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Sample records for basic service set

  1. Fairness Provision in the IEEE 802.11e Infrastructure Basic Service Set

    CERN Document Server

    Keceli, Feyza; Ayanoglu, Ender

    2007-01-01

    Most of the deployed IEEE 802.11e Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) use infrastructure Basic Service Set (BSS) in which an Access Point (AP) serves as a gateway between wired and wireless domains. We present the unfairness problem between the uplink and the downlink flows of any Access Category (AC) in the 802.11e Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) when the default settings of the EDCA parameters are used. We propose a simple analytical model to calculate the EDCA parameter settings that achieve weighted fair resource allocation for all uplink and downlink flows. We also propose a simple model-assisted measurement-based dynamic EDCA parameter adaptation algorithm. Moreover, our dynamic solution addresses the differences in the transport layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer interactions of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). We show that proposed Contention Window (CW) and Transmit Opportunity (TXOP) limit adaptation at the AP provides fair UDP and TCP ac...

  2. Fair and Efficient TCP Access in the IEEE 802.11 Infrastructure Basic Service Set

    CERN Document Server

    Keceli, Feyza; Ayanoglu, Ender

    2008-01-01

    When the stations in an IEEE 802.11 infrastructure Basic Service Set (BSS) employ Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in the transport layer, this exacerbates per-flow unfair access which is a direct result of uplink/downlink bandwidth asymmetry in the BSS. We propose a novel and simple analytical model to approximately calculate the per-flow TCP congestion window limit that provides fair and efficient TCP access in a heterogeneous wired-wireless scenario. The proposed analysis is unique in that it considers the effects of varying number of uplink and downlink TCP flows, differing Round Trip Times (RTTs) among TCP connections, and the use of delayed TCP Acknowledgment (ACK) mechanism. Motivated by the findings of this analysis, we design a link layer access control block to be employed only at the Access Point (AP) in order to resolve the unfair access problem. The novel and simple idea of the proposed link layer access control block is employing a congestion control and filtering algorithm on TCP ACK packets...

  3. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  4. Fair Access Provisioning through Contention Parameter Adaptation in the IEEE 802.11e Infrastructure Basic Service Set

    CERN Document Server

    Keceli, Feyza; Ayanoglu, Ender

    2008-01-01

    We present the station-based unfair access problem among the uplink and the downlink stations in the IEEE 802.11e infrastructure Basic Service Set (BSS) when the default settings of the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) parameters are used. We discuss how the transport layer protocol characteristics alleviate the unfairness problem. We design a simple, practical, and standard-compliant framework to be employed at the Access Point (AP) for fair and efficient access provisioning. A dynamic measurement-based EDCA parameter adaptation block lies in the core of this framework. The proposed framework is unique in the sense that it considers the characteristic differences of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) flows and the coexistence of stations with varying bandwidth or Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. Via simulations, we show that our solution provides short- and long-term fair access for all stations in the uplink and downlink employing TCP and UDP flows with non-...

  5. Multimedia Capacity Analysis of the IEEE 802.11e Contention-based Infrastructure Basic Service Set

    CERN Document Server

    Inan, Inanc; Ayanoglu, Ender

    2007-01-01

    We first propose a simple mathematical analysis framework for the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) function of the recently ratified IEEE 802.11e standard. Our analysis considers the fact that the distributed random access systems exhibit cyclic behavior. The proposed model is valid for arbitrary assignments of AC-specific Arbitration Interframe Space (AIFS) values and Contention Window (CW) sizes and is the first that considers an arbitrary distribution of active Access Categories (ACs) at the stations. Validating the theoretical results via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed analysis accurately captures the EDCA saturation performance. Next, we propose a framework for multimedia capacity analysis of the EDCA function. We calculate an accurate station- and AC-specific queue utilization ratio by appropriately weighing the service time predictions of the cycle time model for different number of active stations. Based on the calculated queue utilization ratio, we design a simple model-ba...

  6. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful combinat......In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...

  7. International spinal cord injury musculoskeletal basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Burns, A S; Curt, A

    2012-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Musculoskeletal Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic musculoskeletal findings in the SCI population.Setting:International.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Musculoskeletal Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic musculoskeletal findings in the SCI population.Setting:International....

  8. Programming services with correlation sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Carbone, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Correlation sets define a powerful mechanism for routing incoming communications to the correct running session within a server, by inspecting the content of the received messages. We present a language for programming services based on correlation sets taking into account key aspects of service...

  9. International spinal cord injury pulmonary function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S

    2012-01-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population.......To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population....

  10. International Spinal Cord Injury Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Elliott, S

    2011-01-01

    To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets.......To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets....

  11. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Karlsson, Anders Hans;

    2010-01-01

    To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets.......To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets....

  12. International Spinal Cord Injury Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Elliott, S;

    2011-01-01

    To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets.......To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets....

  13. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Karlsson, Anders Hans

    2010-01-01

    To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets.......To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets....

  14. A Survey of Basic Facilities and Service Provision for the Successful Inclusion of the Students with Hearing Impairment in Inklusive Education Setting in Cross River, Akwa IBOM & Rivers State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Abua Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obviously, since the challenges of life change with time, education should aim at bringing up children with hearing impairment to face these changes and make necessary adjustment in their lives for successful living. Hence education programs and service provisions should therefore be dynamic. To realise these important functions, programs and services designed for the students with hearing impairment in an inclusive education setting should not be on exemption, since the society itself is dynamic in many respects, its fundamental needs equally change with time which hitherto makes societal objective changes also, owing to advancement in scientific inventions, innovation in trends and practices of inclusive education. Bearing this in mind, this paper sought to ascertain the level of provision and availability of basic facilities and services necessary for the successful inclusion of students with hearing impairment. The survey focused on the availability and use of assistive technology devices by the hearing impaired students, recruitment and training of teaching and supportive staff, communication strategies adapted by the teachers, medical and socials services .Data were collected using a Likert-like questionnaire from the sampled secondary schools in the states under investigation. The researcher analysed the data using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient. The results revealed that much is yet to be put in place in the states under study for the successful inclusion of students with hearing impairment into inclusive education setting.

  15. Planning & Priority Setting for Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    Metamaterials – Integrated Computational Material Sciences – Nano-Manufacturing • Counter IED Sciences O F F I C E O F...Biologically-inspired Intelligent Metamaterials – Computing with Natural Language – The Micro-physics of a Liquid-Solid-Gas Interaction – Acoustical...Science Examples of cutting-edge Basic Research at ONR (PE 0601153N) • Code 31: Fast Multipole Methods Reversible Hydrogenation of Graphene • Code 32

  16. Programming services with correlation sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Carbone, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Correlation sets define a powerful mechanism for routing incoming communications to the correct running session within a server, by inspecting the content of the received messages. We present a language for programming services based on correlation sets taking into account key aspects of service......-oriented systems, such as distribution, loose coupling, open-endedness and integration. Distinguishing features of our approach are the notion of correlation aliases and an asynchronous communication model. Our language is equipped with formal syntax, semantics, and a typing system for ensuring desirable...... properties of programs with respect to correlation sets. We provide an implementation as an extension of the JOLIE language and apply it to a nontrivial real-world example of a fully-functional distributed user authentication system....

  17. International spinal cord injury upper extremity basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryden, A; Curt, A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Upper Extremity Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets, which facilitates consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population. SETTING: International. METHODS: A first draft.......iscos.org.uk). CONCLUSION: The International SCI Upper Extremity Basic Data Set will facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population....... of a SCI Upper Extremity Data Set was developed by an international working group. This was reviewed by many different organisations, societies and individuals over several months. A final version was created. VARIABLES: The final version of the International SCI Upper Extremity Data Set contains variables...

  18. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  19. Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana’s Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    residents also requires a broader expertise and training of the CHOs. Conclusions Access to improved urban health services remains a challenge. However, current policy guidelines for the implementation of a primary health model based on rural experiences and experimental design requires careful review and modifications to meet the needs of the urban settings. PMID:24690310

  20. Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana's Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Phillips, James F; Aikins, Moses; Arhin, Doris Afua; Schmitt, Margaret; Nwameme, Adanna U; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Binka, Fred N

    2014-04-01

    broader expertise and training of the CHOs. Access to improved urban health services remains a challenge. However, current policy guidelines for the implementation of a primary health model based on rural experiences and experimental design requires careful review and modifications to meet the needs of the urban settings.

  1. International urinary tract imaging basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: An international working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed...... of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies (around 40), individual persons with specific expertise...... of comparable minimal data. RESULTS: The variables included in the International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic SCI Data Set are the results obtained using the following investigations: intravenous pyelography or computer tomography urogram or ultrasound, X-ray, renography, clearance, cystogram, voiding cystogram...

  2. The International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widerstrom-Noga, E.; Bryce, T.; Cardenas, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To develop a basic pain data set (International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set, ISCIPDS:B) within the framework of the International spinal cord injury (SCI) data sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of pain in the SCI population.Setting:International.M......Objective:To develop a basic pain data set (International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set, ISCIPDS:B) within the framework of the International spinal cord injury (SCI) data sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of pain in the SCI population...... core questions about clinically relevant information concerning SCI-related pain that can be collected by health-care professionals with expertise in SCI in various clinical settings. The questions concern pain severity, physical and emotional function and include a pain-intensity rating, a pain...... classification and questions related to the temporal pattern of pain for each specific pain problem. The impact of pain on physical, social and emotional function, and sleep is evaluated for each pain.Spinal Cord (2008) 46, 818-823; doi:10.1038/sc.2008.64; published online 3 June 2008 Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  3. International urodynamic basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craggs, M.; Kennelly, M.; Schick, E.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create the International Urodynamic Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the data set was developed by a working group consisting of members appointed...... by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version...

  4. Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana's Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Phillips, James F; Aikins, Moses; Arhin, Doris Afua; Schmitt, Margaret; Nwameme, Adanna U; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Binka, Fred N

    2014-01-01

    .... To help ameliorate this situation, an innovative urban primary health system was introduced in urban Ghana, based on the milestones model developed with the rural Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) system...

  5. A set of Level 3 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Du Croz, J.; Hammarling, S. (Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom)); Duff, I. (Harwell Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom))

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes a set of Level 3 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (Level 3 BLAS). The Level 3 BLAS are targeted at matrix-matrix operations, with the aim of providing more efficient, but portable, implementations of algorithms on high-performance computers, especially those with hierarchical memory and parallel processing capability.

  6. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: International expert working group. OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research....... SETTING: Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). METHODS: A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCo...

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  8. Analytical solution of basic equations set of atmospheric motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-hui; SHEN Chun; WANG Yue-peng

    2007-01-01

    On condition that the basic equations set of atmospheric motion possesses the best stability in the smooth function classes, the structure of solution space for local analytical solution is discussed, by which the third-class initial value problem with typicaiity and application is analyzed. The calculational method and concrete expressions of analytical solution about the well-posed initial value problem of the third kind are given in the analytic function classes. Near an appointed point, the relevant theoretical and computational problems about analytical solution of initial value problem are solved completely in the meaning of local solution. Moreover, for other type of problems for determining solution, the computational method and process of their stable analytical solution can be obtained in a similar way given in this paper.

  9. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-06-16

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts.

  10. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts. PMID:26082540

  11. [JICA Leprosy Control and Basic Health Services Project in Myanmar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yutaka; Hikita, Kazuo

    2005-09-01

    Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) implemented a 5-year long bilateral technical cooperation project, "Leprosy Control and Basic Health Services Project" in Myanmar. The project was implemented by National Leprosy Control Program, Department of Health with close technical collaboration of JICA experts mainly from International Medical Center of Japan (IMCJ) and National Sanatoriums of leprosy in Japan. It accelerated to achieve the elimination of leprosy at national level, which was declared in January 2003, and at sub-national level onward. It also developed the appropriate technologies for prevention of disability and prevention of worsening of disability (POD/POWD), which were introduced in 9 townships as a pilot service program. The Government stratified the POD/POWD services as a national program since 2005 by taking up the former pilot area to start with. The project also strengthened the function of referral system of leprosy control (Diagnosis and treatment), POD/POWD and physical rehabilitation. Beside leprosy, the project conducted a series of refresher trainings for primary health care givers, Basic Health Service Staff (BHS), of project areas (48 townships) to improve the services on tuberculosis, Malaria, Leprosy, Trachoma and HIV/AIDS for 3 years (2001-2003), which was evaluated in 2004. It contributed to improve the services at township level hospitals in procurement of audio-visual equipments and in conducting microscope training on leprosy, Malaria and tuberculosis at project areas.

  12. International Spinal Cord Injury Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Elliott, S

    2011-01-01

    To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets.......To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets....

  13. International spinal cord injury skin and thermoregulation function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Annette; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S

    2012-01-01

    To create an international spinal cord injury (SCI) skin and thermoregulation basic data set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets.......To create an international spinal cord injury (SCI) skin and thermoregulation basic data set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets....

  14. Home Economics--Food Services, Basic Cake Decorating. Kit No. 57. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevard, Eddie, Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on basic cake decorating are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of home economics (food services). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  15. Basics of Intensionalized Data: Presets, Sets, and Nominats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Nikitchenko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider intensional aspects of the notion of data. We advocate an idea that traditional set-theoretic platform should be enhanced with new data structures having explicit intensional component. Among such data we distinguish the notions of preset and nominat. Intuitively, presets may be considered as collections of ``black boxes'', nominats may be considered as collections of ``grey boxes'' in which ``white boxes'' are names and ``black boxes'' are their values, while sets may be treated as collections of ``white boxes''. We describe intensions and properties of the introduced notions. We define operations over such data as functions computable in a special intensionalized sense.

  16. Managed land settlement process: "Thought piece" on basic services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This thought piece is deliberately about issues and principles, rather than about setting out a step-by-step process for the planning and provision of services. What is important - and needs to be fully understood - are these issues and principles...

  17. Fuzzy Sets Applications in Civil Engineering Basic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    UĞUR, Latif Onur; BAYKAN, Umut Naci

    2016-01-01

    Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. This paper presents some Fuzzy Logic (FL) applications in civil engeering discipline and shows the potential of facilities of FL in this area. The potential role of fuzzy sets in analysing system and human uncertainty is investigated in the paper. The main finding ...

  18. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  19. Sets a basic compendium with exercises for use in set theory for non logicians, working and teaching mathematicians and students

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dalen, D; De Swart, H; Sneddon, I N

    1978-01-01

    Sets: Naïve, Axiomatic and Applied is a basic compendium on naïve, axiomatic, and applied set theory and covers topics ranging from Boolean operations to union, intersection, and relative complement as well as the reflection principle, measurable cardinals, and models of set theory. Applications of the axiom of choice are also discussed, along with infinite games and the axiom of determinateness.Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with an overview of naïve set theory and some important sets and notations. The equality of sets, subsets, and ordered pairs are considered, together wit

  20. Proposal for an extended set of Fortran Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.; Du Croz, J.; Hammarling, S.; Hanson, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    This paper describes an extension to the set of Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms. The extensions proposed are targeted at matrix vector operations which should provide for more efficient and portable implementations of algorithms for high performance computers.

  1. On the minimum of a polynomial function on a basic closed semialgebraic set and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeronimo, Gabriela; Perrucci, Daniel; Tsigaridas, Elias

    We give an explicit upper bound for the algebraic degree and an explicit lower bound for the absolute value of the minimum of a polynomial function on a compact connected component of a basic closed semialgebraic set when this minimum is not zero. As an application, we obtain a lower bound...... for the separation of two disjoint connected components of basic closed semialgebraic sets, when at least one of them is compact....

  2. On the minimum of a polynomial function on a basic closed semialgebraic set and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeronimo, Gabriela; Perrucci, Daniel; Tsigaridas, Elias

    2013-01-01

    We give an explicit upper bound for the algebraic degree and an explicit lower bound for the absolute value of the minimum of a polynomial function on a compact connected component of a basic closed semialgebraic set when this minimum is not zero. As an application, we obtain a lower bound...... for the separation of two disjoint connected components of basic closed semialgebraic sets, when at least one of them is compact....

  3. On the minimum of a polynomial function on a basic closed semialgebraic set and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeronimo, Gabriela; Perrucci, Daniel; Tsigaridas, Elias

    We give an explicit upper bound for the algebraic degree and an explicit lower bound for the absolute value of the minimum of a polynomial function on a compact connected component of a basic closed semialgebraic set when this minimum is not zero. As an application, we obtain a lower bound...... for the separation of two disjoint connected components of basic closed semialgebraic sets, when at least one of them is compact....

  4. Automatic web services classification based on rough set theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立; 张英; 宋自林; 苗壮

    2013-01-01

    With development of web services technology, the number of existing services in the internet is growing day by day. In order to achieve automatic and accurate services classification which can be beneficial for service related tasks, a rough set theory based method for services classification was proposed. First, the services descriptions were preprocessed and represented as vectors. Elicited by the discernibility matrices based attribute reduction in rough set theory and taking into account the characteristic of decision table of services classification, a method based on continuous discernibility matrices was proposed for dimensionality reduction. And finally, services classification was processed automatically. Through the experiment, the proposed method for services classification achieves approving classification result in all five testing categories. The experiment result shows that the proposed method is accurate and could be used in practical web services classification.

  5. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polasky, S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number...

  6. Web Services Basic Profile Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Schaaff, Andre; Graham, Matthew

    2010-12-01

    This document describes rules to take into account when implementing SOAP-based web services. It explains also how to check conformance to these rules. It can be read as a "Guideline to VO Web Service Interoperability" or a "How to provide interoperable VO web services".

  7. IVOA Recommendation: Web Services Basic Profile Version 1.0

    OpenAIRE

    Schaaff, Andre; Graham, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This document describes rules to take into account when implementing SOAP-based web services. It explains also how to check conformance to these rules. It can be read as a "Guideline to VO Web Service Interoperability" or a "How to provide interoperable VO web services".

  8. 20 CFR 669.310 - What are the basic components of an NFJP service delivery strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... service delivery strategy? 669.310 Section 669.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... the basic components of an NFJP service delivery strategy? The NFJP service delivery strategy must... Investment Boards for the delivery of the services available through the One-Stop system to MSFW's; and...

  9. Development of the International Spinal Cord Injury Activities and Participation Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, M W; Charlifue, S; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Consensus decision-making process. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Activities and Participation (A&P) Basic Data Set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: A committee of experts was established to select...... and define A&P data elements to be included in this data set. A draft data set was developed and posted on the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and American Spinal Injury Association websites and was also disseminated among appropriate organizations for review. Suggested revisions were considered...

  10. 25 CFR 36.97 - What basic requirements must a program's health services meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What basic requirements must a program's health services... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Program Requirements § 36.97 What basic requirements must a program's health... necessary health services for all students residing in the homeliving program, subject to agreements between...

  11. International lower urinary tract function basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craggs, M.; Kennelly, M.; Schick, E.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group consisting of the members...... appointed by the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data...... Set was developed after review and comments by the members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons, and the ISCoS Council...

  12. The International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set (version 2.0)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widerström-Noga, E; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bryce, T N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To revise the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set (ISCIPBDS) based on new developments in the field and on suggestions from the spinal cord injury (SCI) and pain clinical and research community. SETTING: International. METHODS: The ISCIPBDS working group evaluated sug...... three pain interference questions concern perceived interference with activities, mood and sleep for overall pain rather than for individual pain problems and are scored on a 0 to 10 scale....

  13. The Potential Use of Intrauterine Insemination as a Basic Option for Infertility: A Review for Technology-Limited Medical Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman M. Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings.

  14. 5 CFR 2635.101 - Basic obligation of public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.101 Basic... the Federal Government, each employee shall respect and adhere to the principles of ethical conduct... employees to place loyalty to the Constitution, the laws and ethical principles above private gain....

  15. Basic Functional Capabilities for a Military Message Processing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    Characterizations During Preparation 31 Post-Preparation Phases 38 Transmission 38 Delivery 39 Reception 41 Archival 44 Administrativo Functions 44...a situation would exist in practice. The service would have to interface to other message services, both manual and automated. While discussion of... Manual , CINCPACINST 5400.2 Series, 1972, 1973-4 updates. 4 Ellis, T. 0., L G, Gallenson, .i. F. Heafner, and .1 T. Melvin, A Plan for Consolidation end

  16. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  17. Discovering Basic Emotion Sets via Semantic Clustering on a Twitter Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Bann, Eugene Yuta

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of words are used to describe the spectrum of human emotions, but how many emotions are there really, and how do they interact? Over the past few decades, several theories of emotion have been proposed, each based around the existence of a set of 'basic emotions', and each supported by an extensive variety of research including studies in facial expression, ethology, neurology and physiology. Here we present research based on a theory that people transmit their understanding of emo...

  18. 47 CFR 76.930 - Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rates for the basic service tier and associated equipment with a franchising authority within 30 days of receiving written notification from the franchising authority that the franchising authority has...

  19. An assessment of adherence to basic ecological principles by payments for ecosystem service projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, C M; Varga, A; Olmsted, P; Ingram, J C; Cattau, M; Freund, C; Wynn-Grant, R; Naeem, S

    2016-08-01

    Programs and projects employing payments for ecosystem service (PES) interventions achieve their objectives by linking buyers and sellers of ecosystem services. Although PES projects are popular conservation and development interventions, little is known about their adherence to basic ecological principles. We conducted a quantitative assessment of the degree to which a global set of PES projects adhered to four ecological principles that are basic scientific considerations for any project focused on ecosystem management: collection of baseline data, identification of threats to an ecosystem service, monitoring, and attention to ecosystem dynamics or the formation of an adaptive management plan. We evaluated 118 PES projects in three markets-biodiversity, carbon, and water-compiled using websites of major conservation organizations; ecology, economic, and climate-change databases; and three scholarly databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). To assess adherence to ecological principles, we constructed two scientific indices (one additive [ASI] and one multiplicative [MSI]) based on our four ecological criteria and analyzed index scores by relevant project characteristics (e.g., sector, buyer, seller). Carbon-sector projects had higher ASI values (P principles. Projects financed by public-private partnerships had significantly higher ASI values than projects financed by governments (P principles based on the inclusion of cobenefits, the spatial extent of a project, or the size of a project's budget. These findings suggest, at this critical phase in the rapid growth of PES projects, that fundamental ecological principles should be considered more carefully in PES project design and implementation in an effort to ensure PES project viability and sustainability.

  20. Religious institutions and the politics of access to basic services in displacement contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    to networks). In contexts of displacement access to basic services is formally regulated by one’s status (e.g. as refugee or national citizen) and by physical location (e.g. in settlements/camps or urban areas). The paper discusses what role religious institutions play when access to services provided...

  1. Northern California Earthquake Data Center: Data Sets and Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Allen, R. M.; Zuzlewski, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides a permanent archive and real-time data distribution services for a unique and comprehensive data set of seismological and geophysical data sets encompassing northern and central California. We provide access to over 85 terabytes of continuous and event-based time series data from broadband, short-period, strong motion, and strain sensors as well as continuous and campaign GPS data at both standard and high sample rates. The Northen California Seismic System (NCSS), operated by UC Berkeley and USGS Menlo Park, has recorded over 900,000 events from 1984 to the present, and the NCEDC serves catalog, parametric information, moment tensors and first motion mechanisms, and time series data for these events. We also serve event catalogs, parametric information, and event waveforms for DOE enhanced geothermal system monitoring in northern California and Nevada. The NCEDC provides a several ways for users to access these data. The most recent development are web services, which provide interactive, command-line, or program-based workflow access to data. Web services use well-established server and client protocols and RESTful software architecture that allow users to easily submit queries and receive the requested data in real-time rather than through batch or email-based requests. Data are returned to the user in the appropriate format such as XML, RESP, simple text, or MiniSEED depending on the service and selected output format. The NCEDC supports all FDSN-defined web services as well as a number of IRIS-defined and NCEDC-defined services. We also continue to support older email-based and browser-based access to data. NCEDC data and web services can be found at http://www.ncedc.org and http://service.ncedc.org.

  2. An extended set of Fortran Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms: model implementation and test programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.; Du Croz, J.; Hammarling, S.; Hanson, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a model implementation and test software for the Level 2 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (Level 2 BLAS). The Level 2 BLAS are targeted at matrix-vector operations with the aim of providing more efficient, but portable, implementations of algorithms on high-performance computers. The model implementation provides a portable set of Fortran 77 Level 2 BLAS for machines where specialized implementations do not exist or are not required. The test software aims to verify that specialized implementations meet the specification of the Level 2 BLAS and that implementations are correctly installed.

  3. Reliability of the International Spinal Cord Injury Bowel Function Basic and Extended Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Therese; Bazzochi, G; Coggrave, M;

    2011-01-01

    and second tests were separated by 14 days. Cohen’s kappa was computed as a measure of agreement between raters. Results: Inter-rater reliability assessed by kappa statistics was very good (X0.81) in 5 items, good (0.61–0.80) in 11 items, moderate (0.41–0.60) in 20 items, fair (0.21–0.40) in 11 and poor (o0......Study design: This study was designed as an international validation study. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of the International Spinal Cord Injury Bowel Function Basic and Extended Data Sets. Setting: Three European spinal cord injury centers...

  4. 如何在Visual Basic 2005中使用My.Settings%How to Use My.Settings with Visual Basic 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红生

    2006-01-01

    阐述了在Visual Basic 2005中使用My.Settings类对应用程序范围的设置和用户范围的设置进行存储的具体内容和步骤.通过分析得出:在Visual Basic 2005中使用My.Settings类将使存储应用程序和用户的范围设置变得更为简单.

  5. Essential basic and emergency obstetric and newborn care: from education and training to service delivery and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otolorin, Emmanuel; Gomez, Patricia; Currie, Sheena; Thapa, Kusum; Dao, Blami

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 15% of expected births worldwide will result in life-threatening complications during pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period. Providers skilled in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) services are essential, particularly in countries with a high burden of maternal and newborn mortality. Jhpiego and its consortia partners have implemented three global programs to build provider capacity to provide comprehensive EmONC services to women and newborns in these resource-poor settings. Providers have been educated to deliver high-impact maternal and newborn health interventions, such as prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and management of birth asphyxia, within the broader context of quality health services. This article describes Jhpiego's programming efforts within the framework of the basic and expanded signal functions that serve as indicators of high-quality basic and emergency care services. Lessons learned include the importance of health facility strengthening, competency-based provider education, global leadership, and strong government ownership and coordination as essential precursors to scale-up of high impact evidence-based maternal and newborn interventions in low-resource settings.

  6. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Laura L; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository.

  7. How to Motivate Students’ Autonomy and Interest in Basic English Class through CLT Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻梦

    2016-01-01

    CLT refers to a diverse set of principles that reflect a communicative view of language learning. It advocates the fluency and acceptability in the first place on language teaching, and emphasizes effective communication, thus puts the correctness of language form in the second place. The traditional teaching method is good for activating students’ abilities of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and translation. However, it fails to motivate the students’ creative thinking, and the conventional teacher-centered approach gives the absolute authority to teachers in the classroom, so that the students are not ready to take those responsibilities upon themselves and enjoy autonomy. Based upon a 2 semesters’ Basic English teaching, the author of this paper evaluates effective ways to motivate students’ autonomy and interest in the process of teaching while bearing the related CLT theories in mind.

  8. Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M P; Widerström-Noga, E; Richards, J S;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....

  9. Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials.......To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....

  10. [A basic set of indicators for mapping migrant status. Recommendations for epidemiological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, L; Bau, A-M; Borde, T; Butler, J; Lampert, T; Neuhauser, H; Razum, O; Weilandt, C

    2006-09-01

    Data on the health status of migrants are still scarce. One of the reasons for this is that migration status has not been well recorded in official statistics and epidemiological studies. In order to obtain an adequate and standardised operationalisation of migrant status, we first need an exact definition of the terms "migrant" and "migration background". We discuss approaches to the definition of terms and the surveying of ethnic minorities and migrants, and then develop a basic set of migration status indicators for use in epidemiological research. This set of indicators includes country of birth of the father and mother, year of immigration, mother tongue, German language skills and status of residence. The key indicator for the identification of migrants is the country of birth of the parents and not the nationality as was previously often the case. Thus, the classification based on the judicial category of nationality is replaced by a classification based on the biographical event "migration". Migration brings with it specific life conditions and challenges that can impact health across several generations. An instrument for surveying migrant status must be further developed both to reflect the special conditions of the life situation resulting from the migration experience and to take as full account as possible of all aspects of a migrant's history.

  11. Database search services as a basic service in academic health sciences libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, T A; Martin, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    Mediated search services, usually offered for a fee, are commonplace in academic health sciences libraries. At the same time, users of these services have numerous self-service options available to them; for example, CD-ROMs and locally mounted databases. In keeping with its philosophy of access to rather than ownership of information, the University of Washington Health Sciences Library and Information Center (HSLIC) changed its policy from charging clients for mediated searching to offering...

  12. A Study on an appropriate operating system of environmental basic facility service industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental basic facility service industry is designed to have a structural reorganization of general operating system and the efficient and effective participation of private industry and regulation of industry in connection with the general system. 35 refs., 9 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Emotional Intelligence as a Basic Competency in Pre-Service Teacher Training: Some Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Brackett, Marc A.

    2008-01-01

    This article calls for the inclusion of emotional competencies within basic competencies considered in compulsory schooling and in the objectives of pre-service teacher training that is now being designed within the European Space for Higher Education. Toward this end, we review current research on the fundamental role of emotional competencies,…

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMERS’ BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS TRUSTED SERVICE PROVIDERS: AN INVESTIGATION OF FOUR SERVICE SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2013-07-01

    20 minutes, and the respondents being randomly selected from the waiting areas of five UK supermarkets. The collected data has been analysed with the SPSS software, using the Chi Square and Pearson’s two-tailed correlation tests. The results indicate a complex relationship between various categories of factors and the level of customer loyalty, which varies in relation to specific service settings. The findings have been integrated into a synthetic model, developed for four different types of services.

  15. Basic Ideas on the Development of Safe Service Life Standard for Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yan

    2011-01-01

    GB/T 21097.1 General Rules about the Safe Service Life and Recycling of Household and Similar Electrical Appliances has been promulgated and implemented.The development of the standard has gone through a few main stages,including basic framework,fundamental requirements,supplementation of details and actual implementation.In China,the safety standards for household appliances are basically identical with IEC 60335 standards and cover a wide range of products.Basically,the standards have got in line with international level and have been identically applied for several years.However,there have been no corresponding standards or specific rules concerning the safe service life of household appliances in the international community including industrially developed countries.

  16. Emotion regulation through movement: Unique sets of movement characteristics are associated with and enhance basic emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal eShafir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA, the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one’s personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others’ specific movements and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions.

  17. Factors Influencing the Supply Efficiency of Basic Public Service at County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongbing; DENG; Junliang; ZHANG; Yonggang; FENG; Ju; WANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we use DEA-Tobit model to conduct empirical study on the governmental supply efficiency of public service in Chongqing’s 38 counties and the influencing factors during the period 2008-2011.The results show that the supply efficiency of basic public service at county level is generally low,and there is significant regional differences and strong volatility;per capita GDP,population density and population size,and level of education of the residents,are significantly correlated with the supply efficiency of basic public service at county level,but traffic density,urbanization level,and the proportion of government spending on public service to total fiscal expenditure,have no significant effects on the efficiency of basic public service at county level.Based on this,we propose some policy recommendations for enhancing the level of local economic development and the level of education,and reasonably guiding the residents’agglomeration.

  18. Version 1.1 of the international spinal cord injury skin and thermoregulation function basic data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Alexander, M. S.; van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Donovan, W.; Krassioukov, A.; Post, M. W. M.

    Objective: To describe the changes made to the international spinal cord injury (SCI) skin and thermoregulation function basic data set in version 1.1. Setting: International. Methods: An international working group reviewed suggested changes to the international SCI skin and thermoregulation

  19. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... home shopping services. (iii) If an operator has underestimated its cost changes and elects not to... equipment costs necessary for the carriage of digital broadcast signals. (2) The permitted charge for a...

  20. Good validity of the international spinal cord injury quality of life basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, M W M; Adriaansen, J J E; Charlifue, S

    2016-01-01

    satisfaction). Reference measures were the Mental Health Inventory-5 and three items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure. RESULTS: Data of 261 participants were available. Mean time after SCI was 24.1 years (s.d. 9.1); 90.4% had a traumatic SCI, 81.5% a motor complete SCI and 40% had......, and Cronbach's alpha of the scale was good (0.81). Correlations with the reference measures showed the strongest correlations between the WHOQOL general satisfaction item and general QoL (0.64), the WHOQOL health and daily activities items and physical health (0.69 and 0.60) and the Mental Health Inventory-5...... and 35 years of age, were at least 10 years post SCI and were wheelchair users in daily life.Measure(s):The International SCI QoL Basic Data Set consists of three single items on satisfaction with life as a whole, physical health and psychological health (0=complete dissatisfaction; 10=complete...

  1. 41 CFR 301-73.106 - What are the basic services that should be covered by a TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services that should be covered by a TMS? 301-73.106 Section 301-73.106 Public Contracts and Property... that should be covered by a TMS? The TMS must, at a minimum— (a) Include a Travel Management Center... the basic services of a TMS. You have the option to use the contracted travel agent service(s) of...

  2. The Basic Challenge in EU Countries Promotion Strategy in Exporting Commercial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian-Liviu Olaru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis which started in 2007 had a considerable impact onthe international exchange of goods and services and on the intensity of global financial flows andbusiness activity. Starting with 2010, the EU-27 economy returned to its previous trend of progressivelymore integration with the international economy in terms of its level of credits and debits relative togross domestic product (GDP, having experienced a reversal in 2009. The average value of EU-27 tradeflows of goods corresponded to 11.6 % of GDP in 2010, up from 9.8 % the previous year. The level oftrade integration of services rose to 4.0 % of GDP in 2010, up from 3.9 % in 2008 and 3.8 % in 2009.The basic challenge in EU countries promotion strategy in exporting a commercial service is to convincea foreigner to try a service that does not exist yet. The foreigners have to believe that the service will beof good quality and will meet their needs. Usually the foreigner forms that belief based onrecommendations, referrals, or somehow seeing the service provider in action. There are also severalroles that trade promotion activities can play in building that belief or credibility. A national TPO needsto find or reinforce some special quality that its country has so that when potential customers hear abouta service supplier from this country, their first response is, “Oh yes, I’ve heard good things aboutservices from your country.”

  3. Policy implementation in wheelchair service delivery in a rural South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wheelchairs allow users to realise basic human rights and improved quality of life. South African and international documents guide rehabilitation service delivery and thus the provision of wheelchairs. Evidence indicates that rehabilitation policy implementation gaps exist in rural South Africa.Objectives: The aim of this article was to explore the extent to which wheelchair service delivery in a rural, remote area of South Africa was aligned with the South African National Guidelines on Provision of Assistive Devices, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and The World Health Organization Guidelines on Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings.Method: Qualitative methods were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 participants who were identified through purposive sampling. Content analysis of data was preformed around the construct of wheelchair service delivery.Results: Study findings identified gaps between the guiding documents and wheelchair service delivery. Areas where gaps were identified included service aspects such as referral, assessment, prescription, user and provider training, follow up, maintenance and repair as well as management aspects such as staff support, budget and monitoring. Positive findings related to individual assessments, enthusiastic and caring staff and the provision of wheelchairs at no cost.Conclusion: The gaps in policy implementation can have a negative impact on users and the service provider. Inappropriate or no wheelchairs limit user function, participation and quality of life. In addition, an inappropriate wheelchair will have a shorter lifespan, requiring frequent repairs and replacements with cost implications for the service provider.

  4. A proposal for a set of Level 3 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.; Du Croz, J.; Duff, I.; Hammarling, S.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for Level 3 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (Level 3 BLAS). The Level 3 BLAS are targeted at matrix-matrix operations with the aim of providing more efficient, but portable, implementations of algorithms on high-performance computers, especially those with hierarchical memory and parallel processing capability.

  5. Perspectives of basic wheelchair users on improving their access to wheelchair services in Kenya and Philippines: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Obaga, Immaculate; Onguti, Brenda; Rivera, Adovich; Sy, Tyrone Reden L; Kirby, R Lee; Noon, Jamie; Tanuku, Deepti; Gichangi, Anthony; Bazant, Eva

    2017-08-17

    The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study's purpose was to describe wheelchair users' experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya and the Philippines. Local researchers in Nairobi and Manila interviewed 48 adult basic wheelchair users, with even distribution of those who had and had not received wheelchair services along with their wheelchair. Recordings were transcribed in the local language and translated into English. The study team coded transcripts for predetermined and emergent themes, using Atlas-ti software. A qualitative content analysis approach was taken with the WHO service delivery process as an organizing framework. Wheelchair users frequently described past experiences with ill-fitting wheelchairs and little formal training to use wheelchairs effectively. Through exposure to multiple wheelchairs and self-advocacy, they learned to select wheelchairs suitable for their needs. Maintenance and repair services were often in short supply. Participants attributed shorter duration of wheelchair use to lack of repair. Peer support networks emerged as an important source of knowledge, resources and emotional support. Most participants acknowledged that they received wheelchairs that would have been difficult or impossible for them to pay for, and despite challenges, they were grateful to have some means of mobility. Four themes emerged as critical for understanding the implementation of wheelchair services: barriers in the physical environment, the need for having multiple chairs to improve access, perceived social stigma, and the importance of peer support. Interventions are needed to

  6. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  7. Investigation carried out with pre-service elementary teachers on some basic astronomical topics

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Quinteros, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    We perform a situational diagnosis in topics of astronomy of pre-service elementary teachers in order to try and develop didactic tools that better collaborate with their formal education. In this work we present the instrument we designed to put in evidence some of the most frequently used models on a few basic astronomical notions endowed by them. We work with an open written questionnaire comprising a limited but representative group of basic astronomical notions. We discuss the results of two first pilot tests, provided to 30 individuals, and we comment on the necessary changes applied to the instrument in order to design the final questionnaire, which was then provided to another group of 51 pre-service elementary teachers. A detailed qualitative analysis of the answers revealed many well-known alternative conceptions, and others that seem new. We find that prospective teachers have a hard time in trying to explain the movements of the Moon and its phases. They also meet difficulties to recognize and exp...

  8. Basic Structure of Some Classes of Neutrosophic Crisp Nearly Open Sets & Possible Application to GIS Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache and Salama et al. In Geographical information systems (GIS there is a need to model spatial regions with indeterminate boundary and under indeterminacy. In this paper the structure of some classes of neutrosophic crisp nearly open sets are investigated and some applications are given. Finally we generalize the crisp topological and intuitioistic studies to the notion of neutrosophic crisp set. Possible applications to GIS topological rules are touched upon.

  9. Opportunities in Delivery of Preventive Services in Retail Settings

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Nesbitt, Keith; Lim, May; Smith, Suzanne; Perkins, Bradley A

    2012-01-01

    Recommended clinical preventive services are not being delivered despite well-documented benefits. Here we show that transferring simple and repetitive preventive services to nurse-staffed retail clinics provides an opportunity for dramatically improving their delivery. For each of 35 high-benefit, cost-effective preventive services, we identify required training, number of repetitions, and time and cost for full coverage in the US. We determine that full delivery through physician-based practices would require an unrealistic 400,000 full-time personnel. We estimate the efficiency gains from implementation at nurse-staffed clinics at retail locations for 28 services. Widespread adoption would result in a five-fold reduction in variable costs and three-fold reduction in personnel. By elevating the benefit-to-cost ratio, retail implementation can expedite widespread prevention coverage and help transform US healthcare.

  10. Identifying mental health services in clinical genetic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, M; Esplen, M J; Wilson, B J; Dorval, M; Bottorff, J L; Ly, M; Carroll, J C; Allanson, J; Humphreys, E; Rayson, D

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health needs of individuals at risk for adult onset hereditary disorder (AOHD) from the perspective of their genetic service providers, as it is unknown to what extent psychosocial services are required and being met. A mail-out survey was sent to 281 providers on the membership lists of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors and the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists. The survey assessed psychosocial issues that were most commonly observed by geneticists, genetic counsellors (GCs), and nurses as well as availability and types of psychosocial services offered. Of the 129 respondents, half of genetic service providers reported observing signs of depression and anxiety, while 44% noted patients' concerns regarding relationships with family and friends. In terms of providing counselling to patients, as the level of psychological risk increased, confidence in dealing with these issues decreased. In addition, significantly more GCs reported that further training in psychosocial issues would be most beneficial to them if resources were available. As a feature of patient care, it is recommended that gene-based predictive testing include an integrative model of psychosocial services as well as training for genetic service providers in specific areas of AOHD mental health.

  11. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  12. Basic Ordovician magmatism of the Spanish Central System: Constraints on the source and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejana, D.; Villaseca, C.; Merino Martínez, E.

    2017-07-01

    New geochemical and geochronological data obtained from metabasites intrusive into pre-Floian metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the Spanish Central System (Revenga and El Caloco sectors) represent a complex pre-Variscan magmatic event. Analysed samples exhibit tholeiitic affinity but relatively high incompatible element contents. These rocks can be distinguished from similar tholeiitic SCS metabasites because they represent more primitive liquids with higher metal (Cr, Ni) and LILE contents and display a slightly enriched isotopic (Sr, Nd) composition. These data point to the involvement of several mantle sources including lithospheric sections with a crustal imprint. Two samples yield Ordovician U-Pb zircon intrusion ages of 473.1 (+ 3.8/- 6.8) and 453.3 ± 4.6 Ma. This episode of basic magmatism is not coetaneous with the abundant Cambrian-Ordovician felsic orthogneisses of the Central Iberian Zone and likely represents a rifting context (Rheic Ocean opening) which started about 477 Ma. A comparison with Lower to Middle Paleozoic magmatic rocks from other west European terranes implies a heterogeneous evolution from the Ediacaran to Middle Paleozoic in the northern margin of Gondwana. While western terranes (e.g., Armorican Massif, Saxo-Thuringian Zone, Ossa-Morena Zone) display monotonous shelf sedimentation and magmatic quiescence from the Upper Ordovician to Variscan collision, eastern terranes (e.g., Central Iberian Zone, Corsica-Sardinia, Alps, Pyrenees) exhibit magmatism of contrasting geochemical affinity, including basic alkaline and tholeiitic series, indicative of a more complex tectonic evolution.

  13. Setting up and Running a Sharing Service: an Organisational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naemi Luckner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enabled by web and mobile technologies, there has been an explosion of interest in the sharing economy and peer-to-peer exchange, with much high profile attention given to monetised exchanges such as in AirBnB and Uber. However there are also many other sharing initiatives, such as time banking, that focus on smaller, more local communities and do not involve monetisation of exchanges. While there is a growing body of literature elaborating participation and motivation in sharing services as well as analysing organisers’ roles, little is discussed about the work involved in the day-to-day organisation and management of such services. In this paper we report on an interview study with ten participants discussing five different sharing systems from three different countries. A qualitative thematic analysis of the data points to significant on-going effort reported by all to establish, maintain and grow a service, not only focussing on its practical aspects but also on growing a community and building trust. How they engaged in this practical work though was not so much shaped by the service model (time banking, LETS and so on but on a complex relationship between their funding model, the service goal and whether it was a top-down or bottom-up initiative. These findings have implications for the design of technical platforms to support services, not just in elaborating a range of possible tasks to be supported but also in where and how it needs to be tailorable to certain needs, how adaptive it is to different service models and how it facilitates monitoring and reporting duties for organisers.

  14. PB-BLAS: A set of parallel block basic linear algebra subprograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jaeyoung [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Dongarra, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Walker, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We propose a new library of routines for performing dense linear algebra computations on block-partitioned matrices. The routines are referred to as the Block Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, and their use is restricted to computations in which one or more of the matrices involved consists of a single row or column of blocks, and in which no more than one of the matrices consists of an unrestricted two-dimensional array of blocks. The functionality of the block BLAS routines can also be provided by Level 2 and 3 BLAS routines. However, for Non-Uniform Memory Access machines the use of the block BLAS permit certain optimizations in memory access to be taken advantage of. This is particularly true for distributed memory machines, for which the block BLAS are referred to as the Parallel Block Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (PB-BLAS). The PB-BLAS are the main focus of this paper, and for a block-cyclic data distribution, a single row or column of blocks lies in a single row or column of the processor template. The PB-BLAS consist of calls to the sequential BLAS for local computations, and calls to the BLACS for communication. The PB-BLAS are the building blocks for implementing ScaLAPACK, the distributed-memory version of LAPACK, and provide the same ease-of-use and portability for ScaLAPACK that the BLAS provide for LAPACK. The PB-BLAS consists of all nine Level 3 BLAS routines, four of the Level-2 BLAS routines, and 2 auxiliary transpose routines. The PB-BLAS are currently available for all numeric data types, i.e., single and double precision real and complex.

  15. Hand-eye dominance and depth perception effects in performance on a basic laparoscopic skills set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I; Hoxsey, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance.

  16. An assessment of priority setting process and its implication on availability of emergency obstetric care services in Malindi District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyandieka, Lilian Nyamusi; Kombe, Yeri; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Byskov, Jens; Njeru, Mercy Karimi

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the critical role of Emergency Obstetric Care in treating complications arising from pregnancy and childbirth, very few facilities are equipped in Kenya to offer this service. In Malindi, availability of EmOC services does not meet the UN recommended levels of at least one comprehensive and four basic EmOC facilities per 500,000 populations. This study was conducted to assess priority setting process and its implication on availability, access and use of EmOC services at the district level. A qualitative study was conducted both at health facility and community levels. Triangulation of data sources and methods was employed, where document reviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health personnel, facility committee members, stakeholders who offer and/ or support maternal health services and programmes; and the community members as end users. Data was thematically analysed. Limitations in the extent to which priorities in regard to maternal health services can be set at the district level were observed. The priority setting process was greatly restricted by guidelines and limited resources from the national level. Relevant stakeholders including community members are not involved in the priority setting process, thereby denying them the opportunity to contribute in the process. The findings illuminate that consideration of all local plans in national planning and budgeting as well as the involvement of all relevant stakeholders in the priority setting exercise is essential in order to achieve a consensus on the provision of emergency obstetric care services among other health service priorities.

  17. 47 CFR 76.944 - Commission review of franchising authority decisions on rates for the basic service tier and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commission review of franchising authority... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.944 Commission review of franchising authority... forum for appeals of decisions by franchising authorities on rates for the basic service tier...

  18. Student Experiences Utilizing Disability Support Services in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Marlene; Hillier, Ashleigh; Frye, Alice; Goldstein, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities are a growing population in post-secondary institutions, yet present poorer academic outcomes compared to students without disabilities. The current study examined university students' own perceptions and experiences with disability support services (SDS) including how helpful they found the accommodations they were…

  19. "Hotel-style services" evolve in hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirg, G

    1995-10-01

    Glenn Schirg has been the director of nutrition services at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee for the past 11 years. Besides taking full responsibility for his department, he now acts as a team leader responsible for facilitating one of the medical center's 10 major initiatives.

  20. Patient satisfaction and service quality in the formation of customers' future purchase intentions in competitive health service settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T L; Taylor, S A

    1997-01-01

    The following study provides evidence that the relationship between quality perceptions and satisfaction judgements in the formation of future purchase intentions may be very different in health service settings relative to other service settings. The study investigates Taylor and Baker's (1994) assertion that satisfaction judgements moderate the quality-->purchase intention relationship by testing the research model in both for-profit and not-for-profit hospital settings. The results of this study first support the growing view that satisfaction judgements are more closely related to outcome behaviors than quality perceptions in hospital settings. The results further support the assertion that the formation of important consumer outcomes, such as future purchase intentions, appears to be different for health services. Thus, health service managers are cautioned to empirically test models in the literature specific to their own competitive setting. The managerial and research implications of the reported study are presented and discussed.

  1. Some basic results on the sets of sequences with geometric calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Cengiz; Başar, Feyzi

    2012-08-01

    As an alternative to the classical calculus, Grossman and Katz [Non-Newtonian Calculus, Lee Press, Pigeon Cove, Massachusetts, 1972] introduced the non-Newtonian calculus consisting of the branches of geometric, anageometric and bigeometric calculus. Following Grossman and Katz, we construct the field C(G) of geometric complex numbers and the concept of geometric metric. Also we give the triangle and Minkowski's inequalities in the sense of geometric calculus. Later we respectively define the sets w(G), ℓ∞(G), c(G), c0(G) and ℓp(G) of all, bounded, convergent, null and p-absolutely summable sequences, in the sense of geometric calculus and show that each of the set forms a complete vector space on the field C(G).

  2. Determinants of Community Governance for Effective Basic Service Delivery in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav K. Acharya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Community governance is an approach of shift from governmentality to governance. This is more flexible approach extends beyond government, and the place of its agencies, to a greater sharing of power between the state, the market and civil society via new network and partnership structures. This paper analyses the determinants of community governance at the grassroots level in Nepal for the efficient delivery of basic services based on primary data sources. 110 locally constituted community based organisations were selected for an organisational survey. Additionally, three focus group discussions and 40 in-depth interviews were employed for information collection. A multiple linear regression model was used for data analysis, which revealed 12 variables such as Inclusive participation (X1, Empowerment of the people (X2, Transparency and accountability (X3 Enabling environment (X4, Practice of local democracy (X5, Service effectiveness (X6, Service integrity (X7, Social capital development (X8, Institution building (X9, Community mobilisation (X10 Planning, implementation, and monitoring (X11, Coordination, linkage, and partnership (X12 are significantly influencing governance practice. Results indicated a 14 percent variance between dependent and independent variables. This shows the overall practice of governance at the community level was malfunctioned, which can be attributed to a number of factors. First, many community-based organisations (CBOs do not adopt governance mechanisms in their approach to development. Second, despite a crisis in governance, some CBOs have participated in the service delivery process. Third, this crisis has been a foremost obstacle in the working culture of CBOs. This analysis further explores the problem from the perspective of socio-economic structure, power politics and interests, institutional issues, and capacity and resource constraints.

  3. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Setting up and Running a Sharing Service: an Organisational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Naemi Luckner; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Katharina Werner; Özge Subasi

    2015-01-01

    Enabled by web and mobile technologies, there has been an explosion of interest in the sharing economy and peer-to-peer exchange, with much high profile attention given to monetised exchanges such as in AirBnB and Uber. However there are also many other sharing initiatives, such as time banking, that focus on smaller, more local communities and do not involve monetisation of exchanges. While there is a growing body of literature elaborating participation and motivation in sharing services as ...

  5. The Jump Set under Geometric Regularization. Part 1: Basic Technique and First-Order Denoising

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Let u ∈ BV(Ω) solve the total variation (TV) denoising problem with L2-squared fidelity and data f. Caselles, Chambolle, and Novaga [Multiscale Model. Simul., 6 (2008), pp. 879-894] have shown the containment Hm-1 (Ju \\\\Jf) = 0 of the jump set Ju of u in that of f. Their proof unfortunately depends heavily on the co-area formula, as do many results in this area, and as such is not directly extensible to higher-order, curvature-based, and other advanced geometric regularizers, such as total generalized variation and Euler\\'s elastica. These have received increased attention in recent times due to their better practical regularization properties compared to conventional TV or wavelets. We prove analogous jump set containment properties for a general class of regularizers. We do this with novel Lipschitz transformation techniques and do not require the co-area formula. In the present Part 1 we demonstrate the general technique on first-order regularizers, while in Part 2 we will extend it to higher-order regularizers. In particular, we concentrate in this part on TV and, as a novelty, Huber-regularized TV. We also demonstrate that the technique would apply to nonconvex TV models as well as the Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion, if these approaches were well-posed to begin with.

  6. Nomenclature and basic concepts in automation in the clinical laboratory setting: a practical glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Dalamaga, Maria; Panoutsopoulos, Konstantinos; Dima, Kleanthi

    2013-01-01

    In the early 80s, the word automation was used in the clinical laboratory setting referring only to analyzers. But in late 80s and afterwards, automation found its way into all aspects of the diagnostic process, embracing not only the analytical but also the pre- and post-analytical phase. While laboratories in the eastern world, mainly Japan, paved the way for laboratory automation, US and European laboratories soon realized the benefits and were quick to follow. Clearly, automation and robotics will be a key survival tool in a very competitive and cost-concious healthcare market. What sets automation technology apart from so many other efficiency solutions are the dramatic savings that it brings to the clinical laboratory. Further standardization will assure the success of this revolutionary new technology. One of the main difficulties laboratory managers and personnel must deal with when studying solutions to reengineer a laboratory is familiarizing themselves with the multidisciplinary and technical terminology of this new and exciting field. The present review/glossary aims at giving an overview of the most frequently used terms within the scope of laboratory automation and to put laboratory automation on a sounder linguistic basis.

  7. Implementing Digital Reference Services: Setting Standards and Making It Real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David, Ed.; McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Gross, Melissa, Ed.; Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Ed.

    The chapters in this volume, originally presented at the Third Annual Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) conference, "Setting Standards and Making It Real," (Orlando, Florida, November 2001), were organized, revised, and updated to reflect current technology and practice. The VRD conference and the ideas in this book represent the cutting edge of work,…

  8. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  9. Parents' and Service Providers' Perceptions of the Family Goal Setting Tool: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; O'Keefe, Amy; Cook, Madonna; Jones, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: This qualitative study describes parents' and service providers' experiences in using the Family Goal Setting Tool (FGST). This article looks specifically at the tool's perceived clinical utility during annual, collaborative goal setting. Methods: Participants included eight parents and ten service providers involved in a Family and…

  10. Setting the stage for service experience: design strategies for functional services

    OpenAIRE

    Beltagui, Ahmad; Candi, Marina; Riedel, Johann Christian Karl Henry

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:This research identifies service design strategies to improve outcome-oriented services by enhancing consumers’ emotional experience, while overcoming customer variability.\\ud Design/methodology/approach:An abductive, multiple-case study involves 12 service firms from diverse online and offline service sectors.\\ud Findings: Six service design strategies represent two overarching themes: Customer empowerment can involve design for typical customers, visibility, and community building, ...

  11. Availability, utilisation and quality of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Hofman, Jan; Mlava, Grace; Mhango, Chisale; van den Broek, Nynke

    2009-09-01

    To establish a baseline for the availability, utilisation and quality of maternal and neonatal health care services for monitoring and evaluation of a maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality reduction programme in three districts in the Central Region of Malawi. Survey of all the 73 health facilities (13 hospitals and 60 health centres) that provide maternity services in the three districts (population, 2,812,183). There were 1.6 comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) facilities per 500,000 population and 0.8 basic emergency obstetric care (BEmOC) facilities per 125,000 population. About 23% of deliveries were conducted in emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities and the met need for emergency obstetric complications was 20.7%. The case fatality rate for emergency obstetric complications treated in health facilities was 2.0%. Up to 86.7% of pregnant women attended antenatal clinic at least once and only 12.0% of them attend postnatal clinic at least once. There is a shortage of qualified staff and unequal distribution with more staff in hospitals leaving health centres severely understaffed. The total number of CEmOC facilities is adequate but the distribution is unequal, leaving some rural areas with poor access to CEmOC services. There are no functional BEmOC facilities in the three districts. In order to reduce maternal mortality in Malawi and countries with similar socio-economic profile, there is a need to upgrade some health facilities to at least BEmOC level by training staff and providing equipment and supplies.

  12. Cerebral aneurysm blood flow simulations are sensitive to basic solver settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Kendall D; Kallmes, David F; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

    2017-05-24

    Computational modeling of peri-aneurysmal hemodynamics is typically carried out with commercial software without knowledge of the sensitivity of the model to variation in input values. For three aneurysm models, we carried out a formal sensitivity analysis and optimization strategy focused on variation in timestep duration and model residual error values and their impact on hemodynamic outputs. We examined the solution sensitivity to timestep sizes of 10(-3)s, 10(-4)s, and 10(-5)s while using model residual error values of 10(-4), 10(-5), and 10(-6) using ANSYS Fluent to observe compounding errors and to optimize solver settings for computational efficiency while preserving solution accuracy. Simulations were compared qualitatively and quantitatively against the most rigorous combination of timestep and residual parameters, 10(-5)s and 10(-6), respectively. A case using 10(-4)s timesteps, with 10(-5) residual errors proved to be a converged solution for all three models with mean velocity and WSS difference RMS errors less than complex flow simulation. The worst case of our analysis, using 10(-3)s timesteps and 10(-4) residual errors, was still able to predict the dominant vortex in the aneurysm, but its velocity and WSS RMS errors reached 20%. Even with an appealing simulation time of 11h per cycle for the model with the most complex flow, the worst case analysis solution exhibited compounding errors from large timesteps and residual errors. To resolve time-dependent flow characteristics, CFD simulations of cerebral aneurysms require sufficiently small timestep size and residual error. Simulations with both insufficient timestep and residual resolution are vulnerable to compounding errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  14. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  15. Strategies for establishing an endowed chair in a service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Simmy; Robinson, Nellie C; Feetham, Suzanne; Church, Tracy; Hinds, Pamela S; Talley, Linda B; Williams, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    To advance care for patients and families requires that providers and administrators in clinical settings place a high priority on the scientific domain of nursing. New knowledge intended to benefit nursing care is most effectively and efficiently achieved when a vibrant and well-supported nursing research program is embedded within a health care system. An endowed chair in nursing research is an esteemed strategy acknowledging the contributions of nursing science, providing credibility to a researcher and research programs, and demonstrating commitment to the infrastructure for nursing research. Organizational readiness through leadership; systems thinking; relationship development; and knowledge of the dynamics, process, and expectations of philanthropy are essential to establishing an endowed chair. Philanthropic endeavors can be used to strategically develop a high-impact campaign that resonates across public and private sectors to secure funding to solidify and advance nursing research. By actively engaging stakeholders including system leaders, frontline nurses, and other care providers and development leaders, a successful campaign can establish and sustain an endowed chair in nursing research. This article describes the stakeholders, processes, structure, and outcomes for the first endowed chair in nursing research at Children's National Health System in Washington, DC.

  16. Revisiting Snodgrass and Vanderwart's object pictorial set: the role of surface detail in basic-level object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Pourtois, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Theories of object recognition differ to the extent that they consider object representations as being mediated only by the shape of the object, or shape and surface details, if surface details are part of the representation. In particular, it has been suggested that color information may be helpful at recognizing objects only in very special cases, but not during basic-level object recognition in good viewing conditions. In this study, we collected normative data (naming agreement, familiarity, complexity, and imagery judgments) for Snodgrass and Vanderwart's object database of 260 black-and-white line drawings, and then compared the data to exactly the same shapes but with added gray-level texture and surface details (set 2), and color (set 3). Naming latencies were also recorded. Whereas the addition of texture and shading without color only slightly improved naming agreement scores for the objects, the addition of color information unambiguously improved naming accuracy and speeded correct response times. As shown in previous studies, the advantage provided by color was larger for objects with a diagnostic color, and structurally similar shapes, such as fruits and vegetables, but was also observed for man-made objects with and without a single diagnostic color. These observations show that basic-level 'everyday' object recognition in normal conditions is facilitated by the presence of color information, and support a 'shape + surface' model of object recognition, for which color is an integral part of the object representation. In addition, the new stimuli (sets 2 and 3) and the corresponding normative data provide valuable materials for a wide range of experimental and clinical studies of object recognition.

  17. Exploring Multidisciplinary Data Sets through Database Driven Search Capabilities and Map-Based Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S. M.; Leung, A.; Bonczkowski, J.; Goodwillie, A.; Ryan, W. B.; Melkonian, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    Relational databases containing geospatially referenced data enable the construction of robust data access pathways that can be customized to suit the needs of a diverse user community. Web-based search capabilities driven by radio buttons and pull-down menus can be generated on-the-fly leveraging the power of the relational database and providing specialists a means of discovering specific data and data sets. While these data access pathways are sufficient for many scientists, map-based data exploration can also be an effective means of data discovery and integration by allowing users to rapidly assess the spatial co- registration of several data types. We present a summary of data access tools currently provided by the Marine Geoscience Data System (www.marine-geo.org) that are intended to serve a diverse community of users and promote data integration. Basic search capabilities allow users to discover data based on data type, device type, geographic region, research program, expedition parameters, personnel and references. In addition, web services are used to create database driven map interfaces that provide live access to metadata and data files.

  18. Liaison Old Age Psychiatry Service in a Medical Setting: Description of the Newcastle Clinical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Mukaetova-Ladinska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liaison Old Age Psychiatry services (LOAP have begun to emerge in the UK and further development of the service is supported by the latest health policies. Since qualitative and quantitative studies in this area are lacking, we have undertaken a detailed quantitative prospective review of referrals to the Newcastle LOAP to evaluate the clinical activity of the service. We report high referral rates and turnover for the LOAP service. Reasons for referral are diverse, ranging from requests for level of care and capacity assessments and transfer to other clinical services to management of behaviour, diagnosis, and treatment. We outline the value of a multidisciplinary model of LOAP activity, including the important role of the liaison nursing team, in providing a rapid response, screening, and followup of high number of clinical referrals to the service.

  19. Reliability of the radiographic variables in the International Spinal Cord Injury Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set compared with the AO classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucantoni, C; Krishnan, R G; Gehrchen, P M

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Intra- and interrater reliability study for radiological variables of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set. OBJECTIVES: To test reliability of the radiological variables in the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set and compare...... it with the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification. SETTING: The database of Eastern Denmark Regional SCI Referral Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS: Ratings of the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set radiological variables and AO classification were obtained by two international...... injuries, the intra- and interrater reliability for the individual radiological variables of the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set was at least substantial (κ=0.67-0.97 for interrater, κ=0.79-0.89 for the intrarater agreement). For the AO classification, intrarater reliability...

  20. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in workplace settings and social services: A comparison of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd eSchulte; Amy Jane O'Donnell; Sinja eKastner; Christiane Sybille Schmidt; Ingo eSchäfer; Jens eReimer

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI) in primary health care (PHC) suggests a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions take place...

  1. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Workplace Settings and Social Services: A Comparison of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Bernd; O’Donnell, Amy Jane; Kastner, Sinja; Schmidt, Christiane Sybille; Schäfer, Ingo; Reimer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBIs) in primary health care (PHC) suggests that a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions take...

  2. Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about Science in Terms of the Basic Elements of the Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Ozge Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the pre-service teachers' opinions about science within the context of the basic elements of the education program, such as objectives, content, learning-teaching process and evaluation. The study was designed as a case study, one of the qualitative research methods. The participants of the study…

  3. Source properties and tectonic setting of the basic magmatism in the Lower Red Formation, north of Garmsar (Semnan, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In north and northwest of Garmsar in Semnan province, some basic igneous rocks with the Oligocene age outcropped as dyke, sill and very small stocks in the Lower Red Formation. These rocks have basic composition and alkaline nature. They show various textures such as porphyric, glomeroporphyric, ophitic, subophitic, intergranular and granular. Plagioclase and clinopyroxene as the main minerals, olivine, opaque (magnetite, titanomagnetite, apatite and phelogopite as the minor minerals and chlorite, prehnite, epidote, serpentine sericite and calcite are the secondary minerals in these rocks. Primitive mantle and chondrite normalized diagrams of these rocks show strong enrichments in light rare earth elements (LREEs and relative depletions in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs. Also, parallel trends of the samples in these diagrams indicate a common source for these rocks and the role of the differentiation crystallization in their genesis. Investigated rocks are plotted in back-arc basin setting field in discrimination tectonic diagrams. Geochemical studies show magma forming of these rocks have been formed from 11- 16% partial melting of an enriched modified garnet lherzolitic mantle source in 90-100 km depths. This magma intruded via deep fractures and faults in the incipient extensional back-arc basin resulted from northward subduction of Arabian plate beneath the Central Iran in the Oligocene-Miocene time.

  4. Service Users' Views of Physical Restraint Procedures in Secure Settings for People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2007-01-01

    The appropriateness and justification of physical restraint procedures in secure learning disability settings is an emotive issue. This paper examines the views of service users (n = 10) from secure residential facilities who are restrained frequently. Using a semi-structured interview schedule, Service users were interviewed about their restraint…

  5. Integrated Educational and Mental Health Services within a Day Treatment Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greta; Radka, Dale F.

    This paper discusses the integration of educational and mental health services for children and adolescents within a psychiatric day treatment setting at the Bradley School housed in a private psychiatric hospital affiliated with Brown University in Rhode Island. A full range of mental health services are used, and therapies are delivered in the…

  6. Systematic Review of Service-Learning in Youth Physical Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Raguse, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which service-learning exists in the field of kinesiology broadly, and more specifically related to the physical activity of youth, remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the service-learning literature in kinesiology, with a specific focus on youth physical activity settings.…

  7. The Sheffield experiment: the effects of centralising accident and emergency services in a large urban setting

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, A.; Wardrope, J; Burke, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the effects of centralisation of accident and emergency (A&E) services in a large urban setting. The end points were the quality of patient care judged by time to see a doctor or nurse practitioner, time to admission and the cost of the A&E service as a whole.

  8. Systematic Review of Service-Learning in Youth Physical Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Raguse, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which service-learning exists in the field of kinesiology broadly, and more specifically related to the physical activity of youth, remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the service-learning literature in kinesiology, with a specific focus on youth physical activity settings.…

  9. The Effects of Graphic Feedback, Goal-Setting, and Manager Praise on Customer Service Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Shannon; Bailey, Jon

    2007-01-01

    The current study used a multiple baseline design to investigate the effects of graphic feedback, goal setting, and manager praise on customer service behaviors in a large retail setting. Direct observation of customer greeting, eye contact, and smiling was used to collect data. After baseline data were collected feedback graphs were posted twice…

  10. Experiences of the Implementation of a Learning Disability Nursing Liaison Service within an Acute Hospital Setting: A Service Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja

    2014-01-01

    It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…

  11. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in workplace settings and social services: A comparison of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eSchulte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI in primary health care (PHC suggests a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions take place in this context. METHODS: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in nonmedical settings.RESULTS: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required.DISCUSSION: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organisational frameworks and professionals.

  12. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital services must include short-term rehabilitation services and physical therapy, the provision of... hospitalization; (13) Whole blood and blood plasma; (14) Long-term physical therapy and rehabilitation; (15....101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. The impact of health service variables on healthcare access in a low resourced urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje Scheffler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care access is complex and multi-faceted and, as a basic right, equitable access and services should be available to all user groups.Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore how service delivery impacts on access to healthcare for vulnerable groups in an urban primary health care setting in South Africa.Methods: A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled participants and analysed through thematic content analysis.Results: Service delivery factors are presented against five dimensions of access according to the ACCESS Framework. From a supplier perspective, the organisation of care in the study setting resulted in available, accessible, affordable and adequate services as measured against the DistrictHealth System policies and guidelines. However, service providers experienced significant barriers in provision of services, which impacted on the quality of care, resulting in poor client and provider satisfaction and ultimately compromising acceptability of service delivery. Although users found services to be accessible, the organisation of services presented them with challenges in the domains of availability, affordability and adequacy, resulting in unmet needs, low levels of satisfaction and loss of trust. These challenges fuelled perceptions of unacceptable services.Conclusion: Well developed systems and organisation of services can create accessible, affordable and available primary healthcare services, but do not automatically translate into adequate and acceptable services. Focussing attention on how services are delivered might restore the balance between supply (services and demand (user needs and promote universal and equitable access.

  14. The impact of health service variables on healthcare access in a low resourced urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje Scheffler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care access is complex and multi-faceted and, as a basic right, equitable access and services should be available to all user groups.Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore how service delivery impacts on access to healthcare for vulnerable groups in an urban primary health care setting in South Africa.Methods: A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled participants and analysed through thematic content analysis.Results: Service delivery factors are presented against five dimensions of access according to the ACCESS Framework. From a supplier perspective, the organisation of care in the study setting resulted in available, accessible, affordable and adequate services as measured against the DistrictHealth System policies and guidelines. However, service providers experienced significant barriers in provision of services, which impacted on the quality of care, resulting in poor client and provider satisfaction and ultimately compromising acceptability of service delivery. Although users found services to be accessible, the organisation of services presented them with challenges in the domains of availability, affordability and adequacy, resulting in unmet needs, low levels of satisfaction and loss of trust. These challenges fuelled perceptions of unacceptable services.Conclusion: Well developed systems and organisation of services can create accessible, affordable and available primary healthcare services, but do not automatically translate into adequate and acceptable services. Focussing attention on how services are delivered might restore the balance between supply (services and demand (user needs and promote universal and equitable access.

  15. Supplier Selection Group Decision Making in Logistics Service Value Cocreation Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic fuzzy information aggregation plays an important role in intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and is widely used in group decision making. In this paper, an induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator (I-IFEHA is investigated for supplier selection group decision making in logistics service value cocreation based on fuzzy measures. We first introduce some aggregation operators and Einstein operations on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and develop a new induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator to accommodate the environment in which the given arguments are intuitionistic fuzzy values. Then, we study the supplier selection group decision model in logistics service value cocreation based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets with the I-IFEHA operator. Finally, an example of 3PL supplier selection in logistics service value cocreation environment is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

  16. Setting Customer Expectation in Service Delivery: An Integrated Marketing-Operations Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Teck H. Ho; Yu-Sheng Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Service firms have increasingly been competing for market share on the basis of delivery time. Many firms now choose to set customer expectation by announcing their maximal delivery time. Customers will be satisfied if their perceived delivery times are shorter than their expectations. This gap model of service quality is used in this paper to study how a firm might choose a delivery-time commitment to influence its customer expectation, and delivery quality in order to maximize its market sh...

  17. 42 CFR 415.170 - Conditions for payment on a fee schedule basis for physician services in a teaching setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... physician services in a teaching setting. 415.170 Section 415.170 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... BY PHYSICIANS IN PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.170 Conditions for payment on a fee schedule basis...

  18. Explaining public service motivation : the role of leadership and basic needs satisfaction. Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, W.V.

    2009-01-01

    Both leadership and public service motivation are important issues in contemporary public administration. By connecting these issues, the aim of this paper is to assess the impact of transformational leadership behavior (promoting public values) on public service motivation development. Two hypothes

  19. [Comparison of the "Trigger" tool with the minimum basic data set for detecting adverse events in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Zapata, A I; Gutiérrez Samaniego, M; Rodríguez Cuéllar, E; Gómez de la Cámara, A; Ruiz López, P

    Surgery is a high risk for the occurrence of adverse events (AE). The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Trigger tool with the Hospital National Health System registration of Discharges, the minimum basic data set (MBDS), in detecting adverse events in patients admitted to General Surgery and undergoing surgery. Observational and descriptive retrospective study of patients admitted to general surgery of a tertiary hospital, and undergoing surgery in 2012. The identification of adverse events was made by reviewing the medical records, using an adaptation of "Global Trigger Tool" methodology, as well as the (MBDS) registered on the same patients. Once the AE were identified, they were classified according to damage and to the extent to which these could have been avoided. The area under the curve (ROC) were used to determine the discriminatory power of the tools. The Hanley and Mcneil test was used to compare both tools. AE prevalence was 36.8%. The TT detected 89.9% of all AE, while the MBDS detected 28.48%. The TT provides more information on the nature and characteristics of the AE. The area under the curve was 0.89 for the TT and 0.66 for the MBDS. These differences were statistically significant (P<.001). The Trigger tool detects three times more adverse events than the MBDS registry. The prevalence of adverse events in General Surgery is higher than that estimated in other studies. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. 47 CFR 76.945 - Procedures for Commission review of basic service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... schedule with the Commission within 30 days, with a copy to the local franchising authority. (b) Basic... cable operator and the local franchising authority. The cable operator may file an opposition within... franchising authority. (d) Filings proposing a rate not within the rate regulation standards of §§ 76.922...

  1. 77 FR 67290 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... lower rates for subscribers. 14. Reduction of Theft and Piracy. Another benefit of basic tier encryption... less susceptible to piracy. 15. Regulatory Parity. Several commenters emphasized that the proposed...

  2. Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-05-18

    It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected mental health service users (n = 13), caregivers (n = 10), heads of primary care facilities (n = 8) and policy makers/planners/service developers (n = 8). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed in Amharic, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was applied. All groups of participants supported service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. Potential benefits were identified as (i) improved appropriateness and quality of services, and (ii) greater protection against mistreatment and promotion of respect for service users. However, hardly any respondents had prior experience of service user involvement. Stigma was considered to be a pervasive barrier, operating within the health system, the local community and individuals. Competing priorities of service users included the need to obtain adequate individual care and to work for survival. Low recognition of the potential contribution of service users seemed linked to limited empowerment and mobilization of service users. Potential health system facilitators included a culture of community oversight of primary care services. All groups of respondents identified a need for awareness-raising and training to equip service users, caregivers, service providers and local community for involvement. Empowerment at the level of individual service users (information about mental health conditions, care and rights) and the group level (for advocacy and representation) were considered

  3. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  4. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  5. 76 FR 66666 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Electronics Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this... consumer electronics equipment for most subscribers. At the same time, however, we recognize that some... Act), Congress recognized that compatibility problems between cable service and consumer...

  6. Basics of RTCM 3.1 Transformation Messages Standard for GNSS Positioning Services

    OpenAIRE

    Eleiche, M

    2009-01-01

    As concerns the use of RTCM observation correction data in GNSS positioning services, the coordinates are resulting within the ITRF or in a regional ITRF-realization (e.g. ETRF89 in Europe) as geocentric (x,y,z) or ellipsoidal (ϕ,λ ,h) coordinates. The users of GNSS services must however normally present their results in the coordinates of regional or local horizontal and vertical datum systems. Therefore, coordinate transformations are necessary. Currently, the pre-calculated tra...

  7. Nurse-led clinics: 10 essential steps to setting up a service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Richard

    This article outlines 10 key steps for practitioners to consider when setting up and running a nurse-led clinic. It lays emphasis on careful planning, professional development and the need to audit and evaluate the service to ensure the clinic is measurably effective.

  8. Chip-set for quality of service support in passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringoot, Edwin; Hoebeke, Rudy; Slabbinck, B. Hans; Verhaert, Michel

    1998-10-01

    In this paper the design of a chip-set for QoS provisioning in ATM-based Passive Optical Networks is discussed. The implementation of a general-purpose switch chip on the Optical Network Unit is presented, with focus on the design of the cell scheduling and buffer management logic. The cell scheduling logic supports `colored' grants, priority jumping and weighted round-robin scheduling. The switch chip offers powerful buffer management capabilities enabling the efficient support of GFR and UBR services. Multicast forwarding is also supported. In addition, the architecture of a MAC controller chip developed for a SuperPON access network is introduced. In particular, the permit scheduling logic and its implementation on the Optical Line Termination will be discussed. The chip-set enables the efficient support of services with different service requirements on the SuperPON. The permit scheduling logic built into the MAC controller chip in combination with the cell scheduling and buffer management capabilities of the switch chip can be used by network operators to offer guaranteed service performance to delay sensitive services, and to efficiently and fairly distribute any spare capacity to delay insensitive services.

  9. Progress and gaps in reproductive health services in three humanitarian settings: mixed-methods case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sara E; Chynoweth, Sarah K; Cornier, Nadine; Gallagher, Meghan C; Wheeler, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health (RH) care is an essential component of humanitarian response. Women and girls living in humanitarian settings often face high maternal mortality and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence. This study explored the availability and quality of, and access barriers to RH services in three humanitarian settings in Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan. Data collection was conducted between July and October 2013. In total, 63 purposively selected health facilities were assessed: 28 in Burkina Faso, 25 in DRC, and nine in South Sudan, and 42 providers completed a questionnaire to assess RH knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 members of the host communities and 273 displaced married and unmarried women and men to understand access barriers. All facilities reported providing some RH services in the prior three months. Five health facilities in Burkina Faso, six in DRC, and none in South Sudan met the criteria as a family planning service delivery point. Two health facilities in Burkina Faso, one in DRC, and two in South Sudan met the criteria as an emergency obstetric and newborn care service delivery point. Across settings, three facilities in DRC adequately provided selected elements of clinical management of rape. Safe abortion was unavailable. Many providers lacked essential knowledge and skills. Focus groups revealed limited knowledge of available RH services and socio-cultural barriers to accessing them, although participants reported a remarkable increase in use of facility-based delivery services. Although RH services are being provided, the availability of good quality RH services was inconsistent across settings. Commodity management and security must be prioritized to ensure consistent availability of essential supplies. It is critical to improve the attitudes, managerial and technical capacity of providers to ensure that RH

  10. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically...... food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. Key findings: An increasing interest...... in the topic of choice architecture and nudging has increased the scientific output since the last review. There is a clear limitation in the lack of a clear definitions and theoretical foundation....

  11. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically...... food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. Key findings: An increasing interest...... in the topic of choice architecture and nudging has increased the scientific output since the last review. There is a clear limitation in the lack of a clear definitions and theoretical foundation....

  12. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in a frontline service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehle, Shannon M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test the generalizability of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a frontline service setting. Twenty-nine patients who presented to treatment clinics with problematic worry were provided CBT for GAD. Among the intent-to-treat sample, there were no significant changes in worry or depression from pre- to posttreatment. Treatment completers showed significant pre- to posttreatment reductions on measures of worry and depression. The magnitude of change was smaller than has been reported in randomized control trials (RCTs). Although the frontline service setting differed from RCT settings in multiple ways, treatment completers nonetheless achieved moderate to large decreases in self-reported worry and depression.

  13. Basic Skills in the Hotel & Food Service Industries. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Brief, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a list of 21 contacts and 9 references concerned with workplace literacy programs in the hotel and food service industries. Each listing includes addresses and telephone numbers, prices if applicable, and a brief description of the resource or materials. The materials listed are mostly reports of workplace literacy projects in…

  14. Explaining Public Service Motivation : The Role of Leadership and Basic Needs Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    Both leadership and public service motivation (PSM) are important issues in contemporary public administration. By connecting these issues, the aim of this article is to assess the impact of one particular type of transformational leadership behavior-promoting public values-on PSM development. Two h

  15. Explaining Public Service Motivation : The Role of Leadership and Basic Needs Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    Both leadership and public service motivation (PSM) are important issues in contemporary public administration. By connecting these issues, the aim of this article is to assess the impact of one particular type of transformational leadership behavior-promoting public values-on PSM development. Two

  16. Priority setting in the provincial health services authority: survey of key decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitton Craig

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, decision makers in Canada and elsewhere have expressed a desire for more explicit, evidence-based approaches to priority setting. To achieve this aim within health care organizations, knowledge of both the organizational context and stakeholder attitudes towards priority setting are required. The current work adds to a limited yet growing body of international literature describing priority setting practices in health organizations. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 25 key decision makers of the Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA of British Columbia. Major themes and sub-themes were identified through content analysis. Results Priorities were described by decision makers as being set in an ad hoc manner, with resources generally allocated along historical lines. Participants identified the Strategic Plan and a strong research base as strengths of the organization. The main areas for improvement were a desire to have a more transparent process for priority setting, a need to develop a culture which supports explicit priority setting, and a focus on fairness in decision making. Barriers to an explicit allocation process included the challenge of providing specialized services for disparate patient groups, and a lack of formal training in priority setting amongst decision makers. Conclusion This study identified factors important to understanding organizational context and informed next steps for explicit priority setting for a provincial health authority. While the PHSA is unique in its organizational structure in Canada, lessons about priority setting should be transferable to other contexts.

  17. Training and development as a tool for improving basic service delivery: the case of a selected municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mthokozisi Mpofu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal employees have come under fire for poor performance and conduct in their work as some engage in corruption and others are not qualified enough to discharge their duties to the required levels. Employee training and development has become one of the key aspects in improving employee performance in organisations, thus leading to improved organizational performance and growth. The study investigated the relationship between the quality of employee training and development on service delivery in a selected municipality with data collected from 150 employees. The results indicated the need for effective employee training and development systems and processes to achieve improved employee performance thus improved provision of basic services to the communities.

  18. Quality assessment of child care services in primary health care settings of Central Karnataka (Davangere District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert′s scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother′s education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers′ knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.

  19. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Ehiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Methods: PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014 with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Results: Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania, Central America (Belize, and Asia (Myanmar were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Conclusion: Although

  20. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, John E; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Center, Katherine E; Li, Ying; Rouhani, Mae; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2014-01-01

    Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs) and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014) with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only) conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania), Central America (Belize), and Asia (Myanmar) were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Although available evidence suggests a positive impact of training and deployment

  1. Problems and Guidelines of Strategy Implementation in Basic Educational Institutions under the Supervision of KhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasiwan Tonkanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 study problems of strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 ; and 2 propose the guidelines for strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The study was carried out in 2 phases. In phase 1, it focused on the study and analysis of the strategic implementation problems and phase 2 studied the best practice schools. The informants for the interview in phase 1 comprised 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools. They were selected by the use of purposive sampling technique. The population in the study of the strategic implementation problems in basic educational institutions in phase 1 consisted of 543 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from 181 schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 in academic year 2014. The study samples were 217 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The samples were selected by the use of stratified sampling technique. The informants of the phase 2 study were 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized best practice schools obtained from purposive sampling technique. The research instruments used for data collection consisted of 2 sets of questionnaires. The Set 1 questionnaire was the 5-point Likert scale on the levels of the problems in implementation with item discrimination at 0.60 – 1.00 and reliability of the whole questionnaire at .9359. The questionnaire contained 3 parts with 65 items. The Set 2 questionnaire comprised 2 parts with 10 items regarding

  2. High risk pregnancy referrals adequacy in the Basic Health Services of Sobral, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juvenal Linhares

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the appropriateness of referrals of high-risk pregnancies in the basic healthcare network of Sobral, in Ceará, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive quantitative study. The medical files of 173 pregnant patients referred to the high-risk outpatient clinic of Centro de Especialidades Médicas of Sobral, during the period from July 2006 to April 2007, were analyzed. Variables analyzed were correctness of the referrals, professionals who made them, causes and origins of the referrals, and age bracket of the patients referred. The referrals were divided into “appropriate” and “inappropriate”, according to the classification of risk established by the technical manual of the Ministry of Health. Rresults: Of the 173 cases, 102 (59% were considered appropriate/correct, and 71 (41% referrals were considered inappropriate/incorrect. The referrals were divided according to the professional class of the referring individuals: physicians or nurses. Of the 173 referrals, 49 (28.3% were made by physicians, and 124 (71.7% by nurses. Of the 49 patients referred by physicians, 39 (79.6% were considered correct. Of the 124 referrals made by nurses, 63 (50.8% were considered incorrect, revealing a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.00001. The most common causes of referrals of pregnant patients were hypertensive syndromes (23.6%, physiological modifications of pregnancy (22.6%, prolonged pregnancy (15.1%, and diabetes (12.3%. Cconclusions: There was a low rate of appropriate/correct referrals. There is a need for training in the basic healthcare network for quality prenatal care, with special emphasis on referring nurses.

  3. New and Improved GLDAS Data Sets and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Hualan; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Teng, William; Vollmer, Bruce; Rodell, Matthew; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    The goal of a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface modeling and data assimilation techniques, in order to generate optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes data and, thereby, facilitate hydrology and climate modeling, research, and forecast. With the motivation of creating more climatologically consistent data sets, NASA GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory has generated more than 60 years (Jan. 1948-- Dec. 2008) of Global LDAS Version 2 (GLDAS-2) data, by using the Princeton Forcing Data Set and upgraded versions of Land Surface Models (LSMs). GLDAS data and data services are provided at NASA GES DISC Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), in collaboration with HSL and LDAS.

  4. Basic nursing care: retrospective evaluation of communication and psychosocial interventions documented by nurses in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia; Pérez, Esperanza Zuriguel; Padrés, Núria Fabrellas; Samartino, Maribel Gonzalez; García, Marta Romero; Creus, Mònica Castellà; Batllori, Núria Vila; Calvo, Cristina Matud

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of psychosocial aspects of basic nursing care, as e-charted by nurses, when using an interface terminology. An observational, multicentre study was conducted in acute wards. The main outcome measure was the frequency of use of the psychosocial interventions in the electronic nursing care plans, analysed over a 12 month retrospective review. Overall, 150,494 electronic care plans were studied. Most of the intervention concepts from the interface terminology were used by registered nurses to illustrate the psychosocial aspects of fundamentals of care in the electronic care plans. The results presented help to demonstrate that the interventions of this interface terminology may be useful to inform psychosocial aspects of basic and advanced nursing care. The identification of psychosocial elements of basic nursing care in the nursing documentation may lead to obtain a deeper understanding of those caring interventions nurses consider essential to represent nurse-patient interactions. The frequency of psychosocial interventions may contribute to delineate basic and advanced nursing care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. A heuristic to bandwidth allocation and sales limit setting for Internet service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Peng Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Chih; Ikuta, Seizo

    2012-11-01

    When requesting on-line, many subscribers have experienced the situation in which their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. This bad customer experience may result from the situation in which Internet service providers (ISPs) accept customers' subscriptions without setting sales limits. As subscribers are potential on-line users, controlling the number of subscribers can be considered as an approach to overcome this problem. The goal of this article is to develop decisions to maximise revenues of ISPs while guaranteeing the expected service quality for distinct service classes. The developed model was a resource constrained nonlinear integer problem, and a heuristic approach was provided to acquire a near-optimal solution. Limited numerical results showed that the proposed heuristic approach can solve this problem efficiently.

  6. Perspectives of basic wheelchair users on improving their access to wheelchair services in Kenya and Philippines: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Emma; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Obaga, Immaculate; Onguti, Brenda; Rivera, Adovich; Sy, Tyrone Reden L.; Kirby, R. Lee; Noon, Jamie; Tanuku, Deepti; Gichangi, Anthony; Bazant, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study’s purpose was to describe wheelchair users’ experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and pe...

  7. Measuring and managing progress in the establishment of basic health services: the Afghanistan health sector balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter M; Peters, David H; Niayesh, Haseebullah; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Dwivedi, Vikas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) of Afghanistan has adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a tool to measure and manage performance in delivery of a Basic Package of Health Services. Based on results from the 2004 baseline round, the MOPH identified eight of the 29 indicators on the BSC as priority areas for improvement. Like the 2004 round, the 2005 and 2006 BSCs involved a random selection of more than 600 health facilities, 1700 health workers and 5800 patient-provider interactions. The 2005 and 2006 BSCs demonstrated substantial improvements in all eight of the priority areas compared to 2004 baseline levels, with increases in median provincial scores for presence of active village health councils, availability of essential drugs, functional laboratories, provider knowledge, health worker training, use of clinical guidelines, monitoring of tuberculosis treatment, and provision of delivery care. For three of the priority indicators-drug availability, health worker training and provider knowledge-scores remained unchanged or decreased between 2005 and 2006. This highlights the need to ensure that early gains achieved in establishment of health services in Afghanistan are maintained over time. The use of a coherent and balanced monitoring framework to identify priority areas for improvement and measure performance over time reflects an objectives-based approach to management of health services that is proving to be effective in a difficult environment.

  8. 48 CFR 52.219-27 - Notice of Total Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside (MAY 2004) (a) Definition. Service-disabled veteran-owned... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of Total Service... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-27 Notice of Total Service-Disabled...

  9. Consumer involvement in setting the health services research agenda: persistent questions of value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Vikki; Calnan, Michael; Dieppe, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Interest in consumer involvement in health services research started to gain momentum at around the same time that the MRC Health Services Research Collaboration (HSRC) was established. Consumer involvement was not the focus of a formal research programme within the HSRC, but HSRC members took opportunities to conduct three projects relating to consumer involvement in research agenda-setting activities. These were: (1) a comparison of the focus of published research relating to the management of osteoarthritis of the knee with clinicians' and patients' ideas about research priorities; (2) a survey that examined the consumer involvement policies of public- and voluntary-sector organizations that fund health services research in the UK; and (3) a citizens' jury that was convened to develop priorities for research relating to primary health and social care in the Bristol area. This paper reviews the findings of these projects and highlights the continued need for attention to underlying values in the development and evaluation of future efforts to involve consumers in research agenda setting.

  10. A Descriptive Analysis of Music Therapists' Perceptions of Delivering Services in Inclusive Settings: A Challenge to the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones; Cardinal

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of music therapists toward inclusion (providing services within general education settings) and to determine their willingness to provide their services in these settings. A questionnaire was sent to 560 music therapists of which 373 responded (67%). A descriptive analysis indicated that although the vast majority of music therapists are providing their services in a segregated setting, they (a) overwhelmingly know about inclusion, (b) perceive benefits to clients with and without disabilities, and (c) are willing to provide their services within an inclusive setting. Why then do therapists so overwhelmingly provide their services in noninclusive settings? Possible answers to this question as well as the challenge this creates to the field of music therapy are discussed.

  11. The Setting is the Service: How the Architecture of Sober Living Residences Supports Community Based Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Fried; Jee, Babette; Polcin, Douglas L; Henderson, Diane

    2014-07-01

    The architecture of residential recovery settings is an important silent partner in the alcohol/drug recovery field. The settings significantly support or hinder recovery experiences of residents, and shape community reactions to the presence of sober living houses (SLH) in ordinary neighborhoods. Grounded in the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous, the SLH provides residents with settings designed to support peer based recovery; further, these settings operate in a community context that insists on sobriety and strongly encourages attendance at 12-step meetings. Little formal research has been conducted to show how architectural features of the recovery setting - building appearance, spatial layouts, furnishings and finishes, policies for use of the facilities, physical care and maintenance of the property, neighborhood features, aspects of location in the city - function to promote (or retard) recovery, and to build (or detract from) community support. This paper uses a case-study approach to analyze the architecture of a community-based residential recovery service that has demonstrated successful recovery outcomes for its residents, is popular in its community, and has achieved state-wide recognition. The Environmental Pattern Language (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) is used to analyze its architecture in a format that can be tested, critiqued, and adapted for use by similar programs in many communities, providing a model for replication and further research.

  12. Service user experience of adapted dialectical behaviour therapy in a community adult mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Pamela; O'Connor, Caroline; Hevey, David; Gibbons, Pat

    2012-12-01

    Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), a skill-based cognitive behavioural treatment, is increasingly used in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The study examined service users' perspective on the effectiveness of an adapted DBT programme, delivered within a community adult mental health setting. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight participants with a diagnosis of BPD about their experience of the programme. Thematic analysis focused on two key themes: evaluation of therapy and treatment impact. Therapy-specific factors and personal challenges emerged as important themes. Treatment impact raised issues relating to a renewed sense of identity and changes in daily life. The study describes the positive and negative experiences of service users with BPD attending an adapted DBT programme.

  13. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Low

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  14. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    Background Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs) and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this

  15. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations' (EHOs) and community-based organizations' (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this report provides evidence of the substantive

  16. Linking public health nursing competencies and service-learning in a global setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia L

    2017-05-11

    Nurse educators in baccalaureate programs are charged with addressing student competence in public health nursing practice. These educators are also responsible for creating nursing student opportunities for civic engagement and development of critical thinking skills. The IOM report (2010) on the Future of Nursing emphasizes the nurse educator's role in promoting collaborative partnerships that incorporate interdisciplinary and intraprofessional efforts to promote health. The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative approach to address public health nursing competencies and to improve the health and well-being of indigenous populations in a global setting through promotion of collaboration and service- learning principles. As part of a hybrid elective course, baccalaureate nursing students from various nursing tracks participated in a 2 week immersion experience in Belize that included preimmersion preparation. These students were to collaborate among themselves and with Belizean communities to address identified health knowledge deficits and health-related needs for school-aged children and adult populations. Students successfully collaborated in order to meet health-related needs and to engage in health promotion activities in the Toledo district of Belize. They also gained practice in developing public health nursing competencies for entry-level nursing practice. Implementation of service-learning principles provided students with opportunities for civic engagement and self-reflection. Some challenges existed from the students', faculty, and global community's perspectives. Lack of culturally appropriate and country specific health education materials was difficult for students and the community. Faculty encountered challenges in communicating and collaborating with the Belizean partners. Commonalities exist between entry-level public health nursing competencies and service-learning principles. Using service-learning principles in the development of

  17. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Hamilton

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. Methods: This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Results: Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and ‘bed down’. Its primary “modus operand” was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were

  18. A REST Service for Triangulation of Point Sets Using Oriented Matroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Valero Medina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a prototype REST service for triangulation of point sets collected by mobile GPS receivers. The first objective of this paper is to test functionalities of an application, which exploits mobile devices’ capabilities to get data associated with their spatial location. A triangulation of a set of points provides a mechanism through which it is possible to produce an accurate representation of spatial data. Such triangulation may be used for representing surfaces by Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs, and for decomposing complex two-dimensional spatial objects into simpler geometries. The second objective of this paper is to promote the use of oriented matroids for finding alternative solutions to spatial data processing and analysis tasks. This study focused on the particular case of the calculation of triangulations based on oriented matroids. The prototype described in this paper used a wrapper to integrate and expose several tools previously implemented in C++.

  19. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals.

  20. First year pre-service science teachers’ experiences of authentic instructional tasks in a PDS setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Birgitte; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    of the study presented is to contribute to the further development of the local PDS initiative, examine how the PDS setting can frame first year pre-service science teachers’ inquiries and understand their learning through such authentic instructional tasks. Two examples, which meet the five criteria......Professional development schools (PDS) have been a source of inspiration for a new approach at the teacher education in Aarhus (DK). The importance of student teachers’ inquiries in authentic settings is in line with various research-based approaches to educating (science) teachers. The purpose...... for an authentic instructional task, are presented. Ten students were asked to describe their experiences of working with these tasks during repeated interviews. They refer to concrete examples of school students’ activities and/or learning when reflecting on their own learning and to dialogue with school students...

  1. First year pre-service science teachers’ experiences of authentic instructional tasks in a PDS setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Birgitte Schou; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    . The small groups gave the student teachers the opportunity to get on a level with the school students. They also refer to the iterative dimension and the importance of formative assessment. Based on the evaluative criteria it may be concluded that the two examples are successful models for authentic......Professional development schools (PDS) have been a source of inspiration for a new approach at the teacher education in Aarhus (DK). The importance of student teachers’ inquiries in authentic settings is in line with various research-based approaches to educating (science) teachers. The purpose...... of the study presented is to contribute to the further development of the local PDS initiative, examine how the PDS setting can frame first year pre-service science teachers’ inquiries and understand their learning through such authentic instructional tasks. Two examples, which meet the five criteria...

  2. Emergency obstetric care in Pakistan: potential for reduced maternal mortality through improved basic EmOC facilities, services, and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Hotta, M; Kuroiwa, C; Ushijima, H

    2005-10-01

    To ascertain and compare compliance with UN emergency obstetric care (EmOC) recommendations by public health care centers in Pakistan's Punjab and Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) provinces. Cross-sectional data were collected from July through September 2003 using UN process indicators. From each province, 30% of districts (n=19); were randomly selected; all public health facilities providing EmOC services (n=170) were included. The study found that out of 170 facilities only 22 were providing basic and 37 comprehensive EmOC services in the areas studied. Only 5.7% of births occurred in EmOC health facilities. Met need was 9% and 0.5% of women gave birth by cesarean section. The case fatality rate was a low 0.7%, probably due to poor record keeping. Access and several indicators were better in NWFP than in Punjab. Almost all indicators were below UN recommendations. Health policy makers and planners must take immediate, appropriate measures at district and hospital levels to reduce maternal mortality.

  3. A cost and technical efficiency analysis of two alternative models for implementing the basic package of health services in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaakman, Aaron Philip; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Boitard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and international partners have directed a contracting-out model through which non-governmental organisations (NGOs) deliver the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 31 of the 34 Afghan provinces. The MoPH also managed health service delivery in three provinces under an alternative initiative entitled Strengthening Mechanisms (SM). In 2011, under the authority of the MoPH and Delegation of the European Union to Afghanistan, EPOS Health Management conducted a cost and technical efficiency study of the contracting-out and SM mechanisms in six provinces to examine economic trade-offs in the provision of the BPHS. The study provides analyses of all resource inputs and primary outputs of the BPHS in the six provinces during 2008 and 2009. The authors examined technical efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) at the BPHS facility level. Cost analysis results indicate that the weighted average cost per BPHS outpatient visit totalled $3.41 in the SM provinces and $5.39 in the NGO-led provinces in 2009. Furthermore, the data envelopment analyses (DEAs) indicate that facilities in the three NGO-led provinces scored 0.168 points higher on the DEA scale (0-1) than SM facilities. The authors conclude that an approximate 60% increase in costs yielded a 16.8% increase in technical efficiency in the delivery of the BPHS during 2009 in the six provinces.

  4. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical diagrams for basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks based on log–ratio transformation of major-element data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surendra P Verma; Mirna Guevara; Salil Agrawal

    2006-10-01

    We present five new discriminant function diagrams based on an extensive database representative of basic and ultrabasic rocks from four tectonic settings of island arc, continental rift, ocean-island, and mid-ocean ridge. These diagrams were obtained after loge-transformation of concentration ratios of major-elements – a technique recommended for a correct statistical treatment of compositional data. Higher % success rates (overall values from ∼83 to 97%) were obtained for proposing these new diagrams as compared to those (∼82 to 94%) obtained from the discriminant analysis of the raw major-element concentration data (i.e., without the loge-transformation and without taking ratios of the compositional data, but using exactly the same database to provide an unbiased comparison), suggesting that such a data transformation constitutes a statistically correct and recommended technique. The new diagrams also resulted in less mis-classification of basic and ultrabasic rocks from known tectonic settings than the diagrams obtained from the raw data. The use of these highly successful new discriminant function diagrams is illustrated using Miocene to Recent basic and ultrabasic rocks from three areas of Mexico with complex or controversial tectonic settings (Mexican Volcanic Belt, Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, and Eastern Alkaline Province), as well as older rocks from three areas (Deccan, Malani, and Bastar) of India. Additionally, the major-element data from two ‘known’ continental arc settings are used to show that they are similar to those from the island arc setting. Continental rift setting is inferred for all Mexican cases and for one cratonic area of India (Malani) and an IAB setting for the Bastar craton. The Deccan flood basalt province of India is used to warn against an indiscriminate use of those discrimination diagrams that do not explicitly include the likely setting of the area under evaluation. An Excel template is also provided for an easy

  5. Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Ole F

    2016-05-11

    Priority setting is inevitable on the path towards universal health coverage. All countries experience a gap between their population's health needs and what is economically feasible for governments to provide. Can priority setting ever be fair and ethically acceptable? Fairness requires that unmet health needs be addressed, but in a fair order. Three criteria for priority setting are widely accepted among ethicists: cost-effectiveness, priority to the worse-off, and financial risk protection. Thus, a fair health system will expand coverage for cost-effective services and give extra priority to those benefiting the worse-off, whilst at the same time providing high financial risk protection. It is considered unacceptable to treat people differently according to their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social status, or place of residence. Inequalities in health outcomes associated with such personal characteristics are therefore unfair and should be minimized. This commentary also discusses a third group of contested criteria, including rare diseases, small health benefits, age, and personal responsibility for health, subsequently rejecting them. In conclusion, countries need to agree on criteria and establish transparent and fair priority setting processes.

  6. The provision of neuropsychological services in rural/regional settings: professional and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly; Lloyd, Susan

    2009-07-01

    Despite rapid growth of the discipline of clinical neuropsychology during recent times, there is limited information regarding the identification and management of professional and ethical issues associated with the practice of neuropsychology within rural settings. The aim of this article is to outline the characteristics unique to practicing neuropsychology in rural communities and to describe the potential professional and ethical dilemmas that might arise. Issues are illustrated using examples from neuropsychological practice in a rural/regional setting in Victoria, Australia. Relative to urban regions, there is an inequality in the distribution of psychologists, including neuropsychologists, in rural areas. The unique characteristics of rural and regional communities that impact on neuropsychological practice are: 1) limited resources in expertise, technology, and community services, 2) greater travel distances and costs, 3) professional isolation, and 4) beliefs about psychological services. These characteristics lower the threshold for particular ethical issues. The ethical issues that require anticipation and careful management include: 1) professional competence, 2) multiple relationships, and 3) confidentiality. Through increased awareness and management of rural-specific professional and ethical issues, rural neuropsychologists can experience their work as rewarding and enjoyable. Specific guidelines for identifying, managing, and resolving ethically and professionally challenging situations that may arise during rural practice are provided.

  7. Detection of Denial of Service Attack in Wireless Network using Dominance based Rough Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Syed Siraj Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Denial-of-service (DoS attack is aim to block the services of victim system either temporarily or permanently by sending huge amount of garbage traffic data in various types of protocols such as transmission control protocol, user datagram protocol, internet connecting message protocol, and hypertext transfer protocol using single or multiple attacker nodes. Maintenance of uninterrupted service system is technically difficult as well as economically costly. With the invention of new vulnerabilities to system new techniques for determining these vulnerabilities have been implemented. In general, probabilistic packet marking (PPM and deterministic packet marking (DPM is used to identify DoS attacks. Later, intelligent decision proto-type was proposed. The main advantage is that it can be used with both PPM and DPM. But it is observed that, data available in the wireless network information system contains uncertainties. Therefore, an effort has been made to detect DoS attack using dominance based rough set. The accuracy of the proposed model obtained over the KDD cup dataset is 99.76 and it is higher than the accuracy achieved by resilient back propagation (RBP model.

  8. Psychiatric services in primary care settings: a survey of general practitioners in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipanish Ratana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners (GPs in Thailand play an important role in treating psychiatric disorders since there is a shortage of psychiatrists in the country. Our aim was to examine GP's perception of psychiatric problems, drug treatment and service problems encountered in primary care settings. Methods We distributed 1,193 postal questionnaires inquiring about psychiatric practices and service problems to doctors in primary care settings throughout Thailand. Results Four hundred and thirty-four questionnaires (36.4% were returned. Sixty-seven of the respondents (15.4% who had taken further special training in various fields were excluded from the analysis, giving a total of 367 GPs in this study. Fifty-six per cent of respondents were males and they had worked for 4.6 years on average (median = 3 years. 65.6% (SD = 19.3 of the total patients examined had physical problems, 10.7% (SD = 7.9 had psychiatric problems and 23.9% (SD = 16.0 had both problems. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were anxiety disorders (37.5%, alcohol and drugs abuse (28.1%, and depressive disorders (29.2%. Commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs were anxiolytics and antidepressants. The psychotropic drugs most frequently prescribed were diazepam among anti-anxiety drugs, amitriptyline among antidepressant drugs, and haloperidol among antipsychotic drugs. Conclusion Most drugs available through primary care were the same as what existed 3 decades ago. There should be adequate supply of new and appropriate psychotropic drugs in primary care. Case-finding instruments for common mental disorders might be helpful for GPs whose quality of practice was limited by large numbers of patients. However, the service delivery system should be modified in order to maintain successful care for a large number of psychiatric patients.

  9. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  10. Performance of the measures of processes of care for adults and service providers in rehabilitation settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamm EL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elena L Bamm,1 Peter Rosenbaum,1,2 Seanne Wilkins,1 Paul Stratford11School of Rehabilitation Science, 2CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaIntroduction: In recent years, client-centered care has been embraced as a new philosophy of care by many organizations around the world. Clinicians and researchers have identified the need for valid and reliable outcome measures that are easy to use to evaluate success of implementation of new concepts.Objective: The current study was developed to complete adaptation and field testing of the companion patient-reported measures of processes of care for adults (MPOC-A and the service provider self-reflection measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A.Design: A validation studySettings: In-patient rehabilitation facilities.Main outcome measures: MPOC-A and measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A.Results: Three hundred and eighty-four health care providers, 61 patients, and 16 family members completed the questionnaires. Good to excellent internal consistency (0.71–0.88 for health care professionals, 0.82–0.90 for patients, and 0.87–0.94 for family members, as well as moderate to good correlations between domains (0.40–0.78 for health care professionals and 0.52–0.84 for clients supported internal reliability of the tools. Exploratory factor analysis of the MPOC-SP(A responses supported the multidimensionality of the questionnaire.Conclusion: MPOC-A and MPOC-SP(A are valid and reliable tools to assess patient and service-provider accounts, respectively, of the extent to which they experience, or are able to provide, client-centered service. Research should now be undertaken to explore in more detail the relationships between client experience and provider reports of their own behavior.Keywords: client-centered care, service evaluation, MPOC, models of

  11. Disability, poverty, and role of the basic livelihood security system on health services utilization among the elderly in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Boyoung; Noguchi, Haruko; Kwon, Soonman; Ito, Tomoko; Tamiya, Nanako

    2017-04-01

    With rapid aging, many of the elderly suffer from poverty and high healthcare needs. In Korea, there is a means-tested and non-contributory public assistance, the National Basic Livelihood Security System (NBLSS). The purpose of this study is to show older population's condition of disability and poverty, to evaluate the impact of NBLSS on health services utilization, and to examine the differential effect of the NBLSS by disability status among the elderly. This study used the Korea Welfare Panel Study data 2005-2014 with the final sample of 40,365, who were 65 years and older. The participants were divided into people with mild disability, severe disability, and without disability according to the Korean disability registration system. The income-level was defined to the low-income with NBLSS, the low-income without NBLSS, and the middle and high income, using the relative poverty line as a proxy of the low-income. The dependent variables were the number of outpatient visits and inpatient days, experience of home care services, total healthcare expenditure, and financial burden of healthcare expenditure. We performed Generalized Estimating Equations population-averaged model using the ten years of panel data. The result showed that within the same disability status, the low-income without NBLSS group used the least amount of inpatient care, but their financial burden of health expenditure was the highest among the three income groups. The regression model showed that if the elderly with severe disability were in the low-income without NBLSS, they reduced the outpatient and inpatient days; but their financial burden of healthcare became intensified. This study shows that the low-income elderly with disability but without adequate social protection are the most disadvantaged group. Policy is called for to mitigate the difficulties of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Streams of events and performance of queuing systems: The basic anatomy of arrival/departure processes, when the focus is set on autocorrelation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2004-01-01

    significant nature or (2) aggregate system behaviour is in general very different from just the summing-up (even for finite sets of micro-behavioural patterns) and/or (3) it is simply a wrong assumption that in many cases is chosen by mere convention or plain convenience. It is evident that before choosing...... some arrival processes for some simulation study a thorough preliminary analysis has to be undertaken in order to uncover the basic time series nature of the interacting processes. Flexible methods for generating streams of autocorrelated variates of any desired distributional type, such as the ARTA...

  13. Goal setting practice in services delivering community-based stroke rehabilitation: a United Kingdom (UK) wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Duncan, Edward A; Brady, Marian C; Wyke, Sally

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nature of services providing community-based stroke rehabilitation across the UK, and goal setting practice used within them, to inform evaluation of a goal setting and action planning (G-AP) framework. We designed, piloted and electronically distributed a survey to health professionals working in community-based stroke rehabilitation settings across the UK. We optimised recruitment using a multi-faceted strategy. Responses were analysed from 437 services. Services size, composition and input was highly variable; however, most were multi-disciplinary (82%; n = 335/407) and provided input to a mixed diagnostic group of patients (71%; n = 312/437). Ninety one percent of services (n = 358/395) reported setting goals with "all" or "most" stroke survivors. Seventeen percent (n = 65/380) reported that no methods were used to guide goal setting practice; 47% (n = 148/315) reported use of informal methods only. Goal setting practice varied, e.g. 98% of services (n = 362/369) reported routinely asking patients about goal priorities; 39% (n = 141/360) reported routinely providing patients with a copy of their goals. Goal setting is embedded within community-based stroke rehabilitation; however, practice varies and is potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to inform optimal practice. Evaluation design will take account of the diverse service models that exist. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-based stroke rehabilitation services across the UK are diverse and tend to see a mixed diagnostic group of patients. Goal setting is implemented routinely within community-based stroke rehabilitation services; however, practice is variable and potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to assess its effectiveness in practice.

  14. Evaluation of Sexual Health Sheffield's services in community settings : perspectives from young people aged 15-25 years.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This report details findings from an evaluation of Sexual Health Sheffield’s (SHS) services in community settings (also known as Community Engagement Services) from the perspective of young people aged 15-25 years. The evaluation was carried out during September 2014 to January 2015. Twenty nine young people aged 15-25 years who live in Sheffield or have used Sexual Health Sheffield’s services participated in the evaluation via interviews and focus groups. Experiences and utility of the servi...

  15. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lourenco, Sofia; Laub Hansen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    food choice, whilst (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future......Summary: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. 12 databases were searched systematically for experimental...... studies with predefined choice architectural interventions in the period June 2011 – March 2012. The 12 included studies were grouped according to type of interventions and underwent a narrative synthesis. The evidence indicates that (i) health labelling at point-of-purchase is associated with healthier...

  16. An assessment of the barriers to accessing the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Afghanistan:was the BPHS a success?

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Alexandra; Wilkinson, Matthew; Boyle, Peter; Patel, Preeti; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Afghanistan is one of the most fragile and conflict-affected countries in the world. It has experienced almost uninterrupted conflict for the last thirty years, with the present conflict now lasting over a decade. With no history of a functioning healthcare system, the creation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 2003 was a response to Afghanistan's dire health needs following decades of war. Its objective was to provide a bare minimum of essential health services, which could b...

  17. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Chersich (Matthew); S. Luchters (Stanley); I. Ntaganira (Innocent); A. Gerbase (Antonio); Y-R. Lo (Ying-Ru); F. Scorgie (Fiona); R. Steen (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for

  18. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  19. A Power-Efficient Access Point Operation for Infrastructure Basic Service Set in IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ye Ming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure-based wireless LAN technology has been widely used in today's personal communication environment. Power efficiency and battery management have been the center of attention in the design of handheld devices with wireless LAN capability. In this paper, a hybrid protocol named improved PCF operation is proposed, which intelligently chooses the access point- (AP- assisted DCF (distributed coordinator function and enhanced PCF (point coordinator function transmission mechanism of IEEE 802.11 protocol in an infrastructure-based wireless LAN environment. Received signal strength indicator (RSSI is used to determine the tradeoff between direct mobile-to-mobile transmission and transmission routed by AP. Based on the estimation, mobile stations can efficiently communicate directly instead of being routed through AP if they are in the vicinity of each other. Furthermore, a smart AP protocol is proposed as extension to the improved PCF operation by utilizing the historical end-to-end delay information to decide the waking up time of mobile stations. Simulation results show that using the proposed protocol, energy consumption of mobile devices can be reduced at the cost of slightly longer end-to-end packet delay compared to traditional IEEE 802.11 PCF protocol. However, in a non-time-critical environment, this option can significantly prolong the operation time of mobile devices.

  20. Seeing Beyond Service - Redefining the Problem of Water and Sanitation Service Delivery in Resource-Limited Settings to Enable Effective Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Strock, Christopher Moore

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of water and sanitation service delivery in resource-limited settings using two different social theories (modernization and world system). Understanding that barriers to effectiveness are rooted in global structures that tend to present at local levels helps redefine the problem leading to comprehensive policies and practices. The guiding research questions included an identification of an effectiveness gap in services delivered in d...

  1. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  2. 国际脊髓损伤心血管功能基础数据集%International Spinal Cord Injury Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei Krassioukov; 刘根林; 郑樱; 张缨; 郝春霞; 康海琼; 王一吉; 逯晓蕾; Marca Sipski Alexander; Ann-Katrin Karlsson; William Donovan; Christopher Mathias; Fin Biering-Sorensen; 卫波; 周红俊; 李建军

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders of spinal cord injury (SCI) are among the most common causes of death in individuals with SCI. The International Spinal Cord Injury Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set is introduced in order to standardize the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on cardiovascular function in daily practice. Moreover, this data set makes it possible to evaluate and compare results from various published studies on cardiovascular function after SCI. The technical terms in this data set are defined in particular in this article.%心血管功能异常是脊髓损伤患者常见的死亡原因.为了使脊髓损伤患者心血管功能信息的收集和报道标准化,引入了国际脊髓损伤心血管基础数据集.同时,使用该数据集便于比较和评估各种发表的脊髓损伤后心血管功能研究结果.针对数据集中的术语也给出了详细定义.

  3. Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluisio, James T.

    1980-01-01

    Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences…

  4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FINANCIAL COSTS FOR ACCESSING THE SAME BASIC KINESIS-THERAPEUTIC SERVICE AVAILABLE TO THE POPULATION FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexe Dan Iulian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating the type of ratio between a basic kinesis-therapeutic service available to the population and its corresponding costs in different EU areas. Performing a comparative analysis of the costs for different types of massage for the European market for the relaxation-recovery services can offer new data and reference points to future specialists in these areas when they plan and design their access on such a competitive market. Knowledge of the massage services, of the national economic characteristic, of the principles governing the recovery-rehabilitation –relaxation activities in every EU country can reveal real and positive evidences for the professional career orientation, but also regarding the massage service appreciation within such a large market, as the European Union’s. For the same type of basic kinesis-therapeutic service available to the population (massage, establishing extreme limits for the corresponding costs can represent a challenge difficult to accomplish at the level of EU areas, and this aspect shows, in our opinion, a lack of financial stability and “standardization” of the services for which a kinesiotherapist is trained and specialized.

  5. Variables Affecting Patient Satisfaction with Health Care Services in the College Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Joyce L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Five hundred college students who had used Kent State University's School Health Service were surveyed to determine patient satisfaction with health care services. Overall satisfaction with the services was high, and satisfaction was significantly influenced by patients' perceptions of practitioners' technical competence and by the adequacy of the…

  6. Integration of HIV prevention into Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in an urban setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Parker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United Nations Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS of 2006 stressed the need to strengthen policy and programme linkages between HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH. However, the effectiveness and best practices for strengthening SRH and HIV linkages are poorly researched in the context of family-planning services. In Cape Town, HIV-prevention services have been integrated into family-planning services. There are two models of service configuration: dedicated stand-alone reproductive health clinics and family planning services located in comprehensive primary-care facilities.Objective: To describe how reproductive health services are integrating HIV prevention and care strategies and to measure the coverage and quality of these integrated services.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured interviews with facility managers; a facility-based checklist; and a patient record review to assess the availability of resources, training, access, quality and integration.Results: Facilities in Cape Town are equipped adequately to offer integrated HIV-prevention and SRH services. Overall there was poor coverage of integrated services with 54% of family planning clients having a known HIV status; 47% being screened for a sexually transmitted infection and 55% being offered HIV counselling and testing and receiving condoms. Quality and continuity of care seemed better at the dedicated clinics than at the comprehensive facilities,supported by better training coverage.Conclusion: Engaging middle-level management is crucial with regard to improving integration within a well-resourced setting.

  7. The Starting Early Starting Smart Integrated Services Model: Improving Access to Behavioral Health Services in the Pediatric Health Care Setting for At-Risk Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…

  8. The Use of Classroom Assessment to Explore Problem Solving Skills Based on Pre-Service Teachers’ Cognitive Style Dimension in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Hamidah, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of assessment strategy which can measure problem solving skills of pre-service teachers based on their cognitive style in basic physics course. The sample consisted of 95 persons (male = 15, female = 75). This study used an exploratory research with observation techniques by interview, questionnaire, and test. The results indicated that the lecturer only used paper-pencil test assessment strategy to measure pre-service teachers’ achievement and also used conventional learning strategy. It means that the lecturer did not measure pre-services’ thinking process in learning, like problem solving skills. One of the factors which can influence student problem solving skills is cognitive style as an internal factor. Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) are two cognitive styles which were measured with using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) test. The result showed that 82% of pre-service teachers were FD cognitive style and only 18% of pre-service teachers had FI cognitive style. Furthermore, these findings became the fundamental design to develop a problem solving assessment model to measure pre-service teachers’ problem solving skills and process in basic physics course.

  9. Building web service interfaces to geoscience data sets: EarthCube GeoWS project activities at the IRIS DMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, C. M.; Ahern, T. K.; Stults, M.

    2015-12-01

    At the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) we have been developing web service data access interfaces for our, primarily seismological, repositories for five years. These interfaces have become the primary access mechanisms for all data extraction from the DMC. For the last two years the DMC has been a principal participant in the GeoWS project, which aims to develop common web service interfaces for data access across hydrology, geodesy, seismology, marine geophysics, atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines. By extending our approach we have converged, along with other project members, on a web service interface and presentation design appropriate for geoscience and other data. The key principles of the approach include using a simple subset of RESTful concepts, common calling conventions whenever possible, a common tabular text data set convention, human-readable documentation and tools to help scientific end users learn how to use the interfaces. The common tabular text format, called GeoCSV, has been incorporated into the DMC's seismic station and event (earthquake) services. In addition to modifying our existing services, we have developed prototype GeoCSV web services for data sets managed by external (unfunded) collaborators. These prototype services include interfaces for data sets at NGDC/NCEI (water level tides and meteorological satellite measurements), INTERMAGNET repository and UTEP gravity and magnetic measurements. In progress are interfaces for WOVOdat (volcano observatory measurements), NEON (ecological observatory measurements) and more. An important goal of our work is to build interfaces usable by non-technologist end users. We find direct usability by researchers to be a major factor in cross-discipline data use, which itself is a key to solving complex research questions. In addition to data discovery and collection by end users, these interfaces provide a foundation upon which federated data access and brokering systems are already being

  10. Community-based Services that Facilitate Interoperability and Inter-comparison Between Precipitation Data Sets from Multiple Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Teng, W. L.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ostrenga, D.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 12 years, large volumes of precipitation data have been generated from space-based observatories (e.g., TRMM), merging of data products (e.g., gridded 3B42), models (e.g., GMAO), climatologies (e.g., Chang SSM/I derived rain indices), field campaigns, and ground-based measuring stations. The science research, applications, and education communities have greatly benefited from the unrestricted availability of these data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and, in particular, the services tailored toward precipitation data access and usability. In addition, tools and services that are responsive to the expressed evolving needs of the precipitation data user communities have been developed at the Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google NASA PDISC), located at the GES DISC, to provide users with quick data exploration and access capabilities. In recent years, data management and access services have become increasingly sophisticated, such that they now afford researchers, particularly those interested in multi-data set science analysis and/or data validation, the ability to homogenize data sets, in order to apply multi-variant, comparison, and evaluation functions. Included in these services is the ability to capture data quality and data provenance. These interoperability services can be directly applied to future data sets, such as those from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This presentation describes the data sets and services at the PDISC that are currently used by precipitation science and applications researchers, and which will be enhanced in preparation for GPM and associated multi-sensor data research. Specifically, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) will be illustrated. Giovanni enables scientific exploration of Earth science data without researchers having to

  11. The Effects of Task Clarification, Feedback, and Goal Setting on Student Advisors' Office Behaviors and Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittelbach, Danielle; DeAngelis, Maureen; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feedback, task clarification and goal-setting on office behaviors and customer service of ten undergraduate participants that served as university advisors. A multiple baseline design was implemented across three target behaviors: client greeting, front-desk behaviors, and punctuality. During intervention the…

  12. Pre-Service Teachers: Does Cultural Responsiveness Affect Anticipated Self-Determination to Teach in Specific Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation to teach is essential to educating all children in the public schools. This study examined the anticipated self-determination of pre-service teachers to teach in classroom settings that varied in the ethnic and racial composition of the students in the classes. Additionally the cultural responsiveness of participants was measured to…

  13. Mapping ecosystem functions and services in Eastern Europe using global-scale data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; Alkemade, R.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Petz, K.

    2012-01-01

    To assess future interactions between the environment and human well-being, spatially explicit ecosystem service models are needed. Currently available models mainly focus on provisioning services and do not distinguish changes in the functioning of the ecosystem (Ecosystem Functions – ESFs) and hum

  14. Introducing Matrix Management within a Children's Services Setting--Personal Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Michael; Kakabadse, Nada K.

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on the introduction of "matrix management" arrangements for an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) within a Children's Service Directorate of a Local Authority (LA). It seeks to demonstrate critical self-awareness, consider relevant literature with a view to bringing insights to processes and outcomes, and offers…

  15. Consumer perspectives about weight management services in a community pharmacy setting in NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Um, Irene S.; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2012-01-01

    Background  Obesity is a public health challenge faced worldwide. Community pharmacists may be well placed to manage Australia’s obesity problem owing to their training, accessibility and trustworthiness. However, determining consumers’ needs is vital to the development of any new services or the evaluation of existing services.

  16. A study on the basic path for producer services to promote industrial upgrading and the related finance and taxation measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Jiechang; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating the development of producer services is both conducive to enhancing the level and quality of industrialization, promoting industrial upgrading, and the only way to realize a modernized...

  17. Setting up a social enterprise for clinician-led lymphoedema services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, Mary; Jones, Kris

    The introduction of social enterprises into healthcare has brought about opportunities and challenges for providers and clinicians. Dudley Lymphoedema Service, a team originally of five staff members, has undergone radical changes. The team has successfully gone through the Department of Health's right to request programme to move from a primary care trust service to become a social enterprise, LymphCare UK, which is a community interest company. There are only approximately 40 NHS services throughout the country that have taken this option as part of government changes and plans to put clinicians at the helm of services. Becoming a social enterprise has led to the service becoming bespoke, more responsive, flexible and innovative. Stepping out of the NHS has not been an easy journey but is one that the team is confident will improve outcomes for the organisation and the patients it serves.

  18. Improving interprofessional collaboration in a community setting: relationships with burnout, engagement and service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Monica; Adolfsen, Frode; Lauritzen, Camilla; Richardsen, Astrid Marie

    2012-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was, firstly, to evaluate the effect of an intervention aimed at improving interprofessional collaboration and service quality, and secondly, to examine if collaboration could predict burnout, engagement and service quality among human service professionals working with children and adolescents. The intervention included the establishment of local interprofessional teams and offering courses. The sample was recruited from six different small municipalities in Northern Norway (N = 93) and a comparison group from four similar municipalities (N = 58). Participation in the project increased the level of collaboration in the intervention group significantly (Hedges' g = 0.36), but not the perceived level of service quality. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test a model for predicting burnout, engagement and perceived service quality using work-related factors, including collaboration as predictors. Both burnout and engagement were predicted by job demands and resources after controlling for demographic variables and participation in the project. Service quality was mostly predicted by collaboration. Increasing collaboration seems possible by introducing practice-based changes; however, this intervention did not have the desired effect on perceived service quality.

  19. Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Allison

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropriate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programs are categorized in three sections. The first section describes factors that arise from prevailing sociocultural norms that influence women's views on reproductive health, well being, and notions of illness. The second section discusses factors related to the clinical requirements and the type of service delivery system in which a woman is being asked to participate. The third section discusses factors related to quality of care. Examples of strategies that programs are using to encourage women's participation in cervical cancer prevention services are provided.

  20. Building social capital with interprofessional student teams in rural settings: A service-learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Pippa L; Phillips, Christine; Hall, Sally

    2016-08-01

    To describe outcomes of a model of service learning in interprofessional learning (IPL) aimed at developing a sustainable model of training that also contributed to service strengthening. A total of 57 semi-structured interviews with key informants and document review exploring the impacts of interprofessional student teams engaged in locally relevant IPL activities. Six rural towns in South East New South Wales. Local facilitators, staff of local health and other services, health professionals who supervised the 89 students in 37 IPL teams, and academic and administrative staff. Perceived benefits as a consequence of interprofessional, service-learning interventions in these rural towns. Reported outcomes included increased local awareness of a particular issue addressed by the team; improved communication between different health professions; continued use of the team's product or a changed procedure in response to the teams' work; and evidence of improved use of a particular local health service. Given the limited workforce available in rural areas to supervise clinical IPL placements, a service-learning IPL model that aims to build social capital may be a useful educational model. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Exploration on Basic Service Functions of the Public Library%公共图书馆基本服务功能探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文惠

    2016-01-01

    Service quality is the lifeline of the public library development. With growing popularity of the network and rapid development of computer technology in big data era, public libraries should keep pace with the time, constantly blaze new trails and improve the service functions. Based on the basic service functions of public library as the research object, this paper analyzes the present situation of the current basic public library service, and puts forward concrete and effective measures for the existing problems in order to improve the public library service functions, and create public libraries’ service brand, and realize the sustainable development of public library.%服务质量是公共图书馆发展的生命线。在网络日益普及、计算机技术迅猛发展的大数据时代,公共图书馆更应该与时俱进,不断开拓创新,完善服务功能。文章以公共图书馆的基本服务功能为研究对象,分析当前公共图书馆基本服务的现状,并针对存在的问题提出切实有效的措施,以期提升公共图书馆的服务功能,从而打造公共图书馆的服务品牌,实现公共图书馆的可持续发展。

  2. Mobile and portable dental services catering to the basic oral health needs of the underserved population in developing countries: a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganavadiya, R; Chandrashekar, Br; Goel, P; Hongal, Sg; Jain, M

    2014-05-01

    India is the second most populous country in the world with an extensive rural population (68.8%). Children less than 18 years constitute about 40% of the population. Approximately, 23.5% of the urban population resides in urban slums. The extensive rural population, school children and the urban slum dwellers are denied of even the basic dental services though there is continuous advancement in the field of dentistry. The dentist to population ratio has dramatically improved in the last one to two decades with no significant improvement in the oral health status of the general population. The various studies have revealed an increasing trend in oral diseases in the recent times especially among this underserved population. Alternate strategies have to be thought about rather than the traditional oral health-care delivery through private dentists on fee for service basis. Mobile and portable dental services are a viable option to take the sophisticated oral health services to the doorsteps of the underserved population. The databases were searched for publications from 1900 to the present (2013) using terms such as Mobile dental services, Portable dental services and Mobile and portable dental services with key articles obtained primarily from MEDLINE. This paper reviews the published and unpublished literature from different sources on the various mobile dental service programs successfully implemented in some developed and developing countries. Though the mobile and portable systems have some practical difficulties like financial considerations, they still seem to be the only way to reach every section of the community in the absence of national oral health policy and organized school dental health programs in India. The material for the present review was obtained mainly by searching the biomedical databases for primary research material using the search engine with key words such as mobile and/or portable dental services in developed and developing countries

  3. Mobile and Portable Dental Services Catering to the Basic Oral Health Needs of the Underserved Population in Developing Countries: A Proposed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganavadiya, R; Chandrashekar, BR; Goel, P; Hongal, SG; Jain, M

    2014-01-01

    India is the second most populous country in the world with an extensive rural population (68.8%). Children less than 18 years constitute about 40% of the population. Approximately, 23.5% of the urban population resides in urban slums. The extensive rural population, school children and the urban slum dwellers are denied of even the basic dental services though there is continuous advancement in the field of dentistry. The dentist to population ratio has dramatically improved in the last one to two decades with no significant improvement in the oral health status of the general population. The various studies have revealed an increasing trend in oral diseases in the recent times especially among this underserved population. Alternate strategies have to be thought about rather than the traditional oral health-care delivery through private dentists on fee for service basis. Mobile and portable dental services are a viable option to take the sophisticated oral health services to the doorsteps of the underserved population. The databases were searched for publications from 1900 to the present (2013) using terms such as Mobile dental services, Portable dental services and Mobile and portable dental services with key articles obtained primarily from MEDLINE. This paper reviews the published and unpublished literature from different sources on the various mobile dental service programs successfully implemented in some developed and developing countries. Though the mobile and portable systems have some practical difficulties like financial considerations, they still seem to be the only way to reach every section of the community in the absence of national oral health policy and organized school dental health programs in India. The material for the present review was obtained mainly by searching the biomedical databases for primary research material using the search engine with key words such as mobile and/or portable dental services in developed and developing countries

  4. Access to Basic HIV-Related Services and PrEP Acceptability among Men Who Have sex with Men Worldwide: Barriers, Facilitators, and Implications for Combination Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ayala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately impacted by HIV globally. Easily accessible combination HIV prevention strategies, tailored to the needs of MSM, are needed to effectively address the AIDS pandemic. Methods and Materials. We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM (n=3748 from 145 countries from April to August 2012. Using multivariable random effects models, we examined factors associated with acceptability of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP and access to condoms, lubricants, HIV testing, and HIV treatment. Results. Condoms and lubricants were accessible to 35% and 22% of all respondents, respectively. HIV testing was accessible to 35% of HIV-negative respondents. Forty-three percent of all HIV-positive respondents reported that antiretroviral therapy was easily accessible. Homophobia, outness, and service provider stigma were significantly associated with reduced access to services. Conversely, community engagement, connection to gay community, and comfort with service providers were associated with increased access. PrEP acceptability was associated with lower PrEP-related stigma, less knowledge about PrEP, less outness, higher service provider stigma, and having experienced violence for being MSM. Conclusions. Ensuring HIV service access among MSM will be critical in maximizing the potential effectiveness of combination approaches, especially given the interdependence of both basic and newer interventions like PrEP. Barriers and facilitators of HIV service access for MSM should be better understood and addressed.

  5. Theoretical Discussion of Coordinated Fund Management of Basic Public Health and Basic Medical Services Based on the Principle of Labour Voucher%基于工分制原理的基本公共卫生与基本医疗服务经费统筹管理的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 张韬; 王洪兴; 厉勤; 李幼子

    2016-01-01

    While the coordinated management of fund for basic public health and basic medical services provides an opportunity for the integration of content and resources of basic public health and basic medical services,the principle of labour voucher creates technical conditions for this opportunity:the principle of labour voucher has resolved the financial accounting issues,eliminating the following problems of community health services;the building of the mechanism of funds allocation by the principle of labor voucher could ensure the transparency of information and is conducive to the establishment of performance appraisal system for community health service settings and their staffs,effectively guiding supply - side behavior;the fund allocation mechanism could also guide residents′ health seeking behavior indirectly through the supply side,and promote residents and medical staffs to improve their health and save fund together by price leverage and reward allocation. The study is still at theoretical stage,thus the feasibility of the research result needs to be further tested.%基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务经费的统筹管理,为基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务内容整合和资源整合提供了契机,而工分制原理则为这种契机创造了技术条件:工分制原理首先解决了经费核算问题,为社区卫生服务机构解决了后顾之忧;通过工分制原理构建经费分配机制,保证了信息透明性,有利于社区卫生服务机构绩效考核和机构内员工绩效考核机制的建立,从而有效引导供方行为;基于工分制原理构建的经费分配机制,可以通过供方间接引导居民就医行为,也可以通过价格杠杆和分配奖励促使居民与医务人员一起为提高自身健康水平和节约经费努力。本研究尚处于理论阶段,研究成果的可行性还有待实践的检验。

  6. The consequences of heavy-tailed service time distribution on a basic queuing model and its performance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Rangel Martínez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research showing theoretical generative models for heavy-tailed service time queues and its empirical validation implies the need for a better knowledge of the key performance indicators’ behavior under such assumption. The behavior of the average length of the queue ( and the average waiting-time (Wq were analyzed through simulation, varying system capacity, average service utilization factor ( ρ and the number of servers in the systems as parameters. Comparisons were also made with service times based on Poisson processes. The results showed more sensitive variations of Lq and Wq for heavy-tailed service times than for Poisson-based service times. Systems having a capacity of over 1,000 entities might be considered as being systems having infinity capacity and the number of servers has a greater importance in heavy-tailed ruled processes than in Poisson processes. There was a lack of adequacy of Lq and Wq as key performance indicators for heavy-tailed service times, lea- ding to unexpected and unstable results.

  7. Innovations with services relating to energy efficiency. Basic information and examples; Innovationen mit Dienstleistungen im Bereich Energieeffizienz. Basisinformationen und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Michael; Kollnig, Sarah; Oertel, Britta

    2010-07-01

    This study describes how the ''Energy Efficient City'' competition is intended to promote activities towards greater energy efficiency which relate to cities as systems, are innovative, and conceive of and incorporate services as part of the solution. ''Innovation with services'' is not only about the further development of existing services but more particularly about the creation of high-quality services in growth areas which can serve to speed up innovation and create new application potentials for technical developments. They should be based on a holistic view on urban processes of energy use and energy supply and give consideration to all relevant stakeholders. The ''Energy Efficient City'' competition is aimed at systematically linking innovations with services to energy efficiency issues. The implementation of these goals will be facilitated by accompanying research. To this end the present text provides information on how services can be geared to energy efficiency.

  8. Development of the Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for Medical-Surgical Nursing (MED-SURG BKAT) © and implications for in-service educators and managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM: Medical-surgical nursing is now the largest specialty in acute care, and needs an objective measure of basic knowledge necessary to provide safe care to patients. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations noted that healthcare organizations have in the past relied on education and experience to support competence, but an increasing number are seeking objective measures of a nurse's knowledge that is required for safe practice. The American Nurses Association adds that safe practice is both a professional and a moral responsibility. A review of the literature failed to locate a standardized test of basic knowledge in medical-surgical nursing. In-service educators and managers need such a test to facilitate orientation programs, and as a way to safely decrease the length of orientation for new employees with previous experience in medical-surgical nursing. The purpose of the study was to develop a valid and reliable test to measure basic knowledge in medical-surgical nursing. The Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for Medical-Surgical nursing was developed with support for its validity and reliability. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Implementing and measuring the level of laboratory service integration in a program setting in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mbah

    Full Text Available The surge of donor funds to fight HIV&AIDS epidemic inadvertently resulted in the setup of laboratories as parallel structures to rapidly respond to the identified need. However these parallel structures are a threat to the existing fragile laboratory systems. Laboratory service integration is critical to remedy this situation. This paper describes an approach to quantitatively measure and track integration of HIV-related laboratory services into the mainstream laboratory services and highlight some key intervention steps taken, to enhance service integration.A quantitative before-and-after study conducted in 122 Family Health International (FHI360 supported health facilities across Nigeria. A minimum service package was identified including management structure; trainings; equipment utilization and maintenance; information, commodity and quality management for laboratory integration. A check list was used to assess facilities at baseline and 3 months follow-up. Level of integration was assessed on an ordinal scale (0 = no integration, 1 = partial integration, 2 = full integration for each service package. A composite score grading expressed as a percentage of total obtainable score of 14 was defined and used to classify facilities (≤ 80% FULL, 25% to 79% PARTIAL and <25% NO integration. Weaknesses were noted and addressed.We analyzed 9 (7.4% primary, 104 (85.2% secondary and 9 (7.4% tertiary level facilities. There were statistically significant differences in integration levels between baseline and 3 months follow-up period (p<0.01. Baseline median total integration score was 4 (IQR 3 to 5 compared to 7 (IQR 4 to 9 at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000. Partial and fully integrated laboratory systems were 64 (52.5% and 0 (0.0% at baseline, compared to 100 (82.0% and 3 (2.4% respectively at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000.This project showcases our novel approach to measure the status of each laboratory on the integration continuum.

  10. Implementing and measuring the level of laboratory service integration in a program setting in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Henry; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Ikani, Patrick Anibbe; Balogun, Oluseyi; Sanwo, Olusola; Ochei, Kingsley; Ekanem, Maurice; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    The surge of donor funds to fight HIV&AIDS epidemic inadvertently resulted in the setup of laboratories as parallel structures to rapidly respond to the identified need. However these parallel structures are a threat to the existing fragile laboratory systems. Laboratory service integration is critical to remedy this situation. This paper describes an approach to quantitatively measure and track integration of HIV-related laboratory services into the mainstream laboratory services and highlight some key intervention steps taken, to enhance service integration. A quantitative before-and-after study conducted in 122 Family Health International (FHI360) supported health facilities across Nigeria. A minimum service package was identified including management structure; trainings; equipment utilization and maintenance; information, commodity and quality management for laboratory integration. A check list was used to assess facilities at baseline and 3 months follow-up. Level of integration was assessed on an ordinal scale (0 = no integration, 1 = partial integration, 2 = full integration) for each service package. A composite score grading expressed as a percentage of total obtainable score of 14 was defined and used to classify facilities (≤ 80% FULL, 25% to 79% PARTIAL and <25% NO integration). Weaknesses were noted and addressed. We analyzed 9 (7.4%) primary, 104 (85.2%) secondary and 9 (7.4%) tertiary level facilities. There were statistically significant differences in integration levels between baseline and 3 months follow-up period (p<0.01). Baseline median total integration score was 4 (IQR 3 to 5) compared to 7 (IQR 4 to 9) at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000). Partial and fully integrated laboratory systems were 64 (52.5%) and 0 (0.0%) at baseline, compared to 100 (82.0%) and 3 (2.4%) respectively at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000). This project showcases our novel approach to measure the status of each laboratory on the integration continuum.

  11. Definition of Intervener Services and Interveners in Educational Settings. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This technical report synthesizes the process and information used by National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB) in the development of a consistently applied definition of intervener services. It addresses challenges and questions, provides comparisons between interveners and paraprofessionals, and offers definitions, roles and concepts used by…

  12. Dog and Pony Show: New Guidance for Service Animals in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossler, Christine T.

    2011-01-01

    The odds that a school district might be asked to allow a service dog or miniature horse into one of its facilities have increased tremendously in light of new legislative changes. With those changes comes a host of fresh challenges for school administrators and policy makers--not the least of which are complex disability discrimination laws and…

  13. Making a Request for a Service in Spanish: Pragmatic Development in the Study Abroad Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the development of the request strategies used in two service encounter scenarios by 31 nonnative speakers of Spanish spending 4 months living and studying in Valencia, Spain. The main method of data collection was an open role-play in which participants interacted with a Spanish native speaker. Results show that while there…

  14. DPT/CT: A Realistic Answer for Preventive Special Education Services in Rural School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, David N.

    The consulting teacher program involving the use of special classes and resource rooms, which serves mildly to moderately handicapped students in Griggs, Steele, and Traill Counties in North Dakota, a rural school district, is described. Outlined is the service design model consisting of 11 steps: referral, observation, initial parent contact,…

  15. Current Practices in Special Education Service Delivery and Differences between Instructional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Marguerite D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite nationwide advances in special education service delivery practices, disparities exist between the educational outcomes of students with disabilities versus students without disabilities. There is often disparity in teachers' roles and instructional practices in coteaching classrooms, as well as in their pullout resource classroom…

  16. Making a Request for a Service in Spanish: Pragmatic Development in the Study Abroad Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the development of the request strategies used in two service encounter scenarios by 31 nonnative speakers of Spanish spending 4 months living and studying in Valencia, Spain. The main method of data collection was an open role-play in which participants interacted with a Spanish native speaker. Results show that while there…

  17. Radiology Consultation in the Era of Precision Oncology: A Review of Consultation Models and Services in the Tertiary Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPiro, Pamela J; Krajewski, Katherine M; Giardino, Angela A; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe the various radiology consultation models in the Era of Precision Medicine. Since the inception of our specialty, radiologists have served as consultants to physicians of various disciplines. A variety of radiology consultation services have been described in the literature, including clinical decision support, patient-centric, subspecialty interpretation, and/or some combination of these. In oncology care in particular, case complexity often merits open dialogue with clinical providers. To explore the utility and impact of radiology consultation services in the academic setting, this article will further describe existing consultation models and the circumstances that precipitated their development. The hybrid model successful at our tertiary cancer center is discussed. In addition, the contributions of a consultant radiologist in breast cancer care are reviewed as the archetype of radiology consultation services provided to oncology practitioners.

  18. Radiology Consultation in the Era of Precision Oncology: A Review of Consultation Models and Services in the Tertiary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Katherine M.; Giardino, Angela A.; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe the various radiology consultation models in the Era of Precision Medicine. Since the inception of our specialty, radiologists have served as consultants to physicians of various disciplines. A variety of radiology consultation services have been described in the literature, including clinical decision support, patient-centric, subspecialty interpretation, and/or some combination of these. In oncology care in particular, case complexity often merits open dialogue with clinical providers. To explore the utility and impact of radiology consultation services in the academic setting, this article will further describe existing consultation models and the circumstances that precipitated their development. The hybrid model successful at our tertiary cancer center is discussed. In addition, the contributions of a consultant radiologist in breast cancer care are reviewed as the archetype of radiology consultation services provided to oncology practitioners. PMID:28096715

  19. Radiology consultation in the era of precision oncology: A review of consultation models and services in the tertiary setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPiro, Pamela J.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Giardino, Angela A.; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Ramaiya, Nikhil H. [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of the article is to describe the various radiology consultation models in the Era of Precision Medicine. Since the inception of our specialty, radiologists have served as consultants to physicians of various disciplines. A variety of radiology consultation services have been described in the literature, including clinical decision support, patient-centric, subspecialty interpretation, and/or some combination of these. In oncology care in particular, case complexity often merits open dialogue with clinical providers. To explore the utility and impact of radiology consultation services in the academic setting, this article will further describe existing consultation models and the circumstances that precipitated their development. The hybrid model successful at our tertiary cancer center is discussed. In addition, the contributions of a consultant radiologist in breast cancer care are reviewed as the archetype of radiology consultation services provided to oncology practitioners.

  20. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  1. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT postpartum services with other HIV care and treatment services within the maternal and child health setting in Zimbabwe, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wiegert

    Full Text Available We assessed the integration of PMTCT services during the postpartum period including early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID and adult and pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in maternal and child health (MCH facilities in Zimbabwe.From August to December 2012 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 151 MCH facilities. A questionnaire was used to survey each site about staff training, dried blood spot sample (DBS collection, turnaround time (TAT for test results, PMTCT services, and HIV care and treatment linkages for HIV-infected mothers and children and HIV-exposed infants. Descriptive analyses were used. Of the facilities surveyed, all facilities were trained on DBS collection and 92% responded. Approximately, 99% of responding facilities reported providing DBS collection and a basic HIV-exposed infant service package including EID, extended nevirapine prophylaxis, and use of cotrimoxazole. DBS collection was integrated with immunisations at 83% of facilities, CD4 testing with point-of-care machines was available at 37% of facilities, and ART for both mothers and children was provided at 27% of facilities. More than 80% of facilities reported that DBS test results take >4 weeks to return; TAT did not have a direct association with any specific type of transport, distance to the lab, or intermediate stops for data to travel.Zimbabwe has successfully scaled up and integrated the national EID and PMTCT programs into the existing MCH setting. The long TAT of infant DBS test results and the lack of integrated ART programs in the MCH setting could reduce effectiveness of the national PMTCT and ART programs. Addressing these important gaps will support successful implementation of the 2014 Zimbabwe's PMTCT guidelines under which all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women will be offered life-long ART and decentralized ART care.

  2. Oh! Web 2.0, Virtual Reference Service 2.0, Tools and Techniques (I): A Basic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Harsh Bardhan; Mishra, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study targets librarians and information professionals who use Web 2.0 tools and applications with a view to providing snapshots on how Web 2.0 technologies are used. It also aims to identify values and impact that such tools have exerted on libraries and their services, as well as to detect various issues associated with the implementation…

  3. Interprofessional service-learning in a community setting: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, Scotty M; Jenkins, Kelli; Kern, Donna; Worrall, Cathy; Howell, David; Martin, Kelley; Brown, Debora; White, Andrea; Blue, Amy

    2015-03-01

    Interprofessional education is becoming more popular in higher education and service-learning has been a successful method to facilitate experiences that foster teamwork between professions. This report shares the results from an interprofessional service-learning project (ISLP) targeting students across eight disciplines (physician assistant, medicine, pharmacy, dietetic internship, physical therapy, master in health administration, nursing and biomedical science). The project used an existing resource, the South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC-AHEC), to coordinate student learning across multiple regions and an established health promotion program curriculum for student outreach content. Participating students (n = 149) were evaluated to determine how the activity affected student appreciation and knowledge of their own and other professions, their interaction with other professional students, and student teamwork skills. Students found the most value in learning with students from other professions as part of the activity with lesser value placed on students increasing their knowledge about their profession's role in interprofessional work.

  4. Effective change management in a regional Sub-acute Ambulatory Care Services setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce W

    2012-02-01

    Government policies and community expectations in Australia continually lead to calls for healthcare change. These changes are often met with resistance from clinicians and managers. Making change happen requires consideration of the way policies, culture, context, shared vision and leadership can drive or impede change. This reflective case study critically investigates one change process; the evolution of a Sub-acute Ambulatory Care Services (SACS) program in an Australian regional hospital over a 3-year period. The new Community Rehabilitation Services (CRS) program evolved from a merger of Centre and Home Based Rehabilitation (CBR and HBR). Hospital amalgamations, closures and privatisation, and the Department of Health policy relating to SACS, ambulatory care and rehabilitation were some of the key elements explored in this paper.

  5. Medicaid managed care for mental health services: the survival of safety net institutions in rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Waitzkin, Howard; Nicdao, Ethel

    2008-09-01

    Few accounts document the rural context of mental health safety net institutions (SNIs), especially as they respond to changing public policies. Embedded in wider processes of welfare state restructuring, privatization has transformed state Medicaid systems nationwide. We carried out an ethnographic study in two rural, culturally distinct regions of New Mexico to assess the effects of Medicaid managed care (MMC) and the implications for future reform. After 160 interviews and participant observation at SNIs, we analyzed data through iterative coding procedures. SNIs responded to MMC by nonparticipation, partnering, downsizing, and tapping into alternative funding sources. Numerous barriers impaired access under MMC: service fragmentation, transportation, lack of cultural and linguistic competency, Medicaid enrollment, stigma, and immigration status. By privatizing Medicaid and contracting with for-profit managed care organizations, the state placed additional responsibilities on "disciplined" providers and clients. Managed care models might compromise the rural mental health safety net unless the serious gaps and limitations are addressed in existing services and funding.

  6. Medication therapy management and condition care services in a community-based employer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannigman, Mark J; Leifheit, Michael; Bellman, Nick; Pierce, Tracey; Marriott, Angela; Bishop, Cheryl

    2010-08-15

    A program in which health-system pharmacists and pharmacy technicians provide medication therapy management (MTM), wellness, and condition care (disease management) services under contract with local businesses is described. The health-system pharmacy department's Center for Medication Management contracts directly with company benefits departments for defined services to participating employees. The services include an initial wellness and MTM session and, for certain patients identified during the initial session, ongoing condition care. The initial appointment includes a medication history, point-of-care testing for serum lipids and glucose, body composition analysis, and completion of a health risk assessment. The pharmacist conducts a structured MTM session, reviews the patient's test results and risk factors, provides health education, discusses opportunities for cost savings, and documents all activities on the patient's medication action plan. Eligibility for the condition care program is based on a diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, asthma, heart failure, or hyperlipidemia or elevation of lipid or glucose levels. Findings are summarized for employers after the initial wellness screening and at six-month intervals. Patients receiving condition care sign a customized contract, establish goals, attend up to four MTM sessions per year, and track their information on a website; employers may offer incentives for participation. When pharmacists recommend adjustments to therapy or cost-saving changes, it is up to patients to discuss these with their physician. A survey completed by each patient after the initial wellness session has indicated high satisfaction. Direct cost savings related to medication changes have averaged $253 per patient per year. Total cost savings to companies in the first year of the program averaged $1011 per patient. For the health system, the program has been financially sustainable. Key laboratory values indicate positive clinical

  7. The modified ketogenic diet for adults with refractory epilepsy: An evaluation of a set up service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-McGill, Kirsty J; Jenkinson, Michael D; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Marson, Anthony G

    2017-09-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been proven to be effective in children with refractory epilepsy and is recommended by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). There is no randomised control trial (RCT) evidence for the clinical or cost effectiveness of KD in adults, for whom the KD is not currently recommended. We assessed the feasibility of the modified ketogenic diet (MKD) in adults with refractory epilepsy along with the willingness of patients to participate in a future RCT. The service evaluation was undertaken in two parts; questionnaire and diet evaluation. 102 patients completed a questionnaire, of which 51 patients were willing to try the MKD for 3 months to assess effect on seizures. Forty three patients were willing to participate in a clinical trial to investigate deliverability, efficacy and tolerability. Thirty seven of which would still be willing to participate if the trial were randomised. Of the 17 patients who commenced the diet, 9 completed the 12 week period, 7 of which stayed on the diet for the longer term. Constipation (n=6) and loose stools (n=3) were the only reported adverse effects. Our results indicate that there is demand for a ketogenic diet service in adults. The MKD is well tolerated, feasible and financially viable to deliver to adults with epilepsy in the NHS. There is also interest in and willingness to participate in a UK based RCT that would ultimately inform decisions about commissioning appropriate services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Supply sensitive services in Swiss ambulatory care: An analysis of basic health insurance records for 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swiss ambulatory care is characterized by independent, and primarily practice-based, physicians, receiving fee for service reimbursement. This study analyses supply sensitive services using ambulatory care claims data from mandatory health insurance. A first research question was aimed at the hypothesis that physicians with large patient lists decrease their intensity of services and bill less per patient to health insurance, and vice versa: physicians with smaller patient lists compensate for the lack of patients with additional visits and services. A second research question relates to the fact that several cantons are allowing physicians to directly dispense drugs to patients ('self-dispensation' whereas other cantons restrict such direct sales to emergencies only. This second question was based on the assumption that patterns of rescheduling patients for consultations may differ across channels of dispensing prescription drugs and therefore the hypothesis of different consultation costs in this context was investigated. Methods Complete claims data paid for by mandatory health insurance of all Swiss physicians in own practices were analyzed for the years 2003-2007. Medical specialties were pooled into six main provider types in ambulatory care: primary care, pediatrics, gynecology & obstetrics, psychiatrists, invasive and non-invasive specialists. For each provider type, regression models at the physician level were used to analyze the relationship between the number of patients treated and the total sum of treatment cost reimbursed by mandatory health insurance. Results The results show non-proportional relationships between patient numbers and total sum of treatment cost for all provider types involved implying that treatment costs per patient increase with higher practice size. The related additional costs to the health system are substantial. Regions with self-dispensation had lowest treatment cost for primary care

  9. A Systems Approach to Understanding Occupational Therapy Service Negotiations in a Preschool Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Fern; Kramer, Paula; Ravitch, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a systems approach to examine informal communications, meaning those occurring outside of scheduled meetings, among stakeholders in a preschool early intervention program. This investigation expands the discussion of how occupational therapy treatment decisions are made in educational settings by using a…

  10. A Systems Approach to Understanding Occupational Therapy Service Negotiations in a Preschool Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Fern; Kramer, Paula; Ravitch, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a systems approach to examine informal communications, meaning those occurring outside of scheduled meetings, among stakeholders in a preschool early intervention program. This investigation expands the discussion of how occupational therapy treatment decisions are made in educational settings by using a…

  11. Family Assessment in K-12 Settings: Understanding Family Systems to Provide Effective, Collaborative Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Christie; Weir, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Professional school counselors, school psychologists, and other professionals working in K-12 settings have a complex job of meeting the needs of all students. Often, referral to outside counseling is necessary; however, an effective and comprehensive counseling model advocates for school mental health professionals to employ a wide variety of…

  12. Supporting Learning Opportunities in Natural Settings through Participation-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Philippa H.; Sawyer, L. Brook

    2007-01-01

    Recommended early intervention practices emphasize family-centered approaches provided within natural settings through interventionist interactions with caregivers. We defined this approach as participation-based and used the Home Visiting Observation Form (HVOF) and the Natural Environments Rating Scale (NERS) to describe 50 home visits and to…

  13. Impact on the Performance of Health Workers Adopted Performance-Related Contracts in the Provision of Basic Public Health Service at Village and Township Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper focus on the impact on the performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of a government stipulated package of basic public health service, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode. Methods: The concept of balanced scorecard was adopted and developed to gather the 11 evaluation indicators distributed in four quadrants. These were implemented using on-site questionnaire and interview design. Four thousand and twenty-one respondents at 30 administrative villages including 2674 respondents at 20 pilot villages and 1347 at 10 control villages were investigated. Meanwhile, 62 administration officials from three counties and nine townships were interviewed. Results: Eight of 11 evaluation indicators were obviously better in pilot counties than in Control County, The remaining three indicators respectively represented that equal, inferior to control county, and could not clear judge. Conclusion: The performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of basic public health service in pilot counties, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode, is better than before and control county.

  14. Basic Public Service Equalization:Perspectives for Tactics%基本公共服务均等化:视角与战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋西雷

    2012-01-01

    The equalization of basic public services should have the following three basic perspectives: the tension of recognition and equality, which is the balance of ideal and reality; the demands of survival and development, which is the basic and safeguard; the option of personal development and social develop- ment, which is the system laid for the foundation and respect for the individual. We need to carefully ana- lyze the current situation, look to the long-term goal and develop the strategic decision-making, to promote the process of basic public service equalization. The national strategy needs to further transform govern- ment functions, clear all levels of government responsibility, and establish new government's public service performance evaluation system. Regional strategy needs to transfer linkage and multiple payments to the regional industrial. Urban and rural strategy needs to supply through the collaboration of government and rural community.%基本公共服务的均等化应具有以下三个视角:认同与平等的张力即理想与现实的平衡、生存与发展的诉求即基本而有保障、个人发展与社会发展的选择即制度奠基并尊重个人。推进基本公共服务均等化进程,需要我们认真分析当前形势,放眼长期目标,制定战略性决策:国家战略层面,需要进一步转变政府职能、明确各级政府责任、建立新型的政府公共服务绩效评价体系;区域战略层面,要以区域产业转移联动多元转移支付;城乡战略层面,可以通过政府与乡村社会的协作供给。

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ...

  16. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Stochastic Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Local Exploration for Solving the Carpool Service Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sheng-Kai; Jiau, Ming-Kai; Huang, Shih-Chia

    2016-08-01

    The growing ubiquity of vehicles has led to increased concerns about environmental issues. These concerns can be mitigated by implementing an effective carpool service. In an intelligent carpool system, an automated service process assists carpool participants in determining routes and matches. It is a discrete optimization problem that involves a system-wide condition as well as participants' expectations. In this paper, we solve the carpool service problem (CSP) to provide satisfactory ride matches. To this end, we developed a particle swarm carpool algorithm based on stochastic set-based particle swarm optimization (PSO). Our method introduces stochastic coding to augment traditional particles, and uses three terminologies to represent a particle: 1) particle position; 2) particle view; and 3) particle velocity. In this way, the set-based PSO (S-PSO) can be realized by local exploration. In the simulation and experiments, two kind of discrete PSOs-S-PSO and binary PSO (BPSO)-and a genetic algorithm (GA) are compared and examined using tested benchmarks that simulate a real-world metropolis. We observed that the S-PSO outperformed the BPSO and the GA thoroughly. Moreover, our method yielded the best result in a statistical test and successfully obtained numerical results for meeting the optimization objectives of the CSP.

  18. Partnerships in mental healthcare service delivery in low-resource settings: developing an innovative network in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bibhav; Maru, Duncan; Schwarz, Ryan; Citrin, David; Tenpa, Jasmine; Hirachan, Soniya; Basnet, Madhur; Thapa, Poshan; Swar, Sikhar; Halliday, Scott; Kohrt, Brandon; Luitel, Nagendra P; Hung, Erick; Gauchan, Bikash; Pokharel, Rajeev; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-13

    Mental illnesses are the largest contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. However, there is extremely limited access to high quality, culturally-sensitive, and contextually-appropriate mental healthcare services. This situation persists despite the availability of interventions with proven efficacy to improve patient outcomes. A partnerships network is necessary for successful program adaptation and implementation. We describe our partnerships network as a case example that addresses challenges in delivering mental healthcare and which can serve as a model for similar settings. Our perspectives are informed from integrating mental healthcare services within a rural public hospital in Nepal. Our approach includes training and supervising generalist health workers by off-site psychiatrists. This is made possible by complementing the strengths and weaknesses of the various groups involved: the public sector, a non-profit organization that provides general healthcare services and one that specializes in mental health, a community advisory board, academic centers in high- and low-income countries, and bicultural professionals from the diaspora community. We propose a partnerships model to assist implementation of promising programs to expand access to mental healthcare in low- resource settings. We describe the success and limitations of our current partners in a mental health program in rural Nepal.

  19. Setting up The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service for EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Sylvain; Häner, Rainer; Pedersen, Mikael; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Robida, François

    2017-04-01

    Geological data and models are key assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed as an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, borehole associated observations (borehole log data, groundwater level, groundwater quality…) and archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geological models (3D, 4D), geohazards, geophysical data such as active seismic data and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals. The services will be implemented based on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). We present the implementation of the thematic core services for geology and modelling, including scheduling of the development of the different components. The activity with the OGC groups already started in 2016 through an ad-hoc meeting on Borehole and 3D/4D and the way both will be interlinked will also be introduced. This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will

  20. Perceived and insurance-related barriers to the provision of contraceptive services in U.S. abortion care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Jones, Rachel K; Finer, Lawrence B

    2011-01-01

    Abortion facilities represent a potentially convenient setting for providing contraception to women experiencing unintended pregnancies. This analysis examines a range of factors that may act as barriers to integrating contraceptive and abortion services and documents abortion providers' perspectives on their role in their patients' contraceptive care. Administrators from 173 large, nonhospital facilities that provide abortions in the United States responded to a structured survey between May and September 2009. We used chi-square tests to assess differences in categorical outcomes. Although the majority of U.S. abortion facilities offer a range of contraceptive methods on site, facility staff identified multiple barriers to full integration of the two services, in particular, insurance, patient, and cost barriers. Few of these perceived barriers, however, were associated with differences in the actual provision of most contraceptive methods. Specialized abortion clinics that do not accept health insurance were less likely to have highly effective methods, such as intrauterine devices and implants, on site. Facilities located in Medicaid states were more likely to accept both public and private health insurance for contraceptive services. Increased access to contraceptive services during abortion care is one strategy for reducing repeat unintended pregnancy, and stakeholders at all levels--including abortion providers, insurance companies, and policy makers--have a role to play in achieving this goal. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological Research With Administrative Data Sets: An Underutilized Strategy for Mental Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkup, James T; Yanos, Philip T

    2005-10-01

    A key element in the identity of professional psychologists is their commitment to base practice on the best knowledge available about a problem being tackled. Although administrative data (e.g., records of provider billing and procedures) can often shed light on the dark areas of the complex U.S. health care system, psychologists make notably little use of them. Experience teaches that decisions must often be made despite the absence of "gold standard" knowledge from the well-designed, controlled studies learned in graduate school. Increased involvement of psychologists in work using administrative data can improve service provision but requires that psychologists adopt unaccustomed approaches to research. The authors discuss administrative data's strengths and limitations, recent progress made in using them, how psychologists can acquire and use low-cost information from administrative data, and examples of questions that can be answered.

  2. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  3. REFERQUAL: a pilot study of a new service quality assessment instrument in the GP exercise referral scheme setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibbetson Adrian B

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of an instrument accurately assessing service quality in the GP Exercise Referral Scheme (ERS industry could potentially inform scheme organisers of the factors that affect adherence rates leading to the implementation of strategic interventions aimed at reducing client drop-out. Methods A modified version of the SERVQUAL instrument was designed for use in the ERS setting and subsequently piloted amongst 27 ERS clients. Results Test re-test correlations were calculated via Pearson's 'r' or Spearman's 'rho', depending on whether the variables were Normally Distributed, to show a significant (mean r = 0.957, SD = 0.02, p Conclusion REFERQUAL is considered to represent promise as a suitable tool for future evaluation of service quality within the ERS community. Future research should further assess the validity and reliability of this instrument through the use of a confirmatory factor analysis to scrutinise the proposed dimensional structure.

  4. Home-based music therapy--a systematic overview of settings and conditions for an innovative service in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Thomas

    2010-10-14

    Almost every Western healthcare system is changing to make their services more centered around out-patient care. In particular, long-term or geriatric patients who have been discharged from the hospital often require home-based care and therapy. Therefore, several programs have been developed to continue the therapeutic process and manage the special needs of patients after discharge from hospital. Music therapy has also moved into this field of healthcare service by providing home-based music therapy (HBMT) programs. This article reviews and summarizes the settings and conditions of HBMT for the first time. The following databases were used to find articles on home-based music therapy: AMED, CAIRSS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PSYNDEX. The search terms were "home-based music therapy" and "mobile music therapy". Included articles were analyzed with respect to participants as well as conditions and settings of HBMT. Furthermore, the date of publication, main outcomes, and the design and quality of the studies were investigated. A total of 20 international publications, 11 clinical studies and nine reports from practice, mainly from the United States (n = 8), were finally included in the qualitative synthesis. Six studies had a randomized controlled design and included a total of 507 patients. The vast majority of clients of HBMT are elderly patients living at home and people who need hospice and palliative care. Although settings were heterogeneous, music listening programs played a predominant role with the aim to reduce symptoms like depression and pain, or to improve quality of life and the relationship between patients and caregivers as primary endpoints. We were able to show that HBMT is an innovative service for future healthcare delivery. It fits with the changing healthcare system and its conditions but also meets the therapeutic needs of the increasing number of elderly and severely impaired people. Apart from music therapists, patients and their

  5. An evaluation of community pharmacy-based services for type 2 diabetes in an Indonesian setting: patient survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosi Wibowo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes is an emerging chronic disease in developing countries. Its management in developing countries is mainly hospital/clinic based. The increasing diabetes burden in developing countries provides opportunities for community pharmacists to deliver a range of services. Since the management of diabetes requires the patient’s own involvement, it is important to gain their views in order to develop pharmacy-based diabetes services. Studies on diabetes patients’ views have been limited to developed countries.Objectives. To investigate, within a developing country setting (Indonesia, current use of pharmacy services by type 2 diabetes patients, and to evaluate their views regarding community pharmacists’ roles, and the characteristics that influence their views.Methods. A questionnaire survey was conducted within 10 purposefully selected community pharmacies in Surabaya, Indonesia. Each pharmacy recruited approximately 20 patients seeking antidiabetic medications. Usage of pharmacy services was identified using binary responses (‘yes’/‘no’ and views on pharmacists’ roles were rated using Likert scales; an open-ended question was used to identify patient perceived priority roles. Logistic regression models were used to determine characteristics associated with patients’ views.Results. A total of 196 pharmacy patients with type 2 diabetes responded (58.3% response rate. Most patients used community pharmacies for dispensing (100% and education on how to use medications (79.6%. There were mixed views towards pharmacists providing services beyond dispensing. The highest priorities identified were from the ‘patient education’ domain: education on medications (i.e., directions for use (64.5%, storage (26.6%, common/important adverse effects (25.5%; and the ‘monitoring’ domain: monitoring medication compliance (37.3%. Patients with higher incomes or who were working were less supportive of these expanded services

  6. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-02-04

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  7. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Chersich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes. Results: We located 26 studies, including seven randomized trials. Evidence supports implementation of the following interventions to reduce unprotected sex among female sex workers: peer-mediated condom promotion, risk-reduction counselling and skills-building for safer sex. One study found that interventions to counter hazardous alcohol-use lowered unprotected sex. Data also show effectiveness of screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and syndromic STI treatment, but experience with periodic presumptive treatment is limited. HIV testing and counselling is essential for facilitating sex workers’ access to care and antiretroviral treatment (ART, but testing models for sex workers and indeed for ART access are little studied, as are structural interventions, which create conditions conducive for risk reduction. With the exception of Senegal, persistent criminalization of sex work across Africa reduces sex workers’ control over working conditions and impedes their access to health services. It also obstructs health-service provision and legal protection. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness of targeted interventions with female sex workers in Africa to inform delivery of services for this population. With improved planning and political will, services – including peer interventions, condom promotion and STI screening – would act at multiple levels to reduce HIV exposure and transmission efficiency among sex workers

  8. Managing disruptive behaviors in the health care setting: focus on obstetrics services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2011-03-01

    Disruptive behaviors can have a significant negative impact on staff relationships, communication flow, task responsibility, and team collaboration, all of which can adversely impact patient outcomes of care. Addressing disruptive behaviors in a positive manner by emphasizing the benefits of mutual understanding, shared goals and priorities, and adherence to accepted standards of care will enhance communication flow and improve the process and outcomes of care. This is particularly relevant in the obstetrics setting, where care is delivered over a continuum of time, with multiple different members of the health care team playing a vital role as the patient progresses from labor to delivery. Critical strategies for success include having strong organizational commitment and leadership support, raising provider insight and awareness, implementing appropriate policies and procedures, providing appropriate educational and training programs, and facilitating action-oriented interventional support. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV as a chronic disease considerations for service planning in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Lucy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the healthcare issues facing nations which have a substantial caseload of chronic HIV cases. It considers the challenges of extending antiretroviral coverage to an expanding caseload as supplier price rises and international trade agreements come into force to reduce the availability of affordable antiretrovirals just as the economic downturn restricts donor funding. It goes on to review the importance in this context of supporting adherence to drug regimens in order to preserve access to affordable antiretrovirals for those already on treatment, and of removing key barriers such as patient fees and supply interruptions. The demands of those with chronic HIV for health services other than antiretroviral therapy are considered in the light of the fearful or discriminatory attitudes of non-specialist healthcare staff due to HIV-related stigma, which is linked with the weakness of infection control measures in many health facilities. The implications for prevention strategies including those involving criminalisation of HIV transmission or exposure are briefly summarised for the current context, in which the caseload of those whose chronic HIV infection must be controlled with antiretrovirals will continue to rise for the foreseeable future.

  10. Development of a novel set of criteria to select methodology for designing product service systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuananh Tran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes eight groups of twenty nine scoring criteria that can help designers and practitioners to compare and select an appropriate methodology for a certain problem in designing product service system (PSS. PSS has been researched for more than a decade and is now becoming more and more popular in academia as well as industry. Despite that fact, the adoption of PSS is still limited for its potential. One of the main reasons is that designing PSS itself is a challenge. Designers and developers face difficulties in choosing appropriate PSS design methodologies for their projects so that they can design effective PSS offerings. By proposing eight groups of twenty nine scoring criteria, this paper enables a “step by step” process to identify the most appropriate design methodology for a company’s PSS problem. An example is also introduced to illustrate the use of the proposed scoring criteria and provide a clear picture of how different design methodologies can be utilized at their best in terms of application.

  11. Customers' Precedence for Service Quality Dimensions in Indian Private Healthcare Setting: A Ridit Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rajeev Kumar; Kondasani, Rama Koteswara Rao

    2017-07-13

    Changes in demographic and sociocultural environment, improved health awareness, and information technology have considerably changed the outlook of healthcare sector in India. While both the public and the private healthcare sectors have priority of increasing access while minimizing costs, they try hard to achieve goals without letting the quality suffer. Customers with rising disposable income no longer have faith in the public healthcare system and are willing to migrate to the private healthcare sector, which is more professional, technology savvy, and trustworthy. However, there are enough loopholes in the private healthcare sector that are yet to be plugged. The purpose of this research study was to identify and assess the relative importance of the diverse service quality dimensions and prioritize them to draw meaningful conclusions. Survey responses from 370 customers were analyzed using factor analysis to find underlying relationships between the survey items. This allowed the individual items to be placed into related groups. Independently, a ridit analysis was conducted to determine the relative importance of each item to the survey respondents. Based on the ridit analysis a priority ranking was assigned to each item. An analysis was then undertaken of the degree to which the items grouped into each particular factor tended to have high or low priority rankings. The results of the study may be helpful to the managers of the private healthcare sector to focus their strategies and plan their efforts in line with the findings to gain superior customer satisfaction and retention.

  12. An assessment of the barriers to accessing the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Afghanistan: was the BPHS a success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Alexandra; Wilkinson, Matthew; Boyle, Peter; Patel, Preeti; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-11-15

    Afghanistan is one of the most fragile and conflict-affected countries in the world. It has experienced almost uninterrupted conflict for the last thirty years, with the present conflict now lasting over a decade. With no history of a functioning healthcare system, the creation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 2003 was a response to Afghanistan's dire health needs following decades of war. Its objective was to provide a bare minimum of essential health services, which could be scaled up rapidly through contracting mechanisms with Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). The central thesis of this article is that, despite the good intentions of the BPHS, not enough has been done to overcome the barriers to accessing its services. This analysis, enabled through a review of the existing literature, identifies and categorises these barriers into the three access dimensions of: acceptability, affordability and availability. As each of these is explored individually, analysis will show the extent to which these barriers to access are a critical issue, consider the underlying reasons for their existence and evaluate the efforts to overcome these barriers. Understanding these barriers and the policies that have been implemented to address them is critical to the future of health system strengthening in Afghanistan.

  13. Preventing and controlling foodborne disease in commercial and institutional food service settings: a systematic review of published intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine; Blitstein, Jonathan; Brophy, Jenna E; Fraser, Angela

    2015-02-01

    This study reviews the current literature on behavioral and environmental food safety interventions conducted in commercial and institutional food service settings. A systematic search of the published literature yielded 268 candidate articles, from which a set of 23 articles reporting intervention outcomes was retained for evaluation. A categorization of measured outcomes is reported; studies addressed multiple outcomes ranging from knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of personal hygiene and food safety to management practices and disease rates and outbreaks. This study also investigates the quality of reported research methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, using a nine-point quality index adapted by the authors. The observed scores suggest that there are opportunities to improve the design and reporting of research in the field of foodborne disease prevention as it applies to food safety interventions that target the food service industry. The aim is to aid researchers in this area to design higher quality studies and to produce clearer and more useful reports of their research. In turn, this can help to create a more complete evidence base that can be used to continually improve interventions in this domain.

  14. Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County.This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting and Renk (urban setting. The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes.The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes.The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak and urban (Renk areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural

  15. Systematic review and narrative synthesis of the effectiveness of contraceptive service interventions for young people, delivered in educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R; Pilgrim, Hazel

    2010-12-01

    This review was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people that were delivered in educational settings. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis. Interventions were included where they were delivered in educational institutions, including schools, colleges, and pupil referral units. Young people aged 19 and under. Studies of wider age groups were included if the majority of participants were aged under 19 years. We included interventions which consisted of contraceptive service provision, and also interventions to encourage young people to use existing contraceptive services. The main outcome measures used in the studies were: rate of teenage pregnancy, rate of contraceptive use, and sexual behavior. Many outcome measures were self reported. Twenty-nine papers were included which reported on interventions to prevent adolescent pregnancy (and repeat pregnancy), school-based health centers, contraceptive use in college students, and multicomponent interventions. Intensive case management intervention conducted by a culturally matched school-based social worker (along with other components including peer education) were shown to be effective in preventing repeat adolescent pregnancy, at least for the duration of the intervention. Also, school-based health centers appear to be most effective when contraception provision is made available on site. The evidence from these papers is limited, in terms of both quality and quantity, along with consistency of findings, but some recommendations in relation to effective interventions can be made. Copyright © 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and pilot study of an essential set of indicators for general surgery services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Aledo, Victor; Angel-Garcia, Daniel; Martinez-Nicolas, Ismael; Rebasa Cladera, Pere; Cabezali Sanchez, Roger; Pereira García, Luis Francisco

    2016-11-01

    At present there is a lack of appropriate quality measures for benchmarking in general surgery units of Spanish National Health System. The aim of this study is to present the selection, development and pilot-testing of an initial set of surgical quality indicators for this purpose. A modified Delphi was performed with experts from the Spanish Surgeons Association in order to prioritize previously selected indicators. Then, a pilot study was carried out in a public hospital encompassing qualitative analysis of feasibility for prioritized indicators and an additional qualitative and quantitative three-rater reliability assessment for medical record-based indicators. Observed inter-rater agreement, prevalence adjusted and bias adjusted kappa and non-adjusted kappa were performed, using a systematic random sample (n=30) for each of these indicators. Twelve out of 13 proposed indicators were feasible: 5 medical record-based indicators and 7 indicators based on administrative databases. From medical record-based indicators, 3 were reliable (observed agreement >95%, adjusted kappa index >0.6 or non-adjusted kappa index >0.6 for composites and its components) and 2 needed further refinement. Currently, medical record-based indicators could be used for comparison purposes, whilst further research must be done for validation and risk-adjustment of outcome indicators from administrative databases. Compliance results in the adequacy of informed consent, diagnosis-to-treatment delay in colorectal cancer, and antibiotic prophylaxis show room for improvement in the pilot-tested hospital. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Copernicus stratospheric ozone service, 2009–2012: validation, system intercomparison and roles of input data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lefever

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates and discusses the quality of the stratospheric ozone analyses delivered in near real time by the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project during the 3-year period between September 2009 and September 2012. Ozone analyses produced by four different chemical data assimilation (CDA systems are examined and compared: the Integrated Forecast System coupled to the Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (IFS-MOZART; the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE; the Synoptic Analysis of Chemical Constituents by Advanced Data Assimilation (SACADA; and the Data Assimilation Model based on Transport Model version 3 (TM3DAM. The assimilated satellite ozone retrievals differed for each system; SACADA and TM3DAM assimilated only total ozone observations, BASCOE assimilated profiles for ozone and some related species, while IFS-MOZART assimilated both types of ozone observations. All analyses deliver total column values that agree well with ground-based observations (biases The northern spring 2011 period is studied in more detail to evaluate the ability of the analyses to represent the exceptional ozone depletion event, which happened above the Arctic in March 2011. Offline sensitivity tests are performed during this month and indicate that the differences between the forward models or the assimilation algorithms are much less important than the characteristics of the assimilated data sets. They also show that IFS-MOZART is able to deliver realistic analyses of ozone both in the troposphere and in the stratosphere, but this requires the assimilation of observations from nadir-looking instruments as well as the assimilation of profiles, which are well resolved vertically and extend into the lowermost stratosphere.

  18. Research on Influencing Factors of Basic Public Service Standardization%基本公共服务标准化影响要素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄锋

    2015-01-01

    Basic public service standardization is a synthesis of the interaction among many correlated factors. The involved key factors can be summarized as subject, supply and demand, worth, theoretical model, technology and institution. The six key factors are respectively answers to the core questions that what is effecting and dominating of the standardization, what is the target of the standard-ization, what are the precipitating and motivating factors, what are the basis and strategy and what are the foundation and guarantee of the standardization. With interrelation and interaction, the six key factors affect the developmental level of the basic public service stan-dardization.%基本公共服务标准化实质上是诸多关联要素相互作用的综合体。它涉及的要素可以概括为主体要素、供需要素、价值要素、理论要素、技术要素和制度要素,六要素分别回应了谁在影响和主导基本公共服务标准化、其目标和旨归是什么、诱发和促动因素是什么、依据和策略是什么、方法和手段是什么、依循和保障是什么等核心问题。六要素相互联系、相互作用,共同影响着基本公共服务标准化的发展水平。

  19. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for

  20. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care to

  1. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, M.; Pettenella, D.; Secco, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs), and carbon-related services. Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions. Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT), scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services. Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M). Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%). Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy). Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use. (Author)

  2. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pettenella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and carbon-related services.Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions.Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT, scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services.Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M. Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%. Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy.Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use.Abbreviations: Bln: billion; CUM: cubic meter; EM: East Mediterranean; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations; FRA: Forest Resource Assessment; ha: hectare; M: million; NEM: North-East Mediterranean; NWFP: non-wood forest product; NWM: North-West Mediterranean; SM: South Mediterranean. 

  3. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  5. Home-based music therapy - a systematic overview of settings and conditions for an innovative service in healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Almost every Western healthcare system is changing to make their services more centered around out-patient care. In particular, long-term or geriatric patients who have been discharged from the hospital often require home-based care and therapy. Therefore, several programs have been developed to continue the therapeutic process and manage the special needs of patients after discharge from hospital. Music therapy has also moved into this field of healthcare service by providing home-based music therapy (HBMT) programs. This article reviews and summarizes the settings and conditions of HBMT for the first time. Methods The following databases were used to find articles on home-based music therapy: AMED, CAIRSS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PSYNDEX. The search terms were "home-based music therapy" and "mobile music therapy". Included articles were analyzed with respect to participants as well as conditions and settings of HBMT. Furthermore, the date of publication, main outcomes, and the design and quality of the studies were investigated. Results A total of 20 international publications, 11 clinical studies and nine reports from practice, mainly from the United States (n = 8), were finally included in the qualitative synthesis. Six studies had a randomized controlled design and included a total of 507 patients. The vast majority of clients of HBMT are elderly patients living at home and people who need hospice and palliative care. Although settings were heterogeneous, music listening programs played a predominant role with the aim to reduce symptoms like depression and pain, or to improve quality of life and the relationship between patients and caregivers as primary endpoints. Conclusions We were able to show that HBMT is an innovative service for future healthcare delivery. It fits with the changing healthcare system and its conditions but also meets the therapeutic needs of the increasing number of elderly and severely impaired people. Apart from

  6. Home-based music therapy - a systematic overview of settings and conditions for an innovative service in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermann Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost every Western healthcare system is changing to make their services more centered around out-patient care. In particular, long-term or geriatric patients who have been discharged from the hospital often require home-based care and therapy. Therefore, several programs have been developed to continue the therapeutic process and manage the special needs of patients after discharge from hospital. Music therapy has also moved into this field of healthcare service by providing home-based music therapy (HBMT programs. This article reviews and summarizes the settings and conditions of HBMT for the first time. Methods The following databases were used to find articles on home-based music therapy: AMED, CAIRSS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PSYNDEX. The search terms were "home-based music therapy" and "mobile music therapy". Included articles were analyzed with respect to participants as well as conditions and settings of HBMT. Furthermore, the date of publication, main outcomes, and the design and quality of the studies were investigated. Results A total of 20 international publications, 11 clinical studies and nine reports from practice, mainly from the United States (n = 8, were finally included in the qualitative synthesis. Six studies had a randomized controlled design and included a total of 507 patients. The vast majority of clients of HBMT are elderly patients living at home and people who need hospice and palliative care. Although settings were heterogeneous, music listening programs played a predominant role with the aim to reduce symptoms like depression and pain, or to improve quality of life and the relationship between patients and caregivers as primary endpoints. Conclusions We were able to show that HBMT is an innovative service for future healthcare delivery. It fits with the changing healthcare system and its conditions but also meets the therapeutic needs of the increasing number of elderly and severely

  7. SETTING UP TRIAGE SERVICES IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT: EXPERIENCE FROM A TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE OF PAKISTAN. A JOURNEY TOWARD EXCELLENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khursheed, Munawar; Fayyaz, Jabeen; Jamil, Ahsan

    2015-01-01

    The history of triage started from the French battle field for prioritizing patients. Emergency triage was started in early 1950's in USA in order to treat the sickest first. It has now become an integral component of all emergency departments (ED). The basic aim of triage is not only to sort out patients according to the criticality of their illness, but it also serves to streamline the patient flow. This will ultimately enable the ED physician to provide right management at the right time to the right patient in the available resources. In turn has a positive impact in reducing the ED overcrowding. The history of triage at AKUH-ED dated back in 2000. In the beginning physicians and nurse both were assigned to triage desk where they use to sort out the patient according to presenting complaints. At that time the documentation was manual with locally developed triage priorities. With the expansion of ED in 2008, responsibility of triage was shifted to nursing services. Triage policy was established and implemented. Specific triage protocols were developed for guidance and uniformity of care. Manual recording system was replaced by computerized triage data entry software. Enabling the department to monitor patient quality care indicators like total number of patients triaged, triage category, lag time reports and left without being seen by physicians.

  8. Construction of Basic Sport Public Service Standardization:Content,Dilemma and Strategy%基本公共体育服务标准化建设:内容、困境与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学彬; 郑家鲲

    2015-01-01

    为了解我国基本公共体育服务标准化建设现状,促进我国基本公共体育服务标准化建设。通过文献分析和调查,对我国基本公共体育服务标准化的内涵、背景、动因及体育服务领域标准化建设进行分析和总结。在此基础上,提出基本公共体育服务标准化建设内容,探索基本公共体育服务标准化建设存在的困境,并从宏观、中观、微观3个方面提出发展基本公共体育服务标准化建设的策略。%In order to understand the current situation of China's basic sports public service standardization ,and promote the construction of basic sports public service standardization ,this paper analyzes and summarizes the content ,background ,motivation and sports service stand‐ardization construction of basic sports public service in China by means of literature review and investigation .On this basis ,the author puts forward the basic sports public service standardiza‐tion construction content ,and explores the dilemma of the basic sports public service standardi‐zation construction ,and provides the development strategy of basic public sports service stand‐ardization construction from the macro ,meso and micro aspects .

  9. A Survey of Primary School Libraries to Determine the Availability and Adequacy of Services for Universal Basic Education (UBE in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belau Olatunde Gbadamosi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective -- As a first step in gathering evidence, this study surveyed school libraries and examined the services those libraries provide in relation to the Universal Basic Education (UBE program at a primary level. The purpose of this paper is to explore these UBE factors in relation to school libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria.Methods -- A questionnaire was sent to the 33 schools which have a library and information centre staffed by a teacher-librarian, in order to examine library services and the views of those providing them. The questionnaire covers library space, categories of library resources, student activities during library visits, mobile library services, and the teacher-librarians’ perception of the adequacy of the collection and the challenges in the use of library.Results -- Questionnaires were returned by 30 teacher-librarians out of 33, a response rate of 91%. Although pupils across each local government area have the chance to visit school libraries, the system of one short visit per week is inadequate for developing a universal interest in reading and in study skills. Staff responsible for the libraries consider many of the resources to be inadequate or outdated and stock is depleted as pupils borrow books, leaving fewer for those who follow.Conclusions -- As a first step to implementing evidence based practice, this paper describes the primary school library system in Nigeria and provides evidence on how it operates in Oyo State. Teacher-librarians who staff the libraries confirm the inadequacies in the system. They perceive collections to be inadequate and confirm that some pupils in the state have only limited access to library resources. Respondents also believe that they need further training, particularly in computer and information literacy.

  10. Streams of events and performance of queuing systems: The basic anatomy of arrival/departure processes, when the focus is set on autocorrelation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2004-01-01

    some arrival processes for some simulation study a thorough preliminary analysis has to be undertaken in order to uncover the basic time series nature of the interacting processes. Flexible methods for generating streams of autocorrelated variates of any desired distributional type, such as the ARTA...... method or some autocorrelation extended descriptive sampling method, can then easily be applied. The results from the Livny, Melamed and Tsiolis (1993) study as well as the results from this work both indicates that system performance measures as for instance average waiting time or average time...

  11. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  12. Overview of the SOFIA Data Cycle System: An integrated set of tools and services for the SOFIA General Investigator

    CERN Document Server

    Shuping, R Y; Lin, Lan; Sun, Li; Krzaczek, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5 meter infrared telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft that flies at operational altitudes between 37,000 and 45,00 feet, above 99% of atmospheric water vapor. During routine operations, a host of instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR; a sub-mm heterodyne receiver; and an high-speed occultation imager. One of the challenges for SOFIA (and all observatories in general) is providing a uniform set of tools that enable the non-expert General Investigator (GI) to propose, plan, and obtain observations using a variety of very different instruments in an easy and seamless manner. The SOFIA Data Cycle System (DCS) is an integrated set of services and user tools for the SOFIA Science and Mission Operations GI Program designed to address this challenge. Program activities supported by the DCS inclu...

  13. Some Basic Issues in Ecosystem Services Research%生态系统服务研究的几个基本问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永民

    2012-01-01

    生态系统服务是联系生态系统与人类福祉的重要纽带。通过对生态系统服务的定义与分类,生态系统服务的主要特征,生态系统服务的供给、需求与消费,以及生态系统服务的价值与评估这4个基本问题进行论述,得出了以下几点结论:①生态系统服务是以生态系统对人们的收益而定的,学术界对它的认知并不完全一致。因此,在使用生态系统服务这一概念的时候,应当根据具体目的给出明确的定义及内涵;②生态系统服务具有复杂性、尺度特征、公私物品特征和收益依赖性等重要特征。结合案例深入分析生态系统服务的这些特征,对于生态系统服务的测定、模拟、价值评估及管理决策至关重要;③生态系统服务的供给、需求与消费是联系生态系统与人类福祉的3个不可或缺的重要环节,它们事关生态保育和社会公平等重大问题,为了制订科学的生态系统管理决策,应当对这3个环节开展综合研究;④生态系统服务的价值主要包括效用价值、生态价值、社会文化价值和内在价值,它们都是制订生态系统管理决策所不可缺少的重要信息,而且彼此之间具有相互补充与制衡的作用。因此,生态系统服务的价值评估应当构建和使用多准则的综合价值评估体系。%"Ecosystem services"refer to the goods and services that the ecosystem provides for us. They include food, water, air, minerals, raw materials and the processes that purify air and water as well as sequester or break down wastes. Ecosystem services link the functioning of ecosystem to human well-being. Ecosystem services research has become more and more important with the progress of science technology and the increasing degradation of environment over the past decade. Some basic issues in ecosystem services research, including the definition and classification, main characteristics, the supply, demand and use

  14. Minority Language Non-Use in Service Settings: What We Know, How We Know It and What We Might Not Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoc-Jones, Iolo; Parry, Odette; Hughes, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Existing research concludes that diglossia between languages is a barrier to minority language use in health, social care and criminal justice settings. In addition, it concludes that more fulsome service provision is the key for promoting greater minority language use in such settings. Using the case of Welsh speakers in Wales as an exemplar,…

  15. Perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery in expanding programmes in a primary healthcare setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnoi. A. Xaba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of registered nurses regarding factors influencing service delivery regarding expansion programmes in a primary healthcare setting, using a qualitative approach. The registered nurses, who have been working in the clinics for more than two years and have been exposed to the expansion programmes there, were purposively sampled. Two focus group interviews were conducted in a neutral place and the data collected by the researcher Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X.. Data were analysed by the researcher and an independent co-coder using the Tesch method. Categories, subcategories and themes were identified; those that formed the basis of discussion were disabling factors, enabling factors, client-related factors, service-related factors and solutions to problems. It is recommended that integration of programmes and coordination be done at a provincial level and planned together with the training centres in order to alleviate problems in service delivery. Training on expansion programmes in the form of in-service education should be carried out continually in the region.Die doel van die studie was om die persepsie van geregistreerde verpleegkundiges met betrekking tot die faktore wat dienslewering van die uitbreidingsprogramme in ‘n primêre gesondheid opset beinvloed; te eksploreer en te beskryf. ‘n Kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg in die iutvoering van die studie. ‘n Doelgerigte steekproef is uitgevoer vanuit geregistreerde verpleegkundiges wat vir langer as twee jaar in die klinieke werksaam was en blootgestel is aan die uitbreiding programme. Twee fokus groep onderhoude is deur die navorser Nnoi A. Xaba (N.A.X. in ‘n neutrale opset uitgevoer. Data is deur die navorser en ʼn onafhanklike kodeerder ontleed volgens Tesch se metode van analise. Kategorieë, sub-kategorieë en temas was geidentifiseer. Die kategorieë fundamenteel tot die bespreking behels: remmende faktore, bydraende faktore

  16. 浅议基层保险公司财务如何做好服务与管控%On Financing Service and Management of Basic-level Insurance Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the service and management way of basic-level insurance company financing. The financing of basic-level insurance company is expounded from three aspects:way of service, way of refining and way of management.%分析基层保险公司财务如何服务与管控。分别从如何服务、如何细化、如何管控的角度,来阐述基层保险的财务行为。

  17. Contemporary Counseling: Services, Applications, Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Charles W.

    This book was written to serve as a basic text in courses that overview the use of counseling services and to serve as a useful reference for counseling practitioners. It is designed to stress counseling services in different settings (social agencies, mental health centers, schools, business/industry, correctional institutions, and private…

  18. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  19. IT Services management — Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Barcikowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes problems of relations between business and IT departments of contemporary companies and institutions. The solution of these problems is changing the IT department organization into one based on processes and setting up IT services as the basic elements of business-IT relation. The author shortly described the most widely used in this area service methodology (precisely speaking: set of best practices ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library, which describes how to manage IT services in the organization.[b]Keywords[/b]: business-IT relation, IT Service, IT Services management, ITSM, ITIL

  20. A comparison of basic and state-of-the-arts skills sets of biomedical science technical staff in Lagos public universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T A

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical science has advanced drastically in developed countries in the last two decades with many health and economic benefits. In Nigeria, biomedical science has not thrived and the contribution from Nigerian universities, indeed African universities, to publications in global high impact journals is low. The present work was based on the hypothesis that there is a lack of state-of-the-arts experimentation in Nigerian biomedical science experiments. An investigation was carried out on the professional skills of biomedical science technical staff of the two (federal and state) public universities in Lagos, Nigeria using a closed-ended questionnaire survey. The 17 respondents were asked about their training, the frequency of utilization of 99 skills, and their expertise. The respondents were "untrained" more in state-of-the-arts skills (34% for electrophoresis, 28% for genomics, 22% for immunochemistry, and 34% for proteomics skills) than in general professional skills (5%), basic technical equipment skills (16%), or general biomedical science knowledge and skills (16%). Frequencies of responses were higher for general skills than for state-of-the-arts skills in the responses "utilizing frequently" (9.96%-31-61% versus 0.36%-4.2%), and "I'm expert" (9.55%-19.88% versus 5.88%-8.48%). It was projected that with continued investment in modern equipment and infrastructure, there will be increased drive for training and usage of modern bioscience research skills and multidisciplinary approaches and production of high-tech scientific publications.

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  3. Linking hydropedology and ecosystem services: differential controls of surface field saturated hydraulic conductivity in a volcanic setting in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez-Tagle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the variation of field saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Kfs as key control variable and descriptor of infiltration was examined by means of a constant head single ring infiltrometer. The study took place in five coverage types and land uses in a volcanic setting in central Mexico. The tested hypothesis was that there exist a positive relationship between plant cover and surface Kfs for the study area. The examined coverage types included; Second growth pine-oak forest, pasture land, fallow land, gully and Cupresus afforestation. Results indicate that Kfs did not depend exclusively of plant cover; it was related to surface horizontal expression of the unburied soil horizons and linked to land use history. Therefore the Kfs measured at a certain location did not depend exclusively of the actual land use, it was also influenced by soil bioturbation linked to plant succession patterns and land use management practices history. The hypothesis accounts partially the variation between sites. Kfs under dense plant cover at the Cupresus afforestation was statistically equal to that measured at the fallow land or the gully sites, while second growth pine-oak forest Kfs figures were over an order of magnitude higher than the rest of the coverage types. The results suggest the relevance of unburied soil horizons in the soil hydrologic response when present at the surface. Under these conditions loosing surface soil horizons due to erosion, not only fertility is lost, but environmental services generation potential. A conceptual model within the hydropedological approach is proposed. It explains the possible controls of Kfs, for this volcanic setting. Land use history driven erosion plays a decisive role in subsurface horizon presence at the surface and soil matrix characteristic determination, while plant succession patterns seem to be strongly linked to soil bioturbation and

  4. Are Orthopaedic Residents Competent at Performing Basic Nonoperative Procedures in an Unsupervised Setting? A "Pop Quiz" of Casting, Knee Arthrocentesis, and Pressure Checks for Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua M; O'Toole, Robert V; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Sterling, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Many patient care procedures are routinely performed by orthopaedic residents while not directly supervised by attending physicians. However, resident competence to perform these procedures is often presumed and not confirmed by objective measures. The purpose of this study was to formally evaluate 3 basic pediatric orthopaedic procedures commonly performed without attending supervision. All orthopaedic residents (n=20) were asked to complete 3 procedures (placement and removal of a short arm cast, aspiration of a knee joint, and compartment pressure checks of a leg) under direct attending supervision. Attending faculty developed a checklist for each procedure, listing the appropriate steps required and criteria with which to assess the final results. Scores were calculated, including means and SDs. Change in score by postgraduate year level was determined by simple linear regression. The mean score for short arm cast application and removal was 6.2 of a total possible score of 8, with an average 1.1 increase in score per year of training (Ppressures had an average score of 9.7 of 12, with an average increase in score of 0.5 per increase in year of training (P=0.087). Injecting an inappropriate amount of fluid and not recording measurements were the most common reasons for losing points. The ability of a resident to appropriately perform certain procedures without direct supervision improves with advancing level of training. The most junior residents might not appropriately be placing short arm casts, aspirating knee joints, or checking compartment pressures of the leg. Level II—Diagnostic.

  5. Basic life support and automated external defibrillator skills among ambulance personnel: a manikin study performed in a rural low-volume ambulance setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulance personnel play an essential role in the ‘Chain of Survival’. The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was dismal on a rural Danish island and in this study we assessed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of ambulance personnel on that island. Methods The Basic Life Support (BLS and Automated External Defibrillator (AED skills of the ambulance personnel were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest. Points were given according to a scoring sheet. One sample t test was used to analyze the deviation from optimal care according to the 2005 guidelines. After each assessment, individual feedback was given. Results On 3 consecutive days, we assessed the individual EMS teams responding to OHCA on the island. Overall, 70% of the maximal points were achieved. The hands-off ratio was 40%. Correct compression/ventilation ratio (30:2 was used by 80%. A mean compression depth of 40–50 mm was achieved by 55% and the mean compression depth was 42 mm (SD 7 mm. The mean compression rate was 123 per min (SD 15/min. The mean tidal volume was 746 ml (SD 221 ml. Only the mean tidal volume deviated significantly from the recommended (p = 0.01. During the rhythm analysis, 65% did not perform any visual or verbal safety check. Conclusion The EMS providers achieved 70% of the maximal points. Tidal volumes were larger than recommended when mask ventilation was applied. Chest compression depth was optimally performed by 55% of the staff. Defibrillation safety checks were not performed in 65% of EMS providers.

  6. Relationships between Basic and Silicic Magmatism in Continental Rift Settings: A Petrogeochemical Study of Carboniferous Post-collisional Rift Silicic Volcanics in Tianshan, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Petrogeochemical data are reported for silicic volcanic rocks from the Tianshan Carboniferous rift, with the aim of discussing the petrogenesis of silicic magmas. Incompatible element vs. incompatible element diagrams display smooth positive trends for the Tianshan Carboniferous rift-related volcanic rocks; the isotope ratios of the silicic lavas [87Sr/86Sr(t)=0.69988-0.70532; εNd(t)=4.76-8.00; 206Pb/204Pb(t)=17.435-18.017; 207Pb/204Pb(t)=15.438-15.509; 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 37.075-37.723] encompass those of the basic lavas. These data suggest a genetic link between rhyolites and basalts, but are not definitive in establishing whether silicic rocks are related to basalts through fractional crystallization or partial melting. Geochemical modeling of incompatible vs. compatible elements excludes the possibility that silicic melts are generated by the melting of basaltic rocks, and indicates a derivation by fractional crystallization plus moderate assimilation of wall rocks (AFC) starting from intermediate rocks to silicic rocks. Continuous AFC from basalt to rhyolite,with small rates of crustal assimilation, best explains the geochemical data. The presence or absence of bimodal volcanism (the "Daly Gap") might be related to cooling rates of magma chambers. In central and eastern Tianshan, the crust was thinner and the cooling rates of the magma chamber within the crust were greater. These conditions resulted in a rapid fall in temperature within the magma reservoir and caused a narrow temperature interval over which intermediate melts formed, effectively reducing the volume of the intermediate melts.

  7. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  8. 问题与对策:健全和完善我国基本公共服务体系的探讨%On Perfection of the Basic Public Service System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志华

    2014-01-01

    The basic public service system plays an important role in the protection of people's livelihood , the promotion of social fairness and justice and the transformation of government functions ,and deepening social reform .But our basic public service system construction started late .The starting point is low .There are many prominent issues which limit its role to play .In order to improve and perfect the basic public service system ,we should start from the improvement of supply mechanism ,adjustment mechanism ,mode of delivery ,and other aspects of the financial system . Specifically , the government ’ s role in public service delivery should be specified . In addition , we should explore the social participation mechanisms in public service delivery , scientifically determine the scope and standards of the basic public services , improve the public finance system ,promote the equalization of basic public services ,and accelerate the formation of the sustainable basic public service system that is government‐led and covers both the urban and rural areas .%基本公共服务体系在保障民生、促进社会公平正义、推动政府职能转变、深化社会体制改革等方面具有重大作用。但我国基本公共服务体系建设起步晚、起点低,存在一些比较突出的问题,制约了其作用的发挥。健全和完善基本公共服务体系,要从供给机制、调节机制、提供方式、财政体制等方面入手,明确政府在公共服务提供中的角色定位,探索公共服务供给的社会参与机制,科学确定基本公共服务的范围和标准,完善公共财政体制,促进基本公共服务均等化,加快形成政府主导、覆盖城乡、可持续的基本公共服务体系。

  9. 基本医疗服务的内涵及其外延的界定探讨%Discussions on the definition of connotation and extension of basic medical services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 张宗久; 陶红兵; 高光明; 舒琴; 范晶; 沈晓; 熊光练; 夏冕

    2014-01-01

    基本医疗卫生服务中基本公共卫生服务范围已有比较明确的界定,而基本医疗服务却缺乏明确的范围.本研究从基本医疗服务的内涵、界定原则以及内容出发,系统分析和比较了国内外基本医疗服务的研究进展,综合考虑各种界定方法的特点,认为从病种角度对基本医疗服务进行界定更具现实性和可操作性,更有利于我国覆盖城乡的基本医疗卫生制度的建立和医改政策的落实.故此提出基于病种角度,按病种范围和相应的保障目录界定基本医疗服务外延的思路,为基本医疗服务的界定及其实现路径提供依据.%The basic public health services have been defined rather clearly,yet there is not yet a clear boundary for basic medical services.Based on the definition of connotation of basic medical services,this paper systematically analyzed and compared the researches on basic medical services at home and abroad.This study proposed to define such services by diseases as it is more practical and feasible,a practice conducive to building an urban and rural network of basic medical services in China and success of the health reform.The authors recommended to define the extensional boundaries of such services according to defined diseases and the related list of guarantees,for the purpose of providing a theoretical basis for the definition and realization path of basic medical services.

  10. Investigation on the Basic Situation of Pharmaceutical Service in Chain Pharmacies in Chengdu City%成都市区连锁药店药学服务基本情况调查Δ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朝辉; 顾锦建; 郑明琳; 赵淼

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for promoting the further development of pharmaceutical service in chain phar-macies and the regulation of related departments. METHODS:Field investigation and questionnaire survey were used to investigate the basic situation of pharmaceutical care in 5 chain pharmacies in Chengdu city and analyze the results. RESULTS:In terms of core service,it showed that 2 pharmacies had no suspension of pharmacists license and the pharmacist was not on-the-job;there was significant difference in the medication guidance frequency of pharmacists in those pharmacies(P<0.05);more than 50% sur-veyed consumers received medication guidance when buying drugs in pharmacy B,C and E. In terms of perceived service,3 phar-macies existed illegal drug advertising and 3 existed illegal promotion;drug partitions of all pharmacies were good;service archive material showed best in pharmacy C and worst in pharmacy D;in service advisory zone setting,setting of independent advisory zone was worse. In terms of extended service,5 pharmacies had different preferential ways for memberships except for the prefer-ence in membership day;the unbundling service in those pharmacies was worse,and no pharmacies had no less than 10 unbun-dling varieties. CONCLUSIONS:Pharmaceutical service in chain pharmacies in Chengdu city is barely satisfactory. Pharmacy should strengthen the assessment and management of pharmacists and improve pharmaceutical service,and regulatory authorities strengthen the supervision of advertising and promotion of drugs. What’s more,it is suggested to establish cloud supervision plat-form with the internet information technology,carry out remote service and cloud service and strengthen brand marketing service on the internet to improve the pharmaceutical service levels in chain pharmacies.%目的:为促进连锁药店药学服务的进一步开展和相关部门实施监管提供参考。方法:通过实地调查和问卷调查相结

  11. Training in basic Internet skills for special target groups in non-formal educational settings – conclusions from three pilot projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Berger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of Digital Inclusion, it becomes important to address marginalised groups that face specific barriers in being part of the information society. From 2009 to 2011 within the framework of the nation-wide Initiative Internet erfahren, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, Stiftung Digitale Chancen has accompanied three pilot projects and researched the hindrances and motivations of specific target groups including young migrants from Russia, women in the low-wage sector and disabled elderly people, regarding their use of information and communication technology and related skills. This article describes the teaching methodologies in the training provided in non-formal education settings, exposes the different evaluation methods and sums up the results. A special focus in the discussion is given to the role of the teacher and the relationship between teacher and students as there turned out to be similarities in all three target groups. Understanding the balance between the training and abilities and preferences of the learners will facilitate the further development of training appropriate to those who are still digitally excluded.

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... harder for Sarah to recover normally from her low mood. It's important to remember that everyone gets " ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  18. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  5. SARS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Resources Related Links Clinician Registry Travelers' Health SARS Basics Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: ... 3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS? Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ... system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  11. Maternal health in resource-poor urban settings: how does women's autonomy influence the utilization of obstetric care services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeh Alex C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite various international efforts initiated to improve maternal health, more than half a million women worldwide die each year as a result of complications arising from pregnancy and childbirth. This research was guided by the following questions: 1 How does women's autonomy influence the choice of place of delivery in resource-poor urban settings? 2 Does its effect vary by household wealth? and 3 To what extent does women's autonomy mediate the relationship between women's education and use of health facility for delivery? Methods The data used is from a maternal health study carried out in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 1,927 women (out of 2,482 who had a pregnancy outcome in 2004–2005 were selected and interviewed. Seventeen variable items on autonomy were used to construct women's decision-making, freedom of movement, and overall autonomy. Further, all health facilities serving the study population were assessed with regard to the number, training and competency of obstetric staff; services offered; physical infrastructure; and availability, adequacy and functional status of supplies and other essential equipment for safe delivery, among others. A total of 25 facilities were surveyed. Results While household wealth, education and demographic and health covariates had strong relationships with place of delivery, the effects of women's overall autonomy, decision-making and freedom of movement were rather weak. Among middle to least poor households, all three measures of women's autonomy were associated with place of delivery, and in the expected direction; whereas among the poorest women, they were strong and counter-intuitive. Finally, the study showed that autonomy may not be a major mediator of the link between education and use of health services for delivery. Conclusion The paper argues in favor of broad actions to increase women's autonomy both as an end and as a means to facilitate improved

  12. Abortion care services delivered from a community sexual and reproductive health setting: views of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Lucy; Cameron, Sharon T; Glasier, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Abortion services should provide high-quality contraceptive care. The community sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services may be well placed to deliver more abortion care in the UK. We wished to determine the views of health professionals working in SRH regarding their attitudes towards providing more abortion services and also the views of staff within one community SRH centre in Scotland where a service providing early medical abortion (EMA) was due to commence. An anonymous questionnaire distributed to attendees at a UK SRH scientific meeting collected data on demographics, current practice of and attitude to abortion, and views on delivery of abortion services. An internet questionnaire distributed by e-mail to staff at a community SRH clinic in Scotland sought demographics, views regarding the planned introduction of an EMA service and willingness to participate in it. 165 questionnaires were completed out of 200 distributed at the scientific meeting (an 82% response rate). 128 (78%) respondents felt that abortion services were suited to community clinics and 115 (70%) stated that they would be willing to participate in them. 62/90 (69%) staff from the SRH clinic responded to the internet questionnaire. 44 (71%) felt the plan to introduce abortion services was a natural extension to services already offered and the same number would be willing to be involved in such a service. There is clear support amongst health professionals in community SRH in the UK towards greater participation in the provision of abortion care services.

  13. Short-term operational evaluation of a group-parenting program for Japanese mothers with poor psychological status: adopting a Canadian program into the Asian public service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-07-01

    Although parenting practices differ across various sociocultural settings, scientific research on parenting intervention in Asia is scarce. We adopted a Canadian multilanguage group-based parenting program (Nobody's Perfect) into the Japanese public health service setting and evaluated its impact. Our program was feasible as a public service; was well-accepted among the participants with low psychological status, many of whom were first-time mothers; and had a potential positive impact on the mood of mothers and the self-evaluation of their abilities in society. Our results may facilitate and provide direction for similar research in Asia.

  14. Telephone Service Areas, TelephoneServiceAreas-This data set represents the service areas of companies providing (dial tone) telephone service in Utah., Published in 2001, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Telephone Service Areas dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  15. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  16. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  17. 徐州农村基本公共服务水平的空间差异研究%Analysis of Spatial Difference of Rural Basic Public Service Level in Xuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫龙; 渠爱雪; 征蓉蓉

    2013-01-01

    Based on the dynamic understanding of the connotation of basic public services, an evaluation index system of rural basic public service which contains 3 layers and 16 indices is established. According to this, the entropy method, the Geordie Coefficient and spatial autocorrelation index are used to reveal the spatial disparity of rural public services in Xuzhou. The results show that: Xuzhou's rural basic public service level is not high and it has a relatively unbalanced distribution. There are obvious differences in different types and in different scales of the rural basic public services. The global rural basic public services development has a weak spatial autocorrelation; local spatial differences in aggregation have a strong enhancement. In addition, the developed counties do not play a strong role in radiating and driving the surrounding region development. At last, it is necessary to put forward some suggestions to promote the equalization of rural basic public services.%在动态认识基本公共服务内涵基础上,构建一个包含3个层次共16个指标的农村基本公共服务水平评价指标体系。在此基础上,利用熵值法、基尼系数、空间自相关模型测度徐州农村基本公共服务的空间分异特征,研究结果表明:徐州农村基本公共服务总体水平不高,非均衡发展较为明显;不同类型、不同空间尺度的农村基本公共服务发展具有较大差异;徐州农村基本公共服务存在较弱的空间关联,而局部空间关系存在较为显著的集聚效应,经济辐射带动作用不显著。最后,对促进农村基本公共服务区域均衡发展提出政策建议。

  18. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaale Helga K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7, diplegia (n = 11, quadriplegia (n = 2 and ataxia (n = 2 participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures. Results A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, mean change being 4.5 (p Conclusions Basic motor abilities and self-care improved in young children with CP after goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy with involvement of their local environment, and their need for caregiver assistance in self-care and mobility decreased. The individualized training within a group context during a limited period of time was feasible and well-tolerated. The coherence between acquisition of basic motor abilities and quality of movement should be further examined.

  19. 加大改革力度促进城乡基本医保服务均等化%Promote Equal Access to Basic Health Care Services in Urban and Rural Areas through the Way of Deepening Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓微

    2014-01-01

    The prominent obstacle to achieve equal basic medical insurance system between urban and rural areas in China is the segmentation of basic medical insurance system and the imbalance health care service. Under the background of comprehensively deepening health insurance reform in China, promoting the equalization in basic health care services for urban and rural residents should be conducted mainly from the reform and construction of three aspects, namely, providers of public products, receivers of basic health insurance and carriers of basic medical insurance. First of all, it should reform the administrative system of basic medical insurance, straighten out the relations of service providers, and reduce the internal friction of government departments so as to reduce administrative costs, and promote the equalization of basic medical insurance services. Secondly, it need to optimize the framework of the basic health care system, integrate the urban basic medical insurance system and new rural cooperative medical care system, and establish basic medical insurance system for residents. Third, change basic medical insurance for urban employees into basic medical insurance for employees, expand the coverage and improve the basic medical insurance level. Last, strengthen medical treatment system reform, optimize the resource allocation in basic medical insurance carriers, strengthen the construction of rural medical and health care network, and relieve the contradictions in medical manpower distribution between urban and rural.%在我国推进城乡基本医保服务均等化,主要应从公共产品供给主体、基本医保受众和基本医保实现载体三个方面着力。改革基本医疗保险行政管理体制,理顺基本医保供给主体,减少政府部门的摩擦和内耗,降低行政管理成本,保证基本医保服务均等化;优化基本医保制度体系,整合城镇居民医保与新农合,建立居民基本医疗保险制度;

  20. Effects of basic health insurance ecdemic settlement policy on health services utilization%基本医疗保险异地结算政策对卫生服务利用的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何运臻; 侯志远

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究医保异地就医结算政策的实施对卫生服务利用的影响。方法:使用2011年和2013年中国健康与养老追踪调查数据,利用logistic回归分析比较2011年和2013年医保异地就医结算政策实施前后保险办理地点对卫生服务利用的影响。结果:医保异地就医结算政策实施后,卫生服务利用概率显著提高。结论:医保异地结算政策能有效提高医保可接续性,降低人群异地就医障碍,提高卫生服务可及性。%Objective:To study the effects of basic medical insurance ecdemic settlement policy on health services utilization.Methods:Based on data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey conducted in 2011 and 2013, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to compare the effect of basic health insurance registering site on health services utilization before and after the implementation of basic medical insurance ecdemic settlement policy .Results:Af-ter the basic medical insurance ecdemic settlement policy was carried out , health services utilization was improved .Con-clusions:The basic medical insurance ecdemic settlement policy can effectively improve the portability of health insur-ances, reducing the crowd remote medical disorders of off-site medical services to improve health care accessibility .

  1. The Quality of Healthcare Service Delivery in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Availability of Some Basic Medical Devices/Equipment in the Primary Health Care Centres in Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omuta GED

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ordinarily, accessibility implies locational proximity. However, this study limits its use to the quality of what is accessed. There is, therefore, service-delivery inaccessibility, when health care seekers can only access poor quality service, because of the poor quality of the equipment at the disposal of primary health care centres. Service-delivery equipment are, therefore, surrogate indicators of the quality of the health care services that are geographically accessible. Methodology: Both qualitative and quantitative approaches of investigation were deployed, using structured questionnaires and focus group discussions/key informant interviews, respectively. It covered nine local government areas, three each from the senatorial districts. The paper discusses three basic medical devices/equipment that determine the quality of services delivered by PHCs, namely available and functioning general purpose equipment; most commonly used methods of sterilization; and availability of different types of laboratory tests. The quantitative data were cleaned up, processed and analysed, using the SPSS 10.0. Results: There were variations in the availability of devices and equipment. Syringes/needles and stethoscopes were available in more than three-quarters of the centres, while less than ten (10 per cent had microscopes. About 15 per cent of the centres either had no methods of sterilization at all or used ‘inappropriate’ ones. In spite of the prevalence of malaria, only 28.89 per centres could test for the parasite. Conclusion: The quality of services were perceived as poor because the basic medical devices and equipment were either lacking or inadequate. Policy implication is that government should increase resource allocation to the PHC subsector to procure the basic facilities for efficient service delivery.

  2. 'Not just methadone Tracy': transformations in service-user identity following the introduction of hepatitis C treatment into Australian opiate substitution settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Jake; Treloar, Carla

    2014-03-01

    To explore identity transformation among service users attending opiate substitution therapy (OST) clinics following the introduction of hepatitis C (HCV) care and treatment. An interview-based substudy of the Australian ETHOS (Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opiate Substitution Settings) project. Three OST clinics and one community health centre (operating a public OST) in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were interviewed at the recruitment sites. The sample consisted of 57 OST service users concurrently living with HCV, 16 staff, including specialist HCV clinicians, and three peer-support workers, employed on the ETHOS project. Semi-structured interviews. Service-user participants largely welcomed the introduction of HCV treatment as a practical, clinical intervention that also intimated a more comprehensive, holistic form of care. Negative stereotypes characteristic of OST settings-of limited, routinized clinical exchanges and minimal social-care interaction-were unsettled, opening up the possibility of new relations between staff and service users. The shift in the dynamic of the clinical encounter to address health in addition to dependence appeared to catalyse transformative possibilities not only for the therapeutic alliance but also for service-user understandings of self and identity. Trial introduction of HCV care and treatment in selected Australian opiate substitution therapy (OST) clinics may have facilitated alternative, 'non-addict' identities to emerge from a clinical setting where the stigmatizing figure of 'the drug user' has traditionally prevailed.

  3. Systematic quality monitoring for specialized palliative care services: development of a minimal set of wuality indicators for palliative care study (QPAC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den; Stichele, R. Vander; Francke, A.L.; Cohen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A feasibility evaluation of a comprehensive quality indicator set for palliative care identified the need for a minimal selection of these indicators to monitor quality of palliative care services with short questionnaires for the patients, caregivers, and family carers. Objectives: To d

  4. The IS Services Agency of Wittenheim sets the pace in numerical radiography; L'agence IS Services de Wittenheim a la pointe de la radiographie numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-03-15

    Small by its size with only 5 workers, the IS Services Agency of Wittenheim (Alsace) is however ultra specialized in nondestructive testing, and particularly with the new technology of the numerical radiography. (O.M.)

  5. Building basic health service value system to promote rational allocation of medical resources%建设基础医疗服务价值(收费)体系促进医疗资源合理配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国平

    2012-01-01

      与经济快速繁荣发展和不断增强的国力相比,中国医疗服务体系建设滞后,特别是基础医疗服务价值体系的扭曲,导致服务体系远不能满足广大人民群众的医疗服务需求。本文探讨了中国建设基础医疗服务价值(收费)体系、实施门诊劳务直接收费制度的必要性和紧迫性,以促进惠及全民的基础医疗服务事业的健康发展。%  The health service system building has lagged behind the prosperous economic development. The distorted basic health service value system failed to meet the health service demand. We discussed the basic health service value system building, the necessity and urgency to implement labor fee charging system in outpatient, so as to promote the basic health system development.

  6. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" memory and in retrieving long-term memories. This area ... neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous ... serotonin —A neurotransmitter that regulates many functions, including ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  10. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  11. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  12. To Explore the Co-ordination Method of Basic Health Service and Basic Medical as a Whole in Primary Health Institu-tions---the Introduction of the Method base on Labour Voucher Priciple%基层医疗机构内基本公共卫生服务与基本医疗统筹办法探索--一种基于工分制原理的解决方式介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韬; 龚幼龙; 王洪兴

    2014-01-01

    To explore the expenditure calculation and settlement of the basic medical service and basic public health service in primary health care institutions. By comparing the performance appraisal methods characteristics of basic public health services between China and foreign countries,to analyze its advantages and disadvantages. The difficulty in the performance as-sessment of basic public health service in China is how to approve the value of the service project. Based on the view of basic health care and basic public health services' integrated management,and try to put forward " labour voucher" performance ap-praisal principle to guide its expenditure calculation and settlement of in primary health care institutions.%本文从基本医疗和基本公共卫生服务统筹管理角度出发,尝试提出“工分制”绩效考核原理,指导基层医疗机构经费测算与结算。通过比较国内外基本公共卫生服务绩效考核方法特点,分析优势及不足,得出我国基层公共卫生绩效考核难点在于对服务项目价值的核定,从而制约其经费测算与结算。

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en ... Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en ...

  14. Home-based music therapy - a systematic overview of settings and conditions for an innovative service in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermann Thomas; Schmid Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Almost every Western healthcare system is changing to make their services more centered around out-patient care. In particular, long-term or geriatric patients who have been discharged from the hospital often require home-based care and therapy. Therefore, several programs have been developed to continue the therapeutic process and manage the special needs of patients after discharge from hospital. Music therapy has also moved into this field of healthcare service by provi...

  15. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  16. Study on the Third-party Evaluation Chain Model of the Basic Public Health Service%基本公共卫生服务第三方评估链模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景思霞; 陈菲; 陈娱瑜; 王遂; 谭华伟

    2014-01-01

    为科学、独立、公正地评估基本公共卫生服务的效果,在归纳第三方评估的特点和意义的基础上,构建基本公共卫生服务第三方评估链模式。基本公共卫生服务第三方评估链模式的推行需要公信力好、专业化水平高、独立性强的第三方评估机构和政府协同监督四个方面的保障。在基本公共卫生服务领域运用第三方评估链模式,对于提高基本公共卫生服务项目管理水平,提高卫生资源分配的公正性和有效性及专项资金的使用效率有着重要的意义。%In order to evaluate the effect of the basic public health service scientifically , independently and impartial-ly, the third-party evaluation chain model was constructed on the basis of summing up the characteristics and significance of the third-party evaluation.The third-party evaluation chain model of the basic public health service was supported by good credibil -ity, high professional level , strong independence of the third -party appraisal institutions and coordination supervision of govern-ment.The utilization of the third-party evaluation in the field of basic public health service was significant not only in improving the management level of basic public health service , but also in the fairness and effectiveness of health resource allocation and use efficiency of the special fund.

  17. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Motivations for Choosing a Teaching Career and Intention to Teach in Urban Settings: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    This study uses quantitative and qualitative designs to examine if motivations for choosing a teaching career influence the intention to teach or not to teach in urban settings, and if a short-term urban field experience has significant impact on the change in the motivations as well as the intention to teach in urban settings. Overall,…

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. The nucleus contains DNA and information that the cell needs for growth, ... in our bodies contains a complete set of DNA. DNA, the "recipe of life," contains all the ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. The nucleus contains DNA and information that the cell needs for growth, ... in our bodies contains a complete set of DNA. DNA, the "recipe of life," contains all the ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en Español Top

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  3. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  4. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  5. Towards integrated assessment of natural pest control as part of a set of ecosystem services: the Landscape IMAGES approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Groot, J.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural pest control is an ecosystem service that appears to be affected by ecosystem characteristics at spatial scales from field to landscape. Changes in land use and land management at the field level to enhance pest control depend on a small number of decision makers. In contrast, changes at the

  6. Use of communication technologies to cost-effectively increase the availability of interpretation services in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Mary C; Lou, Christine; Snowden, Lonnie

    2010-01-01

    Poor patient-provider communication due to limited English proficiency (LEP) costs healthcare providers and payers through lower patient use of preventive care, misdiagnosis, increased testing, poor patient compliance, and increased hospital and emergency room admissions. Scarcity of bilingual healthcare professionals and prohibitive interpretation costs hinder full implementation of language service despite federal and state laws requiring their provision. We review recent published literature and unpublished data documenting the use of telephonic and video interpretation methodologies to improve healthcare communication with LEP persons. For example, a cooperative of nine California public hospitals and their associated community clinics, psychiatric facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and public health departments have implemented shared video interpretation services with video/voice-over Internet Protocol call center technology that automatically routes requests for interpretation in 15 languages to a pool of 30 full-time interpreters and 4 trained bilingual staff. For organizations seeking to initiate or expand their language services, the Internet provides access to translated documents, promising practices, step-by-step guides, planning tools, and research briefs. Such recent technological advances make provision of language services-to respond to federal and state mandates and improve access and quality of care to LEP persons-more feasible than is widely believed. Increased government and foundation support, and collaboration among provider organizations themselves can catalyze these efforts.

  7. Towards integrated assessment of natural pest control as part of a set of ecosystem services: the Landscape IMAGES approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Groot, J.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural pest control is an ecosystem service that appears to be affected by ecosystem characteristics at spatial scales from field to landscape. Changes in land use and land management at the field level to enhance pest control depend on a small number of decision makers. In contrast, changes at the

  8. Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of the Effectiveness of Contraceptive Service Interventions for Young People, Delivered in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K.; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R.; Squires, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All…

  9. Pedagogy and Quality in Indian Slum School Settings: A Bernsteinian Analysis of Visual Representations in the Integrated Child Development Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the micro level of the pre-school classroom, taking the example of the Indian Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), and the discourse of "child-centred" pedagogy that is often associated with quality pre-schooling. Through an analysis of visual data, semi-structured and film elicitation interviews drawn…

  10. Pedagogy and Quality in Indian Slum School Settings: A Bernsteinian Analysis of Visual Representations in the Integrated Child Development Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the micro level of the pre-school classroom, taking the example of the Indian Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), and the discourse of "child-centred" pedagogy that is often associated with quality pre-schooling. Through an analysis of visual data, semi-structured and film elicitation interviews drawn…

  11. The impact of the World Health Organization 8-steps in wheelchair service provision in wheelchair users in a less resourced setting: a cohort study in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background For people who have a mobility impairment, access to an appropriate wheelchair is an important step towards social inclusion and participation. The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Provision of Manual Wheelchairs in Less Resourced Settings emphasize the eight critical steps for appropriate wheelchair services, which include: referral, assessment, prescription, funding and ordering, product preparation,fitting and adjusting, user training, and follow-up and maintenance/r...

  12. COLLECTION AND APPLICATION OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC EDUCATION SERVICES PLATFORM%教育公共服务平台基础数据的采集与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2015-01-01

    Basic data is the core and foundation of public service platform for education management.To improve the applied services ability,data collection is the basis, data integration is the linchpin, data security is the indemnification, and intelligent analysis is the demand.In this paper, combining the application of cloud computing, we analyse the composition of basic education data as well as the problems and difficulties in collection and application of basic data, and discuss the challenges encountered in the processes of collection and storage, exchange and sharing, application and services of basic data in education data in environment of educational cloud and their solutions.%基础数据是教育管理公共服务平台的核心与基础. 提高基础数据的应用服务能力,数据采集是基础、数据整合是关键、数据安全是保障、智能分析是需要. 结合云计算的应用,分析教育基础数据的组成、基础数据采集与应用中存在的问题与困难,探讨在教育云环境下,教育基础数据的采集与存储、交换与共享、应用与服务等过程中的挑战及其解决方案.

  13. Primary health care service delivery networks for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: using social network methods to describe interorganisational collaboration in a rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Julie; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Harris, Mark Fort

    2011-01-01

    Adults with type 2 diabetes or with behavioural risk factors require comprehensive and well coordinated responses from a range of health care providers who often work in different organisational settings. This study examines three types of collaborative links between organisations involved in a rural setting. Social network methods were employed using survey data on three types of links, and data was collected from a purposive sample of 17 organisations representing the major provider types. The analysis included a mix of unconfirmed and confirmed links, and network measures. General practices were the most influential provider group in initiating referrals, and they referred to the broadest range of organisations in the network. Team care arrangements formed a small part of the general practice referral network. They were used more for access to private sector allied health care providers and less for sharing care with public sector health services. Involvement in joint programs/activities was limited to public and non-government sector services, with no participation from the private sector. The patterns of interactions suggest that informal referral networks provide access to services and coordination of care for individual patients with diabetes. Two population subgroups would benefit from more proactive approaches to ensure equitable access to services and coordination of care across organisational boundaries: people with more complex health care needs and people at risk of developing diabetes.

  14. 京津冀基本公共服务差距、成因及对策%The Basic Public Service Gap,Causes and Countermeasures between Beij ing-Tianj in-Hebei Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延杰; 冉希

    2016-01-01

    在概括分析京津冀基本公共服务差距的基础上,认为公共服务领域的财力、人力和物力资源配置失衡以及较低的财税体制调控能力,是造成京津冀基本公共服务断崖式落差,阻碍京津冀协同发展的重要原因。缩小京津冀基本公共服务差距,推进京津冀基本公共服务均等化,必须深化财税体制改革,厘清中央与地方事权与支出责任关系,完善中央对地方收入划分与财力调节体制,完善跨区投资税收分享机制与区域生态补偿机制,加强京津冀财政协同合作与公共服务项目合作。%Based on the summarization and analysis of basic public service gap between Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei,this paper points out that the imbalanced allocation of financial resources,manpower and material resources in the public service field,together with the poor ability in regulating and controlling fiscal and taxation system lead to a cliff gap of Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei basic public service,hindering the coordinated development of this area.To narrow the basic public service gap of Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei,and promote the equitable access to basic public service in this area,we must deepen the reform of the finance and taxation system,clarify the relationship between the central and local governments in powers as well as expenditure responsibilities,complete the income division system as well as the finan-cial regulation system between the central government and local government;we also have to improve the tax sharing mechanism of cross-district investment and the regional ecological compensation mecha-nism,and strengthen the financial cooperation and public service projects cooperation of Beijing,Tian-jin and Hebei.

  15. Giving hope, ticking boxes or securing services? A qualitative study of respiratory physiotherapists' views on goal-setting with people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Rachael H; Ballinger, Claire; Nikoletou, Dimitra; Garrod, Rachel; Bruton, Anne; Leontowitsch, Miranda

    2017-07-01

    To explore respiratory physiotherapists' views and experiences of using goal-setting with people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rehabilitation settings. A total of 17 respiratory physiotherapists with ⩾12 months current or previous experience of working with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a non-acute setting. Participants were diverse in relation to age (25-49 years), sex (13 women), experience (Agenda for Change bands 6-8) and geographic location. Data were collected via face-to-face qualitative in-depth interviews (40-70 minutes) using a semi-structured interview guide. Interview locations were selected by participants (included participants' homes, public places and University). Interviews followed an interview guide, were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis; constant comparison was made within and between accounts, and negative case analysis was used. Three themes emerged through the process of analysis: (1) 'Explaining goal-setting'; (2) 'Working with goals'; and (3) 'Influences on collaborative goal-setting'. Goal-setting practices among respiratory physiotherapists varied considerably. Collaborative goal-setting was described as challenging and was sometimes driven by service need rather than patient values. Lack of training in collaborative goal-setting at both undergraduate and postgraduate level was also seen as an issue. Respiratory physiotherapists reflected uncertainties around the use of goal-setting in their practice, and conflict between patients' goals and organisational demands. This work highlights a need for wider discussion to clarify the purpose and implementation of goal-setting in respiratory rehabilitation.

  16. 政策议程设置中网民触发模式的基本要素分析%Basic Elements of Netizens’Burst Model in Policy Agenda-Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费久浩

    2015-01-01

    Agenda-setting is the primary step of public policy.The rising of cyber society cre-ates a new model in public policy agenda-setting which is called netizens’burst model.Its basic elements include the igniting of focus event,the activation of common experience,the mobiliza-tion of opinion leaders,the following-up of traditional media and the ratification of decision-mak-ing authorities.The constitutive combination of these elements demonstrates that netizens’burst model possesses inherent attributions which are substantially different with traditional elites-dominant agenda-setting models,and represents a new trend of China’s public policy.%议程设置是公共政策的首要环节,网络社会的异军突起造就了政策议程设置的一种全新模式,即网民触发模式。网民触发模式的基本要素包括焦点事件的引爆、共同体验的激活、意见领袖的动员、传统媒体的跟进和决策当局的认同。这些基本要素的结构性组合表明网民触发模式具有自身的内在规定性,与传统的精英主义议程设置模式表现出本质上的不同,代表了中国公共政策发展的一种新趋势。

  17. Working with the 'difficult' patient: the use of a contextual cognitive-analytic therapy based training in improving team function in a routine psychiatry service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosangela; Biancosino, Bruno; Borghi, Cristiana; Marmai, Luciana; Kerr, Ian B; Grassi, Luigi

    2013-12-01

    The clinical management of 'difficult' patients is a major challenge which exposes mental health teams to an increased risk of frustration and stress and may lead to professional burnout. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a cognitive-analytic therapy (CAT) based training undertaken by a mental health team working with 'difficult' patients reduced professional burnout symptoms, improved patients' service engagement and increased the levels of team-cohesion. Twelve mental health staff members from different professional and educational backgrounds took part in five 2-hour sessions providing a basic CAT training intervention, an integrative and relational model of psychotherapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorders. Participants were administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Service Engagement Scale (SES) and the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) before (T0) and after (T1) CAT training, and at 1-month follow-up (T2). A significant decrease were found, at T2, on the MBI Emotional Exhaustion scores, the SES Availability subscale, the GEQ Attraction to Group-Social and Group Integration-Social, while the MBI-Personal Accomplishment scores increased from baseline.The results of this study suggest that a CAT-based training can facilitate team cohesion and patient engagement with a service and reduce burnout levels among mental health team members dealing with 'difficult' patients.

  18. Impact of Vertical Fiscal Imbalances on Provincial Basic Public Education Service Performance in China%纵向财政不平衡对中国省际基础教育服务绩效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成奎; 柯勰

    2015-01-01

    分税制改革引致了我国地区间的纵向财政不平衡,同时政府偏好有助于GDP增加的“硬公共产品”供给决策,导致了我国地区间基础教育服务绩效的不平衡。运用中国1998~2011年省际面板数据进行分析,得出结论:经济发达地区的纵向财政不平衡与基础教育服务绩效水平显著负相关;财政支出分权实际上有利于提高基础教育服务绩效;在地理环境较差地区,财政分权对基础教育服务绩效水平的促进效应显著下降。缩小纵向财政不平衡、提高财政支出分权程度、教育财政支出适当向中西部地区倾斜有助于实现我国基础教育服务绩效的均衡。%Tax-sharing reform leaded to vertical fiscal imbalances between different areas in our country.At the same time,the government prefers policies of supplying“hard public goods” which is helpful to the increaseing of GDP resulted in the imbalance of basic public education service performance between different areas in our coun-try.By analyzing the Chinese provincial panel data from 1998 to 2011,the paper indicates that in areas with high e-conomic development level, vertical fiscal imbalance is related to basic education service performance negatively and significantly.Actually, spending decentralization is good for improving basic education service performance.In areas with poor geographical environment, spending decentralization’ s positive influence on basic education per-formance declines significantly.Narrowing vertical fiscal imbalances,improving the degree of fiscal spending decen-tralization and allocating more of education expenditure to central-west China are helpful to the realization of the balance of our country’ s basic education service performance.

  19. Norms on Official (Service) Crimes in the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (Year 1922): Technique of Basic and Differentiating Signs Constructing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander S. Gribov; Mikhail N. Kaplin

    2014-01-01

    .... In the Soviet times special attention was given to the criminal. In current article authors consider in detail bases for the techniques of designing and differentiating features of law on official (service...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complete set of DNA. DNA, the "recipe of life," contains all the information inherited from our parents that helps to define who we are, such as our looks and certain abilities, such as a good singing voice. A gene is a segment of ...

  1. Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs in Relation to Mathematics Teaching Activities in Classroom-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Umit; Celik, Sedef

    2017-01-01

    This paper has been conducted to determine future teachers' mathematical beliefs and to explore the relationship between their mathematical beliefs and initial teaching practice in a classroom setting, in terms of how they design the content of teaching activities, they employed the style of teaching in mathematics, and they engaged with pupils. A…

  2. Effective Practices in Providing Online, In-Service Training to Health Professionals in Low-Resource Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Karen Sherk

    2012-01-01

    As doctors, nurses and public health professionals are promoted into management and leadership positions in resource-poor countries around the world, they are tasked with leading teams and managing drugs and financial and material resources. These responsibilities require a set of skills and knowledge different from that needed for their clinical…

  3. Goal Setting, Decision-Making Skills and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Distance Learners: Implications for Retention and Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanglang, Nebath; Ibrahim, Aminu Kazeem

    2015-01-01

    The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. Randomization sampling technique was used to select 346 undergraduate distance learners and the learners were grouped into four, High and Low Goal setter learners and High and Low Decision-making skills learners. The instruments for data collection were Undergraduate Academic Goal Setting Scale…

  4. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to soci

  5. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  6. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  7. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  8. Interação de atributos atrativos e obrigatórios de um serviço na satisfação do cliente Interaction of basic and excitement service attributes in customer satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérson Tontini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Modelo Kano de Qualidade faz distinção entre três tipos de atributos que influenciam a satisfação do cliente: obrigatórios, atrativos e unidimensionais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a interação entre atributos atrativos e obrigatórios. Para tanto, utilizou-se um delineamento experimental do tipo fatorial completo com quatro atributos de video-locadoras (dois obrigatórios e dois atrativos, cada um a dois níveis, entrevistando-se 152 clientes. Verificou-se que os atributos atrativos apresentaram um maior impacto na satisfação dos clientes se os atributos obrigatórios estiverem presentes. A implicação gerencial desse resultado é que os atributos obrigatórios devem ser identificados e mantidos em um nível adequado, pois somente assim os atributos atrativos terão pleno efeito no aumento da satisfação dos clientes.Kano Model distinguishes service attributes in three types: basic, excitement and performance attributes. This work has as objective to verify how these attributes interact to proportionate satisfaction to customers. A full factorial experiment, using a sample of 152 customers of video rental stores, was used to study the interaction among four attributes (two basic and two excitements. The results show that the excitement attributes had less impact on customer satisfaction if the basic attributes were not fulfilled. The managerial implication of these results is that service companies should identify and fulfill the basic attributes in order to the excitement attributes having full impact on customer satisfaction.

  9. Is it feasible and effective to provide osteopathy and acupuncture for patients with musculoskeletal problems in a GP setting? A service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal manipulation and acupuncture can be helpful in reducing the symptoms of musculoskeletal (MSK pain. Both approaches are currently recommended by NICE as treatment options for patients with persistent low back pain. However, there has been no previous evaluation of a GP service using them together for MSK pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acceptability and outcomes for an osteopathy and acupuncture service (delivered by complementary therapy practitioners for patients with MSK problems provided within a General Practice. Methods Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after their course of treatment. Outcome measures included the Bournemouth Questionnaire (measuring MSK problems, EuroQoL-5D (measuring quality of life, medication use, physical activity and general well-being. Non-parametric tests were used to compare pre- and post- treatment variables. Qualitative data, regarding participants' views on the service, were collected from patients via a service survey and healthcare professionals via interviews. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 123 adults with MSK problems were referred into the service (79 female and 44 male, mean age 49 years. Complete patient questionnaire data sets (pre- and post- treatment were available for 102 participants; 91 completed a service survey. All healthcare professionals involved in the service participated in interviews including all seven GPs and the administration manager at the practice, as well as the three acupuncture/osteopathy practitioners. Patient outcomes: comparisons between pre and post-treatment revealed a statistically significant improvement in MSK pain (p Acceptability of the service: overall patients and healthcare professionals were satisfied with the service and its provision within the Practice. Patients reported wanting increased appointment availability and flexibility, and more sessions. Complementary

  10. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  11. Application of Digital Object Identifiers to data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, B.; Ostrenga, D.; Johnson, J. E.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Shen, S.; Teng, W. L.; Wei, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are applied to selected data sets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The DOI system provides an Internet resolution service for unique and persistent identifiers of digital objects. Products assigned DOIs include data from the NASA MEaSUREs Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and EOS Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). DOIs are acquired and registered through EZID, California Digital Library and DataCite. GES DISC hosts a data set landing page associated with each DOI containing information on and access to the data including a recommended data citation when using the product in research or applications. This work includes participation with the earth science community (e.g., Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation) and the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project to identify, establish and implement best practices for assigning DOIs and managing supporting information, including metadata, for earth science data sets. Future work includes (1) coordination with NASA mission Science Teams and other data providers on the assignment of DOIs for other GES DISC data holdings, particularly for future missions such as Orbiting Carbon Observatory -2 and -3 (OCO-2, OCO-3) and projects (MEaSUREs 2012), (2) construction of landing pages that are both human and machine readable, and (3) pursuing the linking of data and publications with tools such as the Thomson Reuters Data Citation Index.

  12. Chinaˊs rural equalization of basic public health services research and ountermeasures%农村基本公共卫生服务的空间差异及分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时涛; 矫丹丹

    2014-01-01

    ObJective:Analysis on the spatial difference of basic public health services in rural areas of Chinaˊs provinces and distribution pattern. Methods:Application of AHP analytic hierarchy process to construct the " comprehensive evaluation index system of" basic public health services in rural areas,provincial cross section data based on 2012,using the spatial autocorrelation method to measure the regional difference and spatial pattern. Results:Basic public health service level of provinces and autonomous regions are decreased with in the East,West,present existence;positive spatial autocorrelation, spatial distribution in geography as the clustering pattern,and the formation of the 2 polar. Conclusion:Suggestions on in-creasing government financial input and transfer payments,give full play to the spillover effect of polar provinces,speeding up the process of urbanization,promote balanced development of basic public health services in rural areas.%目的:分析我国各省区农村基本公共卫生服务的空间差异及分布格局。方法应用 AHP 层次分析法构建了“农村基本公共卫生服务综合评价指标体系”,基于2012年省区截面数据,应用空间自相关方法测度其区域差异与分布格局。结果省区农村基本公共卫生服务水平随中、东、西部呈现依次降低趋势;存在空间正相关,其空间分布在地理上表现为空间集聚格局,并形成2个极地。结论建议加大政府财政投入和转移支付力度,充分发挥极地省份的空间溢出效应,加快城镇化进程,促进区域农村基本公共卫生服务的均衡发展。

  13. Basic algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    A classic text and standard reference for a generation, this volume and its companion are the work of an expert algebraist who taught at Yale for two decades. Nathan Jacobson's books possess a conceptual and theoretical orientation, and in addition to their value as classroom texts, they serve as valuable references.Volume I explores all of the topics typically covered in undergraduate courses, including the rudiments of set theory, group theory, rings, modules, Galois theory, polynomials, linear algebra, and associative algebra. Its comprehensive treatment extends to such rigorous topics as L

  14. Naloxone Administration for Suspected Opioid Overdose: An Expanded Scope of Practice by a Basic Life Support Collegiate-Based Emergency Medical Services Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Ryan M.; Dickinson, Laura; Ng, Nicholas D.; DeGeorge, Lindsey M.; Nable, Jose V.

    2017-01-01

    Opioid abuse is a growing and significant public health concern in the United States. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that can rapidly reverse the respiratory depression associated with opioid toxicity. Georgetown University's collegiate-based emergency medical services (EMS) agency recently adopted a protocol, allowing providers to administer…

  15. Navigating laboratory services quality in challenging environments: A perspective for implementation in small, low-income countries and post-conflict settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Kamau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to establish and maintain good laboratory practices is recognised universally. However, due to differences in resources available for health services in different countries, allocation of financial and human resources in poor countries is severely constrained. The constraints faced by poor countries call for innovative approaches that would guarantee the minimum acceptable quality while striving to meet the highest standards. In resource-limited setting, it may be justifiable to develop and use ‘fit for purpose’ quality standards based on internationally-recognised laboratory quality management frameworks or protocols.

  16. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-11

    Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors' parameters. Nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses' attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed great variation among nurses in terms of changing

  17. Service use, charge, and access to mental healthcare in a private Kenyan inpatient setting: the effects of insurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pattison de Menil

    Full Text Available The gap in Kenya between need and treatment for mental disorders is wide, and private providers are increasingly offering services, funded in part by private health insurance (PHI. Chiromo, a 30-bed psychiatric hospital in Nairobi, forms part of one of the largest private psychiatric providers in East Africa. The study evaluated the effects of insurance on service use and charge, questioning implications on access to care. Data derive from invoices for 455 sequential patients, including 12-month follow-up. Multi-linear and binary logistic regressions explored the effect of PHI on readmission, cumulative length of stay, and treatment charge. Patients were 66.4% male with a mean age of 36.8 years. Half were employed in the formal sector. 70% were admitted involuntarily. Diagnoses were: substance use disorder 31.6%; serious mental disorder 49.5%; common mental disorder 7%; comorbid 7%; other 4.9%. In addition to daily psychiatric consultations, two-thirds received individual counselling or group therapy; half received lab tests or scans; and 16.2% received ECT. Most took a psychiatric medicine. Half of those on antipsychotics were given only brands. Insurance paid in full for 28.8% of patients. Mean length of stay was 11.8 days and, in 12 months, 16.7 days (median 10.6. 22.2% were readmitted within 12 months. Patients with PHI stayed 36% longer than those paying out-of-pocket and had 2.5 times higher odds of readmission. Mean annual charge per patient was Int$ 4,262 (median Int$ 2,821. Insurers were charged 71% more than those paying out-of-pocket--driven by higher fees and longer stays. Chiromo delivers acute psychiatric care each year to approximately 450 people, to quality and human rights standards higher than its public counterpart, but at considerably higher cost. With more efficient delivery and wider insurance coverage, Chiromo might expand from its occupancy of 56.6% to reach a larger population in need.

  18. Research on Fiscal Policy of the Equal Access to Basic Public Services between Urban and Rural Areas%城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕凌; 彭园媛

    2016-01-01

    Urban and rural areas “dual structure”interests curing of fiscal policy,makes large difference of regional urban and rural public services,and different parts of the urban and rural basic public services equalization degree also varies from place to place.Promote equal basic public services between urban and rural areas of fiscal policy,fundamental goal is to realize the public service of urban and rural development as a whole,is the main measure to speed up the ex-pansion of “agriculture,rural areas and farmers”by the national finance expenditure proportion, specific local governments bear the responsibility of the“three rural”spending,standard financial transfer payment,accelerate the new urbanization promoting the construction of urban and rural integration and synchronization.%城乡“二元结构”利益固化的财政政策,导致局部地区城乡公共服务差异大,且地区城乡基本公共服务均等化程度因地而异。推进城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策,根本目标在于实现公共服务城乡统筹发展,应加快扩大国家财政“三农”支出比重、明确地方财政承担“三农”支出的责任、规范财政转移支付、加快推进新型城镇化,并同步推进城乡一体化建设。

  19. Technical analysis, contestation and politics in policy agenda setting and implementation: the rise and fall of primary care maternal services from Ghana's capitation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduah, Augustina; van Dijk, Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2016-07-29

    Why issues get on the policy agenda, move into policy formulation and implementation while others drop off in the process is an important field of enquiry to inform public social policy development and implementation. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of health policy agenda setting, formulation and implementation processes in Ghana, a lower middle income country by exploring how and why less than three months into the implementation of a pilot prior to national scale up; primary care maternal services that were part of the basket of services in a primary care per capita national health insurance scheme provider payment system dropped off the agenda. We used a case study design to systematically reconstruct the decisions and actions surrounding the rise and fall of primary care maternal health services from the capitation policy. Data was collected from July 2012 and August 2014 through in-depth interviews, observations and document review. The data was analysed drawing on concepts of policy resistance, power and arenas of conflict. During the agenda setting and policy formulation stages; predominantly technical policy actors within the bureaucratic arena used their expertise and authority for consensus building to get antenatal, normal delivery and postnatal services included in the primary care per capita payment system. Once policy implementation started, policy makers were faced with unanticipated resistance. Service providers, especially the private self-financing used their professional knowledge and skills, access to political and social power and street level bureaucrat power to contest and resist various aspects of the policy and its implementation arrangements - including the inclusion of primary care maternal health services. The context of intense public arena conflicts and controversy in an election year added to the high level political anxiety generated by the contestation. The President and Minister of Health responded and removed

  20. Autism screening and diagnosis in low resource settings: Challenges and opportunities to enhance research and services worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Barbaro, Josephine; Gladstone, Melissa; Happe, Francesca; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Lee, Li‐Ching; Rattazzi, Alexia; Stapel‐Wax, Jennifer; Stone, Wendy L.; Tager‐Flusberg, Helen; Thurm, Audrey; Tomlinson, Mark; Shih, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Most research into the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of autism is based on studies in high income countries. Moreover, within high income countries, individuals of high socioeconomic status are disproportionately represented among participants in autism research. Corresponding disparities in access to autism screening, diagnosis, and treatment exist globally. One of the barriers perpetuating this imbalance is the high cost of proprietary tools for diagnosing autism and for delivering evidence‐based therapies. Another barrier is the high cost of training of professionals and para‐professionals to use the tools. Open‐source and open access models provide a way to facilitate global collaboration and training. Using these models and technologies, the autism scientific community and clinicians worldwide should be able to work more effectively and efficiently than they have to date to address the global imbalance in autism knowledge and at the same time advance our understanding of autism and our ability to deliver cost‐effective services to everyone in need. Autism Res 2015, 8: 473–476. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26437907

  1. Understanding the shortage of village doctors in China and solutions under the policy of basic public health service equalization: evidence from Changzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Cochran, Christopher; Lu, Jun; Shen, Jay; Hao, Chao; Wang, Ying; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-01-01

    As the most important public health service providers in rural China, village doctors are facing a new challenge of heavier workload resulting from the recent policy of public health service equalization. Studies on the shortage of village doctors, mainly based on the national statistics, have so far been very broad. This study conducted detailed field surveys to identify specific factors of and potential solutions to the shortage in village doctors. Eight hundred forty-four village doctors and 995 health decision makers and providers were surveyed through a questionnaire, and some of them were surveyed by in-depth face-to-face interviews and focus group interviews. Opinions on the shortage in village doctors and the potentially effective approaches to addressing the problem were sought. Some village doctors (51.3%) were at least 50 years old. Some village doctors (92.3%) did not want their children to become a village doctor, and the main reasons were "low salary" and "lack of social security". Village doctors felt that it was difficult to provide all the required public health services. Local residents indicated that they established good relationships with village doctors. Some health decision makers and providers (74.0%) thought that they needed more village doctors. The shortage in village doctors presents a major obstacle toward the realization of China's policy of public health service equalization. The aging of current village doctors exacerbates the problem. Policies and programs are needed to retain the current and attract new village doctors into the workforce. Separate measures are also needed to address disparities in socioeconomic circumstance from village to village.

  2. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  3. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  4. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  5. Disparities in intimate partner violence prenatal counseling: setting a baseline for the implementation of the Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta Park, Van M; Hayes, Donald K; Humphreys, Janice

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal health care counseling is associated with positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. Moreover, pregnant women are considered a vulnerable population at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence. Pregnancy provides a unique opportunity to identify and refer women experiencing intimate partner violence to community resources; however, in prior research, most women reported that their prenatal care providers did not talk to them about intimate partner violence. Given the importance for providers to offer prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence, it is concerning that there is scant knowledge on Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander mothers' experiences in this area. The study's objectives were (a) to determine the proportion of mothers who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence; and, (b) to examine racial differences of those who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence. Hawai'i's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data from 2004-08 were analyzed for 8,120 mothers with information on receipt of intimate partner violence prenatal health care counseling. Overall, 47.7% of mothers were counseled on intimate partner violence. Compared to Whites, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans were significantly less likely to report receiving prenatal health care counseling in intimate partner violence, but the opposite association was observed for Samoans. Intimate partner violence continues to be a significant problem for women, thus, this study's findings may be used as important baseline data to measure the progress made given the implementation of the new Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services in intimate partner violence screening and counseling.

  6. Can an online clinical data management service help in improving data collection and data quality in a developing country setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildeman Maarten A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Data collection by Electronic Medical Record (EMR systems have been proven to be helpful in data collection for scientific research and in improving healthcare. For a multi-centre trial in Indonesia and the Netherlands a web based system was selected to enable all participating centres to easily access data. This study assesses whether the introduction of a Clinical Trial Data Management service (CTDMS composed of electronic Case Report Forms (eCRF can result in effective data collection and treatment monitoring. Methods Data items entered were checked for inconsistencies automatically when submitted online. The data were divided into primary and secondary data items. We analysed both the total number of errors and the change in error rate, for both Primary and Secondary items, over the first five month of the trial. Results In the first five months 51 patients were entered. The Primary data error rate was 1.6%, whilst that for Secondary data was 2.7% against acceptable error rates for analysis of 1% and 2.5% respectively. Conclusion The presented analysis shows that after five months since the introduction of the CTDMS the Primary and Secondary data error rates reflect acceptable levels of data quality. Furthermore, these error rates were decreasing over time. The digital nature of the CTDMS, as well as the online availability of that data, gives fast and easy insight in adherence to treatment protocols. As such, the CTDMS can serve as a tool to train and educate medical doctors and can improve treatment protocols.

  7. Can an online clinical data management service help in improving data collection and data quality in a developing country setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Data collection by Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems have been proven to be helpful in data collection for scientific research and in improving healthcare. For a multi-centre trial in Indonesia and the Netherlands a web based system was selected to enable all participating centres to easily access data. This study assesses whether the introduction of a Clinical Trial Data Management service (CTDMS) composed of electronic Case Report Forms (eCRF) can result in effective data collection and treatment monitoring. Methods Data items entered were checked for inconsistencies automatically when submitted online. The data were divided into primary and secondary data items. We analysed both the total number of errors and the change in error rate, for both Primary and Secondary items, over the first five month of the trial. Results In the first five months 51 patients were entered. The Primary data error rate was 1.6%, whilst that for Secondary data was 2.7% against acceptable error rates for analysis of 1% and 2.5% respectively. Conclusion The presented analysis shows that after five months since the introduction of the CTDMS the Primary and Secondary data error rates reflect acceptable levels of data quality. Furthermore, these error rates were decreasing over time. The digital nature of the CTDMS, as well as the online availability of that data, gives fast and easy insight in adherence to treatment protocols. As such, the CTDMS can serve as a tool to train and educate medical doctors and can improve treatment protocols. PMID:21824421

  8. Locating distribution/service centers based on multi objective decision making using set covering and proximity to stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Dabibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present competitive world, facility location is an important aspect of the supply chain (sc optimization. It involves selecting specific locations for facility construction and allocation of the distribution channel among different SC levels. In fact, it is a strategic issue which directly affects many operational/tactical decisions. Besides the accessibility, which results in customer satisfaction, the present paper optimizes the establishment costs of a number of distribution channels by considering their proximity to the stock market of the goods they distribute, and proposes mathematical models for two objective functions using the set covering problem. Then, two objective functions are proposed into one through the ε-constraint method and solved by the metaheuristic Genetic Algorithm (GA. To test the resulted model, a smaller scale problem is solved. Results from running the algorithm with different ε-values show that, on average, a 10% increase in ε, which increases the value of the second objective function - distance covered by customers will cause a 2% decrease in the value of the first objective function including the costs of establishing distribution centers. The repeatability and solution convergence of the two-objective model presented by the GA are other results obtained in this study.

  9. The activating protein 1 transcription factor basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like (BATF), regulates lymphocyte- and mast cell-driven immune responses in the setting of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übel, Caroline; Sopel, Nina; Graser, Anna; Hildner, Kai; Reinhardt, Cornelia; Zimmermann, Theodor; Rieker, Ralf Joachim; Maier, Anja; Neurath, Markus F; Murphy, Kenneth M; Finotto, Susetta

    2014-01-01

    Mice without the basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like (BATF) gene (Batf(-/-)) lack TH17 and follicular helper T cells, which demonstrates that Batf is a transcription factor important for T- and B-cell differentiation. In this study we examined whether BATF expression would influence allergic asthma. In a cohort of preschool control children and children with asthma, we analyzed BATF mRNA expression using real-time PCR in PBMCs. In a murine model of allergic asthma, we analyzed differences in this allergic disease between wild-type, Batf transgenic, and Batf(-/-) mice. In the absence of corticosteroid treatment, children with recurrent asthma have a significant increase in BATF mRNA expression in their PBMCs. Batf(-/-) mice display a significant reduction in the pathophysiologic responses seen in asthmatic wild-type littermates. Moreover, we discovered a decrease in IL-3 production and IL-3-dependent mast cell development in Batf(-/-) mice. By contrast, IFN-γ was induced in lung CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Intranasal delivery of anti-IFN-γ antibodies induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in wild-type but not in Batf(-/-) mice. Transgenic overexpression of Batf under the control of the CD2 promoter/enhancer augmented lung inflammation and IgE levels in the setting of experimental asthma. BATF is increased in non-steroid-treated asthmatic children. Targeting BATF expression resulted in amelioration of the pathophysiologic responses seen in children with allergic asthma, and BATF has emerged as a novel target for antiasthma interventions. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of problem gambling interventions in a service setting: a protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M; Bellringer, M; Vandal, A C; Hodgins, D C; Battersby, M; Rodda, S N

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 2 of the best developed and most promising forms of therapy for problem gambling, namely face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) combined with a self-instruction booklet (W) and follow-up telephone booster sessions (B; MI+W+B) and face-to-face cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods and analysis This project is a single-blind pragmatic randomised clinical trial of 2 interventions, with and without the addition of relapse-prevention text messages. Trial assessments take place pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months. A total of 300 participants will be recruited through a community treatment agency that provides services across New Zealand and randomised to up to 10 face-to-face sessions of CBT or 1 face-to-face session of MI+W+up to 5 B. Participants will also be randomised to 9 months of postcare text messaging. Eligibility criteria include a self-perception of having a current gambling problem and a willingness to participate in all components of the study (eg, read workbook). The statistical analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach. Primary outcome measures are days spent gambling and amount of money spent per day gambling in the prior month. Secondary outcome measures include problem gambling severity, gambling urges, gambling cognitions, mood, alcohol, drug use, tobacco, psychological distress, quality of life, health status and direct and indirect costs associated with treatment. Ethics and dissemination The research methods to be used in this study have been approved by the Ministry of Health, Health and Disability Ethics Committees (HDEC) 15/CEN/99. The investigators will provide annual reports to the HDEC and report any adverse events to this committee. Amendments will also be submitted to this committee. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and as a report to the funding body. Additionally, the results

  11. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for

  12. 中国医疗卫生事业效益分析之系列研究——2010年基层医疗卫生事业之效益分析%A Series of Research on China's Medical and Health Services Benefit Analysis:The Benefit Analysis on 2010 Basic Medical and Health Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 顾俊

    2012-01-01

    The paper makes a research on the development of 2010 basic medical and health services. Basic medical and health institutions mainly distributed in the countryside, mainly are public, non-profit, plays good social responsibility and social benefits, ensure the basic-level health personnel team stability, strengthen assets, cost accounting, cost expenditure management, and improve the utilization rate of assets.%研究2010年基层医疗卫生事业发展,基层医疗卫生机构主要分布在农村,以公立、非营利为主,承担发挥良好社会职责和社会效益,确保基层卫生人员的队伍及稳定性,加强资产、成本核算、成本支出的管理,提高资产利用率.

  13. 新型城镇化进程中基本公共服务均等化的路径选择%The Path to Realize Equalization of Basic Public Services in the Course of New Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹彦文

    2015-01-01

    The essence of "human-oriented urbanization" emphasized in new urbanization is to achieve the equalization of basic public services, which is of great significance for the new urbanization. The progress in the construction of new urbanization is made practically by implementing the policy of “the urbanization on the voluntary basis” and “the conversion from township to city”. At present, in the process of equalizing basic public services, there is a series of negative factors, including the imbalance of urban-rural dual structure, the insufficiency of local fiscal capacity, the rigid public service supply mode, and the self-interest preference of participators. To solve these problems the paper suggests that the construction of new urbanization should be completed along with the improvement of the equalization of basic public services such as canceling the household registration system, widening the financing channel, innovating the supplying mode, and perfecting the supervision and evaluation mechanism.%新型城镇化强调“人的城镇化”,本质在于实现基本公共服务的均等化。因此,基本公共服务均等化对于新型城镇化具有重要意义,主要通过促进“人自愿基础上的城镇化”和“从乡到城的转化”推动新型城镇化建设的进程。当前,在推进基本公共服务均等化过程中存在着一系列的障碍因素,包括城乡二元结构体制失衡、地方政府财政能力不足、公共服务供给模式僵化、参与主体存在自利偏好等。针对这些问题,需要从取消户籍制度、拓宽融资渠道、创新供给模式、完善监督评估机制几个方面出发,提升基本公共服务均等化水平,进而推动新型城镇化建设。

  14. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: evidence from Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa

    2015-09-15

    (1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. 640 women aged 15-49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  15. The impact of the World Health Organization 8-steps in wheelchair service provision in wheelchair users in a less resourced setting: a cohort study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Maria L; Eke, Chika; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2016-01-22

    For people who have a mobility impairment, access to an appropriate wheelchair is an important step towards social inclusion and participation. The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Provision of Manual Wheelchairs in Less Resourced Settings emphasize the eight critical steps for appropriate wheelchair services, which include: referral, assessment, prescription, funding and ordering, product preparation,fitting and adjusting, user training, and follow-up and maintenance/repairs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the provision of wheelchairs according to the World Health Organization's service provision process by United Cerebral Palsy Wheels for Humanity in Indonesia affects wheelchair recipients compared to wait-listed controls. This study used a convenience sample (N = 344) of Children, Children with proxies, Adults, and Adults with proxies who were on a waiting list to receive a wheelchair as well as those who received one. Interviews were conducted at baseline and a 6 month follow-up to collect the following data: Demographics and wheelchair use questions, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, Functional Mobility Assessment, Craig Handicap Assessment Recording Technique Short Form. The Wheelchair Assessment Checklist and Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire were administered at follow up only. 167 participants were on the waiting list and 142 received a wheelchair. Physical health domain in the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF improved significantly for women who received a wheelchair (p = 0.044) and environmental health improved significantly for women and men who received a wheelchair as compared to those on the waiting list (p resourced setting has a range of positive outcomes including increased satisfaction with the mobility device and better quality of life. Wheelchair provision service could be improved by providing more hours of wheelchair skills training. There is a need for outcome

  16. Basic ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nadkarni, M G

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory book on Ergodic Theory. The presentation has a slow pace and the book can be read by any person with a background in basic measure theory and metric topology. A new feature of the book is that the basic topics of Ergodic Theory such as the Poincare recurrence lemma, induced automorphisms and Kakutani towers, compressibility and E. Hopf's theorem, the theorem of Ambrose on representation of flows are treated at the descriptive set-theoretic level before their measure-theoretic or topological versions are presented. In addition, topics around the Glimm-Effros theorem are discussed. In the third edition a chapter entitled 'Additional Topics' has been added. It gives Liouville's Theorem on the existence of invariant measure, entropy theory leading up to Kolmogorov-Sinai Theorem, and the topological dynamics proof of van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetical progressions.

  17. A discussion of key values to inform the design and delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy in resource-constrained settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Heffron

    2015-12-01

    women's desires. Conclusions: Programmes, policies and guidelines that integrate HIV treatment and prevention, sexual and reproductive health and fertility care services in a manner responsive to user values and preferences offer opportunities to maximize demand for and use of these services. For HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, the provision of comprehensive services using available tools – and the development of new tools that are adaptable to many settings and follow consensus recommendations – is a public health imperative. The impetus now is to design and deliver value-driven inclusive programming to achieve the greatest coverage and impact to reduce HIV transmission during pregnancy attempts.

  18. Awareness about basic life support and emergency medical services and its associated factors among students in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshatha Rao Aroor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge and skills about the basic life support (BLS and the advanced life support are the most important determining factors of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR success rates. Objectives: To determine the level of awareness on BLS and skills among undergraduate and postgraduate students of medical and dental profession, as well as nursing students and interns in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. The awareness level on BLS and factors associated which include age, sex, level of training (undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate groups, course of study (nursing, dental, and medical groups, and previous exposure to BLS were assessed by using a structured questionnaire. The association of these variables with awareness level was assessed by independent t test, analysis of variance, and linear regression analysis. Results: Among 520 study subjects, 229 were students, 171 were interns, and 120 were postgraduate students. The overall mean score of awareness was 4.16 ± 1.40 (score range: 0-10. Age, sex, level of training, course of study, and previous exposure to BLS were significantly associated with awareness level in univariate analysis (P < 0.05. Linear regression model also showed that all the above variables were significantly associated with awareness level (P < 0.05. About 322 (61.9% subjects attributed lack of awareness about BLS to lack of available professional training. About 479 (92.1% responded that BLS training should be a part of medical curriculum. Conclusion: Awareness level on BLS is below average indicating the importance of professional training at all levels in a tertiary care health institution.

  19. 试论面向基层公共图书馆服务体系的构建%Discoursing on Facing the Basic-level Public Library Service System Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姝旭

    2012-01-01

    Public library service system is an important part of the public cultural construction, is an important channel for the protection of cultural rights and interests of citizens, basis-level library is the cornerstone of building a system of public library services. This thesis takes the practice and effectiveness of the basic-level library construction to the Changchun area for example, to explore how to build a public library service system has the characteristics of this region, and ponders deeply its sustainable development.%公共图书馆服务体系建设是公共文化建设的重要组成部分,是保障公民文化权益的重要渠道,基层图书馆是构建公共图书馆服务体系的基石。以长春地区基层图书馆建设的实践与成效为例,探讨如何建设具有本地区特色的公共图书馆服务体系,并对其今后可持续发展提出思考。

  20. Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    大津, 和子

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current development in the Complementary Basic Education program (COBET), which aims to contribute to the provision of alternative learning opportunities for out-of-school children, particularly girls in a non-formal setting. The Ministry of Education and Culture started the program as part of the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) in 1999. Unlike traditional primary schools, the COBET centers have no school fees, no uniforms, no corporal punishment and no child labou...

  1. Norms on Official (Service Crimes in the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (Year 1922: Technique of Basic and Differentiating Signs Constructing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Gribov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of the Soviet period of our state of course it is important to study the experience of legislation and established in the Soviet era law enforcement. In the Soviet times special attention was given to the criminal. In current article authors consider in detail bases for the techniques of designing and differentiating features of law on official (service crimes in the Criminal Code of the RSFSR of 1922. Studying the structure of the offense, authors identify obvious advantages of legal norms (primarily lack of casuistry, study features of sanctions for the offense, and as well carry out analysis of perpetrator. However, as a result of the comprehensive study, authors highlight a number of shortcomings. Authors identified several weaknesses in the definition of an official person as the subject of the crime. Authors argue that it could not affect the legal practice during the period under review. In conclusion, authors justify that the Criminal Code of the RSFSR of 1922 contained several compositions of power’s abuse concentrated in three separate articles, criminal liability which differentiated both the subjective and the objective criteria.

  2. Exploring the Feasibility of Service Integration in a Low-Income Setting: A Mixed Methods Investigation into Different Models of Reproductive Health and HIV Care in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Church

    Full Text Available Integrating reproductive health (RH with HIV care is a policy priority in high HIV prevalence settings, despite doubts surrounding its feasibility and varying evidence of effects on health outcomes. The process and outcomes of integrated RH-HIV care were investigated in Swaziland, through a comparative case study of four service models, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV services, selected purposively within one town. A client exit survey (n=602 measured integrated care received and unmet family planning (FP needs. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the degree of integration per clinic and client demand for services. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the hypothesis that clients at more integrated sites had lower unmet FP needs than clients in a stand-alone site. Qualitative methods included in-depth interviews with clients and providers to explore contextual factors influencing the feasibility of integrated RH-HIV care delivery; data were analysed thematically, combining deductive and inductive approaches. Results demonstrated that clinic models were not as integrated in practice as had been claimed. Fragmentation of HIV care was common. Services accessed per provider were no higher at the more integrated clinics compared to stand-alone models (p>0.05, despite reported demand. While women at more integrated sites received more FP and pregnancy counselling than stand-alone models, they received condoms (a method of choice less often, and there was no statistical evidence of difference in unmet FP needs by model of care. Multiple contextual factors influenced integration practices, including provider de-skilling within sub-specialist roles; norms of task-oriented routinised HIV care; perceptions of heavy client loads; imbalanced client-provider interactions hindering articulation of RH needs; and provider motivation challenges. Thus, despite institutional support, factors related to the social context of

  3. Exploring the Feasibility of Service Integration in a Low-Income Setting: A Mixed Methods Investigation into Different Models of Reproductive Health and HIV Care in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Lewin, Simon; Ploubidis, George B.; Fakudze, Phelele; Mayhew, Susannah H.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating reproductive health (RH) with HIV care is a policy priority in high HIV prevalence settings, despite doubts surrounding its feasibility and varying evidence of effects on health outcomes. The process and outcomes of integrated RH-HIV care were investigated in Swaziland, through a comparative case study of four service models, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV services, selected purposively within one town. A client exit survey (n=602) measured integrated care received and unmet family planning (FP) needs. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the degree of integration per clinic and client demand for services. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the hypothesis that clients at more integrated sites had lower unmet FP needs than clients in a stand-alone site. Qualitative methods included in-depth interviews with clients and providers to explore contextual factors influencing the feasibility of integrated RH-HIV care delivery; data were analysed thematically, combining deductive and inductive approaches. Results demonstrated that clinic models were not as integrated in practice as had been claimed. Fragmentation of HIV care was common. Services accessed per provider were no higher at the more integrated clinics compared to stand-alone models (p>0.05), despite reported demand. While women at more integrated sites received more FP and pregnancy counselling than stand-alone models, they received condoms (a method of choice) less often, and there was no statistical evidence of difference in unmet FP needs by model of care. Multiple contextual factors influenced integration practices, including provider de-skilling within sub-specialist roles; norms of task-oriented routinised HIV care; perceptions of heavy client loads; imbalanced client-provider interactions hindering articulation of RH needs; and provider motivation challenges. Thus, despite institutional support, factors related to the social context of care inhibited

  4. Effect of Performance Appraisal Reform in Community Health Service Settings in Chaoyang District in Beijing%北京市朝阳区社区卫生服务机构绩效考核改革效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非衡; 倪娜娜; 朱磊; 杨桦; 高运生; 何欢; 孙思伟; 刘宝花

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价北京市朝阳区社区卫生服务机构绩效考核改革的效果。方法本研究资料来源于2012、2013年北京市朝阳区社区卫生服务管理中心对辖区内29家社区卫生服务机构两年的绩效考核数据,通过对考核指标数据的统计分析来评价绩效考核改革效果。绩效考核指标包括基本医疗工作量、公共卫生工作量、公共卫生工作量在总工作量中的比重、综合 K 值、医药比、次均门诊费用、人均绩效工资。结果2012、2013年的基本医疗工作量分别为673756(761165)、1110182(803117),公共卫生工作量分别为178324(72167)、322636(133418),公共卫生工作量在总工作量中的比重分别为19.78(10.38)%、22.91(13.94)%,医药比分别为0.104(0.031)、0.135(0.059),每月人均绩效工资分别为3992(1940)、2925(735)元,差异均有统计学意义(P 0.05)。2012年和2013年的人均基本医疗工作量、医药比、次均门诊费用均与人均绩效工资呈正相关( P 0. 05). The average workload of basic medical care per person,medication ratio and outpatient expense per visit were positively correlated with average performance pay per person in 2012 and 2013(P < 0. 05);the proportions of the workload of public health in the total workload in 2012 and 2013 and the comprehensive K value in 2012 were negatively correlated with average performance pay per person(P < 0. 05). Conclusion The performance appraisal reform carried out in Chaoyang District in 2013 is to some extent a positive motivation of enhancing the quantity of basic medical services and public medical services. The focus of work is transferring to public health service,which controls the fast growth of medical expense and enhance the public welfare of community health settings. However,work quality and efficiency have not been notably improved,and the gap in average performance pay among different health care

  5. Axiomatic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1972-01-01

    This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.

  6. 激励机制、媒介信息与农村基本公共服务供给研究%Study on Incentive Mechanism,Media Information and Supply of Rural Basic Public Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成奎; 华春兰

    2011-01-01

    Shortage of supply of rural basic public service lies in the fact that incentive mechanism of local government distorts local officials' public decisions.In order to maximize their benefits,local government officials will try hard to develop local economy so as to widen tax base and their achievements were perceived by higher-level governments or residents through mass media,which will be beneficial to their reappointment or promotion.Therefore,supply of rural basic public service can be greatly improved through changing urban bias in mass media information supply and perfecting incentive mechanism on local government officials.%农村基本公共服务供给不足在于地方政府激励机制扭曲了地方政府官员的公共决策行为。地方政府官员为了使个人利益最大化,要努力发展地方经济以扩大税基,还要通过媒介信息让上级政府或辖区居民感知到自己发展经济的绩效以及声望,从而有利于自己的连任或晋升。通过改变大众媒介信息供给上的城市偏好,完善地方政府官员的激励机制,可以促进农村基本公共服务供给水平的提高。

  7. Use of WHO clinical stage for assessing patient eligibility to antiretroviral therapy in a routine health service setting in Jinja, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namara Geoffrey

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a routine service delivery setting in Uganda, we assessed the ability of the WHO clinical stage to accurately identify HIV-infected patients in whom antiretroviral therapy should be started. Among 4302 subjects screened for ART, the sensitivity and specificity (95% CI of WHO stage III, IV against a CD4 count 6/l were 52% (50, 54% and 68% (66, 70% respectively. Plasma viral load was tested in a subset of 1453 subjects in whom ART was initiated. Among 938 subjects with plasma viral load of 100,000 copies or more, 391 (42%, 95% CI 39, 45% were at WHO stage I or II. In this setting, a large number of individuals could have been denied access to antiretroviral therapy if eligibility to ART was assessed on the basis of WHO clinical stage. There is an urgent need for greater CD4 count testing and evaluation of the utility of plasma viral load prior to initiation of ART to accompany the roll-out of ART.

  8. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to social atoms. The concepts that play a role in n-networks form the majority of the concepts added in this paper.

  9. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  10. Clinical staff perceptions of palliative care-related quality of care, service access, education and training needs and delivery confidence in an acute hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Rosemary; Gott, Merryn; Raphael, Deborah; O'Callaghan, Anne; Robinson, Jackie; Boyd, Michal; Laking, George; Manson, Leigh; Snow, Barry

    2014-12-01

    Central to appropriate palliative care management in hospital settings is ensuring an adequately trained workforce. In order to achieve optimum palliative care delivery, it is first necessary to create a baseline understanding of the level of palliative care education and support needs among all clinical staff (not just palliative care specialists) within the acute hospital setting. The objectives of the study were to explore clinical staff: perceptions concerning the quality of palliative care delivery and support service accessibility, previous experience and education in palliative care delivery, perceptions of their own need for formal palliative care education, confidence in palliative care delivery and the impact of formal palliative care training on perceived confidence. A purposive sample of clinical staff members (598) in a 710-bed hospital were surveyed regarding their experiences of palliative care delivery and their education needs. On average, the clinical staff rated the quality of care provided to people who die in the hospital as 'good' (x̄=4.17, SD=0.91). Respondents also reported that 19.3% of their time was spent caring for end-of-life patients. However, only 19% of the 598 respondents reported having received formal palliative care training. In contrast, 73.7% answered that they would like formal training. Perceived confidence in palliative care delivery was significantly greater for those clinical staff with formal palliative care training. Formal training in palliative care increases clinical staff perceptions of confidence, which evidence suggests impacts on the quality of palliative care provided to patients. The results of the study should be used to shape the design and delivery of palliative care education programmes within the acute hospital setting to successfully meet the needs of all clinical staff. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. 我国城乡基本公共服务均等化存在的问题和对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Basic Public Services Equalization in Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of public services equalization and realize the urban and rural smooth development ,the paper explores related concepts and makes clear the definition and connotation of the equalization .T hrough practical analysis of basic public services equalization in urban and rural areas in these years ,main problems are summarized and corresponding countermeasures are put forward .%为了顺应公共服务均等化的要求,顺利实现城乡统筹发展,对城乡基本公共服务均等化的相关概念进行探讨,对城乡基本公共服务概念、均等化的内涵、城乡基本公共服务均等化定义做出界定。通过对这些年城乡基本公共服务均等化的实践分析,概括出在这个过程中存在的三个主要问题。针对存在的问题,提出了相应对策。

  12. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  13. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson JE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Johnson1, Tara Carney2, Tracy Kline3, Felicia A Browne4, Wendee M Wechsberg41Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Statistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system

  14. The feasibility of implementing an evidence-based core set of clinical pharmacy services in 2020: manpower, marketplace factors, and pharmacy leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, C A; Raehl, Cynthia L; Patry, Roland

    2004-04-01

    Development of a national plan to implement a core set of clinical pharmacy services in United States hospitals by 2020 requires assertive leadership from pharmacy organizations and state boards of pharmacy, and a commitment from the profession. Factors that may affect the development are grouped into three areas: manpower, marketplace variables, and pharmacy leadership. Although the number of pharmacy school graduates (7000) was about the same in 1990 and 2000, a greater number of pharmacy schools and high student enrollment, coupled with the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's acceptance of foreign-trained pharmacists, suggest that the number of pharmacists will increase substantially in the near future. We estimate that the net increase in pharmacists (new pharmacy graduates less pharmacists who retire or die) in the United States will be 139,929 from 2000-2020, for a total of 335,040 pharmacists (71% increase). The number of pharmacy technicians increased substantially (66%), from 150,000 in 1996 to 250,000 in 2002. The number of residents in programs accredited by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists increased 148%, from 435 in 1990 to 1080 in 2002. We conservatively project an increase of 33,000 pharmacists who complete residencies from 2000-2020. The pharmacy marketplace has changed dramatically over the last 12 years, with 10,754 independent community pharmacies closing (2.46 pharmacies/day) and 8459 chain outlets opening (1.93 chains/day). In recent years, mail-order pharmacies have expanded faster than other retail outlets and now process over 18% of U.S. prescriptions. Increased use of robotic systems (some can process 5000 prescriptions/hr) and technicians will diminish the demand for dispensing pharmacists. In addition, up to 10% of U.S. retail prescriptions may be filled outside the country's borders. These data indicate that there will be a sufficient supply of pharmacists and technicians in the future. Thus, it is feasible

  15. Strengthening close to community provision of maternal health services in fragile settings: an exploration of the changing roles of TBAs in Sierra Leone and Somaliland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orya, Evelyn; Adaji, Sunday; Pyone, Thidar; Wurie, Haja; van den Broek, Nynke; Theobald, Sally

    2017-07-05

    Efforts to take forward universal health coverage require innovative approaches in fragile settings, which experience particularly acute human resource shortages and poor health indicators. For maternal and newborn health, it is important to innovate with new partnerships and roles for Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to promote maternal health. We explore perspectives on programmes in Somaliland and Sierra Leone which link TBAs to health centres as part of a pathway to maternal health care. Our study aims to understand the perceptions of communities, stakeholder and TBAs themselves who have been trained in new roles to generate insights on strategies to engage with TBAs and to promote skilled birth attendance in fragile affected settings. A qualitative study was carried out in two chiefdoms in Bombali district in Sierra Leone and the Maroodi Jeex region of Somaliland. Purposively sampled participants consisted of key players from the Ministries of Health, programme implementers, trained TBAs and women who benefitted from the services of trained TBAs. Data was collected through key informants and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Data was transcribed, translated and analyzed using the framework approach. For the purposes of this paper, a comparative analysis was undertaken reviewing similarities and differences across the two different contexts. Analysis of multiple viewpoints reveal that with appropriate training and support it is possible to change TBAs practices so they support pregnant women in new ways (support and referral rather than delivery). Participants perceived that trained TBAs can utilize their embedded and trusted community relationships to interact effectively with their communities, help overcome barriers to acceptability, utilization and contribute to effective demand for maternal and newborn services and ultimately enhance utilization of skilled birth attendants. Trained TBAs appreciated cordial relationship at the health

  16. The current situation of basic public health services of 59 township hospitals in Sichuan prov-ince%四川省59家乡镇卫生院基本公共卫生服务现况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兰; 曹强; 蔡力; 刘洲; 廖菁; 韩亮; 王海江; 杨荣芳; 武文博; 雍正平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of the public health services of township hospitals in Sichuan prov -ince.Methods Stratified sampling method was choose to extract 59 township hospitals through questionnaire .ANOVA was used to compare.Results Workload of public health services was increasing year by year .Differences in rates of cumulative filing of residents'health records ,filing of electronic documents ,filing of old people more than 65-year-old,and chronic disease management were statisti-cally significant in different years ( P<0.05 ) .Workload of the public health services in class I region was significantly higher than that in class II and III regions .By using analysis of variance ,all indexes of the public health service were significantly different ( P<0.05 ) except card number of pregnant women and rate of electronic document filing .Conclusion The basic public health services in each township health center of Sichuan province have been improved since the new medical reform .However ,there are differences among the areas.In order to provide references to improve township public health service ,opinions and suggestions should be put forward for differ-ent health service items ,so that the majority of rural residents will enjoy a better public health service .%目的:了解四川省乡镇卫生院的部分基本公共卫生服务项目的现况。方法采用分层抽样的方法,抽取59家乡镇卫生院进行问卷调查,并运用方差分析方法对公共卫生服务情况进行分析比较。结果乡镇卫生院各项公共卫生服务工作量逐年升高,其中居民健康档案累计建档率、电子建档率、65岁以上老人建档率和慢性病健康管理率在不同年份间总体上差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);一类地区的各项公共卫生服务量明显高于二类地区和三类地区,经方差分析,除孕产妇建卡人次和电子建档率两指标差别无统计学意义外,其他项服

  17. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Hospice Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Hospice Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare hospice claims. The CMS BSA Hospice...

  18. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  19. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  20. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Outpatient Procedures PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Outpatient Procedures Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare outpatient claims. The CMS BSA...

  1. Discussion on improving medical insurance administrative system in China in view of analyzing "Basic Medical Insurance Service Contract"%从"基本医疗保险服务合同"角度探讨完善和健全我国医疗保险管理体制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述萍; 袁江帆

    2011-01-01

    通过对现阶段我国基本医疗服务合同的特点和性质进行归纳和总结,分析现阶段我国基本医疗保险制度法律关系的特点,我国医疗服务合同的特点、性质及其关系,提出完善和健全我国基本医疗保险管理体制的框架和没想.%Based on the analysis of the characters of current basic medical service contract, the characters of law in current basic medical insurance service contract and medical service contract were analyzed and summarized.Framework and thoughts of improving basic medical insurance administrative system in China were discussed.

  2. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All...

  3. Theory and Application of Multi-robot Service-oriented Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfei Cai; Zhenmin Tang; Yuhua Ding; Bin Qian

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of heterogeneity in multi-robot cooperation, a new service-oriented architecture is proposed for multi-robot cooperation. Service provision and energy consumption are the basic cooperative behaviors. A set of basic concepts of robot service are proposed. A layered multi-robot service-oriented architecture is designed. Finally, the experiments illustrate the superiority of the proposed architecture which makes robot’s underlying functional components be transparently encapsulated and the services in upper layer be transparently invoked, which will effectively avoid the impact of heterogeneous characteristics in multi-robot cooperation and facilitate the system construction, expansion, restructuring and maintenance.

  4. Basic Course Deskbook. Volume 1: Client Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    reasonable period, the problem truly is cured ; otherwise, proceed to separation. VI. REVOCATION OF PASS PRIVILEGES. A. Reference. AR 600-8-10...of marijuana that is detectable under the Army Drug Testing Program. To ensure military readiness, the ingestion of hemp seed oil or products made...4. Defenses. a. Plaintiff not "qualified handicapped person" ("qualified individual with disability"). Bradley v. Univ. of Texas Cancer Center, 3

  5. 农村基本公共卫生服务在妇幼保健工作中的作用%The Role of Basic Public Health Services in Work of MCH in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过基本公共卫生服务项目在妇幼保健工作中的实施,探讨在妇幼保健工作中发挥的作用。方法对2009年以来孕产妇死亡率、婴儿死亡率、<5岁儿童死亡率、围产儿死亡率、出生缺陷发生率各项主要妇幼生命指标统计。结果各项死亡率明显下降,出生缺陷发生率明显减少。结论开展多种形式的健康教育,把握时机、因人施教、广开渠道,利用重大节日和卫生宣传日上街开展宣传、咨询活动等使广大的农村妇女、儿童真正得到卫生保健服务。%Objective:through the basic public health services in the implementation of maternal and child health care work, discuss the role of maternal and child health care work. Methods:since 2009 the maternal mortality rate, infant mortality, children under the age of five mortality, perinatal mortality and incidence of birth defects in the main women's and children's life indicators statistics. Results: the mortality decreased obviously, significantly reduce the incidence of birth defects. Conclusion The various forms of health education, seize the opportunity, individualized instruction, open up more channels, the use of health promotion at major festivals and street outreach, counseling activities, so that the majority of rural women, children actual y get health care services.

  6. Health Services OutPatient Experience questionnaire: factorial validity and reliability of a patient-centered outcome measure for outpatient settings in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coluccia A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Coluccia, Fabio Ferretti, Andrea PozzaDepartment of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyPurpose: The patient-centered approach to health care does not seem to be sufficiently developed in the Italian context, and is still characterized by the biomedical model. In addition, there is a lack of validated outcome measures to assess outpatient experience as an aspect common to a variety of settings. The current study aimed to evaluate the factorial validity, reliability, and invariance across sex of the Health Services OutPatient Experience (HSOPE questionnaire, a short ten-item measure of patient-centeredness for Italian adult outpatients. The rationale for unidimensionality of the measure was that it could cover global patient experience as a process common to patients with a variety of diseases and irrespective of the phase of treatment course.Patients and methods: The HSOPE was compiled by 1,532 adult outpatients (51% females, mean age 59.22 years, standard deviation 16.26 receiving care in ten facilities at the Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital of Siena, Italy. The sample represented all the age cohorts. Twelve percent were young adults, 57% were adults, and 32% were older adults. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate factor structure. Reliability was evaluated as internal consistency using Cronbach’s α. Factor invariance was assessed through multigroup analyses.Results: Both exploratory and confirmatory analyses suggested a clearly defined unidimensional structure of the measure, with all the ten items having salient loadings on a single factor. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.95. Indices of model fit supported a single-factor structure for both male and female outpatient groups. Young adult outpatients had significantly lower scores on perceived patient-centeredness relative to older adults. No

  7. SEA ODC - An Implementation of Web Portal and B2B Services for Managing of Oceanographic Data Sets Collected in South-East Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicic, A.; Castelli, A.; Kljajic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of efforts to standardize oceanographic data sets collected since year 2002 in the area of south-east Adriatic, relational data model suitable for storage of meta-data and in situ measurements was designed and implemented. Using combination of customized tools developed for extraction of meta-data and data records from CTD files as well as standard office applications, data were extracted, transformed, processed and unified by attributes and units of measurement. To make those data available for wider scientific community, we have developed web portal able to be used for data retrieval based on various filters (spatial, temporal, by project and/or by sampling instrument). Selected data model proves to be also very efficient for generating of data-exchange formats required by various projects and initiatives (e.g. SeaDataNet) so extended by particular dictionaries it can allow fast implementation of integration services. As a part of Ecoport 8 project, newly available type of data was recently introduced. Real-time data provided by permanent sensors need to be automatically collected and stored into database. Visualization of such data was also required as well as exchange with project data center. To fulfill those requirements, additional data scheme and appropriate B2B services were developed. Additional care was taken about data transfer security as database was not hosted at the same place as workstation used for remote access to sensor equipment. Third section of portal is "Tide Tables", interactive, graphical application that visualize tide predictions for ports of Bar and Kotor, allowing also correction by atmospheric pressure. Developed in Java, based on well known Mike Foreman's Fortran 77 code it can be used as stand-alone product without Internet connection. Last section of portal is Google Earth file containing position of stations as well as some spatial features that can be useful during planning of future oceanographic cruises in this area

  8. 推进我国基本公共卫生服务均等化的策略思路%Strategies to promote the equalization of basic public health services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程跃; 马安宁; 武娜娜; 姜立文; 王颖; 孙梅; 郝模; 陆耀良; 雷杰; 李琦; 林尚立; 周志俊; 傅华

    2015-01-01

    在剖析我国推进基本公共卫生服务落实中存在的认识误区、职责不明、协调不力和保障不足等问题基础上,形成了推进各项基本公共卫生服务项目落实的策略思路:一是扭转“基本公共卫生服务”替代“公共卫生服务”、“基本公共卫生服务”等同于“基层公共卫生服务”的错误观念。二是创新机制:(1)加强项目推进的统一领导,建立以疾控为主导,卫监、妇幼、基层、医政等共同参与的协调机制;(2)完善协调沟通的工作机制;(3)落实经费保障机制,明确合理的经费投入标准和分配流向。三是科学合理的流程再造,明确项目的总体目标和各方的职责分工,加强质量控制和绩效考核。四是加强人才培养,健全对基层公共卫生工作队伍的培训机制。%After analyzing the problems in the implementation of basic public health services,such as misunderstanding,ill-defined responsibilities,poor coordination,and inadequate supporting conditions,this article proposed some strategies to promote the implementation of the services. Firstly,the misconceptions that the“basic public health services” was equal to“grass-roots public health services”,and“basic public health services” was the same as“public health service” should be reversed. Secondly,it is suggested to create innovative mechanisms:strengthening the unified leadership of the projects,and establishing a coordination mechanism in which disease control and prevention agencies play a leading role with the departments of health inspection,maternal and child health,primary health,and medical administration joining together. It is also suggested to improve the coordination and communication working mechanism. Establishing the funding mechanism,and defining the funding standards and distribution proportion among different agencies are also recommended. Thirdly,reengineering the implementation

  9. 重庆市基本公共卫生服务均等化人力资源的思考%A thinking of human resources in the basic public health service equalization of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳秋; 蒲川; 吴海峰; 何坪; 张维斌; 潘伦; 陈吕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status quo of local public health officials in four districts and counties of Chongqing,analyze the problems in human resource allocation and use in the equalization of public health services,and put forward relevant coun-termeasures and suggestions. Methods Questionnaires and interviews were done in Municipal Health Bureaus,bureaus of finance, health and special public health organizations and 20 primary health organizations of 4 districts (counties) and their leaders by randomized sampling from 4 districts (counties) of Chongqing. Results Lack of public health technical personnel, service capacity needs to be improved,and management consciousness should be strengthened. Conclusion We should strengthen the recognition of basic public health services equalization work,enrich the public health talent team,improve the quality of public health and make the management personnel participate in the equalization actively.%目的 了解重庆市4个区(县)公共卫生人员现状,分析重庆市基本公共卫生服务均等化人力资源配置和使用方面存在的问题,提出相关的对策和建议.方法 采用随机抽样方法,选取4个区(县),问卷调查和访谈4区(县)卫生局、财政局、专业公共卫生机构和20个基层卫生机构及其相关负责人.结果 全市公共卫生技术人员缺乏,服务能力有待提高,管理人员意识有待加强.结论 加强重视基本公共卫生服务均等化工作,管理人员积极参与,充实公共卫生人才队伍,提高公共卫生队伍素质.

  10. Setting up the first components of the person and its anchoring to the territory among the Seme of Burkina Faso: services rendered by ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fournier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the need for studies on ''cultural ecosystem services'' to be based on ethnographic studies. It presents research conducted among a small, little-known population of savannah farmers, the Seme people of Burkina Faso (in West Africa. According to their concepts, sacred sites of hills and water bodies harbour genies. These genies play a major role in setting in place the essential components of the person during conception and birth and then they watch over the new human being until death. In addition, a flexible form of territorial and social anchoring of individuals and groups as well as the integration of outsiders, are achieved through this category of sites. These sites are related to two other broad categories of sacred sites which together make up a system, the first dedicated to male initiation and the others to agricultural activities. This relationship between Water Bodies and Hills and these other sites appears during a great collective ritual which is held every 40 years or so and which results in a major renewal of society. This is the last stage of male initiation during which the genies, who are initiated with the humans, shift to other categories of sites. These genies, which act as a sort of double, as guardians and censors of humans, thus they accompany or control biological and social reproduction and agricultural production activities. Ad hoc conservation measures of sites located among the Seme which overlook the existence of this relationship among categories of sites are inadequate. They could be useless, or worse, could serve to endorse the destruction of other sites and thus of the entire system. As analogous concepts are found widely throughout West Africa, the lessons learned from these case studies have more than local value.

  11. IGP Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren

    2003-01-01

    The goal is location-independent computing. Implementing a set of services to satisfy this goal, build upon the GLOBUS toolkit services, and implementing with OGSA. Current status includes: Event service, Job manager, Resource selector and Broker, Next versions in development.Development includes: Monitoring and testing, Portability manager, Performance prediction, Dynamic accounting, and MDS evaluation.

  12. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  13. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  14. 以党的十八大精神为指针,加快建立基本公共服务体系%Speed up the Establishment of the System of Basic Public Service Making the Great Mind of the 18th Congress of the CCP as the Pointer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫越

    2012-01-01

    党的十八大报告指出,基本公共服务体系是中国特色社会主义社会管理体系的重要组成部分,"必须加快建立政府主导、覆盖全民、可持续的公共服务体系。"这一论断指明了建立基本公共服务体系的紧迫性,因此,在实践中必须明确政府在基本公共服务体系中的责任和职能定位,以提高全民福祉为最终目的推进基本公共服务均等化,转变政府提供公共服务的方式,构建多元的、多层次、多样化的公共服务供给体系。%The reports the 18th congress of the CCP point out that basic public service system of socialism with Chinese characteris- tics is an important part of the social management system, "we must accelerate to build public service system which is governmental dominant,universal coverage and sustainablc."This thesis points out the establishment of basic public service system of urgency. Therefore,in practice,we must make clear the responsibility and function positioning of government in the system of basic public service,promote the equalization of basic: public services with the ultimate goal of improving people's welfare,change the way of government's public service,construct pluralistic,multi-level,diversified public service supply system.

  15. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the social atom, stood central. In this second paper social structures and processes are focused upon.

  16. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the soci

  17. Service Marketing Competitiveness In The New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Grubor

    2008-01-01

    In the new economy the basic characteristics of services determine service consumption, just as customer relationship management impacts on the approach to services marketing. Contemporary service customers perceive service quality in service encounters and in ongoing relationships as well. The perception of service quality may be presented as a basic model of perception, known in service marketing reference sources as The Perceived Service Quality Model. Service marketers and marketing manag...

  18. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  19. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sport for You Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  20. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  1. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaale Helga K; Moe-Nilssen Rolf; Sorsdahl Anne; Rieber Jannike; Strand Liv

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP) remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after interventio...

  2. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Appropriate levels of service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The term "services", as used in this article, broadly refers to infrastructure (in particular, civil and electrical engineering infrastructure), and also the infrastructure elements such as schools, clinics and halls. The term "basic services...

  4. The Experience for the Concept of Web Service on WebSphere%基于WebSphere平台的Web Service概念实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉珍; 顾毓清

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates and summarizes the basic concept of Web Service, covers how to set up the fundamental Web Service structure on WebSphere platform with the provided practical example, the last section of this paper discusses the comparison between the Web Service component-based architecture and the traditional component-based architecture.

  5. Beginning Visual Basic 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Thearon

    2010-01-01

    A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste

  6. Challenges and strategies for implementing genomic services in diverse settings: experiences from the Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE (IGNITE) network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Nina R; Carpenter, Janet S; Cavallari, Larisa H; J Damschroder, Laura; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Denny, Joshua C; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Guan, Yue; Horowitz, Carol R; Levy, Kenneth D; Levy, Mia A; Madden, Ebony B; Matheny, Michael E; Pollin, Toni I; Pratt, Victoria M; Rosenman, Marc; Voils, Corrine I; W Weitzel, Kristen; Wilke, Russell A; Ryanne Wu, R; Orlando, Lori A

    2017-05-22

    To realize potential public health benefits from genetic and genomic innovations, understanding how best to implement the innovations into clinical care is important. The objective of this study was to synthesize data on challenges identified by six diverse projects that are part of a National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)-funded network focused on implementing genomics into practice and strategies to overcome these challenges. We used a multiple-case study approach with each project considered as a case and qualitative methods to elicit and describe themes related to implementation challenges and strategies. We describe challenges and strategies in an implementation framework and typology to enable consistent definitions and cross-case comparisons. Strategies were linked to challenges based on expert review and shared themes. Three challenges were identified by all six projects, and strategies to address these challenges varied across the projects. One common challenge was to increase the relative priority of integrating genomics within the health system electronic health record (EHR). Four projects used data warehousing techniques to accomplish the integration. The second common challenge was to strengthen clinicians' knowledge and beliefs about genomic medicine. To overcome this challenge, all projects developed educational materials and conducted meetings and outreach focused on genomic education for clinicians. The third challenge was engaging patients in the genomic medicine projects. Strategies to overcome this challenge included use of mass media to spread the word, actively involving patients in implementation (e.g., a patient advisory board), and preparing patients to be active participants in their healthcare decisions. This is the first collaborative evaluation focusing on the description of genomic medicine innovations implemented in multiple real-world clinical settings. Findings suggest that strategies to facilitate integration of genomic

  7. RF Basics I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's equations are introduced in their general form, together with a basic set of mathematical operations needed to work with them. After simplifying and adapting the equations for application to radio frequency problems, we derive the most important formulae and characteristic quantities for cavities and waveguides. Several practical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the derived equations and to explain the importance of the most common figures of merit.

  8. Research on Equalization of Basic Public Services among the Floating People in Minhang District,Shanghai%上海市闵行区推进流动人口基本公共服务均等化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉博; 向明勋; 李永珍

    2011-01-01

    上海市闵行区是人口流入大区,在计划生育、就业、教育、医疗、住房等方面推动着流动人口的基本公共服务均等化,取得成就的同时也存在着很多问题,如人口居住证使用率和含金量过低,现有的教育资源配置仍难以满足外来人口大量导入带来的教育需求,土地资源制约居住保障服务等。因此市级统筹、资源整合以及建立完善的信息平台非常必要。%There is a big influx of population in Minhang District.A series of policies and measures have been established to promote equalization of basic public services between transient population and native population in family planning,employment,education,health care and housing,etc.With many achievements during the process,more and more problems are emerging,such as the low using of residence permit,the shortage of existing educational resources to meet educational needs,the scarcity of land resources to meet housing needs.Thus it is necessary for resources co-ordination,integration of resources and establishment of a sound information platform.

  9. Web Service Assurance: The Notion and the Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atousa Pahlevan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web service technology provides basic infrastructure for deploying collaborative business processes. Web Service security standards and protocols aim to provide secure communication and conversation between service providers and consumers. Still, for a client calling a Web service it is difficult to ascertain that a particular service instance satisfies—at execution time—specific non-functional properties. In this paper we introduce the notion of certified Web service assurance, characterizing how service consumers can specify the set of security properties that a service should satisfy. Also, we illustrate a mechanism to re-check non-functional properties when the execution context changes. To this end, we introduce the concept of context-aware certificate, and describe a dynamic, context-aware service discovery environment.

  10. HEDIS Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) is a tool used by more than 90 percent of Americas health plans to measure performance on important...

  11. USGS Elevation Availability (NED) Overlay Map Service from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Elevation Availability service from The National Map (TNM) shows the best available resolution of downloadable elevation data, and is updated approximately...

  12. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues.

  13. Is it feasible and effective to provide osteopathy and acupuncture for patients with musculoskeletal problems in a GP setting? A service evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Peters David; Polley Marie; Cheshire Anna; Ridge Damien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Spinal manipulation and acupuncture can be helpful in reducing the symptoms of musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. Both approaches are currently recommended by NICE as treatment options for patients with persistent low back pain. However, there has been no previous evaluation of a GP service using them together for MSK pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acceptability and outcomes for an osteopathy and acupuncture service (delivered by complementary therapy practitione...

  14. Determining the effective coverage of maternal and child health services in Kenya, using demographic and health survey data sets: tracking progress towards universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguhiu, Peter K; Barasa, Edwine W; Chuma, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Effective coverage (EC) is a measure of health systems' performance that combines need, use and quality indicators. This study aimed to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health system provides effective and equitable maternal and child health services, as a means of tracking the country's progress towards universal health coverage. The Demographic Health Surveys (2003, 2008-2009 and 2014) and Service Provision Assessment surveys (2004, 2010) were the main sources of data. Indicators of need, use and quality for eight maternal and child health interventions were aggregated across interventions and economic quintiles to compute EC. EC has increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 50.9% in 2014, but remains low for the majority of interventions. There is a reduction in economic inequalities in EC with the highest to lowest wealth quintile ratio decreasing from 2.41 in 2003 to 1.65 in 2014, but maternal health services remain highly inequitable. Effective coverage of key maternal and child health services remains low, indicating that individuals are not receiving the maximum possible health gain from existing health services. There is an urgent need to focus on the quality and reach of maternal and child health services in Kenya to achieve the goals of universal health coverage. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons....... The theory is illustrated by specific models and examples....

  16. 38 CFR 21.142 - Adult basic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult basic education. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.142 Adult basic education. (a) Definition. The term adult basic...

  17. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  18. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  19. Basic algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Anant R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Basic Problem Fundamental Group Function Spaces and Quotient Spaces Relative Homotopy Some Typical Constructions Cofibrations Fibrations Categories and Functors Cell Complexes and Simplicial Complexes Basics of Convex Polytopes Cell Complexes Product of Cell Complexes Homotopical Aspects Cellular Maps Abstract Simplicial Complexes Geometric Realization of Simplicial Complexes Barycentric Subdivision Simplicial Approximation Links and Stars Covering Spaces and Fundamental Group Basic Definitions Lifting Properties Relation with the Fundamental Group Classification of Covering P

  20. Combining Ecosystem Services with Cost-Benefit Analysis for Selection of Green and Grey Infrastructure for Flood Protection in a Cultural Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Vojinovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a methodological framework that combines ecosystem services (flood protection, education, art/culture, recreation and tourism with economic analysis for selection of multifunctional measures for flood resilience. The framework includes active stakeholder participation and it consists of the four main components: (1 identification and valuation of ecosystem services pertinent to the project site under various mitigation scenarios, including baseline (pre-mitigation conditions; (2 evaluation of most effective flood mitigation measures through hydrodynamic simulations, and evaluation of economic viability using cost-benefit analysis; (3 selection of measures through consideration of ecosystem services, and solicitation of stakeholders’ inputs; (4 development of the conceptual landscape design. Application of the framework was demonstrated in a case study of Ayutthaya Island, Thailand. Results of our research suggest that taking a holistic perspective of ecosystem services and economic assessments, marshalled through active stakeholder participation, has the potential to achieve more ecologically sustainable and socially acceptable solutions for flood protection in areas with cultural heritage. However, there is still a considerable challenge in taking this framework to a full-scale practical implementation, and this mainly relates to the selection of indicators that can enable proper application of ecosystem services.

  1. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure.

  2. The Quality of Healthcare Service Delivery in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Availability of Some Basic Medical Devices/Equipment in the Primary Health Care Centres in Delta State

    OpenAIRE

    Omuta GED

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ordinarily, accessibility implies locational proximity. However, this study limits its use to the quality of what is accessed. There is, therefore, service-delivery inaccessibility, when health care seekers can only access poor quality service, because of the poor quality of the equipment at the disposal of primary health care centres. Service-delivery equipment are, therefore, surrogate indicators of the quality of the health care services that are geographically accessible. Meth...

  3. 县级多部门基本公共卫生服务项目合作现状调查%Study on Situation of Sectoral Cooperation in Basic Public Health Service Project at County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雄; 马才辉; 周东华; 冯占春

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解县级基本公共卫生服务项目实施中多部门合作的现状、问题及其原因,探索有效促进多部门合作的对策建议.方法:定性定量研究相结合,通过文献查阅、问卷调查、关键人物访谈等方法,对相关部门合作现状及问题进行调查.结果:为了更好实施基本公共卫生服务项目,样本地区的卫生部门都曾与当地妇联、财政、教育局以及计生等部门开展过不同程度的合作,卫生部门合作意愿较强烈,其他部门相对缺乏合作意愿,实际合作效果差强人意,主要存在规章制度不规范、缺乏激励机制以及经费投入不足等问题.结论:为有效促进各部门间的合作,应当强化政府公共服务职能,激发多部门间的合作需求;加快区域卫生信息平台建设,建立健全信息共享机制;提高合作制度的规范性,推动多部门合作常态化;建立健全筹资与投入机制,严格规范资金的监督管理.%Objective: To analyze the main reasons and to explore effective countermeasures of promoting sectoral cooperation by in-vestigating the present situation and problems of sectoralcooperation of basic public health service in 8 Chinese counties. Methods: A com-bination of qualitative and quantitative studies was applied. Reference reviews questionnaires, key individual interviews and focus group discussions(FGD)were taken to investigate the present situation and problems of sectoral cooperation. Results: Healthy sectorscooperative willingness were stronger than other sectors in sampling regions, for they did cooperation in different degree with localWomen's Federation, Finance, Education Bureau, Family Plan Fertility Committee and so on. The problem of dissatisfactory cooperative effect lies in nonstan-dard rules and regulations, lack of motivation system, inadequate funding and so on. Conclusions: In order to promote sector's cooperation, we should strengthen the government's public service function to

  4. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  5. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  6. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  7. Criminal policy: Basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary literature on law, politicology and security, there have been various attempts in both scientific and applied disciplines to define the notion and content of the crime suppression policy. The differences underlying these diverse views are based on the different starting points, i.e. whether the criminal policy is perceived as: 1] a scientific (academic] discipline; b] a practical daily activity of competent state authorities and other relevant bodies; 3] an activity of combating crime as a set of most dangerous human behaviors which imperil the most important personal assets and social values; and 4] an activity aimed at suppressing all types of illegal behavior (felonies, misdemeanors, delinquency, economic crimes, etc]. Some authors view the policy of crime suppression as a scientific discipline which provides for the appropriate use of existing tools in combating crime. Concurrently, on the basis of defined body of knowledge and analysis, the science (including some sciences outside the field of law] suggests relevant measures for efficient suppression of crime. Another conception is based on the idea that criminal policy has a dual meaning, i.e. that it may be understood as: 1] a practical social activity aimed at accomplishing the envisaged goals (also known as a practical dimension of crime policy], and 2] a scientific discipline which explores, analyses and proposes measures of social reaction towards criminal behavior. In practice, criminal policy encompasses a system of purposeful, consciously planned and coordinated social activities aimed at preventing crime and protecting the society at large. When perceived in this way, criminal policy is the basic element of the general public policy in a specific society. Just like the criminal law of an individual state, criminal policy is based on specific principles (governing rules].

  8. The Effects of a Combined Task Clarification, Goal Setting, Feedback, and Performance Contingent Consequence Intervention Package on Telephone Customer Service in a Medical Clinic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowiak, Julie M.; Madden, Gregory J.; Mathews, Ramona

    2006-01-01

    Appointment coordinators at a mid-western medical clinic were to provide exceptional telephone customer service. This included using a standard greeting, speaking in an appropriate tone of voice during the conversation, and using a standard closing to end the call. An analysis suggested performance deficiencies resulted from weak antecedents, poor…

  9. A Revealed Preference Approach to Estimating Supply Curves for Ecosystem Services: Use of Auctions to Set Payments for Soil Erosion Control in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jack, B.K.; Beria, L.; Ferraro, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    To supply ecosystem services, private landholders incur costs. Knowledge of these costs is critical for the design of conservation-payment programs. Estimating these costs accurately is difficult because the minimum acceptable payment to a potential supplier is private information. We describe how a

  10. Impact of specialist home-based palliative care services in a tertiary oncology set up: A prospective non-randomized observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil R Dhiliwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home-based specialist palliative care services are developed to meet the needs of the patients in advanced stage of cancer at home with physical symptoms and distress. Specialist home care services are intended to improve symptom control and quality of life, enable patients to stay at home, and avoid unnecessary hospital admission. Materials and Methods: Total 690 new cases registered under home-based palliative care service in the year 2012 were prospectively studied to assess the impact of specialist home-based services using Edmonton symptom assessment scale (ESAS and other parameters. Results: Out of the 690 registered cases, 506 patients received home-based palliative care. 50.98% patients were cared for at home, 28.85% patients needed hospice referral and 20.15% patients needed brief period of hospitalization. All patients receiving specialist home care had good relief of physical symptoms ( P < 0.005. 83.2% patients received out of hours care (OOH through liaising with local general practitioners; 42.68% received home based bereavement care and 91.66% had good bereavement outcomes. Conclusion: Specialist home-based palliative care improved symptom control, health-related communication and psychosocial support. It promoted increased number of home-based death, appropriate and early hospice referral, and averted needless hospitalization. It improved bereavement outcomes, and caregiver satisfaction.

  11. Change of Geographic Information Service Model in Mobile Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fu; DU Qingyun

    2005-01-01

    A research on that how the topic of mobility, which is completely different but tightly relevant to space, provides new approaches and methods so as to promote the further development of geographic information services, will accumulate basic experience for different types of relative information systems in the wide fields of location based services. This paper analyzes the meaning of mobility and the change for geographic information service model, it describes the differences and correlation between M-GIS and traditional GIS. It sets a technical framework of geographic information services according to mobile context and provides a case study.

  12. Research on the Service Facility's Scale Setting of Tourism Highway in Mountainous Region%山区旅游公路服务设施规模设置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王肇飞; 席建锋; 丁同强

    2009-01-01

    服务设施是改善疲劳驾驶、保障交通安全的有效手段,既要通过合理的功能布设和完善的服务设施吸引驾驶员多停车,又要保证一定的经济性,避免出现过多的浪费和对环境的破坏,因此,服务设施规模设置至关重要.结合山区旅游公路交通和安全特点,从设计交通量和驶入率两方面对服务设施规模计算模型进行改进,并根据内蒙古S203线林区旅游公路进行验证.%Service facilities as a means of improving driving fatigue, and an effective means to protect the safety, this papers has carried on the analysis and the localization to the service function of which lie in mountainous area, and on this basis, through draw on the overseas highway service scale definite method, relating the characteristic of tourism highway in mountain, improves the scale calculation model for service facility, and produces the suited scale definite method for service facility of tourism highway in mountain. And also the principles and methods above mentioned are applied to the construction of S203 Highway in Inner Mongolia.

  13. Improving health service access and wellbeing of young Aboriginal parents in an urban setting: mixed methods evaluation of an arts-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersky, Michelle; Titmuss, Angela; Haswell, Melissa; Freeman, Natasha; Osborne, Perdi; Callaghan, Lola; Winters, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Sally; Zwi, Karen

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate an urban art-based community health program (Ngala Nanga Mai; We Dream) that seeks to improve health, education, empowerment and connectedness of Aboriginal parents by describing paediatric health service attendance, maternal educational engagement, participant growth and empowerment, and worker and participant experiences. Mixed methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through interviews and focus groups. Demographics, health service use and child health status were extracted from clinical records. Psycho-social empowerment and wellbeing was measured using the Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM). A Critical Effectiveness Factor framework that measures factors necessary for success, effectiveness and sustainability was used to assess program quality. Between 2009 and 2012, 92 Aboriginal parents participated. A total of 93.5% of regular participants engaged their children at least once with paediatric health services and 27.1% undertook further education. Empowerment scores significantly improved, despite little change in psychological distress. The program operationalised all 10 Critical Effectiveness Factors for youth wellbeing. Ngala Nanga Mai creates an environment of social connectedness, strengthened parenting, maternal and child wellbeing and empowerment. It supports increased utilisation of health, education and support services, and early detection of treatable child health issues. Improving the health of Aboriginal children requires new strategies and learning from innovative programs. Solid baseline data, long-term follow-up data and meaningful health outcome data are critical to improving services and health outcomes at the program level. Ultimately, long-term commitment to adequate resourcing is needed in order to deliver broader improvement of child health outcomes. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. The Commission’s internal conditions for social re-regulation: Market efficiency and wider social goals in setting the rules for financial services in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartlapp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is often considered as a prime example of a liberal regulatory state. We argue, however, that being limited to the regulatory policy does not prevent the European Commission from pursuing political aims going beyond market efficiency. We draw up two ideal-type perspectives of market regulation – being either efficiency or equality enhancing – that differ systematically in terms of rationale, degree of intervention, patterns of stakeholder access and conflict within the regulator. We trace these aspects in three financial services initiatives on the registration and supervision of reinsurers, equal treatment in financial services and the regulation of consumer credit. Our analyses suggest that there is scope for equality-enhancing re-regulation when proactive agents proceed decidedly on the basis of social-treaty concerns and frame regulatory beneficiaries as market participants as well as when they seek the redistribution of rights instead of resources.

  15. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social sciences. The set of concepts found will be modeled in terms of automata, thus providing a way of unifying the five fields in a general mathematical setting.

  16. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  17. Set theory essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Set Theory includes elementary logic, sets, relations, functions, denumerable and non-denumerable sets, cardinal numbers, Cantor's theorem, axiom of choice, and order relations.

  18. Basic education in communist Hungary. A commons approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Gyuris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In commons research, the study of the ‘knowledge commons’ has emerged as a new field of interest over the last few years. Our paper begins by providing a brief overview of the state of research in the field, and proceeds by discussing some crucial but relatively underconceptualised issues. The difference between information and knowledge, and the ambiguities surrounding the claim that all sorts of knowledge can be considered part of the commons, are the focal point here. We also pay close attention to education, arguing that it is not a common good, but rather a common-pool resource institution that ensures that some forms of knowledge can be governed as a commons. With regard to these issues, the article provides a case study, one in which we analyse basic education in Communist Hungary, and look for evidence of the commons design principles as outlined in Elinor Ostrom’s IAD Framework. Given the complex nature of basic education, we investigate it from three points of view: as a service, as a set of physical structures (e.g. school buildings, and as a complex of organizational structures (e.g. legal and financial arrangements. On the basis of empirical findings we argue that basic education in the Stalinist epoch did not correspond to Ostromian design principles. Basic education, therefore, was not managed in an equitable way, and its geographical accessibility was uneven. During the ‘technocratic’ Communism of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the education system underwent important changes. However, though the circle of those who had some impact on the governance of education expanded, most individuals involved with the education system were still excluded. As a result, the commons approach did not become stronger in general, nor did spatial unevenness with respect to access to basic education decrease. The paper finishes with a brief conclusion of our findings and a discussion of some questions for future research.

  19. Dendroidal sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, I.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis introduces the new concept of dendroidal set. Dendroidal sets are a generalization of simplicial sets that are particularly suited to the study of operads in the context of homotopy theory. The relation between operads and dendroidal sets is established via the dendroidal nerve functor wh

  20. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo