20% level of supplements. Mango sawdust in combination with 20% wheat bran, if spawned at the 3% level, resulted in a high yield (BE = 58.57%).

  16. Bioinformatic Identification of Potential MicroRNAs and Their Targets in the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Da-Shuai; Li, Chenyang; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Xuchen; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or the post-transcriptional level. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified in many species, especially model plants and animals, miRNAs in fungi remain largely unknown. In this study, based on a database of expressed sequence tags in Ganoderma lucidum, 89 potential miRNAs were identified using computational methods. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of miRNA-like samples prepared from G. lucidum at different development stages revealed that miRNA-like RNAs were differentially expressed in different stages. Furthermore, a total of 28 potential targets were found based on near-perfect or perfect complementarity between the randomly selected 9 miRNA-like RNAs and the target sequences, and potential targets for G. lucidum miRNA-like RNAs were predicted. Finally, we studied the expression pattern of 4 target genes in 3 different development stages of G. lucidum to further understand the mechanism of interaction between miRNA-like RNAs and their target genes. Our analysis paves the way toward identifying fungal miRNA-like RNAs that might be involved in various physiological and cellular differentiation processes.

  17. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru

    2014-01-01

    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  18. Development of an expression plasmid and its use in genetic manipulation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuya; Ji, Sen-Lin; He, Yi-Long; Ren, Meng-Fei; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the construction of a plasmid, pJW-EXP, designed for the expression of homologous and heterologous genes in Ganoderma lucidum. pJW-EXP was generated from the plasmid pMD19-T by inserting the G. lucidum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter, the G. lucidum iron-sulfur protein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase gene terminator and the homologous carboxin-resistance gene as selection marker. This expression plasmid can be efficiently transformed into Ganoderma through polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast transformation. Southern blot analysis showed that most of the integrated DNA appeared as multiple copies in the genome. The applicability of the constructed plasmid was tested by expression of the truncated G. lucidum 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene that encodes the catalytic domain of HMGR. Overexpression of the truncated HMGR gene, which is a key gene in the biosynthetic pathway of the antitumor compounds, ganoderic acids, increased the transcription of the HMGR gene and enhanced ganoderic acid accumulation. pJW-EXP can serve as a useful tool in the genetic improvement and metabolic engineering of Ganoderma.

  19. Enhanced Production of Polysaccharide Through the Overexpression of Homologous Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Gene in a Submerged Culture of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sen-Lin; Liu, Rui; Ren, Meng-Fei; Li, Huan-Jun; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to improve polysaccharide production by engineering the biosynthetic pathway in Ganoderma lucidum through the overexpression of the homologous UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) gene. The effects of UGP gene overexpression on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, and transcription levels of 3 genes encoding the enzymes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, including phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UGP, and α-1,3-glucan synthase (GLS), were investigated. The maximum IPS content and EPS production in G. lucidum overexpressing the UGP gene were 24.32 mg/100 mg dry weight and 1.66 g/L, respectively, which were higher by 42% and 36% than those of the wild-type strain. The transcription levels of PGM, UGP, and GLS were up-regulated by 1.6, 2.6, and 2.4-fold, respectively, in the engineered strain, suggesting that increased polysaccharide biosynthesis may result from a higher expression of those genes.

  20. Production of biomass and polysaccharides of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), by submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habijanic, Jozica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Submerged batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation techniques were used for mycelia cultivation and polysaccharide production of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Although most publications use various Asiatic G. lucidum strains, the growth of the strain Ga.l 4 (Biotechnical Faculty Strain Collection, Ljubljana, Slovenia), originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, is much faster. The results between the batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation are compared with the polysaccharide production in batch cultivation. From the aspect of biomass production, the best results were obtained in repeated fed-batch after 44 days, where 12.4 g/L of dry fungal biomass was obtained.

  1. Naturally occurring medicinal mushroom-derived antimicrobials: a case-study using Lingzhi or Reishi Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwa, Alka S; Rai, Mahendra K

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, collected from Central India was evaluated against four bacterial pathogens. Ethyl alcohol and water extracts of fruit body powder were tested using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was noted that the aqueous extract inhibited growth of pathogenic bacteria. The combined effect of fruit body extract with synthetic antibiotic discs was found to increase the activity significantly more than the antibiotics alone. The present study is an attempt to assess antibacterial activity of extracts of G. lucidum singly and in combination. The combination of G. lucidum with commercial antibiotics proves that it enhances antibacterial activity.

  2. Modulatory effect of crude aqueous extract of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes), on hematological and antioxidant indices in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluba, Olarewaju M; Adebisi, Kayode E; Eidangbe, George O; Odutuga, Adewale A; Onyeneke, E Chukwu

    2014-01-01

    Hematological and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract of fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Extract was administered at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight by an intragastric tube once daily for 14 d starting from the fourth day after parasite inoculation. At the end of treatment period, mice in each group were sacrificed and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. A significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in serum malondialdehyde content with a corresponding significant (P<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the extract-treated groups compared to the infected but untreated group. The results obtained suggest that crude aqueous extract of G. lucidum fruiting bodies possesses potent antioxidant activity that protects hemoglobin against Plasmodium-induced oxidative damage. These findings seem to justify the use of the plant in traditional African and Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent.

  3. In Vitro Assessment of Extracts of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Different Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Nabeel; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GL-1, GL-2, GL-3, GL-4, GL-5) were collected from different locations within and surrounding Lahore, Pakistan, to study the antifungal potential of their bioactive compounds. After studying morphology, different concentrations of the extracts were prepared in methanol and water using a Soxhlet extractor. Different cultures of fungal pathogens were acquired from the First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The antimicrobial potential of 5 G. lucidum samples against 5 fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., and Alternaria alternata) was observed. The lowest biomass reduction (7%) was observed in 1% and 2% concentrations of a methanolic extract and 6% in the case of a water extract. Major inhibition was observed using higher concentrations of the methanolic extract (3% and 4%). These extracts significantly suppressed fungal biomass up to 38% and 56% in A. niger, 47% in A. flavus, 58% in ,i>Penicillium sp., 46% in A. alternaria, and 45% in F. oxysporum compared with the control. It was concluded from these studies that methanolic extracts of G. lucidum showed better activity against all plant fungal pathogens when compared with the water extracts.

  4. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) on α-amanitin-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Jinsong; Liao, Qiong; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Zuohong

    2013-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of G. lucidum aqueous extracts (GLEs) on liver injury induced by α-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and to analyze the possible hepatoprotective mechanisms related to radical scavenging activity. Mice were treated with α-AMA prepared from Amanita exitialis and then administrated with GLE after the α-AMA injection. The hepatoprotective activity of the GLE was compared with the reference drug silibinin (SIL). α-AMA induced a significant elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and provoked a significant reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and a significant increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver homogenate. Treatment with GLE or SIL significantly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased MDA content in liver compared with the α-AMA control group. The histopathological examination of liver sections was consistent with that of biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that GLE induces hepatoprotective effects on acute liver injury induced by α-AMA; these protective effects may be related in part to the antioxidant properties of GLE.

  5. Teratogenic and toxic effects of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), on zebrafish embryo as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Alfonso, Noel F; Eguchi, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the teratogenic and toxic effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom) extract on zebrafish embryos. Hatchability, malformations, and lethality rate of zebrafish embryos were assessed to provide valuable information regarding the potential teratogenic activity of G. lucidum. Hatching was completed 48 h post treatment application (hpta) at 1% or lower concentrations of extract and embryo water. The hatching rate of embryos treated with 5% or higher concentrations was significantly lower (p> 0.05) than the control. Tail malformation was the most marked morphological abnormality in embryos at 72 hpta, which was obviously caused by 1% extract (55.56% tail malformation) and was observed in all embryos exposed to 5% of extract. Growth retardation was evident in embryos exposed to 5%, 10%, and 20%. However, lethal effect of extract of G. lucidum was dependent on dose and time of exposure. Mortality rates of embryos treated with 5% (44.44%) or higher concentrations of the extract was significantly higher (p > 0.05) than that of the control embryos at 72 hpta. These results suggest that G. lucidum extract has lethal and sub-lethal effects on zebrafish embryos.

  6. Production of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), biomass and polysaccharides by solid state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berovic, Marin; Habijanic, Jozica; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2012-01-01

    Solid state cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass, strain BFWS Gal 4, originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, was studied in a horizontal stirred tank reactor. Periodic mixing of N = 80 rpm, 2 min/day was used. Production of fungal polysaccharides and fungal biomass on solid substrate based on beech sawdust, olive oil, and mineral salts was studied. Optimal moisture of the solid matrix was in the range of 80% to 74%. When the moisture content dropped below 57%, the growth of the mycelium and polysaccharide production stopped, but it revived when wet air was applied in further processing. Final concentration of biomass was 0.68 mg/g of solid substrate, while proportions of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides were 4.5 mg/g and 1.05 mg/g, respectively.

  7. Comparative growth characteristics and yield attributes of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) on different substrates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandaik, Savita; Singh, Rajender; Sharma, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of four forestry byproducts (sawdust of oak, mango, khair, and tuni) and three agricultural residues (paddy straw, wheat straw, and soybean waste) along with four supplements (wheat bran, rice bran, corn flour, and gram powder) on growth characteristics (spawn run and primordial formation) and yield of Ganoderma lucidum. There were significant differences (P=0.05) in yield regardless of substrates and supplements used in experimentation. Among substrates, agriculture residues supported better yield and biological efficiency of G. lucidum compared to forestry byproducts irrespective of the supplements. The highest yield (82.5 g) and biological efficiency (27.5%) were recorded from paddy straw supplemented with wheat bran, which invariably resulted in significantly higher yield compared to the unsupplemented check(s) or other supplements used in this study.

  8. Isolation, purification, and immunological activities of a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide from the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lina; Luo, Xi; Tang, Qingjiu; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide with immuno-enhancing activity, hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies was separated by membrane ultrafiltration, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography, and the immunological activities of fractions were assessed on the basis of nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 macrophages. A novel polysaccharide (TB3-2-2) was successfully isolated and purified. TB3-2-2 is a homogeneous polysaccharide, with a relative molecular weight of 5.11 × 103 Da, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and was composed of galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 2:3 determined by high-performance anion exchange chromatography. TB3-2-2 had a carbohydrate content of 99%, as measured using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes and the expression level of interleukin-6 was significantly increased by TB3-2-2. Results indicate that the low-molecular-weight polysaccharide with immunological activity in G. lucidum is worthy of further research and development.

  9. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A(serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetiana; Krupodorova; Svetlana; Rybalko; Victor; Barshteyn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A(serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2(HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47(H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0–6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species—Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes—this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index(324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes(amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems.

  10. Developmental toxicity assessment of medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang et W.N. Chou (higher Basidiomycetes) submerged culture mycelium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-I; Chen, Chiao-Wen; Lin, Ting-Wei; Wang, Di-Sheng; Chen, Chin-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea is a Taiwanese medicinal mushroom with high antioxidant and polysaccharide content. The objective of this study is to investigate developmental toxicity of A. cinnamomea in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were daily gavaged with A. cinnamomea mycelium at dosage levels of 0 (reverse osmosis water), 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg from gestation day (GD) 6 to 15. All dams were sacrificed on GD 20 and were subjected to cesarean section. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities. All copulated females survived until the end of the study. No significant differences were recorded in body weight change, food consumption, and maternal gestational parameters. Only two fetal malformations were noted in 970 fetuses from the treatment groups. Some variations, such as enlarged fontanel, split sternebrae, absent sacral, absent caudal vertebral centra, absent thoracic centra, absent 13th-14th ribs, and fused ribs, were found during the skeletal examination, but no treatment-induced abnormalities occurred. No dose dependency was observed in any of the developmental variations. Overall observation of foetal malformations from rats given A. cinnamomea mycelium during pregnancy demonstrates that this material is not teratogenic at doses up to 500 mg/kg. It is concluded that A. cinnamomea BCRC 35398 mycelium has no teratogenic effects in female rats and is safe to be used as a functional food ingredient.

  11. Investigation of antiproliferative effect of ether and ethanol extracts of birch polypore medicinal mushroom, Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes) in vitro grown mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranka, Małgorzata; Graz, Marcin; Kaczor, Jozef; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Walczak, Katarzyna; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the study conducted to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of ether and ethanol extracts isolated from Piptoporus betulinus against cancer-derived cells. The fungal material used for extract preparation and further experiments was obtained from in vitro grown strains of P. betulinus. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study evaluating antiproliferative potential of in vitro cultured birch polypore fungus. The effect of ether and ethanol extracts on cell proliferation, viability, and adhesion was assessed on colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cell line LS180, whereas the cytotoxicity effect was investigated in normal colon epithelium-derived cell line CCD 841 CoTr. Studied extracts highly decreased the viability of cancer cells, slightly inhibiting proliferation and tumor cell adhesion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity of extracts against cells of normal colon epithelium origin was observed only at the highest studied concentration. The obtained results may seem interesting in comparison with previous studies on water extracts from natural grown P. betulinus. Future research on mycelial extract activity, as well as the content analysis, is needed.

  12. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupodorova, Tetiana; Rybalko, Svetlana; Barshteyn, Victor

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species-Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes-this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index (324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes (amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems.

  13. Acción degradativa de hongos Basidiomycetes sobre residuos agroindustriales de cultivos de café y plátano

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Núñez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Tesis (Magister en Microbiología y Biotecnología Industrial). Universidad Católica de Manizales.Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Biotecnología Agroindustrial, 2015 En Colombia, la caficultura y la producción de plátano corresponden a renglones agro industriales importantes, que generan grandes cantidades de residuos lignocelulosicos en su proceso de beneficio y de corte, durante la cosecha, respectivamente. En esta investigación, se llevó a cabo la producción deinoculantes y/...

  14. Determination of Lovastatin, β-glucan, Total Polyphenols, and Antioxidant Activity in Raw and Processed Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yu Shan; Okello, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify a number of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus. Ostreatus, and characterize the effects of processing, such as blanching, on these outcomes. Dry matter content was 8%. Lovastatin was not detected in this study. β-glucan content of 23.9% and total polyphenol content of 487.12 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dry matter were obtained in raw P. ostreatus. Antioxidant activities as evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays in raw P. ostreatus were 14.46, 16.51, and 11.21 µmol/g, respectively. Blanching did not significantly affect β-glucan content but caused significant decrease in dry matter content, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activities. Mushroom rolls produced from blanched mushrooms and blanching water contained significantly higher amounts of β-glucan, total polyphenol content, and FRAP antioxidant activity compared to blanched mushrooms. In conclusion, P. ostreatus is a good source for β-glucan, dietary polyphenols, and antioxidants. Although the blanching process could affect these properties, re-addition of the blanching water during the production process of mushroom rolls could potentially recover these properties and is therefore recommended.

  15. Immunomodulating and Antiprotozoal Effects of Different Extracts of the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Coccidiosis in Broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Akhtar, Masood; Iqbal, Zafar; Shahid, Muhammad; Awais, Mian Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, procured from local sources, was processed for hot water and methanolic extraction. Extracts obtained were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the amount of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, ether, and nitrogen-free extracts. These extracts were evaluated for immunomodulating and antiprotozoal effects against coccidiosis in a broiler. Cellular immune investigation revealed significantly higher (P ostreatus extracts compared with controls. Humoral immune investigation revealed higher immunoglobulin (total Ig, IgG, and IgM) titers against sheep red blood cells in treated groups compared with controls. However, nonsignificant (P > 0.05) findings were observed in investigations of lymphoid organs. Antiprotozoal studies revealed a significantly higher (P ostreatus extracts when compared with controls. Moreover, lesion scoring and oocysts per gram of droppings observed in the control group were significantly higher (P ostreatus. Results concluded that hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus had strong immune-enhancing activities. Further, these extracts also had excellent antiprotozoal activities against coccidiosis in a broiler.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of the Oyster Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Identification of a New Antimicrobial Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Ahmed M; Wu, Fang-Sheng; El Shikh, Hussien H

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom that also has high medicinal values. In this study, P. ostreatus was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria. The freeze-dried fruiting body, broth from submerged culture, and mycelial biomass of P. ostreatus were extracted using alcohols and water as solvents. The extracts were then tested for their antimicrobial activity against the growth of fungi and bacteria. It was observed that the water extract from fruiting bodies had the strongest effect in inhibiting the growth of most fungi. The most sensitive test microfungi to the inhibition were Candida albicans, Cryptococcus humicola, and Trichosporon cutaneum, and the most sensitive test bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli. Water extracts from culture broth or mycelial biomass were moderately inhibitive to the growth of fungi and bacteria. The alcohol-based solvents from all samples had much less antimicrobial activity against most test microorganisms. An antimicrobial compound was purified from the water extracts of fruiting bodies with Sephadex G 100 column chromatography and characterized by infrared absorption spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopic analysis. We have identified this compound to be 3-(2-aminopheny1thio)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid. This purified compound had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 30 µg/mL and 20 µg/mL against the growth of fungi and bacteria, respectively.

  17. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts, Obtained by Pressurized Water Extraction, on the Expression of Cholesterol Homeostasis Related Genes by Low-Density Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Marín, Francisco Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal mushrooms are able to lower blood cholesterol levels in animal models by different mechanisms. They might impair the endogenous cholesterol synthesis and exogenous cholesterol absorption during digestion. Mushroom extracts, obtained using pressurized water extractions (PWE) from Agaricus bisporus basidiomes, supplemented or not supplemented with selenium, were applied to HepG2 cell cultures to study the expression of 19 genes related to cholesterol homeostasis by low-density arrays (LDA). Only the PWE fractions obtained at 25°C showed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity. Besides the enzymatic inhibition, PWE extracts may downregulate some of the key genes involved in the cholesterol homeostasis, such as the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1), since its mRNA expression falls by one third of its initial value. In summary, A. bisporus extracts may also modulate biological cholesterol levels by molecular mechanisms further than the enzymatic way previously reported.

  18. The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Lomascolo, Anne; Chabrol, Olivier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Boukhris-Uzan, Eva; Piumi, François; Kües, Ursula; Ram, Arthur F J; Murat, Claude; Haon, Mireille; Benoit, Isabelle; Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Drula, Elodie; Kwon, Min Jin; Gouret, Philippe; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Lombard, Vincent; Mariette, Jérôme; Noirot, Céline; Park, Joohae; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Sigoillot, Jean Claude; Wiebenga, A.; Wösten, Han A B; Martin, Francis; Coutinho, Pedro M; de Vries, Ronald P; Martínez, Angel T; Klopp, Christophe; Pontarotti, Pierre; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and whi

  19. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.

  20. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each compone