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Sample records for basic safety standards

  1. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the provisions of its Statute relevant to the adoption and application of safety standards for protection against radiation, the Agency convened a panel of experts which formulated the Basic Safety Standards set forth in this publication. The panel met under the chairmanship of Professor L. Bugnard, Director of the French Institut National d'Hygiene, and representatives of the United Nations and of several of its specialized agencies participated in its work. The Basic Safety Standards thus represent the result of a most careful assessment of the variety of complex scientific and administrative problems involved. Nevertheless, of course, they will need to be revised from time to time in the light of advances in scientific knowledge, of comments received from Member States and of the work of other competent international organizations. The Agency's Board of Governors in June 1962 approved the Standards as a first edition, subject to later revision as mentioned above, and authorized Director General Sigvard Eklund to apply the Standards in Agency and Agency-assisted operations and to invite Governments of Member States to take them as a basis in formulating national regulations or recommendations on protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. It is mainly for this last purpose that the Basic Safety Standards are now being published in the Safety Series; but it is hoped that this publication will also interest a much wider circle of readers.

  2. Basic safety standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review is made of the pathological effects of ionizing radiations. The basic safety standards for the various categories of persons likely to be exposed to radioactive radiation or materials are developed as well as their significance and the mind governing their application

  3. The 2011 Revised Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BSS (International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources) are published by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and other cosponsoring international organizations. This document is the best known publication of the IAEA and it constitutes the basis for national regulations in radiation protection (for occupational, public and medical exposures). In parallel with the publication of the 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), the IAEA - together with the cosponsors of the BSS - began a revision process in light of the new ICRP recommendations and other developments in radiation protection since the publication of the 1996 BSS. The revised version was approved for publication by the Board of Governors of the IAEA in September 2011 and published as interim version in November 2011. The final version will be published after approval by the cosponsoring organizations.

  4. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  5. Basic safety standards for radiation protection. 1982 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have undertaken to provide jointly a world-wide basis for harmonized and up-to-date radiation protection standards. The new Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection are based upon the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which are essentially contained in its Publication No.26. These new Basic Safety Standards have been elaborated by an Advisory Group of Experts which met in Vienna from 10-14 October 1977, from 23-27 October 1978 and from 1-12 December 1980 under the joint auspices of the IAEA, ILO, WHO and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. Comments on the draft Basic Safety Standards received from Member States and relevant organizations were taken into account by the Advisory Group in the process of preparation of the revised Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, which are published by the IAEA on behalf of the four sponsoring organizations. One of the main features of this revision is an increased emphasis on the recommendation to keep all exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; consequently, radiation protection should not only apply the basic dose limits but also comply with this recommendation. Detailed guidance is given to assist those who have to decide on the implementation of this recommendation in particular cases. Another important feature is the recommendation of a more coherent method for achieving consistency in limiting risks to health, irrespective of whether the risk is of uniform or non-uniform exposure of the body.

  6. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  7. The basic safety standards on diskette. International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program SS115 contains the text and data from Safety Series No. 115: 'International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' published by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996. The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  8. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection - 1967 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first revision of the Basic Safety Standards was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 1965. It was prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts chaired by Prof. L. Bugnard, Director of the French Institut National d'Hygiene, and attended by representatives of several international organizations. Comments from Member States were considered and changes were introduced on the basis of recommendations made by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 1966. The Director General of the IAEA has been authorized by the Board to apply the revised Standards to IAEA and IAEA-assisted operations. It has also been recommended that the national regulations of Member States should conform, as far as is practicable, to the revised Standards. (author)

  9. The revision of the Euratom basic safety standards directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a long and intense process of negotiations, the Euratom Community updated in 2013 its core radiation protection legislation i.e. the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive. Much more than a description of the content of its 109 articles and 19 annexes, the aim of this article is to focus on few points which reveal the growing level ambition of the Euratom Community. In December 2013, the Council of the European Union adopted the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom 2. From historically scattered directives oriented on workers, general public and patients, the new BSS Directive provides for a global radiation protection approach. Of course, the specificities attached to the status of the person exposed to ionising radiation (worker, member of the public, patient) are preserved by this new Directive, but we can also perceive a trend to smoothen the traditional differences between these different regimes. Instead of an exhaustive description of all the new provisions of the Directive, this paper will focus on few examples revealing how radiation protection is reinforced for both traditional and non-traditional figures. Before analyzing more deeply the provisions of the new Directive, an overview of the international and regional contexts is necessary to appreciate the extensive added-value of the BSS Directive. (author)

  10. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  11. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  12. Transposition of the EU basic safety standards. The Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for a new Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the danger arising from exposure to ionizing radiation replacing a Council Directive 29/96 and recasting four other Directives - medical, outside workers, HASS (high activity sealed sources) and public information in emergency has been developed and it is prepared for adoption procedure. The Member States (MS) are requested to implement this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. The Czech Republic has participated in the development of this new Directive actively from the beginning of the process. There could be expected an impact to the Czech legislation in several areas. Main changes will be presented in the Atomic Law and in the Radiation Protection Regulation which are currently under preparation and should substitute actual national legislation in the field. Also ICRP 103 is already as far as possible reflected by the new Czech legislation. A proposal of the Czech Atomic Law already includes a new ICRP terminology - e.g. planned, emergency, existing exposure situation, reference levels instead of intervention levels and it also reflects extension of optimization principle and more specifically a graded approach by introducing a registration as a specific level of authorization supplemented with a unique and simplified procedure. Regarding the regulatory infrastructure there is no identified urgent need for changes as far as the current Czech system already complies with the requirements of the Directive proposal (the EU BSS). In fact, there is a new structure of the Czech regulatory authority proposed, introducing a Council with a president as a head instead of the current structure headed solely by a president. The regulation of exposure from natural sources is already very well handled in the current Czech legislation - there exists a national radon program since 1992 and the legislation is also dealing with regulation of NORM workplaces

  13. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  14. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3 (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  15. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  16. Adoption and adaptation of the International Basic Safety Standards to Cuban reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Cuban regulatory document homologous to the 'International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' (IBSS) will be published in the near future. The document was accomplished on the basis of the IAEA Safety Series No 115 to which text it was performed the needed changes in order adapt it to the national reality in the field of protection and safety. The document is published with the consensus of the principal organizations and entities with specific responsibilities in relation to protection and safety as well as the consensus of the entities providing services in this field. The present paper presents and discusses the basic aspects included in the Cuban document that in one or another way should be considered as precision in reference to the IBSS. (author)

  17. Transition effects in the implementation of the new recommendations of Basic Safety Standards (BSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, the Romanian nuclear national legislation is tightly connected to the current international legislative framework. The provisions and the recommendations laid down by the International Community in the ICRP-60 document and in the International Basic Safety Standards led to specific approaches that take into account the different levels of development in the nuclear field as well as social and economic peculiarities of the country. Thereby, a process of harmonization of the international provisions with the local features is a logic and necessary step toward a rational enforcement of these standards. Both the principles and the quantitative values (limits and levels) acquired in the ICRP-60 document and in the International Basic Safety Standards after a mutual general consent have a specific impact on practices and interventions related to the existent sources as well as to the new sources, for instance, the multi-purpose irradiator in Romania. (author)

  18. Implementation of the basic safety standards in the regulations of european countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Euratom Basic Safety Standards for the radiological protection of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation were laid down in Directive 96/29/Euratom adopted by the Council in May 1996. It should have been implemented in Members States before 13 May 2000. Other European countries should refer to the 'International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources' issued in 1994 and jointly sponsored by FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO. The objective of this information sheet, is to review the progress in implementing these Basic Safety Standards in the national regulations of European countries. This paper will describe specifically how the three fundamental principles of radiological protection have evolved (justification, optimisation and limitation). The implementation of the European Directive was expected before mid-May 2000, most, of the different Member States have today integrated it into their national laws. However, in those countries where it is not yet totally integrated, the projects are quite close to the final draft and will be therefore referred to in that presentation. (authors)

  19. Modernisation and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation: the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the publication of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. A revision of the Basic Safety Standards was needed in order (1) to take account of the scientific and technological progress since 1996 and (2) to consolidate the existing set of Euratom radiation protection legislation, merging five Directives and upgrading a recommendation to become legally binding. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document basics safety standards for radiation protection, which take account of the most recent advances in science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After the publication of the Directive in the beginning of 2014, Member States have 4 y to transpose the Directive into national legislation and to implement the requirements therein. (authors)

  20. Education and training requirements in the revised European Basic Safety Standards Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission is currently developing a modified European Basic Safety Standards Directive covering two major objectives: the consolidation of existing European Radiation Protection legislation, and the revision of the European Basic Safety Standards. The consolidation will merge the following five Directives into one single Directive: the Basic Safety Standards Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive, the Public Information Directive, the Outside Workers Directive, and the Directive on the Control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. The revision of the European Basic Safety Standards will take account of the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and shall improve clarity of the requirements where appropriate. It is planned to introduce more binding requirements on natural radiation sources, on criteria for clearance, and on the cooperation between Member States for emergency planning and response, as well as a graded approach for regulatory control. One additional goal is to achieve greater harmonisation between the European BSS and the international BSS. Following a recommendation from the Article 31 Group of Experts, the current draft of the modified BSS will highlight the importance of education and training by dedicating a specific title to radiation protection education, training and information. This title will include a general requirement on the Member States to ensure the establishment of an adequate legislative and administrative framework for providing appropriate radiation protection education, training and information. In addition, there will be specific requirements on training in the medical field, on information and training of workers in general, of workers potentially exposed to orphan sources, and to emergency workers. The revised BSS directive will include requirements on the competence of a radiation protection expert (RPE) and of a radiation protection

  1. Proposals for the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 and the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Direction 2000. Consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains proposals for changes to the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA 93) and proposals for a Direction to be given to the Environment Agency in order to implement aspects of the European Directive 96/29/Euratom concerned with the control of radioactive waste. The Directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation. With the Government pledged to making government more accessible and responsive, an important feature of this approach is effective consultation with all interested organisations. This leads to more realistic and robust proposals, which is particularly important when dealing with proposed legislation. In March this year, the Government published a consultation paper 'The Radioactive Substances Act 1993: Implementing the Revised Basic Safety Standards Directive Euratom 96/29.' This sought comments on the basic principles for change - including the setting of levels of radioactivity below which radioactive material should be considered outside the framework of regulatory control. This document forms the second stage of the consultation process with the aim of gathering views on the proposed legal instruments to implement the Directive. This document: explains the background to the proposed regulations (paragraphs 8-13); summarises the results of the consultation on principles (paragraphs 14-24); describes the proposed changes (paragraphs 25-36); includes draft Regulations (paragraphs 27-29); includes a draft Direction to the Environment Agency (paragraphs 30-36); describes the next steps (paragraphs 37-39); includes a draft Regulatory Impact Assessment (paragraphs 40-41). In general, the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have assumed responsibility for environmental issues and hence management of radioactive waste policies and legislation affecting their respective countries. However, this

  2. The Revised International Basic Safety Standards and Their Potential Impact on Radiation Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Revised International Basic Safety Standards (international BSS) were published as an interim edition in November 2011. The international BSS cover radiation protection in all uses of radiation and have an important role in many countries, especially in the developing world. Issues of particular relevance for the next decade, addressed in the international BSS include responsibilities for patient radiation protection, justification for medical exposure of individual patients, imaging of asymptomatic individuals for the early detection of disease, software that can influence the delivery of medical exposure, diagnostic reference levels, voluntary safety reporting systems, radiological reviews, personal monitoring and the dose limit for the lens of the eye. The international BSS should provide an effective regulatory basis for radiation protection in medicine for the next decade, but effective implementation is needed. Further, the international BSS not only set the basic requirements but also provide the foundation for enabling additional actions to continuously improve radiation protection in medicine. (author)

  3. The new Basic Safety Standards Directive and its implications for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Augustin; Necheva, Christina; Tanner, Vesa; Turai, István

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the environment is enshrined in Chapter 3 of the Euratom Treaty, in particular its Articles 35 and 36. These requirements in primary law have had an important impact on the importance of monitoring in Europe but have not been worked out in much detail in secondary legislation. The consolidation and revision of the Basic Safety Standards Directive was an opportunity for doing so. The requirements in Directive 96/29/Euratom had remained rather general. Now, more specific text is introduced on the establishment of discharge authorisations for radioactive effluents, and on monitoring these discharges. Requirements on estimation of public exposures and on environmental monitoring programmes have largely been copied from the old basic safety standards (BSS), however. The main novelty of the new BSS is the introduction of exposure situations, as defined by the ICRP in Publication 103 (2007). Environmental monitoring as part of the management of an emergency exposure situation is now addressed more clearly. As for existing exposure situations, indoor exposure to radon requires extensive surveys of indoor air or soil concentrations, and precise requirements are made on the management of residues from industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) as well as on the monitoring of building materials. Although the BSS do not address specific monitoring issues, studies have been undertaken on effluents from hospitals and on long-term management of uranium mining areas. The proposal for the new Basic Safety Standards Directive is examined in the light of experience of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disabled by the terrible tsunami on 11 March 2011. The arrangements for information exchange in a normal situation and in an emergency exposure situation need to be looked at from this perspective as well as from the perspective of smaller incidents such as the release of (131)I in Hungary in

  4. Implementation of the international basic safety standards in IAEA member states: a unique experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last seven years, an unprecedented proactive international co-operative effort has been implemented in 52 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) within tire framework of its Technical Co-operation (TC) Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure. The objectives of this Model Project are to assist those Member States which have an inadequate radiation and waste safety infrastructure and are already receiving IAEA assistance, in complying with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. These objectives are in line with the statutory mandate of the IAEA, which stipulates that safety standards are to be applied to its own operations, including all TC activities. Five project milestones were defined in order to facilitate the setting of priorities, the timing and monitoring of progress, the optimisation of resources, and to achieve compliance with the BSS. These milestones comprise the establishment of (1) a regulatory framework; (2) occupational exposure control; (3) medical exposure control; (4) public exposure control; and (5) emergency preparedness and response. By the end of September 2001, more than 75% of participating Member States had promulgated radiation protection laws and established regulatory authorities, and over 60% had put in place individual and workplace monitoring control. During the last seven years of implementation, more than 900 fellows and scientific visitors received individually tailored training; 3 000 persons attended educational and specialized courses; 1150 expert and monitoring missions were undertaken; and equipment worth US$7 millions was provided. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach used and the current status of this Model Project. (author)

  5. Implementation of the basic safety standards: Some thoughts on progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers comments and observations on international implementation of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) and is based on experience and dialogue with professional colleagues. Fifty-one of the 135 IAEA Member States participate in the IAEA Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructures, including the establishment of occupational exposure control. While this should ensure a high standard of worker protection in all IAEA Member States in due course, it would be desirable for some investigation to be conducted into worker protection conditions in those countries that are not Member States of the IAEA. While the BSS and related guidance documents go a long way towards providing international norms, there are still some areas where a consensus on specific matters is difficult to achieve. One such important issue concerns the scope of application of regulations for occupational radiation protection from natural sources and another concerns the question of what constitutes 'occupational exposure'. Other implementation issues are: the treatment of pregnant women, uncertainties in dose assessment, the integration with other occupational health and safety measures, and a dose passport for workers. It is also clear that quality management strategies must be consistently applied to systems for occupational radiation protection. Consideration should be given to reviewing and updating, as necessary, the International Labour Organization's Convention 115 to include reference to the occupational radiation protection requirements of the BSS and to promote regular review and reporting of occupational radiation protection performance by signatory countries. (author)

  6. The new Basic Safety Standards Directive and its implications for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the environment is enshrined in Chapter 3 of the Euratom Treaty, in particular its Articles 35 and 36. These requirements in primary law have had an important impact on the importance of monitoring in Europe but have not been worked out in much detail in secondary legislation. The consolidation and revision of the Basic Safety Standards Directive was an opportunity for doing so. The requirements in Directive 96/29/Euratom had remained rather general. Now, more specific text is introduced on the establishment of discharge authorisations for radioactive effluents, and on monitoring these discharges. Requirements on estimation of public exposures and on environmental monitoring programmes have largely been copied from the old basic safety standards (BSS), however. The main novelty of the new BSS is the introduction of exposure situations, as defined by the ICRP in Publication 103 (2007). Environmental monitoring as part of the management of an emergency exposure situation is now addressed more clearly. As for existing exposure situations, indoor exposure to radon requires extensive surveys of indoor air or soil concentrations, and precise requirements are made on the management of residues from industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) as well as on the monitoring of building materials. Although the BSS do not address specific monitoring issues, studies have been undertaken on effluents from hospitals and on long-term management of uranium mining areas. The proposal for the new Basic Safety Standards Directive is examined in the light of experience of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disabled by the terrible tsunami on 11 March 2011. The arrangements for information exchange in a normal situation and in an emergency exposure situation need to be looked at from this perspective as well as from the perspective of smaller incidents such as the release of 131I in Hungary in autumn

  7. Revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards and Beyond: Transposition and Implementation Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently proposed revised Euratom Basic Safety Standards, while based on existing legislation in Europe, provide several important amendments in the area of radiation protection in medicine. These include, among others, strengthening the implementation of the justification principle and expanding it to medically exposed asymptomatic individuals, more attention to interventional radiology, new requirements for dose recording and reporting, an increased role of the medical physics expert in imaging and a whole new set of requirements for preventing and following up on accidents. The changes will bring further advances in radiation protection of patients across Europe but may pose some challenges to Member States, regulators and clinical professionals, who have to transpose them into national law and everyday practice. Those challenges are discussed in this paper and some suggestions for dealing with them are made, wherever allowed by the format of the relevant meeting. The need for further developments going beyond the revision of the Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community) legislation and requiring cooperation on national and European level has been clearly identified. (author)

  8. Revision of the Euratom basic safety standards directive-current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission is currently developing a revised Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive covering two major objectives: the consolidation of existing Euratom Radiation Protection legislation and the revision of the Euratom BSS. The consolidation will merge the following five Directives into one single Directive: the BSS Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive, the Public Information Directive, the Outside Workers Directive and the Directive on the Control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. The revision of the Euratom BSS will take account of the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and shall improve clarity of the requirements where appropriate. It is planned to introduce more binding requirements on natural radiation sources, on criteria for exemption and clearance, and on the cooperation between Member States for emergency planning and response. The provisions for regulatory control of planned exposure situations foresee a graded approach commensurate to the magnitude and likelihood of exposures from a practice. Finally, the new BSS shall take account of recent scientific developments. One additional goal is to achieve greater harmonisation between the Euratom BSS and the international BSS. While the requirements on the protection of workers, apprentices and students remain nearly unchanged, the revised BSS will clarify the roles and responsibilities of services and experts involved in technical and practical aspects of radiation protection, such as the occupational health services, the dosimetry services, the radiation protection expert and the medical physics expert. The requirements in the BSS on individual monitoring of category A workers remain unchanged, but the existing guidance on individual monitoring was revised and updated-the technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation are published by the European

  9. Transposition of the basic safety standards. Potential impact on French laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation is about to be adopted. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. As far as France is concerned, these evolutions will mainly impact the labour code (for occupational issues) and the public health code for both legal and regulatory requirements. The most significant improvements of the current version of the project are the introduction of graded approach to regulatory control and the enhancement of requirements for protection against natural radiation sources (in particular exposure to radon and naturally occurring radioactive material). This project also aims at achieving a better harmonisation between Member States for topics such as the organization of radiation protection for workers, the justification of medical devices and non-medical imaging exposure situations. ASN has already identified major issues for the transposition of the Directive concerning both French laws and regulations. Main topics should concern the impact of ICRP terminology (planned exposure situation, existing exposure situation versus lasting exposure situation, reference level versus maximum activity level for exposure to radon..) and the extension of both justification and optimisation principles to new activities involving natural radiation sources, such as industries processing naturally occurring radioactive material. Furthermore, France will have to decide whether it will adjust some positions about the prohibition of nonmedical imaging exposures and the release of materials from regulatory control according to generic values. Indeed, the project mentions the possibility to introduce derogations to those major principles. Finally, and according to the graded approach, the project introduces a new

  10. Transposition of the basic safety standards. Potential impact on French laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.M.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The new proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation is about to be adopted. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. As far as France is concerned, these evolutions will mainly impact the labour code (for occupational issues) and the public health code for both legal and regulatory requirements. The most significant improvements of the current version of the project are the introduction of graded approach to regulatory control and the enhancement of requirements for protection against natural radiation sources (in particular exposure to radon and naturally occurring radioactive material). This project also aims at achieving a better harmonisation between Member States for topics such as the organization of radiation protection for workers, the justification of medical devices and non-medical imaging exposure situations. ASN has already identified major issues for the transposition of the Directive concerning both French laws and regulations. Main topics should concern the impact of ICRP terminology (planned exposure situation, existing exposure situation versus lasting exposure situation, reference level versus maximum activity level for exposure to radon..) and the extension of both justification and optimisation principles to new activities involving natural radiation sources, such as industries processing naturally occurring radioactive material. Furthermore, France will have to decide whether it will adjust some positions about the prohibition of nonmedical imaging exposures and the release of materials from regulatory control according to generic values. Indeed, the project mentions the possibility to introduce derogations to those major principles. Finally, and according to the graded approach, the project introduces a new

  11. Application of the international basic safety standards to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological and regulatory developments concerning exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) during the last two decades have resulted in progress towards achieving broad international consensus on managing exposure to NORM. The need for radiation protection measures in work activities involving minerals and raw materials has been addressed by the IAEA in Safety Reports Series No. 49: 'Assessing the need for Radiation Protection Measures in Work Involving Minerals and Raw Materials'. The report identifies the industry sectors and process materials most likely to need regulatory consideration and provides information to assist regulatory bodies in establishing the necessary radiation protection measures. The industry sectors likely to require regulatory consideration are the mining and processing of uranium ore, the extraction of rare earth elements, the production and use of thorium and its compounds, the production of niobium and ferro-niobium the mining of certain ores other than uranium, the production of oil and gas, the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments, the phosphate industry, the zircon and zirconia industries, the production of certain metals, coal combustion and water treatment. Regulatory control is needed for mining and processing of uranium and thorium in ores (including monazite). In other NORM industries, doses received by workers and members of the public have been found to be mostly below 1 mSv per year, and may not require the implementation of comprehensive radiation protection programmes. This is in line with the graded approach to regulation, as embodied in the 'International Basis Safety Standards for Protection against ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources' IAEA Safety Series No.115 (the BSS). A revised version of the BSS which is currently being drafted incorporates numerical criteria for the regulation of NORM. For radionuclides in the 238U and 232Th decay series, a criterion of 1 Bq/g has been

  12. The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance as used in the interagency basic safety standards and related IAEA documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms are needed to remove from regulatory control those exposures or radiation sources that do not warrant concern. In this paper three such conceptual mechanisms are examined from their historical development to their current usage in the Interagency Basic Safety Standards. These concepts are exclusion, applied to exposures that are not amenable to control, exemption applied in advance on the basis of low risks to prevent practices or sources from entering the regulatory control system, and clearance, a similar concept but used to remove sources from the regulatory control system. The application of and interrelationships between these concepts, is described. (author)

  13. Modernization and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation. The new EURATOM radiation protection basic safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document, basics safety standards for radiation protection which take account of the status-quo of science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After having received very positive opinions of the Article 31 Group of Experts and the European Economic and Social Committee, the proposed Directive has reached agreement in the Working Party on Atomic Questions of the European Council (WPAQ). The Opinion of the European Parliament is expected in September 2013, which would allow a publication of the Directive in the Official Journal of the European Union by the end of 2013. (orig.)

  14. Validation of the implementation of the basic standards of national radiological safety in radioactive facilities of the east Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since with it publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba began to govern the Basic Standards of Radiological Safety (NBSR) its have lapsed five years. In it practical implementation, by part of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), several resources have been applied among those that its find the identification of the nonfulfillment of the requirements of the NBSR in the inspections, the establishment of validity conditions of the authorizations that are granted, emission and the publication of specific Safety Guides by practice. In the work it is carried out a detailed and integral analysis of the execution of those settled down requirements by the Standards in a representative group of radioactive medical and industrial facilities in the east of the country, by means of the valuation of the deficiencies and requirements pointed out in the inspections carried out during those years 2004 and 2005. As a result of the work the particularities of the level of proven implementation of this body are exposed from the point of view of the ARN that one keeps in mind for it later performance and can being of interest for others regulatory authorities. (Author)

  15. Transposition of requirements set out in the basic safety standards for nuclear facilities in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania has one nuclear power plant - Ignalina NPP, which contains two RBMK-1500 reactors (actual thermal power output - 4 200 MW, electrical power capacity - 1 500 MW). The First Unit of Ignalina NPP went into operation at the end of 1983, the second Unit in August 1987. Alter Lithuania regained it's independence in 1990, because of changed political thinking, when old standards have been replaced by national, constantly the 'new' thinking is being implemented. This is also happened in the field of radiation protection. A number of new laws, Government Resolutions, regulatory documents (Hygiene Standards and Orders of Ministers) have been established which forms the legal basis for radiation protection in Lithuania. It shall be considered that one of tools which allows to keep the national radiation protection requirements in accordance with international standards, is the harmonization of national legislation with the international requirements and recommendations. The radiation protection requirements set out by the relevant Lithuanian radiation protection legislation directly related to nuclear facilities are presented in the paper. (authors)

  16. Misapplication of the IAEA 1996 basic safety standards to the minerals industry. Impact on the NORM and TENORM issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining and processing of minerals results in increased concentrations of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products and/or process wastes, relative to the source materials. The technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) phenomenon may bring minerals industry operations into the ream of regulatory concern worldwide. The IAEA 1996 International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) have become the de facto blueprint for a number of national radiation safety regulations. But verbatim adoption of the BSS would clearly result in the great majority of minerals industry operations becoming, for the first time ever, subject to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, notification, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of radiation safety staff etc. would be required. This would not only constitute a major culture shock' but would result in ongoing logistics and economic burden to the affected operations. In some cases it could spell their end. The commensurate demand on regulatory authorities would also emerge. The exemption criteria from the requirements of the BSS are very restrictive. They are not suitable for mining and processing of NORM/TENORM bearing minerals. The criteria have been expressed in terms of numerical exemption levels for hundreds of radionuclides, including all those that occur naturally. The levels specify both, the maximum exempted Activity Concentration and the maximum exempted total Activity of each radionuclide in the host material. Even if an operation could comply with the Activity Concentration criterion, due to the sheer mass of the minerals a non-compliance with the total Activity would always occur. The maximum exempted mass is of the order of single kilograms for wastes from petroleum and gas production, tin smelting and bauxite ore processing; for phosphate rock, fertilisers and most mineral sands products

  17. Adoption and adaptation of the International Basic Safety Standards to Cuban reality; Adopcion y adaptacion de las normas basicas internacionales de seguridad a la realidad cubana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.; Alonso Gonzalez, I.; Guillen Campos, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: regulacion@cnsn.cu

    2001-07-01

    The new Cuban regulatory document homologous to the 'International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' (IBSS) will be published in the near future. The document was accomplished on the basis of the IAEA Safety Series No 115 to which text it was performed the needed changes in order adapt it to the national reality in the field of protection and safety. The document is published with the consensus of the principal organizations and entities with specific responsibilities in relation to protection and safety as well as the consensus of the entities providing services in this field. The present paper presents and discusses the basic aspects included in the Cuban document that in one or another way should be considered as precision in reference to the IBSS. (author)

  18. The radiation safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture the development of radiation safety standards by the IAEA which is a statutory function of the IAEA is presented. The latest editions of the basic safety standards published by the IAEA in cooperation with ICRP, FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO and WHO are reviewed

  19. Fasteners 5 basic standards

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This 3rd edition of DIN Handbook 193 contains 38 fundamental standards on fasteners, covering such areas as countersinks and counterbores, widths across flats, thread run-outs and thread undercuts, bolt and screw ends, stud ends and tapped holes for compression couplings, driving features, tolerances for screw threads and nomenclature. New to this compilation are DIN 34824 dealing with 12 point sockets for bolts and screws and DIN EN ISO 15065 which reflects current practice in Europe with regard to countersinks for countersunk head screws. Also included for the first time is DIN EN ISO 225 "Fasteners - Bolts, screws, studs and nuts - Symbols and descriptions of dimensions" which, together with DIN ISO 1891, now also incorporates terminology in Chinese, Japanese and Swedish. Four standards have been revised for this edition, among them DIN 918 Supplement 3 which provides information on the current status of European standardization relating to fasteners. DIN Handbook 193 is one of a series of six handbooks on...

  20. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  1. Safety Training: Basic Safety and Access Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Vignes

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the basic safety courses is to increase awareness for everyone working on the CERN site (CERN staff, associates, outside companies, students and apprentices) of the various existing on-site hazards, and how to recognize and avoid them. Safety course changes The current organization for basic safety courses is changing. There will be two main modifications: the organization of the courses and the implementation of a specific new training course for the LHC machine during the LHC tests and hardware commissioning phase. Organizational changes This concerns the existing basic safety training, currently called level1, level2 and level3. Under the new procedure, a video will be projected in registration building 55 and will run every day at 14.00 and 15.00 in English. The duration of the video will be 50 minutes. The course contents will be the same as the slides currently used, plus a video showing real situations. With this new organization, attendees will systematically follow the...

  2. Safety Training: basic safety and access courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the basic safety courses is to increase awareness for everyone working on the CERN site (CERN staff, associates, outside companies, students and apprentices) of the various hazards existing on site, and how to recognise and avoid them. Safety course changes The current organisation of basic safety courses is changing. There will be two main modifications: the organisation of the courses and the implementation of a specific new training course for the LHC machine during the LHC tests and hardware commissioning phase. Organisational changes This concerns the existing basic safety training, currently called level 1, level 2 and level 3. Under the new procedure, a video will be projected in registration building 55 and will run every day at 14.00 and 15.00 in English. The duration of the video will be 50 minutes. The course contents will be the same as the slides currently used, plus a video showing real situations. With this new organization, participants will systematically follow...

  3. Radiation protection of medical staff in the latest draft of the revised Euratom Basic Safety Standards directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union has a long and successful history of legislating in the area of radiation protection of the public, workers and individuals submitted to medical exposure, the first Euratom “Basic Safety Standards” (BSS) adopted in 1959 and subsequently updated and supplemented with other Directives. The recent revision of this legislation aims to update it in the light of the latest knowledge and experience and to simplify it by consolidating the current legal acts into one Directive. The draft of the revised Euratom BSS Directive has been approved by the group of scientific experts under Euratom Treaty Article 31 and is currently undergoing the European Commission’s procedures. This draft contains several new or amended provisions relating to protection of medical staff, among them: (i) a streamlining of the annual dose limit provisions, (ii) enhancing the use of dose constraints in optimization of protection, and (iii) ensuring better recording and transfer of occupational dose data including in cases of trans-border movement of workers. The Community action to radiation protection of workers is not restricted to passing relevant legislation but also includes ‘soft action’ as issuing guidance, supporting research and stakeholders’ involvement, etc. In August 2010 the Commission issued a Communication to the Council and the European Parliament dealing with the issues in the medical uses of ionizing radiation, including those relating to radiation protection of medical staff.

  4. Basic methodical concept of engineering safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination and assessment of technical risks constitute the basis for setting safety standards which should be guided by the principle of similarly low risks in comparable situations. Safety science cannot yet provide international standardization efforts with a complete basic methodical concept promising enough to be universally recognized. For causally substantiated risks, the methodical instrument of risk comparison seems to be best suited as an optimization principle. For causally not removable imponderabilities, no risk comparisons are possible. Such cases can only be judged by opportunity, because their non-causal character does not stand scientific treatment. (orig.)

  5. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  6. Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Commission of the European Communities. Luxembourg

    Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

  7. NASA Software Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    1997-01-01

    If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

  8. Global nuclear law in the making? Joint exercise of public powers in the nuclear field: the case of the revision of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision process of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), Safety Series No. 115, 1996 (hereinafter referred to as 1996 BSS) has reached its final stage. After the review of the 1996 BSS in 2005, the revision process started in 2006 and the final draft of the revised BSS was submitted to the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in August 2011 for approval. Subsequent to the decision of the IAEA Board of Governors adopted on 12 September 2011, the competent organs of the other potential sponsoring organisations also started to adopt or acknowledge, as appropriate, the text, which then will come into force one year after the date of the respective adoption or acknowledgement by the relevant organisation. The BSS revision process is an example of joint exercise of public powers by multiple and diverse actors aiming at normative development, the outcome of which is a special type of 'global nuclear law'. This article will analyse the BSS revision process from the institutional legal point of view with particular attention to (1) the multiple actors involved in the revision process; (2) the legal framework within which the revision process took place; (3) the nature of revision process; and (4) the legal nature of the revised BSS3 itself

  9. The draft Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2002. Proposals for the implementation of European Directive 96/29/ Euratom (laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation); consultation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This consultation paper contains proposals for changes to the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 and the introduction of new subordinate legislation to implement aspects of the European Directive Euratom 96/29. This directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionising radiation. This consultation paper:- explains the background to the proposed regulations; summarises the results of the initial consultation exercise; describes the proposed changes; contains the draft regulations; describes the Next Steps and contains a draft Regulatory Impact Assessment

  10. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be...

  11. UY 100 standard basic regulation of protection and radiological safety: approve by Industry Energy and Mining Ministry 28/6/2002 Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following standard studies basic purposes of the radiological protection,practices classification, required for authorization in nuclear installations, equipment and radiation sources to grant permission, occupational, medical, and public exposition, and emergency plans

  12. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  13. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  14. Consequences of the EU basic safety standards. Omission of the clearance for demolition/disposal with respect to the deconstruction projects of WAK GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WAK GmbH's task is to decommission the nuclear installation projects at the KIT Campus Nord. These include the former Reprocessing Plant (WAK-Anlage), the Multi-purpose Research Reactor (MZFR), Research Reactor 2 (FR2), Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility (KNK), the Hot Cells (HZ) and some more small research facilities of the KIT. The buildings should be released by paragraph 29 German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) after the demolition of the process-engineering equipment. For this the clearance levels for 'demolition of buildings' Annex III Tab. 1 Column 10 (StrlSchV) must be reached, depth profiles were sampled on order to estimate how much material of the walls has to be removed to reach the values of the clearance levels. In a proposal (10926/12 ATO 90 SOC 501 SAN 149) on the basis of new scientific knowledge the EU plans to introduce clearance levels from the IAEA - ''Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption and Clearance RS-G-1.7''. In the proposal there are only clearance levels for an unrestricted release. Clearance levels for specific purpose (Annex III Tab. 1 Column 9a - 9d, 10 and 10a StrlSchV) are not named. A worst case scenario has been made what the possible effects are if the unrestricted release in the proposal of the basic safety standards from EU is guilty for every material. An estimation were done how much material and how much volume of building rubbish has to be removed to reach these new resulted clearance. Based on these volumes the caused additional financial costs for the final disposal for the WAK GmbH were calculated. (orig.)

  15. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates

  16. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  17. Use of IAEA safety standards in the development of European safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The harmonisation of safety standards at an EU level is not a new idea. Work has gone on since 1975. Much of this work has been inseparable from the work on standards done at the IAEA. A set of basic safety principles were published by the Commission in 1981 that tied safety to the legally binding 'basic safety standards' for radiation protection adopted under Chapter III of the Euratom Treaty. Parallel and similar work was being carried out at the IAEA. Starting from a very similar base, the two activities have more recently developed differently, the IAEA worked on the further development and revision of nuclear safety standards while the European Commission activities tended more towards the practical harmonisation of general safety requirements for design and operation. The EU has basic safety standards for radiation protection. These are nearly identical to those developed by the ICRP and used by the IAEA, but are binding within the EU territory. Why a push for common standards now? The Nuclear Safety Convention highlighted the benefits of an international nuclear safety regime. The EU Member States realised that the task of assessing nuclear safety in the countries candidate for accession was hampered by lack of common standards or practices. The European Parliament called on the EU to adopt common safety standards (in July 2002). The Member States themselves agreed that a high level of nuclear safety is needed throughout the EU (Laeken Summit). The European Court of Justice ruling of December 2002 clearly stated that EU could not artificially separate radiation protection from nuclear safety. The IAEA is currently clarifying and ordering its numerous safety requirements and guidelines. The European Commission and many Member States are involved in the work. Once the IAEA has completed this process we will implement the results in the EU, but in a binding way. (author)

  18. Basic knowledge on radiation safety in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., our daily life is affected by radiation in many ways. From now on, we have to live with this existing exposure situation by promoting radiation literacy. For this purpose, basic knowledge on medical radiation safety is demonstrated comparing with Fukushima Accident 2011. In this article, the importance of mental care for affected people is described concerning relationships with medical accidents. (author)

  19. Basic Philosophies for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three ultra conservative concepts that formed the basis for most of the early work and thought pertinent to nuclear criticality safety, are discussed in some detail. These concepts are: (1) there shall be no accidental nuclear chain reactions; (2) nuclear safety is the absence of unplanned chain reactions; and (3) the accidental nuclear excursion invariably causes widespread radiation injury. Item one cannot be supported; it is neither necessary nor economical and the safety goals sought can be assured by less restrictive and more realistic reasoning. Nuclear data and operational experience, including nuclear criticality accidents, provide the opportunity for change. Item two, even though patently untrue, served well during the infancy of the industry. However, if used as a definition, it is misleading and inadequate since it does not make allowance for an accident situation. Moreover, it creates the impression that all facilities are inherently devoid of protective devices and that all accidental excursions will always result in equal radiation and in injury. Accident experience refutes this idea. Operational experience and nuclear data indicate that a change should be made. Accordingly the following definition of Nuclear Safety is proposed: ''Nuclear Criticality: Safety is protection from the radiation effects of chain reacting fissionable isotopes'': Item three has no firm basis and actually is an application of the ''scare technique. ''To retair it as a part of the industry's basic safety philosophy simply perpetuates unrealistic apprehensions in the minds of workmen as well as the general public. A resume of nuclear criticality accidents that have happened in the United States, establishes that, almost the opposite of this item is true. No other industrial hazard has been so well controlled. In conclusion it is proposed that nuclear criticality safety be permitted to take its place as another engineering discipline. (author)

  20. Electrical Safety Standards in focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A forum, the IEC/ACOS Workshop Ⅷ-IEC safety standards in support of regulatory requirements, was held on May 22nd-23rd 2006 in Beijing to cerate an environment for technical exchange between the regulators and the standard developers with its theme on the following regards :

  1. Safety research basic plan of JNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) formally succeeded to Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) on October, 1 1998. This report describes the basic plan for major program of JNC which consists of two parts: management philosophy of the new institute and the latest revised medium term program. In the first part, the primary mission of JNC is to perform its R and D concentrating on fast breeder reactor and its fuel cycle, and treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, while at the same time giving special consideration to safety. In the second, individual programs in the new basic plan are discussed in detail. The outline and schedule of each program are also attached in the table form. (H. Itami)

  2. National safety standards: KTA - safety standards as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question, which is often asked, namely how many standards and how much time is needed to prepare a complete system of nuclear safety standards, has no answer in terms of numbers or years. The number of standards necessarily depends not only on the contents of an individual average standard. It also depends on the need to go increasingly into details and, to a large extent, on the problems which are identified and resolved during the continuous development of a technology. This is also means, that there is not time limit for the development of such standards, except the time when a technology becomes obsolete. In the same way, as safety in a technology never becomes an issue which is resolved once and for all, but is and must be a continuous and coordinated effort, the codification of safety requirements will always be a continuing task, lasting as long as experiences are made and can be used to improve the safety of the technology. (orig.)

  3. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop basic safety goals that are rational and consistent for all nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities. Basic safety goals (risk limits) by an index of radiation dose are discussed, which are based on health effects of detriment and fatality and risk levels presumably accepted by society. The contents of this paper are the personal opinions of the author. The desirable structure of safety goals is assumed to be 'basic safety goals plus specific safety goals (or supplemental safety goals) for each sort of facility, which reflects their characteristics'. The requisites of the basic safety goals must include (a) rational bases (scientific and social), (b) comprehensiveness (common to all sorts of nuclear facilities covering from normal to accidental conditions), and (c) applicability. To meet the requirements, the basic safety goals might have to be a risk profile expression by an index of radiation dose. The societal rationality is consideration of absolute risk levels (10-6 or 10-7/yr) and/or relative risk factors (such as 0.1% of U.S. safety goals) that the general public accepts as tolerable. The following quantitative objectives are adopted in this study for protection of average individuals in the vicinity of a nuclear facility: 1. The additive annual radiation dose during normal operation must be -4/yr (health detriment), 2x10-6/yr (latent cancer and severe hereditary effects), and 10-7/yr (acute fatality) from the statistics in Japan. The radiation effects on human beings are determined by recommendations of UNSCEAR (Ref. 1) and ICRP. The health effects considered are non-severe stochastic health detriment, i.e., detectable opacities of lens of eye (threshold 5 0.5 to 2 Sv), depression of hematopoiesis of bone marrow (0.5 Sv), and depression of reproductive capability (temporary sterility of testes ) (0.15 Sv). The LD50/60 of acute fatality is ∼4 Sv, and fatalities by latent cancer and

  4. Consequences of the planned dose limiting for the public in the EU basic safety standards (BSS) for the radiological models in paragraph 47 and paragraph 98 StrlSchv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Protection Ordinance regulates the release of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) as well as anthropogenic radioactive material from nuclear supervision. According to paragraph 98 (and following) NORM may only be released if the effective dose for individuals in the population does not exceed 1 mSv/a. Independently the dose limit of 1 mSv/a for effluents and direct exposure according to paragraph 46 applies. This limit is further detailed in the requirements stipulated in paragraph 47 and in the corresponding common administration decrees. In the current draft of the Basic Safety Standards ('Proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation' dated May 2013) the effective dose for the individual resulting from all authorised practices may not exceed 1 mSv/a (art. 13). Here, we discuss which exposure situation are subject to this dose limit. In particular, we discuss possible ramifications on the revision of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, highlighting potential amendments for NORM and effluents. (orig.)

  5. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  6. Basic criteria for ELF-Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since possible late effects resulting from ELF-field exposure have not definitely been proven standards are based on acute effects. The established basic limits (i.e. induced current densities) and derived limits (i.e. electric and magnetic field strengths) are summarized. Additionally, contact currents, interferences with medical implants and field perception must be considered for establishing intervention levels, especially, with regard to the aspects of preventive public health care. (author)

  7. Microfinance safety net: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Shi, Qiuhu; Murthy, Padmini

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition among families living in poorer communities has increased in the past two decades. Initiatives advocated by the World Bank include microfinance programs. Research attributing the success of these programs however, has mixed results. In this article we investigate how additional income provided by microfinance is associated with increased consumption of nondurables for households in rural villages in Bangladesh. For our purposes we compare consumption or money expensed on food, medicine, doctor fees, and smoking. Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) procedure was used to address multiple comparison issues among households. Our findings reinforce the importance of microfinance credit as a safety net. Access to additional income for poor villagers improves the consumption of basic needs as expected, regardless of how many loans are taken; consumption of "bads" remains virtually the same. PMID:23384426

  8. Validation of the implementation of the basic standards of national radiological safety in radioactive facilities of the east Cuba; Valoracion de la implementacion de las normas basicas de seguridad radiologica nacionales en instalaciones radiactivas del oriente de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez G, F.; Fornet R, O.M. [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente. Delegacion Territorial Holguin, Peralta No.16. Rpto Peralta, C.P. 80400 Holguin (Cuba)]. e-mail: ornuc@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu

    2006-07-01

    Since with it publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba began to govern the Basic Standards of Radiological Safety (NBSR) its have lapsed five years. In it practical implementation, by part of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), several resources have been applied among those that its find the identification of the nonfulfillment of the requirements of the NBSR in the inspections, the establishment of validity conditions of the authorizations that are granted, emission and the publication of specific Safety Guides by practice. In the work it is carried out a detailed and integral analysis of the execution of those settled down requirements by the Standards in a representative group of radioactive medical and industrial facilities in the east of the country, by means of the valuation of the deficiencies and requirements pointed out in the inspections carried out during those years 2004 and 2005. As a result of the work the particularities of the level of proven implementation of this body are exposed from the point of view of the ARN that one keeps in mind for it later performance and can being of interest for others regulatory authorities. (Author)

  9. Japanese National Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkichi Sumiya

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am working in Japan electrical safety & environment technology laboratory, which is called JET for short. In JET, we are carrying out the safety test of electrical equipment according to Japanese domestic standards or IEC standards. And in my section, our stuff is drafting some national safety standards harmonized with IEC in cooperation with the government. The standards are applied for the mandatory regulation and other schemes.

  10. Development of nuclear safety standards in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the Nuclear Safety Center was established as an outfit of KAERI to perform Government-entrusted duties of nuclear safety regulation. In Feb. 1990, this Center was separated from KAERI and became an independent juristic body called the 'Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety' (hereinafter referred to as 'KINS'). KINS has developed various safety standards which are required for safety regulation of nuclear facilities, radioactive materials, etc. as a part of the entrusted duties since 1982. By the end of 1994, safety standards developed by KINS totalled 61 cases and among them 41 cases were notified by the Minister of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the concept of safety standards, the role between MOST (the Ministry of Science and Technology) and KINS in developing standards, details of standards developed and finally, future direction for the improvement of standards development

  11. Basic Program Plan of Safety Research from 2001 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNC was set up as a corporation having special status on October 1998, succeeding the former PNC. Safety managements are the primary importance in carrying out developments of nuclear technology. Therefore, JNC gives particular emphasis on the research on safety. JNC set out [Basic Program Plan of Safety Research from 2001 to 2005] on October 2000, which includes the research issues in the [National Yearly Program Plan] and also particular research issues necessary for JNC. Main objectives of this program plan are: (1) to enhance safety of JNC facilities, and to contribute public acceptance of atomic energy, (2) to develop advanced comprehensive safety technologies and to promote its technology transfer to industries, (3) to optimize design margins and evaluation standards, and to enhance reliability and economics of atomic energy, (4) to contribute atomic energy safety regulation by integration of safety technologies for guidelines and standards. The program plan consists of 7 categories and total 56 research issues. The paper listed up the titles of research issues, groups in charge, objectives, contents (methods), milestone schedule, and expected technology transfer for application. Followings are titles of categories, issue number, and its key words for each issue. (1) Fast breeder reactor. 15 issues. Safety design criteria based on risk information, nuclear characteristics of reactor core, marginal limit of fuel damage, life time estimation of facilities, LBB (Leak Before Break), ATWS (Anticipated Transient Without Scram), transient heat flow, fuel energy deposition, sodium combustion, sodium water reactivity, sequence analysis in fuel damage accident, liquid outflow, optimization of operation in fuel damage, damaged fuel detector, and sodium cleaning and processing. (2) Nuclear fuel facilities. 13 issues. Criticality management of MOX processing facilities, sub-critical monitor, neutron dose, anomalous sequences due to chemical activity, ventilation

  12. Standardized safety management of AP1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, China published and implemented the Law of the People's Republic of China on Work Safety and promulgated a series of guidelines and policies, which strengthened the safety management supervision. Standardization of safety, as another important step on safety supervision, comes after safety assesment and safety production licensing system, is also a permanent solution. Standardization of safety is a strategic, long term and fundamental work, which is also the basic access to achieving scientific safety management and increasing the inherent safety of an enterprise. Haiyang AP1000 nuclear power plant, adopting the modularized, 'open-top' and parallel construction means, overturned the traditional construction theory of installation work comes after the civil work and greatly shorten the construction period. At the same time, the notable increase of oversize module transportation and lifting and parallel construction raises higher demands for safety management. This article combines the characteristics and difficulties of safety management for Haiyang AP1000 nuclear power plant, puts forward ideas and methods for standardized safety management, and could also serve as reference to the safety management for other AP1000 projects. (authors)

  13. 75 FR 17641 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 17 and 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans... residential services, and State home facilities to update the standards for VA approval of such facilities, including standards for fire safety and heating and cooling systems. The proposed amendments would...

  14. Effectiveness of Basic Safety Training among Cruise Line Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dexter R. Buted

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available – This study aimed to assess the basic safety training among cruise line students in Lyceum of the Philippines University. Specifically, it sought to identify the effectiveness of basic safety training in terms of reaction, behaviour, learning and results; the problems encountered by the respondents’ during their basic safety training; and lastly, propose a program to enhance the BST program among cruise line operation students. The study made use of descriptive method and using the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Training Model. The respondents agreed that the basic safety training programs for cruise line operations students are effective since it enhances their learning and behaviour. The results and reaction coming from the students who underwent basic safety training implies that they are trained and helped by the program. They sometimes experienced problems during their training. However students believed that the institution were proficient in providing programs and have already foreseen the problems that might occur and provided contingency plan for each. A program is proposed to enhance the basic safety training of LPUBatangas. Continuous training may be done for reinforcement of each students and level of organization so that the cruise line students will be more competitive and be more productive. Strict compliance of the cruise line students to the training program may be implemented.

  15. 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home 1. Clean Always wash your food, hands, counters and cooking tools. • Wash hands in warm soapy water for ... microwave • Marinate foods in the fridge. OVER 2012 Food Safety at Home Why should you care about food ...

  16. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  17. 4 in 10 Popular Sunscreens Don't Meet Sun Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 4 in 10 Popular Sunscreens Don't Meet Sun Safety Standards: Study Biggest problem with products ... products sold in the United States fail to meet basic sun safety guidelines, new research shows. The ...

  18. IAEA safety standards and international legal instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA safety standards constitute a comprehensive and consistent framework of reference for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks. As such, they are of fundamental importance for both regulators and technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in their duties related to nuclear safety and radiation protection. International cooperation is also favoured by the IAEA safety standards, permitting the identification of final objectives and the steps necessary to achieve them in very different national and regional contexts. The fact that groups of experts, widely representing the Member States, developed the safety standards is an additional guarantee of their applicability in different situations. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that nuclear and radiation safety and their regulation are national competencies, and hence the safety standards should be adopted and suitably modified by the States to become a national safety reference. The clear advantages of the technical assistance that some nations can receive from the IAEA in nuclear and radiation safety favour the adoption of the safety standards. In addition, the explicit mention of the IAEA safety standards in international conventions and codes of conduct signed by several countries also helps their implementation from a legal point of view. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view, the difficulties do not disappear by officially adopting the safety standards. Problems related to insufficient resources, shortcomings in the technical infrastructure and/or the limited experience of TSO staff are real problems that require additional efforts in order to effectively implement the safety standards. Renewed efforts to facilitate international cooperation among regional TSOs are necessary, for example, to promote specific harmonization of national situations. (author)

  19. Applying radiation safety standards in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) cover the application of ionizing radiation for all practices and interventions and are, therefore, basic and general in nature. Users of radiation sources have to apply these basic requirements to their own particular practices. This requires a degree of 'interpretation' by the user, which can result in varying levels of regulatory compliance and inconsistencies between applications of the BSS to similar practices. In this context, the preamble of the BSS states that: The [regulatory body] may need to provide guidance on how certain regulatory requirements are to be fulfilled for various practices, for example in regulatory guideline documents. In order to guide the user to achieve a good standard of protection and to achieve a consistent national approach to licensing and inspection, some countries have developed practice specific regulatory guidance, while others have practice specific regulations. For obvious reasons, national regulatory guidance is tailored to a country's own legislation and regulations. This can lead to problems if the guidance is used in other States without appropriate modification to take local requirements into account. There would therefore appear to be scope for producing internationally harmonized guidance, while bearing in mind that the ultimate responsibility for the regulatory documents rests with the State. Some regions have taken the initiative of preparing guidance to facilitate the regional harmonization of regulatory control of certain common practices (e.g. radiotherapy). A number of draft regulatory guidance documents for the main practices involving the use of ionizing radiation have already been prepared. This initiative indicates that there is a global demand for such documents. In particular, it is felt that countries participating in the IAEA's technical cooperation model project on Upgrading

  20. IAEA Safety Standards on Management Systems and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a new set of Safety Standard for applying an integrated Management System for facilities and activities. The objective of the new Safety Standards is to define requirements and provide guidance for establishing, implementing, assessing and continually improving a Management System that integrates safety, health, environmental, security, quality and economic related elements to ensure that safety is properly taken into account in all the activities of an organization. With an integrated approach to management system it is also necessary to include the aspect of culture, where the organizational culture and safety culture is seen as crucial elements of the successful implementation of this management system and the attainment of all the goals and particularly the safety goals of the organization. The IAEA has developed a set of service aimed at assisting it's Member States in establishing. Implementing, assessing and continually improving an integrated management system. (author)

  1. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author)

  2. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author).

  3. 77 FR 75045 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...: locomotive brake maintenance, pilot height, headlight operation, danger markings placement, load meter settings, reorganization of steam generator requirements, and the establishment locomotive electronics... regulations containing safety standards for locomotives. In response to the petitions, this document...

  4. The 7 basic tools of quality applied to radiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work seeks to establish a series of correspondences among the search of the quality and the optimization of the doses received by the occupationally exposed personnel. There are treated about the seven basic statistic tools of the quality: the Pareto technique, Cause effect diagrams, Stratification, Verification sheet, Histograms, Dispersion diagrams and Graphics and control frames applied to the Radiological Safety

  5. Safety first - safety standards and safety management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking back over centuries shows that people have always been concerned about the perception of safety, risk, and the risk/benefit ratio. It is seen that risk, to this day, has eluded objective assessment. This soft perception marks boundary conditions under which technologies develop. For the peaceful use of nuclear power, this implies a continued thorough involvement in matters of safety, both internal, i.e. safety culture, and external, i.e. public, politics, authorities, expert consultants. The code of technical regulations in nuclear technology, which developed in consensus in Germany, e.g. the KTA 2000 project, can continue to serve as a main tool in the necessary process of objectification. Comparisons of codes on an international basis must be conducted with the appropriate methods because of the different foundations underlying these codes. Concerted activities of all operators of German nuclear power plants at present mark the way towards establishing safety management systems. These safety management systems are process-oriented and backed by indicators. Operators expect these measures to contribute decisively to an objectified perception of the safety levels of German nuclear power plants, both internal and external. (orig.)

  6. Basic safety principles of KLT-40C reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KLT-40 NSSS has been developed for a floating power block of a nuclear heat and power station on the basis of ice-breaker-type NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) with application of shipbuilding technologies. Basic reactor plant components are pressurised water reactor, once-through coil-type steam generator, primary coolant pump, emergency protection rod drive mechanisms of compensate group-electromechanical type. Basic RP components are incorporated in a compact steam generating block which is arranged within metal-water shielding tank's caissons. Domestic regulatory documents on safety were used for the NSSS design. IAEA recommendations were also taken into account. Implementation of basic safety principles adopted presently for nuclear power allowed application of the KLT-40C plant for a floating power unit of a nuclear co-generation station. (author)

  7. The IAEA safety standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief description of the standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It provides a historical overview of their development and also summarizes the standards' current preparation and review process. The final paragraphs offer an outlook on future developments. (author)

  8. Council directive of 15 July 1980 amending the directives laying down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation (Official Journal of the European Communities l 246 of 17.9.1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As provided for in the Euratom Treaty, and in particular Article 30 thereof, basic standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations must be established to enable each Member State in accordance with Article 33 of the Euratom Treaty to lay down provisions by legislation, regulation or administrative action to ensure compliance with such standards, to take the necessary measures with regard to teaching, education and vocational training and to make these provisions in harmony with the provisions applicable in this field in the other Member States. On 2. February 1959, the Council adopted a Directive establishing basic safety standards. These were modified partially by the Directives of 5. March 1962, 27. October 1966 and 1. June 1976. The present edition reproduces the complete text of the Directive amending the Directives laying down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation, adopted by the Council on 15. July 1980. These new standards take into consideration increasing scientific knowledge in the field of radiological protection and radiobiology and the practical experience of applying these Directives in national laws

  9. 76 FR 70885 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... rule with request for comments published in the Federal Register on February 24, 2011 (76 FR 10246), VA amended its regulations concerning the codes and standards applicable to community residential care... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 59 RIN 2900-AN57 Updating Fire Safety Standards AGENCY: Department of Veterans...

  10. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY... establishing a process for the review and approval of existing industry standards. This process will...

  11. IAEA role in nuclear reactor safety standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 the electricity generation by nuclear power plants all over the world reached 8% of total production. It can be expected that at the turn of century up to 25% of electric power will be provided by means of nuclear fuel burning. In connection with NPP total number growth, their attraction to large population centres, widening of the atomic energy application areas, the importance of nuclearreactor safety problems can only increase. The safety measures have usually the structure of sequential barriers: for accident preventing, for protection from accidents, for accident localization. NPP safety is a complex problem having scientific, engineering, juridical, social and political aspects. Since these problems have an international importance, IAEA should actively work on their solving. Practically all the topics of nuclear power development and nuclear reactor s;fety lie within the activity area of the Department of nuclear power and safety, its sections: of nuclear safety, nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle. In 1974 a decision was made in IAEA about initiation of work on development of an international nuclear safety standards system (NUSS Programme). These activities are divided into five major branches: a government organization for nuclear safety regulations; site selection for NPP; NPP desing; operation, start of operation and decommissioning; quality provision for NPP. The report presents a list of documents, comprising the NUSS Programme. The complection of all the works within the scope of the Programme is planned for 1985. After 1985 the start of development of fast neutron reactor and fuel cycle enterprise safety standards is planned

  12. Brazilian safety standard for fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During licensing and surveillance of nuclear power plants the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear of Brazil adopted IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 as the basic regulatory document for fire protection. In the Angra I nuclear power plant, which was designed in the United States of America, the BTP 9.5-1 guidelines (revision 2, including Appendix R to 10 CFR, Part 50) were used in support, and in Angra II, which was designed in the Federal Republic of Germany, several Federal German standards were adopted. Because these guidelines, and some of the requirements therein, do not always agree with Brazilian law and site characteristics, it was decided to produce Safety Standard NE-2.03. It is based on Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 and BTP 9.5-1, since they contain specific approaches to fire protection in nuclear power plants. Where any disagreement with Federal German and Brazilian standards occurred, a comprehensive engineering analysis was made in order to solve these problems without compromising plant safety. All the relevant aspects of the Brazilian Safety Standard are outlined. Also discussed are the modifications which had to be made to the guidelines and their requirements so that they are in accordance with Brazilian law and the site characteristics. (author). 3 refs

  13. Safety standards for near surface disposal and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the safety standards for near surface disposal (ICRP guidance and IAEA standards) and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards. Special attention is paid to the recommendations for disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The requirements are based on the principle for the same level of protection of future individuals as for the current generation. Two types of exposure are considered: human intrusion and natural processes and protection measures are discussed. Safety requirements for near surface disposal are discussed including requirements for protection of human health and environment, requirements or safety assessments, waste acceptance and requirements etc

  14. Criticality Safety Basics for INL FMHs and CSOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear power is a valuable and efficient energy alternative in our energy-intensive society. However, material that can generate nuclear power has properties that require this material be handled with caution. If improperly handled, a criticality accident could result, which could severely harm workers. This document is a modular self-study guide about Criticality Safety Principles. This guide's purpose it to help you work safely in areas where fissionable nuclear materials may be present, avoiding the severe radiological and programmatic impacts of a criticality accident. It is designed to stress the fundamental physical concepts behind criticality controls and the importance of criticality safety when handling fissionable materials outside nuclear reactors. This study guide was developed for fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates to use with related web-based course 00INL189, BEA Criticality Safety Principles, and to help prepare for the course exams. These individuals must understand basic information presented here. This guide may also be useful to other Idaho National Laboratory personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. This guide also includes additional information that will not be included in 00INL189 tests. The additional information is in appendices and paragraphs with headings that begin with 'Did you know,' or with, 'Been there Done that'. Fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates may review additional information at their own discretion. This guide is revised as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Issued in 2006, Revision 0 established the basic text and integrated various programs from former contractors. Revision 1 incorporates operation and program changes implemented since 2006. It also incorporates suggestions, clarifications

  15. FIND: Standard Safety Analysis Report (GESSAR-238)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This index is presented as a guide to microfiche items in Docket STN-50447, which was assigned to the BWR/6 STANDARD SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT (GESSAR-238) submitted by General Electric Company, San Jose, California. The report describes and analyzes a standard BWR/6 boiling water reactor with a Mark III containment system designed for initial operation at approximately 3579 MW(t) with a net electrical output of approximately 1220 megawatts

  16. The nuclear safety standards of IAEA (NUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture will give an overview of the Agency's Safety Standards for Nuclear Power Plants: its range and its current state of development. The general contents of the documents will be presented, and the procedures used for their development will be briefly described. (orig.)

  17. Medical electron accelerators and IEC safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has organized 'the committee of medical electric equipments' in 1968. In 1981, the IEC Publication/601-2-1 (safety of medical electrical equipments) has specified equipments producing 1 MeV-50 MeV of X-rays or electron beams. Session 1 covers the scope of indications; terms and definitions; uniformity in equipment scales, movement display, and naming; and appendices. The core of this Publication is Session 2, which provides radiation safety in terms of the following: (1) patient protection from inappropriate irradiation, (2) radiation protection, other than beams to be used, and (3) radiation safety for people other than patients. In Session 3, mechanical electric safety is described. Session 4 deals with the criteria for performance. The revised IEC Publication/601-2-1 is planned to be allocated into 10 sessions. Radiation safety for medical electron accelerators described in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) Z4705 (1985) corresponds to that in the IEC specifications, although the JIS does not cover any items concerning mechanical electric safety and performance characteristics. Accelerators used in Japan almost satisfies the existing IEC criteria for safety. (N.K.)

  18. Selecting safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, many thousands of documents are available describing the requirements, guidelines, and industrial standards which can be used as bases for a nuclear power plant programme. Many of these documents relate to nuclear safety which is currently the focus of world-wide attention. The multitude of documents available on the subject, and their varying status and emphasis, make the processes of selection and implementation very important. Because nuclear power plants are technically intricate and advanced, particularly in relation to the technological status of many developing countries, these processes are also complicated. These matters were the subject of a seminar held at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna last December. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme was outlined and explained at the Seminar. The five areas of the NUSS programme for nuclear power plants cover, governmental organization, siting, design; operation; quality assurance. In each area the Agency has issued Codes of Practice and is developing Safety Guides. These provide regulatory agencies with a framework for safety. The Seminar recognized that the NUSS programme should enable developing countries to identify priorities in their work, particularly the implementation of safety standards. The ISO activities in the nuclear field are carried out in the framework of its Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85). The work is distributed in sub-committees. Seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for nuclear power plants, jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and held in Vienna from 15 to 18 December 1980 concerned with: terminology, definitions, units and symbols (SC-1), radiation protection (SC-2), power reactor technology (SC-3), nuclear fuel technology (SC-5). There was general agreement that the ISO standards are complementary to the NUSS codes and guides. ISO has had close relations with the IAEA for several years

  19. Evaluation of the safety of the operating nuclear power plants built to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide practical assistance on judging the safety of a nuclear power plant, on the basis of a comparison with current safety standards and operational practices. For nuclear power plants built to earlier standards for which there are questions about the adequacy of the maintenance of the plant design and operational practices, a safety review against current standards and practices can be considered a high priority. The objective of reviewing nuclear power plants built to earlier standards against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The safety significance of the issues identified should be judged according to their implications for plant design and operation in terms of basic safety concepts such as defence in depth and safety culture. In addition, this paper provides assistance on the prioritization of corrective measures and their implementation so as to approach an acceptable level of safety

  20. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aaron P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  1. The new IAEA safety standards on probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly wide application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) to support a variety of issues dealing with operation and design of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) imposes certain requirements on PSA quality in terms of its scope, level of detail, approaches, assumptions, and data used. If a unified set of balanced requirements is developed and consistently implemented, it would give confidence in using PSA results and insights in different applications and risk-informed decision making (RIDM); in addition, it would be possible to consistently compare PSA results for different plants. Such requirements are currently developed or being developed in several countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is in the process of development of several publications in the IAEA safety standards series that would provide guidance on the standard technical content of PSA. The paper discusses the latest developments at the IAEA in the area of PSA and provides a brief overview of the publications. (orig.)

  2. Radiation protection education and training in Germany in the frame of the draft of the EU BSS (basic safety standards): how to deal with the RPE (radiation protection expert) and the RPO (radiation protection officer); Strahlenschutzaus- und -weiterbildung in Deutschland im Kontext des Entwurfs der EU-BSS. Wie gehen wir mit dem RPE und dem RPO um?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Ulla [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Holl, Matthias [Strahlenschutzschulung, Andernach (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The amendment of the EU-BSS (basic safety standards) is of great importance for the practical radiation protection concept. In the BSS the main functions in radiation protection and the respective requirements are defined for the radiation protection education and training system. This is supposed to allow the harmonization and comparability of the different systems established in the different European member states in order to perform mutual approvals of the education and training. The authors describe the German radiation protection organizations and the mandatory qualifications and responsibilities and compared these with the EU BSS requirements.

  3. Quality Safety Standards of Organic Mango

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui; LIN; Riji; WEI; Zheng; ZHANG; Zhaojun; HUANG; Yankun; PAN; Daoping; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    This article conducts a brief analysis of the factors that affect the quality safety of organic mango, and discusses the organic production measures for improving the quality and quality safety of mango, including the choice of environment of place of origin, varieties and seedlings, fertilizers and fertilization, plant protection products and other production inputs. A test is carried out in 0.667 hm2 of base in Tianyang County, Baise City. Content of lead, arsenic and 14 kinds of pesticide residue such as BHC in the mango are not detected; the content of heavy metal such as mercury and cadmium is 0.001-0.006 mg/kg. Then the quality and quality safety indicators of organic mango are discussed, and finally the Guangxi local standards of organic mango products are developed.

  4. On health safety standards and risks comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special index is desirable for the establishment of universal safety standards of population and personnel, and other levels of decision-making on protective steps as well as for the comparison of different risk sources. It is defined as effective damage per year - dissipated years of the healthy life as a result of risk source effect during the present year. Universal safety norms in the terms of this value are suggested. Derived safety norms for the ionizing radiation and some other concrete risk sources involving chemical pollutants of the environment were obtained on their basis. The recommendations on the methods and indexes of different risk sources comparison are given. Examples for the comparison of different kinds of risks are presented

  5. DIN 51003: the standard of TXRF basics and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the world-wide effort to standardize analytical methods, a team of TXRF users has elaborated the draft of a new DIN standard (German Industry Standard) on basic terms and definitions related to TXRF analysis. This draft ('yellow-print') is now open for discussion, and its structure and principal contents will be presented here. The new standard is subdivided into the following subjects: introduction, scope of application and normative remarks; general terms (in x-ray spectroscopy); physics, of TXRF; x-ray sources; conditioning of the primary x-ray beam; measurement of x-ray fluorescence with energy-dispersive spectrometers; samples; measurement and evaluation of data; traceability; applications of TXRF. The more important items will be discussed in the present paper. It should be pointed out that this standard is meant primarily to give a common basis for physical terms and general denotations to be used in TXRF analysis, i.e. it does not include specific working prescriptions for analytical tasks. However, such prescriptions will be given - in a more generalized form - in a number of appendices to the main document, thus covering the major fields of application of TXRF. In order to enable acceptance of the standard on an international basis, an ISO standard is also in preparation. (author)

  6. Safety of radiation sources: basic requirements for the regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All countries of the world use radiation sources in medicine, industry, scientific research and teaching. Radioactivity is also part of our planet and the space. Man has ever been exposed to natural radiation. Accidents with radioactive sources, specially the ones occurred in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, in 1983-1984 and in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987, made the nuclear community face up the necessity of a through revision of their basic safety requirements. The accidents caused the death of exposed persons and other serious consequences. It is extremely important to maintain an effective control of sources in order to prevent these serious accidents. The normative structure must follow international principles where workers exposure to ionizing radiation is restricted and the environment is protected (author)

  7. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  8. New French basic safety rule on seismic input ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French regulatory practice requires that the main safety functions of a land-based major nuclear facility, in particular in accordance with its specific characteristics, safe shutdown, cooling and containment of radioactive substances, be assured during and/or after earthquake events that can plausibly occur at the site where the installation is located. This rule specifies an acceptable method for determining the seismic motion to be taken into account when designing a facility to address the seismic risk. In regions where deformation factors are low, such as in metropolitan France, the intervals between strong earthquakes are long and it can be difficult to associate some earthquakes with known faults. In addition, despite substantial progress in recent years, it is difficult, given the French seismotectonic situation, to identify potentially seismogenic faults and determine the characteristics of the earthquakes that are liable to occur. Therefore, the approach proposed in this Basic Safety Rule is intended to avoid this difficulty by allowing for all direct and indirect influences that can play a role in the occurrence of earthquakes, as well as all seismic knowledge. Furthermore, as concerns calculation of seismic motion, the low number of records of strong motion in metropolitan France makes it necessary to use data from other regions of the world

  9. 78 FR 4157 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Program AGENCY: Office of the... information: Title of Proposal: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Program. OMB...

  10. Technical bases for criticality safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. The technical basis, or foundation, on which the consensus rests, must in turn, be firmly established and documented for public review. The technical bases are discussed and reviewed of several standards in different stages of completion and acceptance: ANSI/ANS-8.12, 1978, Nuclear Criticality Control and Safety of Homogeneous Plutonium - Uranium Mixtures Outside Reactors (Approved July 17, 1978); ANS-815, Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements (Draft No. 5 of newly proposed standard); ANS-8.14, Use of Solutions of Neutron Absorbers for Criticality Control (Draft No. 4 of newly proposed standard); ANS-8.5 (Revision of N16.4, 1971), Use of Borosilicate-Glass Raschig Rings as a Neutron Absorber in Solutions of Fissile Material (Draft No. 5 as a result of prescribed five-year review and update of old standard). In each of the preceding, the newly proposed (or revised) limits are based on the extension of experimental data via well established calculations, or by means of independent calculations with adequate margins for uncertainties. The four cases serve to illustrate the insight of the work group members in the establishment of the technical bases for the limits and the level of activity required on their part in the preparation of ANSI Standards. A time span of from four up to seven years has not been uncommon for the preparation, review, and acceptance of an ANSI Standard. 8 figures. 7 tables

  11. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  12. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  13. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed

  14. 75 FR 39871 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...This proposed rule would amend the Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards by adopting certain recommendations made to HUD by the Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee (MHCC). The National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (the Act) requires HUD to publish in the Federal Register all proposed revised construction and safety standards......

  15. 78 FR 73965 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Safety Standards published as a proposed rule in the Federal Register on July 13, 2010 (75 FR 39871... Construction and Safety Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 236 / Monday, December 9... 2502-AI71 Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...

  16. IAEA safety standards versus national regulations and guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, L. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The development of nuclear and radiation safety standards is a statutory function of the IAEA, which is unique in the United Nations system. The IAEA Statute expressly authorizes the Agency 'to establish standards of safety' and 'to provide for the application of these standards'. Over the years, more than 200 safety standards have been published in the IAEA's Safety Series of publications. In this lecture IAEA's Safety Standards as well as Finnish regulations and guides are reviewed.

  17. Atomic power engineering under falsified safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1970 the United States Department of Justice accused the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act and of acting in restraint of trade by restricting the ASME Certificate of Authorization and the use of the Code Symbol Stamps to boilers and pressure vessels manufactured in the United States and Canada. During the succeeding two years attorneys for the parties in the case formulated a Consent Decree without a public confrontation in the Court. Furthermore, the membership of ASME was kept uninformed until October of 1972, after the Consent and Final Judgment had become effective and new procedures had been developed for allowing foreign manufacturers to apply the ASME Code Symbol Stamps to their products. As a consequence, a breakdown in engineered safety standards has been sanctioned and this is undermining the engineering profession's overriding reponsibility to protect the public health and safety. This breakdown of professional responsibility is especially serious in the new technology of atomic power. American insurance companies, which have traditionally written 100% insurance coverage for property damage and third party liability against explosions of high pressure steam boilers bearing the ASME Code Stamp, have refused to write such insurance coverage on nuclear reactors. In the author's opinion there is evidence that the Consent was formulated under collusive proceedings and he calls on the members and the Council of ASME to appeal for dismissal of the Consent Decree. 24 refs

  18. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. Because modern... Task Force is developing new industry standards for safety appliance arrangements on new car... alternative standards relating to the safety appliance arrangements on any passenger car type considered to...

  19. Application of the IAEA safety standards: Ghanaian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Under the terms of Article III of its statute IAEA has established standards for protection against ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources and provide for the application of these standards to peaceful nuclear activities. The IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS SERIES (SSS) cover nuclear safety, radiation safety, transport safety and waste safety and general safety. The hierarchy of the standards comprise; Safety Fundamentals; Safety Requirements; Safety Guides and other safety related documents. Advisory committees oversee the development of the safety standards. The IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS are not legally binding on Member States. They may be adopted at the discretion of Member States for use in national legislation and regulations in respect of development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The Standards are binding on IAEA as far its operations and on Member states who receive assistance from the Agency in the development and application on nuclear and nuclear-related activities. The challenges posed by the adoption and application of the safety standards series include: the development of a structure that is compatible with that of SSS; management and leadership; government commitment; availability of qualified experts and consultants to oversee the drafting and review of documents for approval by the National Competent Authorities; the long bureaucratic process of enactment of legislation and regulations; political and institutional instability; availability of adequate numbers of well trained and qualified and committed persons to regulate the application and implementation of the provisions of the adopted safety standards. The Ghanaian approach to the adoption and application of the safety standards is highlighted in this address. (author)

  20. Basic Requirements for Cables of Systems Important to NPP Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the need for equipment upgrades at Ukrainian nuclear power plants, the replacement of cables, as an integral part of any system, becomes important. There is no document in Ukraine that combines requirements for cables of systems important to nuclear safety. The paper systematizes the technical requirements of national regulatory documents on nuclear and radiation safety in relation to cable products. The most important requirements for selecting cables are fire safety, resistance to high temperatures, humidity and pressure, resistance to ionizing radiation, seismic resistance and electromagnetic compatibility. The use of cables in the NPP containment and safety systems imposes on them the most stringent requirements as regards nuclear and radiation safety in plant operation. The paper identifies features and operating conditions for cable lines as part of NPP safety systems and shows the general classification of cable products. Development of a regulatory document to combine requirements for cables of safety systems will facilitate their selection during upgrading.

  1. Nuclear criticality safety basics for personnel working with nuclear fissionable materials. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE order 5480.1A, Chapter V, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. The ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Basic Program - Phase I'' is documented in this report. The revised program has been developed to clearly illustrate the concept of nuclear safety and to help the individual employee incorporate safe behavior in his daily work performance. Because of this, the subject of safety has been approached through its three fundamentals: scientific basis, engineering criteria, and administrative controls. Only basics of these three elements were presented. 5 refs

  2. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... does not have seismic safety building requirements, in which case the ICSSC model building code... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program §...

  3. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  4. Impact of New Radiation Safety Standards on Licensing Requirements of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the outcomes of the newly introduced safety philosophies, new and more strict safety design requirements for nuclear installation are expected to be introduced. New in-depth defence measures should be incorporated into the design and operation procedure for a nuclear installation, to compensate for potential failures in protection or safety measures. The new requirements will also apply to licensing of NPP's operation as well as to licensing of nuclear sites, especially for radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper intends to give an overview of possible impacts of new internationally agreed basic safety standards with respect to NPP and related technologies. Recently issued new basic safety standards for radiation protection are introducing some new safety principles which may have essential impact on future licensing requirements regarding nuclear power plants and radioactive waste installations. These new standards recognize exposures under normal conditions ('practices') and intervention conditions. The term interventions describes the human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure or existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice. The other new development in safety standards is the introduction of so called potential exposure based on the experience gained from a number of radiation accidents. This exposure is not expected to be delivered with certainty but it may result from an accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors. (author)

  5. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... procedures for better enforcement of the performance requirements. \\9\\ 73 FR 57297, Docket NHTSA-2008-0157... Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT....

  6. 76 FR 58167 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ..., lost their balance, and fell. ASTM F 406-11 does include product warnings that address the need to..., ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards'' (``ASTM F 406- 11''). The... establish ASTM F 406-11, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/ Play...

  7. Good engineering practices in application of safety standards for elevators

    OpenAIRE

    Niknammoghadam, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Due to humanitarian, legal and economic grounds, safety is one of the most crucial goals to achieve through the development process of an elevator system. Safety standards are one of the main sources providing design and examination requirements to ensure safe operation of elevators. However, only fulfilling the technical requirements provided by safety standards do not guarantee a safe performance of elevator and additional engineering practices need to be applied throughout elevator’s lifec...

  8. Implementation of the basic safety standards directive in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the European Council BSS Directive 96/29/Euratom in the UK is not achieved through any one piece of legislation (though the majority of the provisions are implemented by the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999) but by a mosaic of provisions, supported by codes of practice, non-statutory guidance and administrative arrangements. The paper describes some of the features of UK occupational radiation protection and the reason for the apparent differences between the UK and other EU Member States in their approach to agreeing the precise provisions of European legislation. (author)

  9. Private, National, and International Food-Safety Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Buzby, Jean C.; Mitchell, Lorraine

    2006-01-01

    Just as international food and agricultural trade has increased over time, food safety has become increasingly important. This paper discusses the economic framework of food safety and international food trade. Both the private and public sectors within individual countries have incentives to improve food safety, and as a result they have taken many actions to reduce food-safety risks, often in the form of private, national, and international standards that they impose of firms. The first hal...

  10. "The Utility Standard and the Patentability of Basic Research"

    OpenAIRE

    Reiko Aoki; Sadao Nagaoka

    2002-01-01

    We explore the consequences of the utility requirement for patents on speed of innovation. Basic research output, that has no immediate appli-cation except for as a step to further research, may not be patentable be-cause it does not fulfill the utility requirement of patentability. Patentabil-ity of basic research differs from the questions analyzed in the past sequen-tial innovation framework, in that basic research has no market value in itself and patentability of the first-stage inventio...

  11. Basic safety principles and practice of WWERs in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear safety is the actual subject of this presentation and it is considered to be the most important issue, and its permanent improvement is the key responsibility. We share the opinion, that everybody who works in the field of nuclear power generation has to be at such a high level, both in respect of the professional and the moral aspects, which would practically exclude occurrence of accidents causing adverse environmental effects. We are aware that another severe accident occurring in any country of the world would put the whole nuclear industry into a hopeless situation, which - as we have already seen - would seriously influence the Hungarian energy system as well. I try to illustrate in my presentation how can our WWER reactors be evaluated in the highlight of the internationally accepted safety requirements, how safe can they be considered and what can we do in order to ensure at every time the appropriate level of safety. 22 refs, 15 figs

  12. Basic elements of confidence in each stage of a new near surface repository safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2004, at Budapest, the IAEA hosted the first workshop dedicated to safety case development for near surface waste disposal facilities: 'Regional Workshop on Structure and Content of Safety Cases and Development of Confidence in the Safety of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities'. This paper deals with the safety case key components for a new near surface repository, particularly for the early stage of repository development, following the basic information presented in the frame of this workshop. In this stage of the repository life cycle the main purpose of the safety case (preliminary safety case) is to demonstrate that the plant is capable to be constructed and operated safely. The paper will analyse the basic elements of confidence in safety assessment: confidence in the safety assessment methodology, confidence in the safety assessment approach, and confidence in each stage of the safety assessment. We shall discuss the confidence building process through all stages of the safety assessment of a new near surface disposal facility. Each of these steps will be examined using the steps recommended by the ISAM methodology: assessment context, description of the system, development and justification of scenarios, formulation and implementation of models, analysis of the results, etc. To enhance the confidence in the safety assessment results, we considered important to demonstrate a good understanding of the phenomena, mathematical models and numerical methods involved in the safety assessment. Also, the confidence in the safety assessment results can be enhanced by demonstrating compliance with the regulatory requirements. (author)

  13. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well

  14. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  15. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods. PMID:26811237

  16. Safety first - safety standards and safety management in Germany; Safety First - Sicherheitsstandards und Sicherheitsmanagement in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmeier, U. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Looking back over centuries shows that people have always been concerned about the perception of safety, risk, and the risk/benefit ratio. It is seen that risk, to this day, has eluded objective assessment. This soft perception marks boundary conditions under which technologies develop. For the peaceful use of nuclear power, this implies a continued thorough involvement in matters of safety, both internal, i.e. safety culture, and external, i.e. public, politics, authorities, expert consultants. The code of technical regulations in nuclear technology, which developed in consensus in Germany, e.g. the KTA 2000 project, can continue to serve as a main tool in the necessary process of objectification. Comparisons of codes on an international basis must be conducted with the appropriate methods because of the different foundations underlying these codes. Concerted activities of all operators of German nuclear power plants at present mark the way towards establishing safety management systems. These safety management systems are process-oriented and backed by indicators. Operators expect these measures to contribute decisively to an objectified perception of the safety levels of German nuclear power plants, both internal and external. (orig.) [German] 'Safety First' markiert einen wesentlichen Aspekt der heutigen Wahrnehmung der Begriffswelt von Sicherheit, Risiko und Risiko-Nutzen-Verhaeltnis, einer Begriffswelt deren Entwicklung Bestandteil der technologischen Entwicklung ueber die Jahrhunderte ist. Einerseits entzog sich dabei schon immer, so auch heute, der Begriff des Risikos ueber weite Strecken einem objektiven Zugang. Andererseits zeigt sich die Entwicklung der Wahrnehmung von Risiko von einem der technologischen Entwicklung nachgeschalteten Problemfeld hin zu einem integralen Bestandteil, geeignet eine technologische Entwicklung an sich in Frage zu stellen. Beides, die prioritaere wie die unscharfe Wahrnehmung des Risikos, markieren Randbedingungen

  17. Basic programs on safety research. From 1991 to 1995 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic indications on safety research of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) was made up on March, 1986, under a concept that the indications were summarized contents on the safety research to be carried out at JNC under trends around JNC, and constructed basic concepts on drafting and practice of budget requirement and safety research at every departments'. In the indications, it is described that 'the indications are objected for these two or three years, but will carry out their reviews at proper period by considering change of trends around Japan at coming every years, to revise them'. Therefore, as in a middle and long terms business program (August, 1987) of JNC review of the indications was required and environmental conditions has become more declare and concrete, the indications were reviewed to make up the basic programs on safety research, together with considering establishment of the safety research yearly program in the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan on September, 1990. The programs are constructed by two parts: '1. Basic indications of safety research', and 2. Programs of safety research'. And, both parts contain Advanced Thermal Reactor, fast breeder reactors, nuclear fuel facilities and so on, seismic resistance, probabilistic safety assessment, environmental radioactivity, and radioactive wastes disposal. (G.K.)

  18. Basic safety rule number no.2002-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this rule is to define acceptable methods for the development of probabilistic safety assessments(P.S.A.) and proven applications of P.S.A. for operating or future pressurized water reactors (PWR type reactors) of the French nuclear power programme, incorporating available French and international experience in this area. The standing group of experts for nuclear reactors has been consulted for the drafting of this rule. (N.C.)

  19. New requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author presents new requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards. It is concluded that: - New set of IAEA Safety Standards is close to completion: around 40 standards for NPPs; - Different interpretation of IAEA Safety Standards at present: best world practices instead of previous 'minimum common denominator'; - A number of safety improvements required for NPPs; - Requirements related to BDBAs and severe accidents are the most demanding due to degradation of barriers: hardware modifications and accident management; - Large variety between countries in implementation of accident management programmes: from minimum to major hardware modifications; -Distinction between existing and new NPPs is essential from the point of view of the requirements; WWER 440 reactors have potential to reflect IAEA Safety Standards for existing NPPs; relatively low reactor power offers broader possibilities

  20. Safety words inventory and literacy screener: standardization and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page

    2002-01-01

    When evaluating a school-aged patient, particularly for such issues as attention deficit disorder, or learning disabilities, health-care providers are encouraged to appraise children's school performance. Although some clinicians seek teachers' comments, recent research suggests that teachers' appraisals have limited value. As a consequence, health-care providers need brief methods, functional for busy primary care clinics, for detecting school problems. Because well-visits also include other services such as anticipatory guidance and safety and injury counseling, it would be helpful for detection tools to facilitate delivery of more than one aspect of well-child care. This study was undertaken to develop a brief method for evaluating school performance for elementary-age children and test its accuracy in identifying children with reading and other academic problems. By using common safety signs as the test stimuli, such a tool should also serve as a springboard to injury prevention counseling. Data were drawn from the standardization and validation data of an individually administered wide-range diagnostic achievement test using a geographically diverse, nationally representative sample of 934 children between 5 and 13 years of age. Children were administered the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-Revised (CIBS-R), which includes among its 10 subtests a 57-item measure of safety word recognition. Data were collected from previously administered measures of academics and intelligence. Forty-one children were administered the measure twice to assess inter-rater reliability. Logistic regression analyses were deployed using children's performance on the nine other subtests of the CIBS-R as the grouping variable, and as predictors, recognition of 57 safety words/phrases. Of these, 22 safety signs (e.g., "Keep out," "No Trespassing," "Danger") were significant predictors of overall academic performance. An additional seven safety words were added due to their

  1. 75 FR 41281 - Bridge Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Register at 60 FR 20654, the interim statement included a request for comments to be submitted to... of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges (``policy statement''). See 65 FR 52667. With the... amendment. See 74 FR 157. All aspects of the policy statement that are not incorporated into the...

  2. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... operation, danger markings placement, load meter settings, reorganization of steam generator requirements... locomotive operations. See 66 FR 10340, Notice of Safety Advisory 2001-01, Docket No. FRA-2000-7325. By... October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59216). FRA continued to utilize the RSAC process to address additional...

  3. A basic plan for the environment-friendly aspects of improved Korean standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Improved Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP+) design has been made possible on the basis of engineering experiences and referring to an in-depth analysis of the design and construction of all the domestic nuclear power plants in operation. The KSNP+ is designed for improved safety, better economics, operability and maintainability by means of advanced technology expecting to demonstrate enhanced performance. The plant also has incorporated several environmentally friendly features through the restoration of excavated areas using an ecological approach, external coloring, figure of turbine generator building and landscaping around nuclear power plant. This is the first time that KOPEC has embarked on inducing environmentally friendly features into the basic plan. This is expected to mitigate the negative perceptions held by the residents in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and will contribute to a new and improved image of nuclear power plants. (authors)

  4. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization

  5. Basic recognition on safety of nuclear electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of nuclear electric power generation is not to inflict radiation damage on public. Natural radiation is about 1 mSv every year. As far as the core melting on large scale does not occur, there is not the possibility of exerting serious radiation effect to public. The way of thinking on ensuring the safety is defense in depth. The first protection is the prevention of abnormality, the second protection is the prevention of accidents, and the third protection is the relaxation of effect. As design base accidents, the loss of coolant accident due to the breakdown of inlet pipings of reactors and the breaking of fine tubes in steam generators are included. The suitability of location is evaluated. As the large scale accidents of nuclear power stations in the past, Chernobyl accident and Three Mile Island accident are explained. The features of the countermeasures to the accident in Mihama No. 2 plant are described. The countermeasures to severe accidents, namely accident management and general preventive maintenance are explained. The background of the nonconfidence feeling to nuclear electric power generation and the importance of opening information to public are shown. (K.I.)

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.10 - What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and environmental management policies for real property? 102-80.10 Section 102-80.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 102-80.10 What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property? The basic safety...

  7. ON STANDARD NOMENCLATURE OF BASIC CHINESE MEDICAL TERMS (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢竹藩

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note Traditional Chinese medicine has aroused a worldwide interest. The need for TCM nomenclature to be internationalized and standardized is becoming pressing. The standardizing process involving the flow of culture between China and the Occident, serves as one of the arduous tasks of integrating TCM with Western medicine. CJIM is bound to make contributions to this task and is planning to start a special column regarding this issue. The author of the present serial, Professor XIE, has been assigned by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, P.R. China, a research project on the standardization of TCM nomenclature in English. He has made a comparative study on the English-language terms appearing in the publications in recent decades, and a proposal of the choice terms as the standard. We are looking forward to discussions and comments on this important topic.

  8. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR... motorcycles. * * * * * Table II--Minimum Static Breaking Energy Tire characteristic Motorcycle All 12 rim diameter Light truck and 17.5 Tires other than Light Truck, Motorcycle, 12 rim diameter code or...

  9. 75 FR 27428 - Safety Standards for Steel Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Labor's Order 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), and 29 CFR part 1911. Signed at Washington, DC, on May 4, 2010... (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), and 5-2007 (72 FR 31160); and 29 CFR part 1911. 0 2. Amend Sec... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety Standards for Steel Erection...

  10. The development of international safety standards on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geologic disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geologic disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g., on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that may be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geologic disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

  11. Basic Concepts in Early Childhood Educational Standards: A 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…

  12. Basic prediction techniques in modern video coding standards

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the basic algorithms of video compression that are widely used in modern video codec. The authors dissect complicated specifications and present material in a way that gets readers quickly up to speed by describing video compression algorithms succinctly, without going to the mathematical details and technical specifications. For accelerated learning, hybrid codec structure, inter- and intra- prediction techniques in MPEG-4, H.264/AVC, and HEVC are discussed together. In addition, the latest research in the fast encoder design for the HEVC and H.264/AVC is also included.

  13. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening

  14. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening.

  15. Nuclear stations: a sufficient safety standard and no demand for immediate outage, according to ASN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complementary safety assessments (CSA) that have been made for each nuclear station have shown, according to the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority), first that all nuclear power plants have a sufficient safety standard and secondly that some solutions exist to increase the safety margin. The ASN proposes: -) the setting of new measures, adapted to each nuclear plant for assuring the basic safety requirements in case of extreme situations as described in CSA; -) the setting of a force made of qualified teams and equipment to intervene on a nuclear accident very quickly; -) the reinforcing of dispositions for avoiding the dewatering of fuels in spent fuel pools; -) the carrying out of feasibility studies for reinforcing the protection of underground and surface waters in case of a major accident. (A.C.)

  16. A new standard for multidisciplinary health and safety technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last two decades, a significant trend in health and safety has been toward greater specialization. However, compartmentalization of health and safety disciplines often leads to an inequity in resources, especially when appropriations overemphasize one risk to the detriment of others. For example, overemphasis on radiological safety can create an imbalance in overall worker protection. A multidisciplinary technical can help restore the balance and provide for a healthier and safer work environment. The key advantages of a multidisciplinary health and safety technician include: Broad coverage of the work area by one technician, More diverse use of the technician pool, Better coverage for off-shift or nonstandard hours, Balance of risks because all hazards are considered, Integrated emergency response, Ownership, Less time of identify the correct person with the requisite skills. We have developed a new standard that establishes the training and related qualifications for a multidisciplinary health and safety technician. The areas of training and qualification that are addressed include elements of industrial hygiene, industrial safety, fire protection, electrical safety, construction safety, and radiation safety. The initial core training program ensures that individuals are trained to the performance of requirements of the job. Initial training is in five areas: Fundamentals, Hazard recognition, Hazard assessment, Hazards controls, Hazards minimization. Core training is followed by formal qualification on specific tasks, including ventilation surveys, air monitoring, noise assessments, radiological monitoring, area inspections, work-area setups, and work coverage. The new standard addresses not only training topics and requirements, but also guidance to ensure that performance objectives are met. The standard applies to technicians, supervisors, technologists, and six specialty areas, including academic institutions and decontamination and decommissioning

  17. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  18. Improved nuclear safety through international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chernobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option--the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants

  19. Consequences of the EU basic safety standards. Omission of the clearance for demolition/disposal with respect to the deconstruction projects of WAK GmbH; Auswirkungen der EU-Grundnorm. Entfall der Freigabe zum Abriss/Beseitigung im Hinblick auf Rueckbauprojekte der WAK GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmann, S. [WAK GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The WAK GmbH's task is to decommission the nuclear installation projects at the KIT Campus Nord. These include the former Reprocessing Plant (WAK-Anlage), the Multi-purpose Research Reactor (MZFR), Research Reactor 2 (FR2), Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility (KNK), the Hot Cells (HZ) and some more small research facilities of the KIT. The buildings should be released by paragraph 29 German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) after the demolition of the process-engineering equipment. For this the clearance levels for 'demolition of buildings' Annex III Tab. 1 Column 10 (StrlSchV) must be reached, depth profiles were sampled on order to estimate how much material of the walls has to be removed to reach the values of the clearance levels. In a proposal (10926/12 ATO 90 SOC 501 SAN 149) on the basis of new scientific knowledge the EU plans to introduce clearance levels from the IAEA - ''Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption and Clearance RS-G-1.7''. In the proposal there are only clearance levels for an unrestricted release. Clearance levels for specific purpose (Annex III Tab. 1 Column 9a - 9d, 10 and 10a StrlSchV) are not named. A worst case scenario has been made what the possible effects are if the unrestricted release in the proposal of the basic safety standards from EU is guilty for every material. An estimation were done how much material and how much volume of building rubbish has to be removed to reach these new resulted clearance. Based on these volumes the caused additional financial costs for the final disposal for the WAK GmbH were calculated. (orig.)

  20. Status and trends in IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA is the world's center of cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's 'Atoms for Peace' organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies. The IAEA Secretariat is head-quartered at the Vienna International Center in Vienna, Austria. Operational liaison and regional offices are located in Geneva, Switzerland; New York, USA; Toronto, Canada; and Tokyo, Japan. The IAEA runs or supports research centers and scientific laboratories in Vienna and Seibersdorf, Austria; Monaco; and Trieste, Italy. The IAEA Secretariat is a team of 2200 multi-disciplinary professional and support staff from more than 90 countries. The Agency is led by Director General Mohamed El Baradei and six Deputy Directors General who head the major departments. IAEA programmes and budgets are set through decisions of its policy making bodies the 35-member Board of Governors and the General Conference of all Member States. Reports on IAEA activities are submitted periodically or as cases warrant to the UN Security Council and UN General Assembly. Three main pillars - or areas of work - underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security; Science and Technology; and Safeguards and Verification

  1. 75 FR 5888 - Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards and Other Orders: HUD Statements That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ...: Interpretive rule. SUMMARY: The National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act... construction and safety standards for manufactured housing, as well as for procedural and...

  2. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  3. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-01-01

    It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHEC...

  4. A new standard for core training in radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new American National Standard for radiation worker training was recently developed. The standard emphasizes performance-based training and establishing a training program rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. This paper presents an overview of the new standard and the philosophy behind it. The target audience includes radiation workers, management and supervisory personnel, contractors, students, emergency personnel, and visitors

  5. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    OpenAIRE

    ZOU, Dongmei; PAN, Yongbo; Xu, Zhi; LUO, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world's third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana, but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision, publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards, it is fo...

  6. Safety prediction for basic components of safety critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, both of which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  7. Safety prediction for basic components of safety-critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  8. Directive from the council of the european union setting the basic standards relating to protection of public and worker health against the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly introduces the main parts about International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) which was jointly issued by IAEA and other important international organizations in 1994. And it also introduces the main parts about the Directive from the Council of the European Union Setting the Basic Standards Relating to Protection of Public and Worker Health against the Dangers Resulting from Ionizing Radiation. The Commission sets a limit of four years for the member states to put into effect the legal, regulatory and administrative provisions to comply with the directive

  9. The enhancement of nuclear safety: Basic principles and approaches to ensure the operation safety of NPP's in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety of NPPs should receive the highest priority concerns in any mode of operation because various operational transients can develop into an accident of serious consequence. In most nuclear countries, two-tier approach is commonly adopted to assure the operational safety; (1) various operational and maintenance activities by the utility which has the primary responsibility for the safety of the facility, (2) surveillance and inspection by the government authority which officially confirms the nuclear safety to protect the public from the radiation hazards. The utility has to improve the economy of the plant operation and at the same time has to enhance the safety through the achievement of high quality and reliability in operation and maintenance. The regulatory body, in the meantime, confirms the operational safety through the safety review and inspection activities in the form of preoperational inspection, periodical inspection, daily inspection, special inspection, etc. This paper reviews the basic principles for operation and maintenance of NPP, and the fundamental framework of the roles and responsibilities of the utility and the regulatory body with a view to achieving the operational safety. Also discussed is the regulatory effort in Korea to verify the adequacy of the plant management

  10. The contribution of radiation chemistry to enact the hygienic safety standard of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relation to omitting the labelling of irradiated foods three classes of product are proposed where (1) the safety standard is similar to unirradiated food, (2) The maximum permissible quantities of harmful compounds induced by radiation are controlled and (3) The quantity of unique radiolysis product are determined. The prediction and detection of induced harmful radiolysis products such as peroxides, volatile basic nitrogen compounds and organic halides are stressed. (UK)

  11. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in cooperation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aims of this study were: Gathering information about existing knowledge on the design of road infrastructure elements by (a) drawing an inventory of international treaties and recommendations, with inf...

  12. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Consumer Education Efforts for Revised Children's Sleepwear Safety Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    A study examined the type and extent of consumer education that occurred since the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) amended the 1972 federal safety standards (effective January 1997) to permit marketing of snug-fitting, nonflame-resistant cotton garments as sleepwear. Three voluntary point-of-sale (POS) practices recognized as important…

  13. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic safety-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compliance with the provisions of 46 CFR part 28 on instructions, drills, and safety orientation are deemed... personal survival techniques as set out in the standard of competence under STCW Regulation VI/1; or (2... board about elementary safety matters and understand informational symbols, signs, and alarm...

  14. Principles and standards of nuclear safety and their implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety starts with the design of a nuclear facility and is only completed with its decommissioning. In the various phases of a nuclear facility's lifetime, safety evaluations are required. The licensing prerequisites for construction, operation, modification, decommissioning are based on elements of the relevant national legislation and related ordinances as well as on international regulations. They should be expanded by a system of criteria and standards spelling out the proven practice as developed over the last decades in the industrialized countries and by international organizations such IAEA with its safety codes and guides. (NEA)

  15. Inspection of radiation sources and regulatory enforcement (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depends on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for carrying out regulatory inspections, and taking necessary enforcement actions. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the processes for carrying out regulatory inspections and taking enforcement actions. It includes information on the development and use of procedures and standard review plans (i.e. checklists) for inspection. Specific procedures for inspection of radiation practices and sources are provided in the Appendices

  16. Securing Safety - Spaceflight Standards for the Mass Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, G.

    The projected total revenue of the space tourism industry is expected to exceed USD $1 billion by 2021. The vast economic potential of space tourism has fuelled ambitious plans for commercial orbital and suborbital flights, in addition to longer- duration spaceflights on board the International Space Station (ISS) and other planned orbiting habitats. International and national legal frameworks are challenged to provide regulations to ensure minimum standards of spaceflight safety for a high risk activity that aims to enter the mainstream tourism market. Thrown into the mix are various considerations of the number of spaceflight participants per flight, the economic viability of stringent safety standards, the plethora of possible flight vehicles and the compensation mechanism in case of violations of safety regulations. This paper surveys the legal challenges in the regulation of safety in commercial manned spaceflight, including issues of jurisdiction, authorization, licensing and liability. Drawing on analogous developments in other fields of law related to international carriage, a safety regulation framework with minimum international standards is proposed. This proposed framework considers both accident avoidance and emergency response in light of international legal, policy and economic perspectives.

  17. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry depositary, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  18. Dry vault for spent fuel depository, basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist of a dry depository, which presents a low cost of operation, against a wet on which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author). 1 fig

  19. 76 FR 34890 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... constructed with concrete crossties. See 76 FR 18073. The effective date of this final rule was to be July 1..., 2011. DATES: The effective date for the final rule published April 1, 2011, at 76 FR 18073, effective... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 213 RIN 2130-AC01 Track Safety Standards; Concrete...

  20. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011). Two... published at 76 FR 28132, May 13, 2011, is May 13, 2013. Compliance date: Voluntary early compliance with the final rule amending 49 CFR part 571 published at 76 FR 28132, May 13, 2011, is permitted as...

  1. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.)

  2. Regulatory practices and safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium on Regulatory Practices and Safety Standards for Nuclear Power Plants was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany with the objective of providing an international forum for the exchange of information on regulatory practices and safety standards for nuclear power plants. The Symposium was held in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, from 7 to 10 November 1988. It was attended by 201 experts from some 32 Member States and 4 international organizations. Fifty-one papers from 19 Member States and 2 international organizations were presented and discussed in 5 technical sessions covering the following subjects: National Regulatory Practices and Safety Standards (14 papers); Implementation of Regulatory Practices - Technical Issues (8 papers); Implementation of Regulatory Practices - Operational Aspects (8 papers); Developments and Trends in Safety Standards and Practices (11 papers); International Aspects (10 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.)

  4. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  5. The nuclear safety standards application in RSG-GAS Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall safety objective for a research reactor is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazards. In orde to achieve these objectives a number of safety requirements and recommendations are provided to all those involved in finally ensuring the safe operation of research reactors. The operating organization shall have the overall responsibility for the safety of the research reactor while the reactor manager shall have the direct responsibility and necessary authority for the safe operation of research reactor. An essential means for fulfilling the obligation of the operating organization is the provision of the safety analysis report (SAR). The SAR shall contain sufficient information to allow the regulatory body to make an independent assessment of the safety of the reactor. The SAR should be suitable as the main source of information for the licensing of reactor operation. The establishment, management performance and evaluation of quality assurance (QA) program for the operation of research reactors and associated experiments are important for ensuring safety. Quality assurance as applied to research reactor operation shall be a continuous process during all phases for a specific activity. The purpose of the inform simple explanation about nuclear safety standards published by IAEA for operation of research reactors, and its implementation in operation of RSG-GAS

  6. Basic Laboratory Safety and General Survey of The Turkish Laboratory Safety Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Karaman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and research laboratory employees have to face various hazards and biological risk factors in the working environment due to laboratory structures and regulations. In order to protect personnelfrom these occupational hazards and laboratory acquired infections, basic microbiological practices which are the major factors of biosafety concept should be well known, appropriate and safe laboratory equipments (primary barriers should be used and functional working areas (secondary barriers should be designed. We have limited data regarding biosafety profiles of the laboratories and laboratory staff in our country. Nevertheless, in the light of the existing studies, it is thought that technical and infrastructural facilities are inadequate and also biosafety levels and related applications are either not well known or not properly carried out by the staff. Implementing theoretically accepted basic microbiological practices, a certain quality and cosciousness level of the staff, continuous in-service training are important factors of a safe and efficient working environment in the laboratories.

  7. Basic Laboratory Safety and General Survey of The Turkish Laboratory Safety Status

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Karaman

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and research laboratory employees have to face various hazards and biological risk factors in the working environment due to laboratory structures and regulations. In order to protect personnelfrom these occupational hazards and laboratory acquired infections, basic microbiological practices which are the major factors of biosafety concept should be well known, appropriate and safe laboratory equipments (primary barriers) should be used and functional working areas (secondary barrier...

  8. Necessity of Accreditation Standards for Quality Assurance of Medical Basic Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    J Jahroomi Shirazi; N Nakhaee; Jalili, Z; Rezaeian, M.; AR Jafari

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present article reviews the significance of accreditation standards while emphasizing the necessity of implementation of such standards by basic medical science council, with an eye on such international standards as those published by WFME. This review article had to decide on the key words and expressions, data bases, to review relevant literature, review higher and medical education journals at GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED, and such web sites as those of WFME and WMA’s. Accredi...

  9. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  10. TRAINING THE SKILLS OF SAFE BEHAVIOR AND KNOWLEDGE OF SURVIVAL TECHNIQUE AT THE RUSSIAN BASICS OF VITAL FUNCTIONS SAFETY CONTEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogodaeva Margarita Viktorovna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Basics of vital functions safety competition favour the knowledge of survival techniques in cases of emergency. The number of children who take part in the contest and know how to behave in case of emergency increases due to improvement of the technically equipped rooms for studying Basics of vital functions safety.

  11. A basic study for development of environmental standard review plan of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; You, Young Woo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-12-15

    In this study is performed a basic study to be ready for the development and detail analysis of NUREG-1555 ESRP. As a fundamental research for literature survey and development of draft review plan, review and translation of NUREG-1555 published by NRC, and which is applied to licensing procedure of Nuclear Power Plants are included. These provided the basic information for the developments of the environmental standard review plan.

  12. Probabilistic safety assessment and development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions discussed are taken from Section 5 of Topical Issue Paper: Risk Informed Decision Making. Is there sufficient guidance for the preparation of high quality PSAs? Is there a need for an international standard for PSAs? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to support 'risk informed' regulation, e.g. treatment of rare events, modelling of human failure, severe accident management, organizational factors? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to model new reactor designs that are more dependent on passive safety features? How is it possible to ensure that operators are in a position to develop, use and maintain living PSAs and risk/safety monitors to support risk informed' decisions? What actions should be taken by the IAEA to support the introduction of 'risk informed' decision making, e.g. as related to the areas of the development of international standards, harmonization of criteria, compilation and dissemination of experience, and education and training?

  13. Best Estimate plus Uncertainty (BEPU) Analyses in the IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Standards Series establishes an essential basis for safety and represents the broadest international consensus. Safety Standards Series publications are categorized into: Safety Fundamental (Present the overall objectives, concepts and principles of protection and safety, they are the policy documents of the safety standards), Safety Requirements (Establish requirements that must be met to ensure the protection and safety of people and the environment, both now and in the future), and Safety Guides (Provide guidance, in the form of more detailed actions, conditions or procedures that can be used to comply with the Requirements). The incorporation of more detailed requirements, in accordance with national practice, may still be necessary. There should be only one set of international safety standards. Each safety standard will be reviewed by the relevant committee or by the commission every five years. Best Estimate plus Uncertainty (BEPU) Analyses are approached in the following IAEA Safety Standards: - Safety Requirements SSR 2/1 - Safety of NPPs, Design (Revision of NS-R-1); - General Safety Requirement GSR Part 4: Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities; - Safety Guide SSG-2 Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. NUSSC suggested that new safety guides should be accompanied by documents like TECDOCs or Safety Reports describing in detail their recommendations where appropriate. Special review is currently underway to identify needs for revision in the light of the Fukushima accident. Revision will concern, first, the Safety Requirements, and then, the Selected Safety Guides

  14. Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is presenting the idea of the CNGI Norm called The Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines and the way of using it by companies associated in the Chamber of the Natural Gas Industry in the business activity. It will be applied to improve the quality and reliability of gas transmission after full opening of Polish natural gas market. (author)

  15. The technical regulation and the standardization in French nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general technical safety regulations were developed in France and in particular under the prompting of the public authorities so as to develop more detailed codes and standards for stipulating the rules applying to the various systems and materials constituting nuclear power stations. Furthermore, France takes an active part in the work of the IAEA, particularly with respect to the NUSSS programme and through AFNOR and UTE in the work of the ISO and CEI

  16. 76 FR 27882 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1217 RIN 3041-AC79 Safety Standard for Toddler Beds Correction In rule document 2011...)(6)(iii), 1217.2(c)(6)(iv), and 1217.2(c)(7), which should read: (iii) 8.4.4 Toddler beds that... complete requirements for full-size cribs. (iv) 8.4.5 Any toddler bed that can convert from a...

  17. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  18. The use of a basic safety investment model in a practical risk management context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aven, Terje, E-mail: terje.aven@uis.no [University of Stavanger (Norway); Hiriart, Yolande [University of Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2011-11-15

    We consider a basic model in economic safety analysis: a firm is willing to invest an amount x in safety measures to avoid an accident A, which in the case of occurrence, leads to a loss of size L. The probability of an accident is a function of x. The optimal value of x is determined by minimizing the expected costs. In the paper, we re-examine this model by adopting a practical risk/safety management perspective. We question how this model can be used for guiding the firm and regulators in determining the proper level of investment in safety. Attention is given to issues like how to determine the probability of an accident and how to take into account uncertainties that extend beyond the expected value. It is concluded that the model, with suitable extensions and if properly implemented, provides a valuable decision support tool. By focusing on investment levels and stimulating thereby the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures, the model is considered particularly useful in risk reduction (ALARP) processes. - Highlights: > It is shown how to use a basic investment model in a practical risk management setting. > The model may be a valuable decision support tool if properly implemented. > It guides decision makers on risk reduction and how to determine what is ALARP. > The model stimulates the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures.

  19. The use of a basic safety investment model in a practical risk management context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a basic model in economic safety analysis: a firm is willing to invest an amount x in safety measures to avoid an accident A, which in the case of occurrence, leads to a loss of size L. The probability of an accident is a function of x. The optimal value of x is determined by minimizing the expected costs. In the paper, we re-examine this model by adopting a practical risk/safety management perspective. We question how this model can be used for guiding the firm and regulators in determining the proper level of investment in safety. Attention is given to issues like how to determine the probability of an accident and how to take into account uncertainties that extend beyond the expected value. It is concluded that the model, with suitable extensions and if properly implemented, provides a valuable decision support tool. By focusing on investment levels and stimulating thereby the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures, the model is considered particularly useful in risk reduction (ALARP) processes. - Highlights: → It is shown how to use a basic investment model in a practical risk management setting. → The model may be a valuable decision support tool if properly implemented. → It guides decision makers on risk reduction and how to determine what is ALARP. → The model stimulates the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures.

  20. 50 CFR 600.355 - National Standard 10-Safety of Life at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 10-Safety of Life at Sea... Standards § 600.355 National Standard 10—Safety of Life at Sea. (a) Standard 10. Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable, promote the safety of human life at sea. (b) General....

  1. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, Government, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and licensing

  2. FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS LAWAND POLICY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acountry develops in the real sense if it's people are healthy and prosperous i.e. if they can have healthy and notorious food which is as per standards of food safety . Only then a country can grow well . United nations Development Programme (UNDP also prepare Human Development Index(HDI on the basis of public health, education and income. It shows the importance of health of the people for the growth of nation and as symbol of human development .India despite having a huge population [121.02 cr.(2011] and being very big economy as well, legging in the world not in GDPbut in the health of the people. The economy in financial terms is growing in quantum but is it sufficient ? This question leads us to confront with some harsh realities about health in India. As we are concerned here about food safety and public health , we should have quick review of data recently reviled by UNDP's(HDI, Global Hunger Index(GHI and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India(FSSAI about adulteration to get an idea about the situation of India .

  3. Basic terminology regarding the safety of nuclear installations. German/Russian/English. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRS has produced a glossary in order to make it easier for the experts from East and West to understand each other in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. This glossary contains definitions of those technical terms that are misleadingly defined in other dictionaries or are not included in them at all. The definitions of this glossary are used by the institutions responsible for the safety of nuclear facilities in the CIS, the Baltic States and the CEES, by GRS itself, by the lecturers and interpreters at the seminars, workshops and meetings, and in the preparation or revision of codes and guides in accordance with international standards. (orig./DG)

  4. 75 FR 75692 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Act Reporting Requirements; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Act Reporting Requirements; Notice.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Reporting Requirements. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502-0253. Description of...

  5. 77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Standards; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... technical amendments to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection... requirements for pressure vessels and explosive devices used in occupant crash protection systems, such as...

  6. FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS LAWAND POLICY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA

    2012-01-01

    Acountry develops in the real sense if it's people are healthy and prosperous i.e. if they can have healthy and notorious food which is as per standards of food safety . Only then a country can grow well . United nations Development Programme (UNDP) also prepare Human Development Index(HDI) on the basis of public health, education and income. It shows the importance of health of the people for the growth of nation and as symbol of human development .India despite having a huge popul...

  7. THE RISE OF PRIVATE FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY STANDARDS: ILLUSTRATIONS FROM BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon, Thomas; Farina, Elizabeth Maria Mercier Querido

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade, the private sector has rapidly built up an array of private food standards to assure quality and safety in a fiercely competitive market. These private standards have sometimes been to fill in for missing public standards, especially for safety, and to differentiate products and build reputation, for both quality and safety. Moreover, private standards are increasingly related to meta-management systems assuring both quality and safety at all levels of a chain, enforcing...

  8. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  9. The basic concept of the PEM emplacement method and its long-term safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUMO studied the basic concept of the PEM emplacement method which is a promising method for the emplacement of the EBS in a repository. In setting the concept, it is important not only to ensure the engineering feasibility but also to secure the long-term safety. Thus, NUMO carried out a preliminary simulation on chemical interaction between the EBS materials and residual materials to investigate the influences of residual materials on the performance of the EBS. In this paper, we report the results of the chemical simulation. (author)

  10. Developing glovebox robotics to meet the national robot safety standard and nuclear safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a glove box based robotic system by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is reported. Safety issues addressed include planning to meet the special constraints of operations within a hazardous material glove box and with hostile environments, compliance with the current and draft national robotic system safety standards, and eventual satisfaction of nuclear material handling requirements. Special attention has been required for the revision to the robot and control system models which antedate adoption of the present national safety standard. A robotic test bed, using non-radioactive surrogates is being activated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop the material handling system and the process interfaces for future special nuclear material processing applications. Part of this effort is to define, test, and revise adequate safety controls to ensure success when the system is eventually deployed at a DOE site. The current system is primarily for demonstration and testing, but will evolve into the baseline configuration from which the production system is to be derived. This results in special hazards associated with research activities which may not be present on a production line. Nuclear safety is of paramount importance and has been successfully addressed for 50 years in the DOE weapons production complex. It carries its particular requirements for robot systems and manual operations, as summarized below: Criticality must be avoided (materials cannot consolidate or accumulate to approach a critical mass). Radioactive materials must be confined. The public and workers must be protected from accountable radiation exposure. Nuclear material must be readily retrievable. Nuclear safety must be conclusively demonstrated through hazards analysis. 7 refs

  11. 78 FR 4060 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, Test Procedures for Roof Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... and Safety Standards, published in the Federal Register on December 1, 2004 (69 FR 70016). After... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 3280 RIN 2502-A172 Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards... Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards by adopting certain recommendations made...

  12. 75 FR 34064 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, Test Procedures for Roof Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 3280 RIN 2502-A172 Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards... Construction and Safety Standards by adopting proposals made by the Manufactured Home Consensus Committee (MHCC), as modified by HUD. The National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of...

  13. Necessity of Accreditation Standards for Quality Assurance of Medical Basic Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jahroomi Shirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present article reviews the significance of accreditation standards while emphasizing the necessity of implementation of such standards by basic medical science council, with an eye on such international standards as those published by WFME. This review article had to decide on the key words and expressions, data bases, to review relevant literature, review higher and medical education journals at GOOGLE, ELSEVIER, PUBMED, and such web sites as those of WFME and WMA’s. Accreditation is a powerful leverage for institutional change and improvement and must be actively supported by academic and national health authorities worldwide. Considering the mission of the Basic Medical Science, Health and Post grad. Education, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran as accountable medical education, all specialists of the spectrum of disciplines agreed on the necessity of formulating the medical education standards for all disciplines of their interest. It is important that all efforts be joined in the endeavor to create effective and reliable instruments for quality assurance of Basic Medical Sciences Education.

  14. Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) safety improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) design has been developed based on the Yonggwang 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) design by incorporating improved technologies. After a successful completion of the first KSNP plant, Ulchin 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4), in 1999. YGN 5 and 6 started its commercial operation in December 2002. Currently, UCN 5 and 6 are under construction for commercial operation in 2004 and 2005, respectively, while another two units in North Korea under the Korea Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) project are in the early construction stage. As the KSNP construction projects continue, Korea has been accomplishing a dual goal of economics improvement through standardization and safety improvement meeting the most up-to-date regulatory requirements through an evolutionary design change based on the proven technology as well as the experience accumulated in the previous plants. In this paper, the major safety improvements successfully implemented in the series of KSNP design and construction projects are presented such as the design improvements for total loss of feedwater flow accident, loss of decay heat removal capability during mid-loop operation, 3 second delay of loss of offsite power for design basis accidents, and defense-in-depth analysis for common mode failure in digital plant protection system

  15. Requirements for forged and cast valves and pump casings for nuclear power plants - two ways to basic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of basic safety poses great requirements for the design, construction, selection of material and manufacture of components. The conversion of this concept into practice requires measures specific to these components. Similar components which are made by different processes of manufacture (forging, casting) require different methods. The suppliers of the valve industry must decide which method should be used to achieve the common aim of 'basic safety'. (orig.)

  16. CONTEXT AND JUSTIFICATION OF EDUCATION STANDARDS AS DEFINED BY EDUCATIONAL POLICY FOR BASIC EDUCATION IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Martínez García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to think about the educational context in Mexico designed from official sectors with the participation and support of some social actors; the same that has been used tendentiously to construct opinions that support it, justify and show like pertinent the implementation of an educational policy for basic education that has as a core the curricular and learning standards. Policy that were made concrete in 2011 in the document named Agreement No. 592.

  17. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  18. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. No sector of transport is regulated more stringently than the nuclear transport industry. The nuclear transport industry is subject to a comprehensive, inter-connected regime of international, modal and national regulations and standards. The IAEA transport safety regulations, the so-called TS-R-1, are at the heart of that international regulatory regime. Appropriate provisions of TS-R-1 are incorporated in the regulations and standards of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for marine transport, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for air transport, the ADR, RID and ADN for road, rail and inland waterways in Europe, and the regulatory regimes of the IAEA Member States themselves. The IAEA transport safety regulations are reviewed every two years and amended or revised as appropriate to ensure they are up-to-date. There is a widespread recognition today that maintaining transport options in the interest of bringing the benefits of nuclear energy where they are wanted the world over requires open and sustained dialogue between regulator and the regulated. There is a clear determination on the part of the nuclear transport industry and the key international organisations to dialogue, and the World Nuclear Transport Institute provides a vehicle for taking part in this dialogue. Equally, industry must take the opportunities afforded it to inform the regulators, the IAEA and others of the context in which

  19. 77 FR 73354 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... cradles. 77 FR 64055. Further, EN 12790 European/British Standard for Child Care Articles--Reclined... COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1112 and 1225 RIN 3041-AD16 Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers AGENCY... promulgate consumer product safety standards for durable infant or toddler products. These standards are...

  20. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  1. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  2. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  3. Making a difference in the 21st century: The continuing evolution of the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: History - Historically, wide international acceptance of BSS (basis: ICRP and UNSCEAR) as leading thematic safety standards and Transport Regulations as activity specific standards. Safety standards for nuclear installations were originally based on different national practices / designs. This was reflected in early IAEA nuclear safety standards that became a common denominator. Greater international awareness and accidents (Chernobyl) triggered the need for common high-level standards on a universal basis, to support a global safety regime. This was needed as a factor in restoring public and political trust in nuclear technology. Present - Through ongoing and planned periodic reviews and - if needed - revisions safety standards are kept current. Where gaps are identified new safety standards are developed. Presently, all IAEA safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment. Standards cover all relevant areas: thematic and as well as facility/activity related; they are hierarchically arranged in categories: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. Through CSS and Committees in areas of nuclear installation, radiation, transport and waste safety consensus is built. Member States (MS) can participate in all Committees and there is also involvement of international organizations; MS comments on all drafts; Board approves Safety Fundamentals and Requirements. This process develops buy in and sharing of knowledge. The main users are regulators and organizations involved in nuclear and radiation related facilities and users of radioactive materials. Vision - IAEA safety standards are the global reference point for safety. Our common challenge: ensure use by regulators in all States. They should check that national regulations are in agreement with IAEA safety standards and safety level expressed in them. Use in peer reviews as practiced under the Safety

  4. 24 CFR 1005.111 - What safety and quality standards apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What safety and quality standards... URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOAN GUARANTEES FOR INDIAN HOUSING § 1005.111 What safety and quality standards apply? (a) Loans guaranteed under section 184 must be for dwelling units which meet the safety and...

  5. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. (a) Where employees of different...

  6. 48 CFR 1371.113 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1371.113 Section 1371.113 Federal Acquisition... CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.113 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-82, Department of Labor Occupational Safety and...

  7. Interim storage pool for spent fuel basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''PEGASE'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cea use a facility, known as Pegase, in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decade, until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. This facility was at the beginning (1964) an experimental reactor which was cut out, with full-scale and true working conditions, for testing fuel elements of the graphite gas-cooled reactors. It worked without significant troubles down to 1975, date where this type of reactors was stopped in France. Then it became possible to use it in the view of a interim storage for experimental spent fuel of the Cea. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the experience feedback

  8. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  9. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  10. Overview of the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-xue; LI Jia-jie; LI Cui-ping; LIU Shuang-yue

    2008-01-01

    Outlined the South African mine health and safety regulatory framework, including the roles of government, tripartite council, service agencies, mine enterprises,rescue stations and workers unions, analyzed the institutional structures of South African mine health and safety standardization, including the South African standard and specification systems and standard development processes, and characterized the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems. Intended to provide some suggestions for the transformation and improvement of mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems in China or in similar situations.

  11. Level of knowledge among the population of radiation safety basic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zelencova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the level of knowledge among the population on issues like sources of ionising radiation, methods of ionising radiation measurement, measures of self-protection in case of threating or actual radioactive pollution in the district, and to study self-estimation by the population of their knowledge of radiation safety issues. Research was carried out using the method of questioning of population groups in three regions close to the places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions (Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Tyumen regions, and in five Far East regions of the Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Magadan and South-Sakhalin regions after radiation accident in Japan at "Fukushima-1" NPP. This research included processing of 243 questionnaires from the regions close to places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions and 216 questionnaires from the Far East regions.The analysis of obtained questioning results enabled to make the following conclusions: the level of knowledge among the population about the basic concepts of radiation safety appeared to be generally low among respondents of all eight territories. Considerable number of respondents in seven groups correctly mentioned the x-ray device as a source of ionising radiation (from 71 to 88 % of answers. In Murmansk region – only 52 % of the answers. Respondents of the same seven groups often correctly answered the question on how to detect ionising radiation (only with devices – from 68 to 98 % in different groups. The smallest number of correct answers to this question (42 % is also noted among respondents from the Murmansk region.Level of knowledge on self-protection measures at threating or actual radioactive pollution of the places of residence appeared a little higher among the Far East region population, who had actual concerns regarding the threat of radioactive pollution at the present time. However, in all eight investigated groups

  12. 48 CFR 22.403-3 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.403-3 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. The Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.) requires that certain contracts (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours...

  13. Overview of IAEA safety standards and insights from regulatory review services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation will discuss the transparency and openness which are covered by the topics of this workshop. Safety and protection issues have been taken into consideration on an international level. The IAEA affirmed the importance of safety in its statute more than 40 years ago and has been working ever since towards international harmonization of safety and radiation protection principles. All nuclear technologies are recommended to meet minimum standards of nuclear safety set at the international level by the IAEA. Up to now, transparency and openness which become more and more important for the regulatory bodies to improve their regulatory effectiveness and efficiency are not clearly defined in a systematic way in the IAEA safety standards, but, there are still several documents which give some requirements and suggestions to address this important issues. First part of my presentation will present the overviews of transparency and openness described in the IAEA safety standards, including legal-binding and non-legal-binding instruments. From top to low level of standards hierarchy, like new Fundamentals, Basic Safety Standards (BSS), General requirements for the regulatory authorities (GS-R-1), INSAG documents, as well as the Technical Document which deals with the communication practices. It should he noted that GS-R-1 is the basis for IRRS. Its revision already started and we are going to incorporate clear statements regarding Transparency and Openness followed the statements by new Fundamentals. Transparency and openness issues is considered to be more important part of the Policy Issue in new Integrated Regulatory Review Services (IRRS) being carried out in the member states. The regulatory policy issues review provides a greater understanding of the regulatory issues that may have international policy implications and will assist in addressing specific technical issues relevant to the regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The

  14. Radiobiological basis for setting neutron radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present neutron standards, adopted more than 20 yr ago from a weak radiobiological data base, have been in doubt for a number of years and are currently under challenge. Moreover, recent dosimetric re-evaluations indicate that Hiroshima neutron doses may have been much lower than previously thought, suggesting that direct data for neutron-induced cancer in humans may in fact not be available. These recent developments make it urgent to determine the extent to which neutron cancer risk in man can be estimated from data that are available. Two approaches are proposed here that are anchored in particularly robust epidemiological and experimental data and appear most likely to provide reliable estimates of neutron cancer risk in man. The first approach uses gamma-ray dose-response relationships for human carcinogenesis, available from Nagasaki (Hiroshima data are also considered), together with highly characterized neutron and gamma-ray data for human cytogenetics. When tested against relevant experimental data, this approach either adequately predicts or somewhat overestimates neutron tumorigenesis (and mutagenesis) in animals. The second approach also uses the Nagasaki gamma-ray cancer data, but together with neutron RBEs from animal tumorigenesis studies. Both approaches give similar results and provide a basis for setting neutron radiation safety standards. They appear to be an improvement over previous approaches, including those that rely on highly uncertain maximum neutron RBEs and unnecessary extrapolations of gamma-ray data to very low doses. Results suggest that, at the presently accepted neutron dose limit of 0.5 rad/yr, the cancer mortality risk to radiation workers is not very different from accidental mortality risks to workers in various nonradiation occupations

  15. 78 FR 29279 - Safety Standard for Carriages and Strollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... when a caregiver was unfolding the stroller for use and the child was climbing into the stroller... Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Danny Keysar Child Product Safety... 14, 2008. Section 104(b) of the CPSIA, part of the Danny Keysar Child Product Safety Notification...

  16. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  17. Basic requirements for ensuring the safety of NPP extended operations (How best to achieve and ensure the safety of extended operations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains basic requirements for prolongation of NPP extended operations. The main requirements concern obligation of operating organization for providing complex inspection, developing program for preparation NPP extended operations and justification safety. The report contains also requirements for documentation packages, submitted for obtaining license for NPP extended operations. (author)

  18. Enhancing the usability of safety and quality standards in product creation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Leskinen, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Safety and quality standards are part of the production process of adidas Group, and are part of product risk management. The responsibility of applying the standards in the production lies on the hands of product creation teams, within the company. In practice, the standards are used in the factories. The product safety and quality management team noticed that the standards were not familiar for the users and their existence was ignored. Deficiencies were found in the information of both the...

  19. Dry vault for spent fuel depository, basic outsets, operating results and safety of the 'CASCAD' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEA built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist of a dry depository, which presents a low cost of operation, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Fuel elements are cooled by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. This facility, known as 'CASCAD' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. The basic design data of the facility, are reviewed the main techniques used for its construction are outlined the safety concepts are drawn and the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working are presented. (K.A.). 1 tab

  20. Basic professional training course on nuclear safety - Finland YK4 preface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication comprises the abstracts of the YK4 basic professional training course on nuclear safety arranged now for fourth time in Finland. Part of the abstracts has again been updated for this publication. When more renewed abstracts are received during the YK4 course, they are put in the distance learning pages of Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) being thus immediately available for the participants. In the fall of 2002, Finnish organizations re-evaluated the man-power situation and established an organizing committee to develop and organize basic post-graduate professional training of new recruits and staff members; especially for the acute needs of the new NPP project, but also to provide in the long-term a new generation of nuclear experts to replace the present generation which will retire within the next ten years. The organizing committee included representatives of the following organizations: Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, nuclear power utilities TVO and Fortum, the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, the Lappeenranta (LUT) and Helsinki Universities of Technology (TKK), and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, KTM. The committee decided to promptly organize a national training course on nuclear safety based on a similar course developed by the IAEA: the course structure and syllabus are alike. Although part of the course material is based on the IAEA material, it has been adapted to the Finnish conditions, and a large part of the material is completely new. The Finnish application aims to make visible different standpoints of all organizations and the location of the five-week course rotates between different organizations. In the academic year 2006-2007, the course is starting fourth time as YK4. There are again over 100 lecturers and rehearsal, demonstration or excursion leaders. Half of them come from the utilities TVO and Fortum, a quarter from the authority STUK, and the rest from VTT, universities and others. The

  1. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The comment period is scheduled to close...

  2. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... 6x4 tractor with a 190-inch wheelbase, equipped with a hybrid disc brake configuration. The vehicle... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems...

  3. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-4 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Overtime... Contractor that are subject to the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. (d) Payrolls and...

  5. R&D for Safety Codes and Standards: Materials and Components Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFleur, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Marchi, Chris San [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project addresses the following technical barriers from the Safety, Codes and Standards section of the 2012 Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan (section 3.8): (A) Safety data and information: limited access and availability (F) Enabling national and international markets requires consistent RCS (G) Insufficient technical data to revise standards.

  6. 76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Standards: Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) on occupant crash protection to remove the sunset of a requirement that a... vehicle seats. The NPRM preceding this final rule was published September 12, 2008 (73 FR 52939, Docket...

  7. 76 FR 174 - NIJ Draft Metal Detector Standards for Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Draft Metal Detector Standards for Public Safety AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice and request for comments on the Draft Metal Detector Standards for Public... the following draft standards for metal detectors: 1. Walk-through Metal Detector Standard for...

  8. Standards which are relevant to the selection and use of electrical switches for safety related controls in mine shaft and winding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.C.; Lee, R.B.

    2007-07-01

    The document gives summary of guidance and standards. PD5304:2005, Guidance on the safe use of machinery; BS EN 60204-1:2006, Safety of machinery-Electrical equipment of machines-Part 1: General requirements; BS EN 954-1:1997, Safety of machinery-Safety related parts of control systems-Part 1. General principles for design; BS EN 1088:1996, Safety of machinery-Interlocking devices associated with guards- Principles for design and selection; EN ISO 13849-1:2006, Safety of machinery-Safety-related parts of control systems-Part 1: General principles for design; EN ISO 13849-2:2003, Safety of machinery-Safety-related parts of control systems-Part 2: Validation; BS EN 62061:2005, Safety of machinery-Functional safety of safety related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems; BS EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery- Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 2: Technical principles; and BS EN 61508:2002, Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems. 8 refs., 1 app.

  9. How employers can face up to and enforce high standards of health and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Raymond

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the high standard to which employers must aspire in order to achieve compliance with their statutory responsibilities under the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 1989 and the many detailed Regulations on safety and health at work now in force. These duties are based on European and international standards in occupational safety and health. The paper discusses the implications of the 1989 Act for enforcement strategies within organisations, including disciplinary matters.

  10. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1 of 2: Technical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities

  11. Clearance values and permitted activities in the new EU radiation protection basis safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current draft version of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the European Union of 24 May 2013 introduces new and joint values for exemption and clearance (from IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7). The mass related activity values will then be numerically identical for general exemption and for unconditional clearance (the existing sets of exemption values will be kept, but only for 'moderate amounts'). The hitherto existing principle that clearance levels must not exceed exemption values (so that no cleared material would need to be regarded as radioactive) therefore now needs to be discarded. If options of clearance for a specific purpose as laid down in Sect. 29 para. 2 no. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance disappeared, a tremendous increase of the amount of radioactive waste and of costs for radwaste disposal would result, as was discussed elsewhere. The guiding light from this dilemma comes from the way in which the principles for clearance and exemption are treated in the new IAEA BSS. The primary criterion for clearance and exemption is not formed by sets of activity values, which are only derived limits, but by the criterion of trivial dose, which is the original limit. On this basis, all seeming conflicts between clearance levels and exemption values dissolve. (orig.)

  12. Development of standards and investigation of safety examination items for advancement of safety regulation of fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study are to prepare the fuel technical standard and the structure and materials standard of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), and to develop the requirements in a reactor establishment permission. The objects of this study are mainly the Monju high performance core and a demonstration FBR. In JFY 2012, the following results were obtained. As for the fuel technical standard, the fuel technical standard adapting the examination of integrity of the FBR fuels was prepared based on the information and data obtained in this study. As for the structure and material standard, the investigation of the revised parts of the standard was carried out. And as for the examination of the safety requirements, safety evaluation items for the future FBR plant and the fission products to be considered in a reactor establishment permission were investigated and examined. (author)

  13. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous... the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. DATES: Comments must be... elements of the standard; completing a compilation of written process safety information; performing...

  14. 78 FR 63019 - Safety Standard for Bassinets and Cradles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... on the product's function. For instance, ASTM standards include a handheld carrier standard, an... Commission recognizes that some manufacturers will be required to redesign, test new prototype products, and... information in supporting educational materials and product advertisements. Response: Although CPSC...

  15. Equivalency Evaluation between IAEA Safety Guidelines and Codes and Standards for Computer-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer based systems are used in safety related applications in safety critical applications as well as safety related applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features, certain functions of the process control and monitoring system. In this context, the IAEA released the safety standard series, NS-G-1.11 (hereafter: IAEA Guideline), 'Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in NPPs', in 2000 as a guideline for evaluating the software of digitalized computer based system applied in instrumentation and control system of nuclear plants. This paper discusses about the equivalency between IAEA Guideline and codes and standards adopted by Korea Institute Nuclear Safety (hereafter: KINS Guideline) as regulatory basis. (authors)

  16. Applying radiation safety standards in diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures using x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) cover the application of ionizing radiation for all practices and interventions and are, therefore, basic and general in nature. Users of radiation sources have to apply those basic requirements to their own particular practices. That requires a degree of 'interpretation' by the user, which can result in varying levels of regulatory compliance and inconsistencies between applications of the BSS to similar practices. In this context, the Preamble of the BSS states that: 'The [regulatory body] may need to provide guidance on how certain regulatory requirements are to be fulfilled for various practices, for example in regulatory guideline documents.' In order to guide the user to achieve a good standard of protection and to achieve a consistent national approach to licensing and inspection, some countries have developed practice specific regulatory guidance, while others have practice specific regulations. National regulatory guidance is tailored to a country's own legislation and regulations for obvious reasons. This can lead to problems if the guidance is used in other States without appropriate modification to take local requirements into account. There would appear, therefore, to be scope for producing internationally harmonized guidance, while bearing in mind that the ultimate responsibility for the regulatory documents rests with the State. Some regions have taken the initiative of preparing guidance to facilitate the regional harmonization of regulatory control of certain common practices (e.g. radiology). In particular, it is felt that States participating in the IAEA's technical cooperation Model Project on Upgrading Radiation and Waste Safety Infrastructure would benefit significantly from the availability of practice specific guidance. Member States could then more readily develop their own guidance tailored to their own

  17. Nursing Application of Oral Chemotherapy Safety Standards:An Informal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFebvre, Kristine B; Felice, Toni L

    2016-06-01

    As the use of oral chemotherapy continues to rise, new approaches are needed to ensure patient safety. To help address this issue, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards were expanded in 2013 to include additional measures addressing oral anticancer drugs (OACs). Because minimal data assessing the application of these standards exist, ONS conducted an independent survey of oncology nurses to evaluate the application of these standards in practice as they relate to several areas of OAC use: assessment, consent, patient education, drug verification, and monitoring. The data revealed that, although the standards are followed in many settings, a large number of settings do not have processes in place to support safety standards and ensure patient safety when administering OACs. Information gained in this informal survey can be used to guide additional research and educational initiatives. PMID:27206292

  18. 76 FR 55819 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... concrete crossties. See 76 FR 18,073. FRA received two petitions for reconsideration in response to the... 403(d), of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-432, Division A) (RSIA). See 75 FR 52..., FRA delayed the effective date of the final rule until October 1, 2011. See 76 FR 34,890 (June...

  19. 77 FR 66703 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... JPMA- certified infant swings. ] C. Incident Data 1. Introduction The preamble to the NPR (77 FR 7012... Swings, with several modifications to strengthen the standard. 77 FR 7011. In this document, the... strengthen the voluntary standard. See 77 FR 12182. Since the publication of this notice, ASTM has...

  20. Designing programs of basic and additional mathematical formation of students in the transition to the new standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gorev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an option of building a system of continuous education on the basis of mathematical construction of basic and additional educational programs in the field of mathematical knowledge. The structure of the new educational program of basic education in accordance with new standards and offer additional options for programming mathematical education of schoolchildren, promoting systematic inclusion of students in a conscious study of the subject, taking into account the continuity of school mathematics education.

  1. International harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards. The role of the United Nations system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    extensive 928-page report, and in 1994 its supplementary 272-page report, to the UNGA. A new UNSCEAR report is expected by the end of 2000. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which in 1990 had revised its standing recommendations, has now issued a number of documents to apply these recommendations in specific situations. In 1991 six organizations - FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO, WHO, and IAEA - created a Joint Secretariat coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Organization (IAEA) with the purpose of establishing the International Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (the so-called BSS). This was the peak of decades of work and marked an unprecedented international co-operation that involved hundreds of experts from the Member States of the sponsoring organizations establishing the BSS. Within this framework, the objective of this paper is to present the significant role that the United Nations system of international organizations could play to achieve a genuine international consensus on radiation protection and safety standards. Not surprisingly, the paper will concentrate on the role and functions of the IAEA. The IAEA, is the only organization in the UN family with specific statutory functions, duties and responsibilities in the establishing international standards for radiation protection and safety. By analysing the functions and roles of UNSCEAR and the IAEA, it is clear how the UN policy on this matter has been built up and where it now stands. It should be emphasized that both UNSCEAR and the IAEA are not free 'think tanks'. They are governmental organizations. Their policies therefore reflect those of their constituencies, namely their Member States. Thus, the paper summarizes the status of UN policies on the health effects of radiation exposure, particularly on the controversial issue of the effects of low level radiation, as well as on the approach for

  2. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Modelo padrao para relatorio de analise de seguranca de usinas de reprocessamento de combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-15

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization.

  3. Predicting Stress Related to Basic Needs and Safety in Darfur Refugee Camps: A Structural and Social Ecological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Annan, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    The research on the determinants of mental health among refugees has been largely limited to traumatic events, but recent work has indicated that the daily hassles of living in refugee camps also play a large role. Using hierarchical linear modelling to account for refugees nested within camp blocks, this exploratory study attempted to model stress surrounding safety and acquiring basic needs and functional impairment among refugees from Darfur living in Chad, using individual-level demograph...

  4. Session III: Common Safety Standards - 'the best way to best practice'? Panelist intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors has worked for SKI for many years and as an expert in KASAM but he presents his views as a private person with some experience in the field of nuclear waste. His own experience as a regulator of nuclear waste safety in Sweden is that the industry, as well as politicians, stakeholders and the general public want to know and understand what is required. Those who are concerned generally also understand that requirements normally can be achieved in different ways. International standards and recommendations, and comparisons with other countries, may help in giving perspectives on the national standards. Being a former regulator, it is also encouraging to hear that the competence of the regulator is very much emphasized by different concerned parties ranging from the industry itself to other stakeholders, not least those who represent the general public (national and local politicians, environmental groups etc.). A fair and open decision process is also much emphasized. Societal, ethical, environmental, technical and economic aspects makes the world complex. In all these areas societies have formulated requirements and guidance documents. In addition to requirements and guidance given by Society, an organisation whose activities are regulated should also be expected to take own initiatives. One needs standards in advance of the activity. Before constructing and operating a geological repository one needs to have the regulations in place. These regulations cannot contain all details but should clearly define the safety goal and basic requirements. A very detailed set of requirements that defines every step one has to take is not necessary. One needs a system that clearly defines the goals and requirements while compliance should be demonstrated but gives one's the freedom to choose how to do that. The author is sceptical about thinking of 'the best way to the best practice'. There may be many ways that are 'best' given the variation in prerequisites for

  5. Updating of Safety Criteria for Basic Diagnostic Indicators of Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Values of diagnostic indicators [K]—limitations placed on radial displacements and turn angles of horizontal sections of the dam — which are permitted for each upper-pool level within the range from 520 to 539 m are determined and proposed for inclusion in the Declaration of Safety. Empirical relationships used to develop safety criteria K1 and K2 are modified

  6. 76 FR 55056 - Toy Safety Standard: Strategic Outreach and Education Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Toy Safety Standard: Strategic Outreach and Education Plan AGENCY: U.S. Consumer Product Safety... community and other stakeholders learn about testing and certification requirements for children's toys and toy chests and their compliance with ASTM International's (formerly the American Society for...

  7. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.155 Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary...

  8. 76 FR 59742 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... development of any portion of the two-entry mining system, as part of a miner's Part 48 new miner training... miner must charge the cardox safety heater before it poses a risk of danger to other miners, once it is... existing standard results in a diminution of safety to the miners. The two-entry longwall...

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  10. Safety implications of standardized continuous quality improvement programs in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Ho, Certina; Mackinnon, Neil J; Mahaffey, Thomas; Taylor, Jeffrey M

    2013-06-01

    Standardized continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs combine Web-based technologies and standardized improvement processes, tools, and expectations to enable quality-related events (QREs) occurring in individual pharmacies to be shared with pharmacies in other jurisdictions. Because standardized CQI programs are still new to community pharmacy, little is known about how they impact medication safety. This research identifies key aspects of medication safety that change as a result of implementing a standardized CQI program. Fifty-three community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada, adopted the SafetyNET-Rx standardized CQI program in April 2010. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada's Medication Safety Self-Assessment (MSSA) survey was administered to these pharmacies before and 1 year into their use of the SafetyNET-Rx program. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to explore where changes in patient safety occurred as a result of SafetyNETRx use. Significant improvements occurred with quality processes and risk management, staff competence, and education, and communication of drug orders and other information. Patient education, environmental factors, and the use of devices did not show statistically significant changes. As CQI programs are designed to share learning from QREs, it is reassuring to see that the largest improvements are related to quality processes, risk management, staff competence, and education. PMID:22842505

  11. American National Standard administrative practices for nuclear criticality safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    American National Standard Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19, provides guidance for the administration of an effective program to control the risk of nuclear criticality in operations with fissile material outside reactors. The several sections of the standard address the responsibilities of management, supervisory personnel, and the criticality safety staff, as well as requirements and suggestions for the content of operating procedures, process evaluations, material control procedures, and emergency procedures

  12. 48 CFR 1352.271-82 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1352.271-82 Section 1352.271-82 Federal Acquisition... of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-82 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Ship Repair (APR 2010) The contractor, in performance of all...

  13. Aligning CASAS Competencies and Assessments to Basic Skills Content Standards. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception, the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) has focused on teaching and assessing basic skills in contexts that are relevant and important to adult learners. CASAS has developed and continues to refine a highly formalized hierarchy of competencies, the application of basic skills that adults need to be fully…

  14. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  15. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all

  16. Notification and authorization for the use of radiation sources (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depend on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for notification and authorization for control over radiation sources, including a system for review and assessment of applications for authorization. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the process for dealing with applications for authorization and accepting notifications to regulatory bodies. Examples of guidelines that may be used by persons required to notify or apply for authorization and of the regulatory body's review and assessment procedures are provided in the Appendices. The TECDOC is oriented towards national regulatory infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  17. Harmonization of Franco-German safety requirements as milestone for an overall European standard of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992 the French and German safety authorities decided to work out a common safety approach for future pressurized water reactors in parallel with the technological development of the 'European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR)'. A major objective of this safety approach consists in a further strengthening of defense-in-depth, in order to achieve the 'practical elimination' of accident situations resulting in considerable off-site consequences. In particular, accident situations that would lead to large early releases, such as high-pressure core melt or containment bypass, have to be practically excluded. Low-pressure core meltdown accidents have to be dealt with, so that the associated maximum conceivable releases would necessitate only limited protective measures in area and time. In the last years the general safety objectives and technical principles for its achievement have been refined and embodied in a series of more detailed recommendations in close association with the development of the EPR project. (author)

  18. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... the Federal Register (69 FR 74848) a final rule \\1\\ upgrading the agency's head restraint standard in... Register (72 FR 25484) a final rule; response to petitions for reconsideration \\2\\ which completed the... vote, on February 14, 2008, NHTSA published in the Federal Register (73 FR 8743) a request for...

  19. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  20. Four (Algorithms) in One (Bag): An Integrative Framework of Knowledge for Teaching the Standard Algorithms of the Basic Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Ira; Koichu, Boris; Peled, Irit; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative framework of knowledge for teaching the standard algorithms of the four basic arithmetic operations. The framework is based on a mathematical analysis of the algorithms, a connectionist perspective on teaching mathematics and an analogy with previous frameworks of knowledge for teaching arithmetic…

  1. Radiation safety standards: space hazards vs. terrestrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policies regarding the setting of standards for radiation exposure for astronauts and other workers in space are discussed. The first recommendations for dose limitation and the underlying philosophy of these recommendations, which were put out in 1970, are examined, and consequences for the standards if the same philosophy of allowing a doubling in overall cancer risk for males aged 30-35 over a 20-year period were applied to more recent risk estimates are calculated, leading to values about a factor of 4 below the 1970 recommendation. Standards set since 1930 for terrestrial occupational exposures, which lead to a maximum lifetime risk of about 2.3 percent, are then considered, and the space and terrestrial exposure risks for fatal cancers at maximum lifetime dose are compared with industrial accidental death rates. Attention is also given to the question of the potential effects of HZE particles in space and to the possibility that HZE particle effects, rather than radiation carcinogenesis, might be the limiting factor. 17 references

  2. Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR Safety Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety issues and design requirements on control rod worth were identified through the evaluation of safety design characteristics and the preliminary safety evaluation. This results will be taken into account for the conceptual design studies of the demonstration reactor in the next stage. The Level-1 Pasa has been performed and a quantitative Cdf value was produced for the selected design from the several candidates. The inherent safety characteristics of the selected design were evaluated through the DBE and ATWS analyses. A surrogate material for Tru has been selected which is applicable to the study of liquidus/solidus temperature test for the metallic fuel containing Tru. A methodology for the regression analysis with surrogate material has been developed and valuable data on metal fuel liquidus/solidus temperature have been measured. A simple mechanistic model describing a bending of subassemblies has been formulated based on the foreign test data and existing models. Its applicability has been evaluated for the Phenix design. New criteria of the core damage for the SFR PSA were identified. The list of initiating events, system response event tree, and core response event tree, which constitute a PSA methodology for an SFR, have been introduced. By developing the SFR PIRT, phenomenological model features, which have to be satisfied in a safety code, were defined and the PIRT results were applied to the design of the PDRC test facility. Bases for a safety evaluation methodology for the SFR DBEs have been also prepared. A draft version of the topical report on the code for local fault analysis has been completed. Since 2007, the MARS-LMR code has been developed and assessments for model validation with the test data from EBR-II and Phenix reactor have been continued. The code has been applied to the evaluation of passive safety of a conceptual design of Gen IV SFR

  3. Basic approaches to the solution of NPP safety problems in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical means and organizational structure to provide for radiation safety of nuclear power plants in the USSR are considered. The evolution of some technical means such as equipment quality and quality control during fabrication and mounting is illustrated. Among the present techniques for continuous control of equipment during operation, the following are emphasized: acoustic testing and neutron noise analysis. The development of protective and accident localization devices such as emergency shut-down systems, prestressed containments increases radiation safety of NPP. A trend in the development of protective measures is pointed out that enables to simplify emergency shut-down systems and accident localization devices -the creation of disassembling structural components. These components are designed for holding all the main potentially hazard components of the primary circuit in case of rupture and for reducing the loss of coolant. The peculiarities of safety of nuclear power plants with various types of reactors (UWER, RBMK and FBR type) are considered. The improvements in technical means for safety ensurance and development of well organized structure of institutions responsible for it result in a new approach to safety limits and finally to the maximum credible accident notion itself

  4. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-333), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). Under... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 2543... pay for all hours worked in excess of 40 hours in the work week. Section 107 of the Act is...

  5. New aspects from legislation, guidelines and safety standards for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) operation are not directly regulated by law but in standards, guidelines and the operating instructions of the MR scanner. The mandatory contents of the operating instructions are regulated in a central standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60601-2-33. In this standard, the application of static magnetic fields in MRI up to 8 Tesla (T) in the clinical routine (first level controlled mode) has recently been approved. Furthermore, the equally necessary CE certification of ultra-high field scanners (7-8 T) in Europe is expected for future devices. The existing installations will not be automatically certified but will retain their experimental status. The current extension of IEC 60601-2-33 introduces a new add-on option, the so-called fixed parameter option (FPO). This option might also be switched on in addition to the established operating modes and defines a fixed device constellation and certain parameters of the energy output of MR scanners designed to simplify the testing of patients with implants in the future. The employment of pregnant workers in an MRI environment is still not generally regulated in Europe. In parts of Germany and Austria pregnant and lactating employees were prohibited from working in the MR control zone (0.5 mT) in 2014. This is based on the mostly unresolved question of the applicability of limits for employees (exposure of extremities to static magnetic fields up to 8 T allowed) or the thresholds for the general population (maximum 400 mT). According to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), the discarding of breast milk after i.v. administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in the case of a breastfeeding woman is only recommended when using contrast agents in the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) high-risk category. (orig.)

  6. [New aspects from legislation, guidelines and safety standards for MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenweg, M; Schaefers, G; Trattnig, S

    2015-08-01

    Many aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) operation are not directly regulated by law but in standards, guidelines and the operating instructions of the MR scanner. The mandatory contents of the operating instructions are regulated in a central standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60601-2-33. In this standard, the application of static magnetic fields in MRI up to 8 Tesla (T) in the clinical routine (first level controlled mode) has recently been approved. Furthermore, the equally necessary CE certification of ultra-high field scanners (7-8 T) in Europe is expected for future devices. The existing installations will not be automatically certified but will retain their experimental status. The current extension of IEC 60601-2-33 introduces a new add-on option, the so-called fixed parameter option (FPO). This option might also be switched on in addition to the established operating modes and defines a fixed device constellation and certain parameters of the energy output of MR scanners designed to simplify the testing of patients with implants in the future.The employment of pregnant workers in an MRI environment is still not generally regulated in Europe. In parts of Germany and Austria pregnant and lactating employees were prohibited from working in the MR control zone (0.5 mT) in 2014. This is based on the mostly unresolved question of the applicability of limits for employees (exposure of extremities to static magnetic fields up to 8 T allowed) or the thresholds for the general population (maximum 400 mT). According to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), the discarding of breast milk after i.v. administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in the case of a breastfeeding woman is only recommended when using contrast agents in the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) high-risk category. PMID:26220129

  7. Basic Safety Considerations for Nuclear Power Plant Dealing with External Human Induced Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facilities and human activities in the region in which a nuclear power plant is located may under some conditions affect its safety. The potential sources of human induced events external to the plant should be identified and the severity of the possible resulting hazard phenomena should be evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the plant. They should also be monitored and periodically assessed over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained. External human induced events that could affect safety should be investigated in the site evaluation stage for every nuclear power plant site. The region is required to be examined for facilities and human activities that have the potential, under certain conditions, to endanger the nuclear power plant over its entire lifetime. Each relevant potential source is required to be identified and assessed to determine the potential interactions with personnel and plant items important to safety. (author)

  8. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  9. Basic safety principles of INSAG and their application in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) has, in INSAG-11, attempted to show what safety principles are common to all applications of all sources of radiation. It has been considered that these general principles should apply to all industrial activities. A comparison of INSAG-11 with Article 11 of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) shows that the management of radioactive waste is but a special case of industrial activity and follows the same safety rules. The importance of the Joint Convention comes, however, from the fact that it is a politically important document, requiring ratification by the parliaments of the contracting parties. The safe management of radioactive waste implies that five types of issue must be taken into consideration, not only technical and ethical ones, but also socio-political, economic and ecological ones. By comparison, sustainable development in its three dimensions (temporal, spatial and sectorial) has five components (ecology, economics, ethics, socio-politics and technology), just like the safe management of radioactive waste. The consequence of this is that if management is treated as a particular case of sustainable development, it will not be accepted by society. The conclusions are that technology alone can not ensure the safety of radioactive waste management and that society will always give priority to socio-political issues over technological ones. Furthermore, it is crucial that people involved in the management of radioactive waste learn to communicate better and to listen more attentively. Their efforts will only succeed when they incorporate all the components that determine the fabric of our society. (author)

  10. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ..., 2008, NHTSA published in the Federal Register (73 FR 71401) a 10-year review plan for its existing... be reduced without reducing safety. II. Plain Language A. Background and Purpose Executive Order... language. Application of the principles of plain language includes consideration of the following...

  11. 76 FR 72888 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... be reduced without reducing safety. II. Plain Language A. Background and Purpose Executive Order... language. Application of the principles of plain language includes consideration of the following questions... section 610 reviews, we will be performing plain language reviews over a ten-year period on a...

  12. Setting Standards: A Systematic Approach to Managing Public Health and Safety Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Baruch Fischhoff

    1984-01-01

    Standards are an effective means for managing hazardous technologies only if three conditions are satisfied: (a) setting general standards is preferable to case-by-case decision making; (b) some general safety philosophy, balancing risk and other factors, can be justified on normative grounds; (c) that philosophy is faithfully translated into operational terms. In practice, standards are rarely developed and enforced in an integrated systematic way. As a result, they often miss their mark. Th...

  13. Standardization of safety and security features for sealed sources and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standardized requirements are critical to the effective implementation of safety and security requirements for sealed sources and devices. Many relevant standards exist in this area, some dealing with the performance requirements for the sources, and others with the devices that contain the sources. Recent work within Technical Committee 85, Subcommittee 2, of the International Organization for Standardization is presented, with a focus on activities of the working group revising performance standards for sealed sources and developing the standard for an ionizing radiation warning symbol. Review considerations for these standards and more general concerns around harmonization are presented. It is concluded that the International Organization for Standardization provides a convenient mechanism for the generation of new standards and a means to resolve conflicts between standards. (author)

  14. The IAEA Safety Standards and Small and Medium Reactor Design Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy worldwide prompted the development of small and medium size reactors (SMR). These reactors are more suitable for smaller grids as well as they promise increased safety, possibly better economy, and they offer flexibility in applications (including non-power), siting and fuel cycle options. The IAEA safety standards, especially the Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Standards series No. SF-1) provide excellent principles for design of nuclear power systems, these principles however, as such, are very generic. The IAEA safety standard Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (SSR-2/1) provides specific requirements for the design of nuclear power plants, yet these requirements were developed based on best practices related to the design of current generation of reactors. On other hand, the SMRs currently under design incorporate features that are innovative but with which there is no operational experience, therefore the current standards and design requirement might not be directly applicable to the new SMR designs. This paper examines four most advanced in their development designs (NuScale, mPower, SMART, CAREM) with respect to design safety requirements of the IAEA. These designs were selected because all of them are pressurized water reactors and among SMRs they are closest relatives to the current designs currently Being offered to the market. Therefore, the existing safety standards should be potentially applicable. Since these SMR designs are under development and most of the detailed information is not available this paper utilizes only information that is public domain. This limits the depth of the evaluation and mainly principal technical requirements and some general design requirements are addressed. Focus is on issues such as defence in depth, design principles (single failure criterion, fail safe design, etc.), design extension conditions, external hazards. (author)

  15. Issues and relationships among software standards for nuclear safety applications. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the development of draft regulatory guides for selected software engineering standards. This report describes the results of the initial task in this work. The selected software standards and a set of related software engineering standards were reviewed, and the resulting preliminary elements of the regulatory positions are identified in this report. The importance of a thorough understanding of the relationships among standards useful for developing safety-related software is emphasized. The relationship of this work to the update of the Standard Review Plan is also discussed

  16. Issues and relationships among software standards for nuclear safety applications. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.A.; Preckshot, G.G.; Lawrence, J.D.; Johnson, G.L.

    1996-03-26

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the development of draft regulatory guides for selected software engineering standards. This report describes the results of the initial task in this work. The selected software standards and a set of related software engineering standards were reviewed, and the resulting preliminary elements of the regulatory positions are identified in this report. The importance of a thorough understanding of the relationships among standards useful for developing safety-related software is emphasized. The relationship of this work to the update of the Standard Review Plan is also discussed.

  17. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  18. Round table about the application in France of the new EURATOM directive establishing the basic radioprotection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Started in 2008, the updating works of the existing EURATOM directives are now completed with the publication in December 5, 2013 of the new 2013/59 Euratom Directive in the Official Journal of the European Union. The new directive establishes the basic protection standards relative to the health protection against ionizing radiation exposure hazards. This update allows to consolidate 5 existing directives, to take into consideration the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published in 2007 (ICRP Publication 103), and to ensure consistency between the European framework with the new IAEA basic standards published in 2011. From January 17, 2014, France has a period of 4 years to transpose the new directive into national right and thus, to adjust the French national regulation included in the health, labor and environment laws to the European and international standards. This document brings together the 3 presentations (slides) made at this round table and dealing with: 1 - The transposition of Euratom directive 2013/59/ relative to basic radioprotection standards (J.L. Godet); 2 - The application in France of the new Euratom directive (T. Lahaye); 3 - A nuclear operator point of view regarding the daily application of Directive 2013-59 (H. Bernard)

  19. Improved safety of the system 80+TM standard plants design through increased diversity and redundancy of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safely systems in the System 80+TM Standard Plant are designed with more redundancy, diversity and simplicity than earlier nuclear power plant designs. These gains were accomplished by an evolutionary process that preserved the desirable and proven features in currently operating nuclear plants, while improving reliability and defense-in-depth. The System 80+ safety systems are the primary contributors to a core damage frequency that is more than 100 times lower than 1980's vintage U. S. designs, including the predecessor System 80R standard nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design. The System 80+ design includes significant improvements to the safety injection system, emergency feedwater system, shutdown cooling system, containment spray system, reactor coolant gas vent system, and to their vital support systems. These improvements enhance performance for traditional design basis events and significantly reduce the probability of a severe accident. The System 80+ design also incorporates safety systems to mitigate a severe accident. The added systems include the rapid depressurization system, the in-containment refueling water storage tank, the cavity flooding system. These systems fully address the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (US NRC) severe accident policy. The System 80+ safety systems are integrated with the System 80+ Nuclear Island (NI) design. The NI general arrangement provides quadrant separation of the safety systems for protection from fire and flooding, and large equipment pull spaces and lay down areas for maintenance. This paper will describe the System 80+ safety systems advanced design features, the improved accident prevention and mitigation capabilities, and startup, operating and maintenance benefits

  20. “The Safety of Tourist” - Required Community Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olguta Ludmila Benescu

    2010-06-01

    be forgotten which would attract tourists.The Romanian State, in order to have had an attractive and profitable tourism it must turn into a leading provider of safety.

  1. C. F. Braun. Standard turbine island design, safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard turbine island used with a BWR is described. It consists of the turbine-generator; steam system; condensate storage, cleanup, and transfer systems; control and instrumentation; water treatment plant; make-up demineralizer; potable and waste water systems; and a compressed air system. The turbine-generator is a tandem-compound nuclear-type turbine with one double-flow high-pressure section and a six-flow low-pressure section in three double-flow low-pressure casings. The turbine is direct connected to an 1800 rpm synchronous a-c generator. A combined moisture separator and two-stage reheater is provided. The main steam system delivers the steam generated in a BWR to the main turbine stop valves. The condensate system maintains proper water inventory. Protective features prevent loss of the system due to electrical failure of a component and isolates faults to ensure continuity of a power supply from alternate sources. (U.S.)

  2. Basic safety research for high burnup fuels in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the high burnup programs for LWR'S fuel have been proceeding, the piling up fundamental data on high burnup fuels is more desirable to conduct even more precise assessment of fuel integrity and safety. This study covers the influence of gadelinia addition on fuel pellets, of hydrogen absorption on zircaloy waterside corrosion, of fission products on pellet-cladding interaction and reactor structual materials. (author)

  3. Scientific Assessment Activities Conducted by Food Safety Agencies to Support Domestic and International Standards Development

    OpenAIRE

    Saunier, Rozenn

    2014-01-01

    Scientific risk assessment is fundamental to the development of national and international food safety standards which are based upon the outcomes of a formal risk analysis process. In France, for example, scientific risk analysis is achieved through a two-step process. At the outset, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) uses its competencies in risk assessment, research, monitoring and reference to provide scientific opi...

  4. Does Compliance to Patient Safety Tasks Improve and Sustain when Radiotherapy Treatment Processes are Standardized?

    OpenAIRE

    SIMONS, Pascale; Houben, Ruud; Benders, Jos; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Vandijck, Dominique; Marneffe, Wim; BACKES, Huub; GROOTHUIS, Siebren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To realize safe radiotherapy treatment, processes must be stabilized. Standard operating procedures (SOP’s) were expected to stabilize the treatment process and perceived task importance would increase sustainability in compliance. This paper presents the effects on compliance to safety related tasks of a process redesign based on lean principles. Method Compliance to patient safety tasks was measured by video recording of actual radiation treatment, before (T0), directly af...

  5. Application of IAEA nuclear safety standards to the licensing of Chashma nuclear power plant Unit-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of the paper is to describe a methodology to validate and verify the IAEA safety standards by applying them to the whole licensing process of the second 325 MW(e) PWR (C2) to be constructed at Chashma, Pakistan. The IAEA safety standards have so far not been used to license a nuclear power plant. A surge in installation of new nuclear power plants is expected in the next decades due to restrictions on the emission of greenhouse gases, increased electricity demands, closure of coalfields, regulatory approval of new designs of nuclear power plants in the USA, economic competitiveness of existing plants, etc. Therefore, there is a need for internationally accepted nuclear safety standards. Before describing the methodology proposed by PNRA to achieve this aim, as a prelude, the rule making procedure and history of applying IAEA safety standards in Pakistan is briefly discussed. Pakistan has been applying the deterministic approach instead of reference plant approach for licensing of its nuclear power plants imported from China. The importance of a complete regulatory pyramid has been discussed and our experience of setting up such a regulatory pyramid has been highlighted. In addition, our experience of applying IAEA safety standards in conjunction with other standards to licensing of C1 has been described. The advantages and disadvantages of applying IAEA safety standards for licensing and some significant improvements needed in light of our experience have been identified. In view of the long history of cooperation between China and Pakistan in general, and particularly between regulatory bodies of the two countries, this validation and verification exercise can be put to mutual benefit. The international nuclear community can share the benefits and consequently, in the near future, IAEA safety standards may be used for licensing of imported nuclear power plants, especially when both the exporter and importer are developing countries. It would be the

  6. Integration of occupational health and safety, environmental and quality management system standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromsvag, A; Winder, C

    1997-01-01

    Occupational health and safety, environmental, and quality (SEQ) issues are commonly managed by three separate departments within organizations. Because of a number of commonalities in the three management systems, there could be a degree of overlap that might lead to inefficiencies. By integrating these three management systems into one SEQ system, the duplication of effort could be minimized and the health and safety, environmental, and quality issues could be managed by one common proactive approach. The draft Australian standard for an occupational health and safety (OHS) management system and the internationally accepted standards for environmental (ISO 14001) and quality (ISO 9001) management systems were analyzed to identify all requirements of the three management systems and integrate this into one SEQ management system standard. PMID:9436237

  7. Fire safety regulations for nuclear power plants in Germany and the various dimensions of German KTA standardization activities. Is there a benefit today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany the mandate for preparing nuclear safety standards is given to the KTA (Nuclear Safety Standards Commission) which has restrictive procedures to definitely ensure consensus principle. The KTA was up to now not in a position to approve comprehensive fire safety relevant standards, although its corresponding program is now 22 years old. KTA 2101.1 ''Basic Principles of Fire Protection in NPPs'' (12/85) is the only one published as valid safety standard. Drafts for 3 additional standards referring fire protection of structural elements, electrical and mechanical components as well as for rescue routes have been agreed upon in working groups, supervised and accepted by the responsible KTA subcommittee, but have not been approved by the full committee of the KTA up to now. Some of these drafts are already more than 5 years old. From the today's point of view the earliest possibility to have a comprehensive and actual set of fire relevant KTA standards will be in the second half of the year 1999. This would then be 24 years after the first KTA decision to start such a program. (author)

  8. Minor actinides impact on basic safety parameters of medium-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Darnowski Piotr; Uzunow Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of addition of minor actinides (MA) to the fast reactor fuel on the most important safety characteristics was performed. A special emphasis was given to the total control rods worth in order to describe qualitatively and quantitatively its change with MA content. All computations were performed with a homogeneous assembly model of modified BN-600 sodium-cooled fast reactor core with 0, 3 and 6% of MA. A model was prepared for the Monte Carlo neutron transport code...

  9. A tool for safety officers when analysing the basic causes of simple accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    situation no one could do anything about. In 1999 a new practical tool for use by safety officers was developed and used by training systems. The tool involves three steps: one for observing facts, one for analysing the event, and one for preventive solutions. The tool has been used by various companies...... for some years with interesting results. Both the difficulties and the benefits will be presented, together with examples of the use of the tool. The main purpose of the tool is to demonstrate how management and workers can get a much better understanding of why accidents happen, even those accidents...

  10. Safety standards in the nuclear power plants of Sydkraft of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years ago, an accident occurred on one of the nuclear power station units at Barsebaeck which caused the shut-down of five of the total of 12 Swedish reactors for a period of over four months. Apart from the technical aspects, the accident also touched on questions of safety standards. For this reason, Sydkraft carried out an investigation, the results of which are reported. These address questions of the management and training of personnel jsut as much as measures for the improvement of safety standards in the immediate future and in the longer term. (orig.)

  11. The Road to Psychological Safety: Legal, Scientific, and Social Foundations for a Canadian National Standard on Psychological Safety in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…

  12. Implementation of national radiation safety regulations in Sri Lanka: A beginning to conform to international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka was established in 1970 by the legislation Atomic Energy Authority Act No.19 of 1969. Since the act was enacted 03 decades ago, the recent advances and needs were not identified. The AEA was empowered to carry out promotional activities of nuclear technology as well as regulatory activities. Under the provisions made in the act the Atomic Energy Regulations of 1975 were promulgated to regulate the activities related to radiation in the country until year 2000. Having realized that these regulations are not sufficient to meet the current international requirements with the technological advances in the fields 'Ionizing Radiation Protection Regulations' which conforms to the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards-115 were promulgated in year 2000. Even though the new regulations were made under the same act, the AEA could achieve a positive improvement in regulatory activities in use of ionizing radiation in the country by establishing a good system for implementation of a notification, licensing, and inspection programmes to conform to the International requirements. Three codes of practices have been drafted and are under review and few manuals have been printed for distribution among the radiation users. Two regulations on safe transport of radioactive material and radioactive waste management have to be promulgated and steps have been initiated in this regard. Assistance from the IAEA was received to strengthen the regulatory infrastructure in Sri Lanka under the model project in radiation protection. Also IAEA has carried out several missions to assess the regulatory effectiveness in Sri Lanka. These missions state the successful achievement of milestones I and II of the IAEA model project on Strengthening and Harmonization of Radiation Protection. However it is identified that amendment of the act is a timely requirement for the effective independence of the regulatory activities carried out by the AEA. (author)

  13. Minor actinides impact on basic safety parameters of medium-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnowski Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of addition of minor actinides (MA to the fast reactor fuel on the most important safety characteristics was performed. A special emphasis was given to the total control rods worth in order to describe qualitatively and quantitatively its change with MA content. All computations were performed with a homogeneous assembly model of modified BN-600 sodium-cooled fast reactor core with 0, 3 and 6% of MA. A model was prepared for the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP5 for fresh fuel in the beginning-of-life (BOL state. Additionally, some other parameters, such as Doppler constant, sodium void reactivity, delayed neutron fraction, neutron fluxes and neutron spectra distribution, were computed and their change with MA content was investigated. Study indicates that the total control rods worth (CRW decreases with increasing MA inventory in the fuel and confirms that the addition of MA has a negative effect on the delayed neutron fraction.

  14. BASIC: A New Biopart Assembly Standard for Idempotent Cloning Provides Accurate, Single-Tier DNA Assembly for Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Marko; Casini, Arturo; Mackrow, Ben; Fleming, Toni; Trewhitt, Harry; Ellis, Tom; Baldwin, Geoff S

    2015-07-17

    The ability to quickly and reliably assemble DNA constructs is one of the key enabling technologies for synthetic biology. Here we define a new Biopart Assembly Standard for Idempotent Cloning (BASIC), which exploits the principle of orthogonal linker based DNA assembly to define a new physical standard for DNA parts. Further, we demonstrate a new robust method for assembly, based on type IIs restriction enzyme cleavage and ligation of oligonucleotides with single stranded overhangs that determine the assembly order. It allows for efficient, parallel assembly with great accuracy: 4 part assemblies achieved 93% accuracy with single antibiotic selection and 99.7% accuracy with double antibiotic selection, while 7 part assemblies achieved 90% accuracy with double antibiotic selection. The linkers themselves may also be used as composable parts for RBS tuning or the creation of fusion proteins. The standard has one forbidden restriction site and provides for an idempotent, single tier organization, allowing all parts and composite constructs to be maintained in the same format. This makes the BASIC standard conceptually simple at both the design and experimental levels. PMID:25746445

  15. Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE-prescribed or OSHA-referenced industrial safety codes and standards is presented. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents whose codes or standards are contained in this Cross-Index, is listed

  16. Major accidents involving dangerous chemicals and Standard Basic Self-Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and radioactive facilities and other centers, institutions and agencies engaged in activities that may lead to emergency situations, are subject to specific regulations directed to take measures to prevent and control risks at source and to act initially in emergency situations and limit the consequences, in order to protect people, property and the environment. With these premise, place the following article, which summarizes the basic guidelines in the field of major accident and self-protection, summarizing the implications of current legislation in this field. (Author)

  17. Panel C report: Standards needed for the use of ISO Open Systems Interconnection - basic reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The use of an International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model and its relevance to interconnecting an Applications Data Service (ADS) pilot program for data sharing is discussed. A top level mapping between the conjectured ADS requirements and identified layers within the OSI Reference Model was performed. It was concluded that the OSI model represents an orderly architecture for the ADS networking planning and that the protocols being developed by the National Bureau of Standards offer the best available implementation approach.

  18. American National Standards Institute ANSI N 43.1 Radiological Safety in the Design and Operation of Particle Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANSI N43 committee established a writing committee to re-write the ANSI N43.1 accelerator safety standard in 1994. James Liu and Scott Walker were appointed as co-chairman. Compared to the old standard, the new standard is aimed to have a broader application, up-to-date requirements, and recommendations for best practices. The new standard uses a hazard based graded approach to address radiation safety programs for accelerators with various energies, beam currents and applications (excluding medical accelerators which are covered by another standard). Thus, the standard fulfills the goal of the committee to prepare a standard with unlimited application to industrial and research accelerators. The standard is largely complete with chapters as follows: 1) Scope. 2) Definitions. 3) Radiation Safety Program (facility safety program, radiation safety planning, organizational considerations, safety assessment, review and performance evaluation). 4) Radiation Safety System (prompt radiation, safety system features, reliability and fail-safety, tamper resistance, quality control, configuration control, adventitious production of radiation, and induced radioactivity). 5) Personnel Access Control System (including graded approach, postings, barriers, beam inhibiting devices and interlocks). 6) Radiation Control System, (passive shielding, and active systems). 7) Accelerator Operation (including readiness reviews, maintenance and testing, bypasses and deviation from procedure, operating practices, emergencies). 8) Operational Health Physics, and 9) Training. The document also has appendices regarding how to determine the Safety and Operations Envelope, Guidance for Computer Based Access Control Systems, and Radiation Measurements at Accelerators. (Author)

  19. Experiments toward non-contact safety standards for automated industrial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Madhavan, Raj

    2005-05-01

    The performance evaluation of an obstacle detection and segmentation algorithm for Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) navigation in factory-like environments using a new 3D real-time range camera is the subject of this paper. Our approach expands on the US ASME B56.5 Safety Standard, which now allows for non-contact safety sensors, by performing tests on objects specifically sized in both the US and the British Safety Standards. These successful tests placed the recommended, as well as smaller, material-covered and sized objects on the vehicle path for static measurement. The segmented (mapped) obstacles were then verified in range to the objects and object size using simultaneous, absolute measurements obtained using a relatively accurate 2D scanning laser rangefinder. These 3D range cameras are expected to be relatively inexpensive and used indoors and possibly used outdoors for a vast amount of mobile robot applications building on experimental results explained in this paper.

  20. 77 FR 60683 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Safety Standard for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... of some part of an operator's body with the rotating blade of a power lawn mower. The standard... regulations on each of these firms on average is approximately 390 hours. Thus, the total annual burden... Walk-Behind Power Lawn Mowers AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  1. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... Stage 2: Frontal Sled Tests VI. Proposed Requirements a. Adding a Definition of ``Motorcoach'' to 49 CFR... frontal 48 kilometers per hour (km/h) (30 miles per hour (mph)) barrier crash test with instrumented...

  2. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... driven portion of hybrid vehicles. Finally, the 2002 NPRM proposed a new procedure which would use engine... to recalls, most notably the Jan. 2010 recall of accelerator pedal assemblies in Toyota vehicles . We... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems; Proposed Rule...

  3. 76 FR 15903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... uncontroverted.\\22\\ \\22\\ See 71 FR at 28175-28176. B. May 2009 Final Rule Upgrading FMVSS No. 216, Roof Crush... applicable FMVSS. See 73 FR 79207, 79212 (Dec 24, 2008). Many of NHTSA's most important safety standards... analysis, technical judgment or other means.\\6\\ \\6\\ 71 FR 28168, 28183-28184 (May 15, 2006). NHTSA...

  4. 77 FR 30555 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... standard to eliminate the use of explosion-proof enclosures for their thermal dryer units. The petitioner.... (2) The indirect heat thermal dryer provides protection by eliminating the risk of explosion. (3) The thermal dryer is equipped with safety devices that automatically shut the heat source off while...

  5. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ...\\ 73 FR 31187; May 30, 2008. \\6\\ The presentations are in document 0012 and the transcript is in... with an internal combustion engine (ICE). The PSEA defines ``conventional motor vehicle'' as ``a motor... CFR Parts 571 and 585 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for...

  6. 75 FR 81313 - Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ..., and floor heave conditions in the return entry in the C-Mains resulting from multi-seam mining and... gas or other harmful, noxious, or poisonous gases will not be permitted to accumulate in excess of... modify the application of any mandatory safety standard to a coal or other mine if the...

  7. 77 FR 59673 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... modification of the existing standard to permit designated locomotives to be operated with four functional... while ensuring there is no re-entrainment back into the structure. The petitioner further states that: 1... from worker safety. Docket Number: M-2012-007-M. Petitioner: Rio Grande Mining Company, 97423 US Hwy...

  8. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... various water levels and possible head positions of occupants vs. angles of bath seats to determine what... risk of injury associated with the product. We are issuing a safety standard for infant bath seats in... requirements would further reduce the risk of injury associated with the product. Section 104(b)(2) of...

  9. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... vehicles with lift systems must comply with objective safety requirements in order to be sold. \\1\\ 67 FR..., which scheduled the standards to become effective on December 27, 2004. \\3\\ 56 FR 45530. On October 1... device specifications.\\4\\ \\4\\ 69 FR 58843. On December 23, 2004, the agency published an interim...

  10. 76 FR 54802 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... connected to a water supply and fully charged and ready for operation. (17) Sufficient supplies of roof... standard. The petitioner asserts that the proposed alternative method will provide for a level of safety..., directing high pressure water jets at such will satisfy this requirement. (3) When cleaning out the...

  11. Standard model for safety analysis report of hexafluoride power plants from natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard model for safety analysis report for hexafluoride production power plants from natural uranium is presented, showing the presentation form, the nature and the degree of detail, of the minimal information required by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. (E.G.)

  12. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2014-04-01

    It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR

  13. The IAEA Promotes the Application of Safety Standards and Best Practices for the Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA works to promote a high level of safety as it facilitates peaceful uses of nuclear energy worldwide. The IAEA’s Statute authorizes it to establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for the application of these standards. The Statute also mandates the IAEA to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information to facilitate the peaceful uses of atomic energy. To this end, the IAEA develops safety standards on different topics, including on the safety of radioactive waste management. These standards, issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series, reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and protecting the environment

  14. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2000-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  15. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2001-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  16. Refrigeration engineering 1. Safety and environmental protection. Standards. 5. ed.; Kaeltetechnik 1. Sicherheit und Umweltschutz. Normen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Standards and standardisation support economy and society in strengthening, designing and developing regional and global markets; standardisation removes technical obstacles to trading and improves the competitive strength of industrial organisations. Since 1945, the Normenausschuss Kaeltetechnik (German Refrigeration Engineering Standardisation Committee) has been working on national, European and international standards. The DIN catalogue of rules currently comprises about 120 standards and draft standards. During the past few years, many new refrigeration standards have emerged on a national, European and international scale. In order to take account of this development and to provide a handy reference manual for daily use, the new DIN pocket book of refrigeration engineering comprises the tree sections: 1. Safety and environmental protection; 2. Refrigeration systems and motor car cooling; 3. Components, working fluids, auxiliary fluids. Vol. 1 contains the revised version of the key standard of environmental engineering, i.e. the DIN EN 378 standard which is subject to both the pressure vessel ordinance and the machines ordinance. Further, safety-relevant specifications are contained e.g. on pressure vessel and pipeline design in refrigration systems. (orig.)

  17. 12 CFR 308.302 - Determination and notification of failure to meet a safety and soundness standard and request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... failed to satisfy the safety and soundness standards set out in part 364 of this chapter and in the... Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safeguarding Customer Information in appendix B to part 364 of...

  18. International cooperation, networking and application of IAEA safety standards - Perspectives of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental objective of safety is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation arising from the operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the utilization of radiation in general. This protection rests on the availability and international acceptance and use of a complete set of safety standards, strong management for safety of all licensees, effective regulatory bodies and a sustainable infrastructure with professionals trained in the application of the safety standards. The nuclear safety community is faced with many new challenges in the nuclear installations safety and radiation safety areas. The potential for accidents will increase as more and more countries turn to wider application of nuclear power and radiation sources, and if ageing of technology is not managed properly. The complexity of these issues requires the enhancement of the exchange of knowledge and cooperation among all nuclear and radiation professionals. Operators and regulators need to base their decisions on a robust knowledge base supported by institutions where high quality R and D activities are carried out. Institutions tracking new scientific information, new technologies and new challenges in a proactive manner play an important role in this context. The technical, scientific and safety support to operators and regulators differs significantly among countries, but whatever organizational framework has been chosen, international cooperation, networking and technical and scientific information sharing are essential. This conference deals with the challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in dealing with the important task of enhancing nuclear and radiation safety. This is indeed a challenge, not only to the TSOs themselves, but also to both the nuclear and the radiation communities. High quality technical and scientific information coming from well recognized, authoritative sources is of prime importance to

  19. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles : Do Planck units really make sense ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2013-01-01

    International audience It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4 x 10E19 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a...

  20. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards Rn for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: Rn = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of Rn are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  1. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  2. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  3. Safety practices and standards, developments and incentives for international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some main points arising during the safety assessments carried out on a consultative basis by the CEC are explained. The authors stress the importance of studies of depressurization accidents and the appearance of probabilistic analysis methods in safety assessments. They indicate whether these safety evaluations, by the Commission's own experts as well as by external experts, bring up possible pragmatic approaches to improving the harmonization of the safety rules and practices at the European level. Some major safety concerns and activities systematically considered by the CEC are surveyed and how they relate to the initiatives in other international organizations and in industrially developed third countries. Emphasis is placed on the efforts towards a gradual harmonization of the many different techniques and standards applied on a world scale and within the European Community, in particular for reactors of the industrially developed type. Comparative information is provided on some national practices for technico-administrative authorization procedures (with examples) and on national work on the development of regulatory and voluntary standards. Of the technical issues that influence the health and safety aspects of nuclear power, the following are dealt with more specifically in the scope of a more harmonized approach: measures to prevent or mitigate accident conditions of internal or external origin; the application of the regulatory 'strictly radiological' and 'as low as reasonably achievable' population dose limits for normal effluent releases; and the validity of the permissible doses for occupational exposure. Finally, the various possibilities and limitations of probabilistic risk analysis methods in systems design, in regulatory requirements, in operational requirements, and in the definition of safety research programmes are discussed. Some implications of such methods, e.g. in the matter of equipment failure rate data collection, are examined

  4. Nuclear safety practices and standards, present trends and incentives for international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some main points appearing during the safety assessments carried out on a consultative basis by the ECC are explained. The authors insist on the amount of studies concerning depressurization accidents and on the appearance of probabilistic analyses methods in safety assessments. They indicate whether these safety evaluations carried out by Commission's own experts as well as by external experts bring up possible pragmatic approaches for harmonization problems of the safety rules and practices at European level. An overview is given of some major safety concerns and activities systematically considered by the E.E.C. and how they relate to the initiatives in other international organizations and in industrially developed third countries. Emphasis is placed on the efforts towards a gradual harmonization of the many different techniques and standards applied on a world scale and within the E.C in particular for reactors of the industrially developed type. Comparative information is provided on some national, practices for technico-administrative authorization procedures (as examples) and on national efforts in development of regulatory and voluntary standards. Amongst the technical issues which influence the health and safety aspects of nuclear fissions power, the following are dealt with here more specifically in the scope of a more harmonized approach: the means dedicated to the prevention and to the mitigation of accident conditions of internal or of external origin; the application of the regulatory ''strictly radiological'' and the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' population dose limits for normal effluents releases; the validity of the permissible doses for the professionally exposed; and the various possibilities and limitations of probabilistic risk analysis methods in systems design, in regulatory requirements, in operational requirements, in safety research programme definition are also discussed. Also some implications of such methods, e.g. in the matter

  5. THESEUS - a research project to improve the safety standard of tank vehicles for dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research project reffered to as THESEUS was initiated by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of Germany. The intent of the investigation is to generate measures designed to enhance the safety standard of commercial transports of dangerous goods in tank vehicles. Hereby, the analysis of real accidents by teams within the project will provide the relevant parameters for the experimental and theoretical investigation of vehicles, tank components and safety devices. The project started in summer 1990. This paper will focus main features and the work done so far. Special consideration will be made to the failure behaviour of tank components as the authors field of activity. (orig.)

  6. The impact of safety standards updating for design purposes in nuclear power plants licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian experience of nuclear power plants licensing was consolidated by the use of the Brazilian, American, German and IAEA standards. Independently of the set of norms, standards or guides to be used, this set should be in consonance with the state-of-art or the current state of knowledge in science and technology. In the general design criteria of US NRC or German BMI, or in the Brazilian norms (CNEN) or even, in the IAEA standards, this aspect is always emphasized. On the other hand, the international operational experience of nuclear reactors (for example, TMI accident) also contributes to the updating of norms and standards. The use of new technologies (for example, digital technology) impels the norms and standards to adopt new design criteria related to the new technological context. Moreover, we must add the particular vision that each country can have concerning to specific topics in nuclear safety. This work discusses how the norms, standards and guides used in the nuclear licensing are being reviewed to cope with the requirement of the state-of-art. In order to accomplish this aim we took some general design criteria to exemplify how they are fulfilled, mainly those related directly with the protection of the defense-in-depth barriers: primary coolant system, containment vessel and containment systems, including external events and severe accidents. In complement to the deterministic analysis, it is also discussed the design criteria related to the human factors engineering and probabilistic safety analysis, including severe accidents aspects. (author)

  7. The impact of safety standards updating for design purposes in nuclear power plants licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: sidney@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The Brazilian experience of nuclear power plants licensing was consolidated by the use of the Brazilian, American, German and IAEA standards. Independently of the set of norms, standards or guides to be used, this set should be in consonance with the state-of-art or the current state of knowledge in science and technology. In the general design criteria of US NRC or German BMI, or in the Brazilian norms (CNEN) or even, in the IAEA standards, this aspect is always emphasized. On the other hand, the international operational experience of nuclear reactors (for example, TMI accident) also contributes to the updating of norms and standards. The use of new technologies (for example, digital technology) impels the norms and standards to adopt new design criteria related to the new technological context. Moreover, we must add the particular vision that each country can have concerning to specific topics in nuclear safety. This work discusses how the norms, standards and guides used in the nuclear licensing are being reviewed to cope with the requirement of the state-of-art. In order to accomplish this aim we took some general design criteria to exemplify how they are fulfilled, mainly those related directly with the protection of the defense-in-depth barriers: primary coolant system, containment vessel and containment systems, including external events and severe accidents. In complement to the deterministic analysis, it is also discussed the design criteria related to the human factors engineering and probabilistic safety analysis, including severe accidents aspects. (author)

  8. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of

  9. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  10. Activity of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for compiling the consensus standard on nuclear criticality safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for compiling the consensus standard on nuclear criticality safety control is presented. The standard recommends an enhancement of nuclear criticality safety throughout a life cycle of facility in terms of a concept of 'barriers against criticality'. (author)

  11. Preliminary Safety Information Document for the Standard MHTGR. Volume 1, (includes latest Amendments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-01

    With NRC concurrence, the Licensing Plan for the Standard HTGR describes an application program consistent with 10CFR50, Appendix O to support a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review and design certification of an advanced Standard modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design. Consistent with the NRC's Advanced Reactor Policy, the Plan also outlines a series of preapplication activities which have as an objective the early issuance of an NRC Licensability Statement on the Standard MHTGR conceptual design. This Preliminary Safety Information Document (PSID) has been prepared as one of the submittals to the NRC by the US Department of Energy in support of preapplication activities on the Standard MHTGR. Other submittals to be provided include a Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a Regulatory Technology Development Plan, and an Emergency Planning Bases Report.

  12. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczynski Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  13. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...This document proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be installed on new trailers with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 4,536 kg (10,000 lbs.) or less. It also proposes to exclude these trailers from a vehicle testing requirement that a tire must be retained on its rim when subjected to a......

  14. Prospective study comparing the safety and efficacy of totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy vs standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mukta Vig; Vishal Vig; Gurinderjit S. Nagi; Suraj Suchak; Subhash Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) Vs standard PCNL. Methods: From August 2014 to January 2016, 66 patients underwent PCNL in our institute. Of this group, 35 patients underwent traditional nephrostomy drainage following PCNL. A tubeless procedure was performed in the remaining 31 patients. These groups were compared with respect to age, stone burden, intraoperative events, postoperative pain, analgesic requirements, ...

  15. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Juan M; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Ryan, Patrick B; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236

  16. The Industry Standard Tool-set (IST) of Codes for CANDU Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer codes are used in the Canadian nuclear industry for design support and safety analysis of CANDU reactors and small reactors, and in the provision of analysis services to its internal and external customers. Many of these codes were brought into service during the growth years of the nuclear power industry in Canada (mid 1970's to late 1980's). Typically, validation was conducted during the development of the codes to ensure their adequacy, however the validation process followed was not formalized. Similarly, the software engineering processes employed during their development and subsequent maintenance were not necessarily consistent with modern standards. In the mid-1990's the Canadian nuclear industry undertook a number of projects to upgrade the quality of safety analysis software. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) established a safety analysis code Validation Project and Ontario Power Generation Incorporated (OPGI) - formerly Ontario Hydro - established a Verification and Validation of Safety Analysis Software Project as part of its Integrated Improvement Program (IIP). Underlying forces driving these projects included concerns raised by the regulator regarding the quality of safety analysis software and the need to conform to newly-issued Canadian quality assurance standards, specifically CSA N286.7. These projects involve establishing either formal software validation or software verification and validation methods, together with design recovery of the software and its documentation. The objectives of the projects are to ensure: - that there is a low likelihood of errors being introduced into safety analysis that are due to deficiencies in the software, - a documentation base exists for the codes that would demonstrate to the regulator that acceptable quality exists and - that the codes are formally qualified for their intended applications. As these projects were being established it was recognized that developments to enhance capabilities

  17. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  18. Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste. Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, requires that governments establish laws and statutes to make provisions for an effective governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. The framework for safety includes the establishment of a regulatory body. The regulatory body has the authority and responsibility for promulgating regulations, and for preparing their implementation. This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The regulations provide the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education and agriculture. The regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance. This publication allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of local conditions, technical resources and the scale of facilities and activities in the State. The set of regulations in this publication is based on the requirements established in the IAEA safety standards series, in particular in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 5, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, and in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-5, Disposal of Radioactive Waste. They are also derived from the Code of Conduct of the Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. This publication allows States to appraise the

  19. Dynamics of psychophysiological state of the boxers influenced by the standard of specialized demands of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martsiv V.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Examined the psychophysiological state of boxers with 9 types of reactions to the anticipation stage of the specialized basic training. In the experiment involved 18 male boxers aged 18-20 years. We investigated the dynamics of the reactions of anticipation in boxers under the influence of standard specialized loads. In the main part of the session boxers improved individual series 4-5 shock the boxing bag with the installation of the most strongly and quickly strike (loading dose - 9 rounds of 3 minutes each with an interval of 1 minute rest. Upon completion of the boxers performed strength training with weightlifting neck and stuffed ball. The regularities of the occurrence of each type of response in this group of athletes, provides a way of their use as criteria for assessing the psycho-physiological state of boxers.

  20. The German safety standards of the 90s compared with the KNK II lay - out of the mid - 70s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986 the Federal Government appointed the Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) to carry out a comprehensive safety inspection of all nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. This inspection was completed for the LWR's at the end of 1988, so the RSK determined to examine the KNK II plant in the same way. The safety inspection included a comparison of the latest safety standards for nuclear power plants as well as an examination of the operating experiences and the results of risk studies. Due to the lack of special standards for sodium cooled fast breeder reactor plants the comparison had to be executed taking pattern from the requirements from PWR's. (author)

  1. Prophylactic UV Radiation and CIE Standard on Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, Genrih; Gavrilkina, Galina

    Two aspects of UV photobiology have come up almost simultaneously for discussion. On the one hand, the CIE has, for all practical purposes, completed discussions of a new standard “CIE S 009/E: 2002 Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems”1), and it was adopted without any amendments. On the other hand, some national standards (for example, in Russia) have for decades insisted on UVA+UVB radiation being used for prophylactic purposes at actinic erythemal doses (around 140 J m-2 per 8 hours of irradiation), which are significantly higher than prohibitive doses of actinic UV hazard (30 J m-2) suggested in the CIE standard. It seems that this arisen situation is to be thought about more carefully.

  2. Standardization in fiber-optic sensing for structural safety: activities in the ISHMII and IEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Krebber, K.; Daum, W.

    2015-03-01

    Fiber-optic sensors are increasingly established in the sensor market. Their advantages have unquestionably been verified by numerous demonstrations to enhance the operational performance of aged structures or to monitor the structural behavior of safety-relevant structures or their components. However, there are some barriers in use due to a lack of extensive standardization of fiber-optic sensors. This leads very often to restraints in the user's community. The paper shows the status in international standardization of fiber-optic sensors as well as current activities in leading institutions such as IEC and ISHMII and others with the purpose of providing relevant standards for a broader use of selected fiber-optic sensor technologies.

  3. The prospect of food irradiation and the contribution of radiation chemistry to enact the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Now, it is said that we are at the dawn of food irradiation application both nationally and internationally. However, referring to the acceptability of customers the labeling of irradiated foods has been a nightmare to the food processors. On the other hand the recommended international standard has the shortcomings of thinking in absolute terms. In this paper a proposal which puts special emphasis on enacting hygienic safety standard of individual irradiated food is recommended. The hygienic safety standard of the irradiated food may be classified in three classes: 1) its hygienic safety standard is similar to that of common food; 2) the maximum permissible quantities of harmful compounds induced by radiation must be controlled; and 3) the quantity of unique radiolysis products may by dutermined. Radiation chemistry plays an important role in enacting the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods. For international cooperation in this field some suggestions are made

  4. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  5. Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches

  6. Reliability study: digital engineered safety feature actuation system of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) in a nuclear power plant becomes more extensive, including safety related systems. The PSA application of these new designs are very important in order to evaluate their reliability. In particular, Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPPs), typically Ulchin 5 and 6 (UCN 5 and 6) reactor units, adopted the digital safety-critical systems such as Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System (DESFAS). In this research, we developed fault tree models for assessing the unavailability of the DESFAS functions. We also performed an analysis of the quantification results. The unavailability results of different DESFAS functions showed that their values are comprised from 5.461E-5 to 3.14E-4. The system unavailability of DESFAS AFAS-1 is estimated as 5.461E-5, which is about 27% less than that of analog system if we consider the difference of human failure probability estimation between both analyses. The results of this study could be utilized in risk-effect analysis of KSNPP. We expect that the safety analysis result will contribute to design feedback

  7. Safety and efficacy of sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Motoyuki; Marui, Akira; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Takahide; Yamamoto, Masaya; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Tanaka, Shiro; Yanagi, Shigeki; Ito-Ihara, Toshiko; Ikeda, Takafumi; Murayama, Toshinori; Teramukai, Satoshi; Katsura, Toshiya; Matsubara, Kazuo; Kawakami, Koji; Yokode, Masayuki; Shimizu, Akira; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2016-05-01

    As a form of therapeutic angiogenesis, we sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of a sustained-release system of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) using biodegradable gelatin hydrogel in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). We conducted a phase I-IIa study that analyzed 10 CLI patients following a 200-μg intramuscular injection of bFGF-incorporated gelatin hydrogel microspheres into the ischemic limb. Primary endpoints were safety and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcO2) at 4 and 24 weeks after treatment. During the follow-up, there was no death or serious procedure-related adverse event. After 24 weeks, TcO2 (28.4 ± 8.4 vs. 46.2 ± 13.0 mmHg for pretreatment vs after 24 weeks, p < 0.01) showed significant improvement. Regarding secondary endpoints, the distance walked in 6 min (255 ± 105 vs. 318 ± 127 m, p = 0.02), the Rutherford classification (4.4 ± 0.5 vs. 3.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.02), the rest pain scale (1.7 ± 1.0 vs. 1.2 ± 1.3, p = 0.03), and the cyanotic scale (2.0 ± 1.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.9, p < 0.01) also showed improvement. The blood levels of bFGF were within the normal range in all patients. A subanalysis of patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (n = 7) or thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) (n = 3) revealed that TcO2 had significantly improved in both subgroups. TcO2 did not differ between patients with or without chronic kidney disease. The sustained release of bFGF from biodegradable gelatin hydrogel may offer a safe and effective form of angiogenesis for patients with CLI. PMID:25861983

  8. Cross-index to ERDA-prescribed industrial safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Cross-Index volume is given containing the 1976 compilation of detailed information from more than four hundred and seventy ERDA-OSH prescribed/recommended industrial and construction safety codes and standards. The compilation of this material was conceived and initiated in 1973 by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering's (REECo) Industrial Safety organization, and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph, and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the ''Contents'' section. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of a Cross-Index page; to the right of the listing are, in order to the right, the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph, and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing. Simplified ''How to Use'' directions are listed. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents, whose codes or standard are contained in this Cross-Index, is also given. Even a cursory examination of the glossary will reveal the wide range of standards included

  9. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist

  10. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  11. Standard Review Plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants: LWR edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) is prepared for the guidance of staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation in performing safety reviews of applications to construct or operate nuclear power plants. The principal purpose of the SRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. It is also a purpose of the SRP to make information about regulatory matters widely available and to improve communication and understanding of the staff review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. The safety review is primarily based on the information provided by an applicant in a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The SAR must be sufficiently detailed to permit the staff to determine whether the plant can be built and operated without undue risk to the health and safety of the public. The SAR is the principal document in which the applicant provides the information needed to understand the basis upon which this conclusion has been reached. The individual SRP sections address, in detail, who performs the review, the matters that are reviewed, the basis for review, how the review is accomplished, and the conclusions that are sought. The safety review is performed by 25 primary branches. One of the objectives of the SRP is to assign the review responsibilities to the various branches and to define the sometimes complex interfaces between them. Each SRP section identifies the branch that has the primary review responsibility for that section. In some review areas the primary branch may require support, and the branches that are assigned these secondary review responsibilities are also identified for each SRP section

  12. Thermal safety analysis of a dry storage cask for the Korean standard spent fuel - 16159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual dry storage facility, which is based on a commercial dry storage facility, was designed for the Korea standard spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and preliminary thermal safety analysis was performed in this study. To perform the preliminary thermal analysis, a thermal analysis method was proposed. The thermal analysis method consists of 2 parts. By using the method, the surface temperature of the storage canister corresponding to the SNF clad temperature was calculated and the adequate air duct area was decided using the calculation result. The initial temperature of the facility was calculated and the fire condition and half air duct blockage were analyzed. (authors)

  13. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Auto Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Auto Safety Print A A ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  14. Our products are safe (don't tell anyone!). Why don't supermarkets advertise their private food safety standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Carlo; Perito, Maria Angela; Di Fonzo, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Large retail chains have spent considerable resources to promote production protocols and traceability across the supply chain, aiming at increasing food safety. Yet, the majority of consumers are unaware of these private food safety standards (PFSS) and retailers are not informing them. This behavior denotes a pooling paradox: supermarkets spend a large amount of money for food safety and yet they forget to inform consumers. The result is a pooling equilibrium where consumers cannot discrimi...

  15. Summary of the Panel Discussion Concluding Session III on Common Safety Standards - 'the best way to best practice?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The session on Common Safety Standards was introduced by a comprehensive presentation by Luc Baekelandt (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control) of the IAEA Standards for the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and the process for their development. He described the different level of standards (safety fundamentals, safety requirements and safety guides) and gave an overview of existing standards and the plans for development of new standards or updating of existing ones in the area radioactive waste management. The presentation was followed by a panel discussion on 'The best way to best practices' including comments from the audience. The three panelists were experienced regulators and gave their views on the need for European harmonization in safety. The main points raised were: - Harmonization of safety standards in Europe is necessary to ensure that comparable safety levels are established in each country. Harmonization can contribute to an increased public confidence. They are also important on a more integrated electricity market; - Harmonization of safety standards must not replace the necessary national regulation, involving fair and open decision processes. These can be different in different countries depending on the national culture and legislative traditions; -International recommendations are important for the harmonization. The Joint Convention is a good example and its implementation through self-assessments and peer reviews brings the harmonization forward. It might, however, be too general to achieve the level of European harmonization needed. More detailed requirements based on a hierarchical system might be needed, but they should at the same time not be too detailed. Caution was raised about using words such as best way and best practices. Clear 'good' goals should be set, but the implementation can differ; - Who should set the harmonization level? The good experience of the approach by WENRA (Western European Nuclear Regulator's Association) for

  16. Study of basic safety-related aspects of decommissioning nuclear installations. Pt. 1. Legal aspects and set of technical rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set of nuclear rules is checked for its applicability to the decommissioning, safe containment and dismantling of nuclear installations. In the foreground of the individual parts of the set of rules is the question about the relevance of licensing procedures according to No. 7 para. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. The set of rules checked, basically consists of: 1. the Atomic Energy Law (AtG), the ordinances adopted on its basis (AtVfV, StrSchV, AtDeckV, AtKostV, EndlagerVIV, AtSMV) and on neighbouring laws (StrVG, BImschG, UVPG, AbfG); 2. the announcements of the BMU, BMI and BMFT: 3. the recommendations of the RSK, SSK, the rules of the KTA, the DIN standards, and 4. several international guidelines and recommendations (European Union EU, IAEA, NEA of the OECD). A generic assessment is performed, in the course of which, starting from the content or treated facts, reference to defined licensing facts and the wording, it is determined whether a specific regulation or rule is relevant or irrelevant in the licensing procedure according to No. 7 para. 3 Atomic Energy Law. In addition, a plant-related evaluation based on implemented licensing procedures is done. The expertises and licensing notifications referred to for this purpose, which represent a wide cross-section of German nuclear installations, were evaluated to find out which of the regulations and rules were explicitely applied. (orig./HP)

  17. Event-based Formalization of Safety-critical Operating System Standards: An Experience Report on ARINC 653 using Event-B

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yongwang; Yang, Zhibin; Sanan, David; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Standards play the key role in safety-critical systems. Errors in standards could mislead system developer's understanding and introduce bugs into system implementations. In this paper, we present an Event-B formalization and verification for the ARINC 653 standard, which provides a standardized interface between safety-critical real-time operating systems and application software, as well as a set of functionalities aimed to improve the safety and certification process of such safety-critica...

  18. Development of technology-neutral safety requirements for the regulation of future nuclear power reactors: Back to basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronea, Madalina, E-mail: madalina.tronea@gmail.co [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-03-15

    This paper explores the current trends as regards the development of technology-neutral safety requirements to be used in the regulation of future nuclear power reactors and the role of the quantitative safety goals in the design of reactor safety systems. The use of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on protection against potential exposure could form the basis of a technology-neutral framework for safety requirements on new reactor designs and could contribute to international harmonisation of nuclear safety assessment practices as part of the licensing processes for future nuclear power plants.

  19. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahtab Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people’s safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  20. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-01-01

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently. PMID:24859024

  1. The revision of the safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation was issued on July 29, 1970, and has been used for more than thirteen years. In 1983, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) decided to revise it accordingly to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the experiences of regulation enforcement in Taiwan and other countries. The AEC assembled a task group of eight members from academic institutions, licensees, government agency, and senior health physics to be in charge of the revision. In this presentation the major changes of the Safety Standards are summarized. They refer to the adoption of the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP publication 26 and 30, the use of the units of the International System as the primary units with the old units being noted in parentheses, the adoption of the minimums levels recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the setting up of an executive regulatory system for the implementation of the ALARA concept. 6 refs

  2. Food safety standards for Beijing 2008 Olympics-Hastening the parturition of international brands of Chinese meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the predicted statistics of the Beijing Municipal Food Safety Office, during the period of Beijing 2008 Olympics, over 13 millions of meals will be served to the athlete delegations, work personnel and journalists of various countries and the on-site spectators. To ensure the safety of food serving, the Beijing municipal government has specially worked out and initiated an outline for action on food safety. The strict standard on food safety required by the International Olympics Committee will also promote the pace of internationalization of Chinese food and drinks.

  3. Depleted uranium. Protecting against all possible sources of ionizing radiation through the development and application of state-of-the-art safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the IAEA has the specific mandate to establish, in consultation and collaboration with other United Nations and specialized agencies concerned, standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources and to provide for the application of these standards. With respect to potential radiation hazards, the Agency has jointly developed the International Basic Safety Standards with the World Health Organization, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. These standards, known as the BSS, cover a wide range of situations that give rise or could give rise to exposure to radiation, such as the radiation hazard posed by depleted uranium (DU). Based on the information currently available, DU ammunitions do not appear to present a significant risk to health from a radiological point of view. Since only limited studies have been undertaken in post-conflict areas where DU ammunitions were used, further assessment and studies of DU in such areas would increase the confidence in this observation. In addition to radiological assessment, the IAEA is also developing a training course to assist Member States in analytical methods and techniques that could be used to detect and measure DU in post-conflict areas

  4. Application of safety standards and rules in the Shelter Implementation Plan at the destroyed power unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the application of safety standards and rules to the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) measures. Since 1998 this plan is being implemented at the Chornobyl NPP destroyed unit (which is now known as the Shelter). It includes a set of various tasks whose performance will help partially achieve the established safety objectives. The Regulatory Authority should establish for the Shelter safety goals, principles, and criteria in general, while the Operator of the Shelter is free to independently select the optimum method for their implementation. The Operator of the Shelter must demonstrate (in safety analysis report) that established safety goals are achieved and safety principles and criteria are met. Safety goals, principles, and criteria established for radioactive waste management are reasonable to apply in measures provided for by SIP. However, due to the unique nature of the Shelter, some criteria should not be applied directly and in full scope. Norms and rules on radiation protection should be applied in full scope. The specifics of radiation protection during each Shelter-related activity are considered individually. Safety standards and rules related to technical aspects are reasonable only as a basis. Effective resolution of specific technical issues associated with safety assurance is achieved through interaction between the Operator and the Regulatory Authority during design of SIP structures and systems. Hence, effectiveness of the licensing process plays an important role in the success of the SIP.(author)

  5. Compliance of indigenous telecobalt unit (Bhabhatron-II) with IEC radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Telecobalt units in comparison to medical linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used in developing countries for cancer treatment and are preferred over linacs because of: i) Low cost; ii) Low maintenance cost; iii) Lesser power requirements; and iv) Less down time. Due to these reasons, the telecobalt unit is still popular over linac at least for the developing countries, though linac is advantageous over telecobalt machine in various aspects such as variable dose rates, multiple photon and electron - beams and energies and lesser beam penumbra. At present in India, there are only 385 teletherapy units which includes 281 telecobalt units and 104 linacs. On the basis of cancer incidence in India, it is estimated that we need more than 1000 teletherapy units, which is likely to increase in near future. It is worth mentioning that out of 281 telecobalt units, almost all the units are imported except a few indigenous. Further, the imported telecobalt units are quite expensive which is a major hindrance for establishing radiotherapy centres in rural India. In view of the above, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India designed and developed a prototype telecobalt unit, which was named as Bhabhatron-I. With further operational feedback, a modified model was developed and renamed as Bhabatron-II, which has maximum source capacity of 555 TBq 60Co. It is mandatory that before the unit is used for clinical applications, it shall comply with various safety standards like electrical, mechanical, dosimetric and radiation safety etc,. In India, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, ensures that the unit complies with National/International standards before granting Type Approval Certificate to the manufacturer. In this paper, the results pertaining to radiation safety of the Bhabhatron-II unit are reported. The radiation leakage tests with beam ON/OFF and during source transition were performed as per the requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC

  6. WC19: a wheelchair transportation safety standard--experience to date and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manary, Miriam A; Ritchie, Nichole L; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2010-04-01

    ANSI/RESNA WC19 (i.e., WC19) is a voluntary standard that specifies design and performance requirements for wheelchairs that are suitable for use as seats in motor vehicles. The guiding principles for the standard originate from automotive crash-protection principles that are effective in reducing occupant injuries and fatalities. In addition to frontal-impact testing of wheelchairs, the standard includes tests for securement-point accessibility, tiedown-strap clear paths, lateral stability, and accommodation of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. Results from testing wheelchairs to WC19 reveal that the most common wheelchair problems include: a lack of structural integrity during frontal-impact loading; sharp rigid edges; and wheelchair structures that interfere with achieving proper positioning of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. Data from 8 years of experience with WC19 indicate where changes are needed to further improve transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers. These include expanding WC19 to include wheelchairs for smaller children who require a five-point harness restraint, and requiring wheelchairs to achieve a minimal rating for the ease of achieving proper positioning of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. PMID:19782631

  7. Introducing standardized “readbacks” to improve patient safety in surgery: a prospective survey in 92 providers at a public safety-net hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar Hari; Cooper Jeffrey B; Sabel Allison; Weckbach Sebastian; Mehler Philip S; Stahel Philip F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Communication breakdowns represent the main root cause of preventable complications which lead to harm to surgical patients. Standardized readbacks have been successfully implemented as a main pillar of professional aviation safety for decades, to ensure a safe closed-loop communication between air traffic control and individual pilots. The present study was designed to determine the perception of staff in perioperative services regarding the role of standardized readbacks...

  8. The requirements and basic principles of the system of radiation monitoring of the environment to ensure radiation safety in the republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Republic of Belarus, the problem of radiation safety is one of the most important tasks of ensuring national security. In this regard, development of a framework methodology management radio-logical monitoring of the environment is an important scientific challenge both in terms of retrospective assessment of the effectiveness of radiation monitoring in the period 1963–2011 years and in terms of the proposed activity, in the first place, the construction of nuclear power (NPP) in Belarus. The article presents the conceptual framework of radiation monitoring, data analysis of internal and external sources of threats and risks of radiation safety, assessed their dynamics. described signs of a problem situation and ways to resolve it. Formulated system requirements and basic principles of radiation monitoring system and its programs. A model of radiation monitoring as an essential part of the complex operational and long-term measures for preventing and managing risks, challenges and threats of radiation safety. (authors)

  9. Basic measures for the improvement of the safety, realized in the NPP 'Kozloduy' units 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures for the improvement of the safety of the units 1-4 of the NPP 'Kozloduy' have been implemented, taking into account the main safety principles and directed to the following activities: analyses; fuel cooling; radioactive products location; assurance of the containment and primary circuit integrity; improvement of the plant operation. Some of the main measures applied are: installation of relief valves; replacement of the safety valves of the steam generators; installation of a safety isolation kit for the pressurizer; construction of emergency feedwater system; installation of breakers; fire system. This has been performed as a complex program, leading to a significant improvement of the safety. One of the main problems is the impossibility of guaranteeing of an adequate protection of the components in the control room in case of common cause failure. It is assumed that the installation of relief valves together with an antiseismic construction's reinforcement can prevent from a local recriticality in case of a secondary circuit rupture and the reactor's isolation. High pressure in the steam generator is avoided by the installation of new relief valves in the steam generators, functioning as steam dump to atmosphere and they are capable to ensure the reactor cooling to a cold state. In order to properly perform the 'feed and bleed' procedure it is installed an independent water supply system. The results after the improvements according to the probabilistic safety analysis show that core melt frequencies of the units 3-4 and 1-2 are 7.9.10-5 and 8.1.10-5 respectively versus ∼ 10-3 before the reconstruction. After the installation of new valves and the realization of the 'feed and bleed' procedure the primary circuit safety is increased 5 times. The problems of containment safety and cold overpressurization are solved in case of reactor stop and shutdown and accident. The independent water supply system increases the reactor safety in 20% and permits 'f

  10. Ukrainian state service of the united time and standard frequencies: structure and basic principles for providing the country with high-precision time and frequency information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, O. M.; Safronov, Yu. I.; Klejman, O. S.; Solovjov, V. S.; Tkachuk, A. A.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    The organization structure and main problems of the Ukrainian state service of the united time and standard frequencies are considered. Its present state and the role of its basic divisions in providing various fields of the Ukrainian economics, including the space science and its applications, with the time and frequency information are presented.

  11. Verification Results of Safety-grade Optical Modem for Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jangyeol; Son, Kwangseop; Lee, Youngjun; Cheon, Sewoo; Cha, Kyoungho; Lee, Jangsoo; Kwon, Keechoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    We confirmed that the coverage criteria for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator is satisfactory using a traceability analysis matrix between high-level requirements and lower-level system test case data set. This paper describes the test environment, test components and items, a traceability analysis, and system tests as a result of system verification and validation based on Software Requirement Specifications (SRS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP), and Software Design Specifications (SDS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a CPC in a KSNP. All tests were performed according to the test plan and test procedures. Functional testing, performance testing, event testing, and scenario based testing for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant as a thirty-party verifier were successfully performed.

  12. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  13. Radiation safety criteria for mercury vapor lamps: proposed recommendations and notice of intent to develop performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations for mercury-vapor discharge-lamp radiation-safety criteria are proposed with an announcement of intent to develop a radiation safety performance standard for these lamps. Interested persons may submit comments until December 7. Such action is necessary due to the high efficiency and long life of mercury vapor lamps and their energy-saving role in illumination. They are widely used for lighting, including streets, school gyms, sports arenas, commercial stores and industrial facilities

  14. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Standard-chemorefractory Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Survival, Efficacy, and Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan–Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survival from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 ± 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374–1130] and 345 ± 128 (95 % CI 95–595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 ± 190 (95 % CI 78–822) and 345 ± 227 (95 % CI 0–790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 ± 309 (95 % CI 0–1010) days versus 345 ± 117 (95 % CI 115–575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.

  15. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Standard-chemorefractory Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Survival, Efficacy, and Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafi, Shoaib; Piduru, Sarat M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel; Kauh, John S. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology (United States); Kooby, David A.; Sarmiento, Juan M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Surgical Oncology in Surgery (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survival from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 {+-} 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374-1130] and 345 {+-} 128 (95 % CI 95-595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 {+-} 190 (95 % CI 78-822) and 345 {+-} 227 (95 % CI 0-790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 {+-} 309 (95 % CI 0-1010) days versus 345 {+-} 117 (95 % CI 115-575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of standard basic anti-inflammatory drugs and the time to start basictherapy for rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of basic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) depending on the time of its start and the choice of a starting regimen. Subjects and methods. The study included 258 patients with verified RA, who were divided into groups by the time of basic therapy initiation. All the patients were estimated for changes in the articular syndrome (Ritchie articular index, the number of painful joints, that of inflamed joints, pain and total disease activity as...

  17. Japanese standard method for safety evaluation using best estimate code based on uncertainty and scaling analyses with statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current licensing practice in Japan consists of using conservative boundary and initial conditions(BIC), assumptions and analytical codes. The safety analyses for licensing purpose are inherently deterministic. Therefore, conservative BIC and assumptions, such as single failure, must be employed for the analyses. However, using conservative analytical codes are not considered essential. The standard committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan(AESJ) has drawn up the standard for using best estimate codes for safety analyses in 2008 after three-years of discussions reflecting domestic and international recent findings. (author)

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  19. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  20. The IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre and IAEA safety standards for site evaluation and design of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation covers the following topics: 'Lessons learned' from the occurrence of strong natural events, (tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.) The International Seismic Safety Centre as a global focal point for the nuclear engineering community in those fields. A need for international cooperation, openness and transparency – Sharing of experience

  1. Decree no 2007-1557 from November 2, 2007, relative to basic nuclear facilities and to the nuclear safety control of nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree concerns the enforcement of articles 5, 17 and 36 of the law 2006-686 from June 13, 2006, relative to the transparency and safety in the nuclear domain. A consultative commission of basic nuclear facilities is established. The decree presents the general dispositions relative to basic nuclear facilities, the dispositions relative to their creation and operation, to their shutdown and dismantling. It precises the dispositions in the domain of public utility services, administrative procedures and sanctions. It stipulates also the particular dispositions relative to other facilities located in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, relative to the use of pressure systems, and relative to the transport of radioactive materials. (J.S.)

  2. Work safety standardized assessment system based on the Web technology%基于Web的安全生产标准化评估系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章博; 贾双明; 孙艺博; 李山生; 吴永婷

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned about a work safety standardized assessment system we have developed based on the Web technology, which mainly consists of four function modules, i.e., the retrieval system from the safety regulations database, the information management of assessment projects, the online conformity assessment of work safety standards and the improvement and maintenance of the assessment system. We have worked out the system design by using the Browser/Server module which help us to realize the function of online team-work cooperation assessment, providing us with technical supports in a field assessment, real-time standard retrieval and automatically producing the assessment reports. The paper has also provided the explanation of the basic principles and applications of this assessment system by taking the work safety standards of the hazardous chemistry enterprises as a case study. In addition, it is necessary to point out that this system has been adopted for the time being in several versions by some shopping malls, logistics warehousing and other industries. The application results demonstrate that: the Web-based system can successfully solve the problems of massive information processing, as well as providing sufficient field assessment technical support. It can assess the conformity level of work safety standardization efficiently, and so can it hopefully help the enterprises to establish work safety standardization system with high efficiency and accuracy. Therefore, it has been well accepted as a good approach both for the enterprises and businesses to meet the challenge of work safety standardization.%企业在安全生产标准化创建和评估过程中,面临着信息量巨大,需要核对的标准繁多,现场评审可获得技术支持少等问题,这严重影响了标准化的创建和评估的效率.为此,提出了一种基于Web的安全生产标准化评估系统.该系统采用B/S体系结构,具有安全法规数据库检索、项目

  3. The 3rd ATLAS Domestic Standard Problem for Improvement of Safety Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third ATLAS DSP (domestic standard problem exercise) was launched at the end of 2012 in response to the strong need for continuation of the ATLAS DSP. A guillotine break of a main steam line without LOOP at a zero power condition was selected as a target scenario, and it was successfully completed in the beginning of 2014. In the 3rd ATLAS DSP, comprehensive utilization of the integral effect test data was made by dividing analysis with three topics; 1. scale-up where extrapolation of ATLAS IET data was investigated 2. 3D analysis where how much improvement can be obtained by 3D modeling was studied 3. 1D sensitivity analysis where the key phenomena affecting the SLB simulation were identified and the best modeling guideline was achieved. Through such DSP exercises, it has been possible to effectively utilize high-quality ATLAS experimental data of to enhance thermal-hydraulic understanding and to validate the safety analysis codes. A strong human network and technical expertise sharing among the various nuclear experts are also important outcomes from this program

  4. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  5. Application of the most recent technical standards to the safety analysis of Wolsong unit 1 nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Min [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The first CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) in Korea, Wolsong Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant (WS1 NPP), has completed refurbishment. During the refurbishment of WS1 NPP, a significant amount of equipment and facilities were upgraded with regard to their safety aspects. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of WS1 NPP after these upgrades, new safety analyses were performed using the most recent technical standards for CANDU reactors concerning Design Basis Accidents (DBAs). The refurbished WS1 NPP is expected to be licensed for continuous operation based on the verified safety analysis results that were obtained using the upgraded computer codes and C 6 Rev. 1 of the newly adopted technical standards.

  6. Standard practice for design and use of safety alert system for hazardous work locations in the coatings and lining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This practice covers a safety alert system for hazardous work locations and materials for the coatings and lining application industry. This practice is designed for multi-employer work sites. Limitations--This practice does not identify specific hazardous materials or work locations but provides a means for rating each. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  7. Issues relating to safety standards on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency focus is currently being placed on establishing safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This is a challenging task and a Specialists Meeting was held from 18 to 22 June 2001 with the intention of providing a mechanism for promoting discussion on some of the associated scientific and technical issues and as a means of developing the consensus needed for establishing the standards. The meeting used, as its basis, a number of position papers developed in recent years with the help of a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, together with selected relevant regional and national papers. The report contains the summaries of the sessions of the Specialists Meeting together with the conclusions drawn relevant to the establishment of standards. The sessions of the Meeting addressed the following topics: Common framework for radioactive waste disposal; Making the safety case - demonstrating compliance; Safety indicators; Reference critical groups and biospheres; Human intrusion; Reversibility and retrievability; Monitoring and institutional control. The publication contains 26 individual presentations delivered by participants. Each of these presentations was indexed separately

  8. Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control systems important for safety - Classification (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 1226:1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international standard established a method of classification of the information and command functions for nuclear power plants, and the I and C and equipment that provide those functions, into categories that designate the importance for safety of the functions, and the associated systems and equipment. The resulting classification then determines relevant design criteria. The design criteria are the measures of quality by which the adequacy of each functions, and the associated systems and equipment in relation to its importance to plant safety is ensured. In this standard, the criteria are those of functionality, reliability, performance, environmental durability and quality assurance. This standard is applicable to all the information and command functions, and the instrumentation and control systems and equipment that provide those functions. The functions, systems and equipment under consideration provide automated protection, closed or open loop control, and information to the operating staff. They keep the NPP conditions inside the safe operating envelope and provide automatic actions, or enable manual actions, that mitigate accidents or prevent or minimize radioactive releases to the site or wider environment. The functions, and the associated systems and equipment that fulfill these roles safeguard the health and safety of the NPP operators and the public. This standard complements, and does not replace or supersede, the Safety Guides and Codes of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  9. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Transportation (Secretary) convened a meeting of representatives from all sectors of the rail industry with the... Issues Identified for Future Rulemaking C. RSAC Overview D. Establishment of the Passenger Safety Working.... Accident History D. FRA and Industry Standards for Front End Frame Structures of Cab Cars and...

  10. 职教师资基本素养标准开发初探%Preliminary Study on the Development of Vocational Education Teachers’Basic Literacy Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 王建华; 董鹏中; 曲丽娜

    2014-01-01

    完善中等职业学校教师专业标准,探索职教师资基本素养标准,是加快发展现代职业教育以及引领中等职业学校教师素养提升的重要措施。基于现代职业教育发展对中等职业学校师资基本素养的要求,运用多种研究方法,课题组开发出由信念与师德素养、身体和心理素养、文化素养和基础能力3个维度、8个领域、40项基本要求构成的职教师资基本素养标准。%The secondary vocational school teachers to improve professional standards, vocational teachers explore basic literacy standards, is to accelerate the development of modern vocational education as well as an important measure of secondary vocational school teachers to lead the promotion of literacy. Based on the requirements of modern vocational education development of its basic literacy teacher, using a variety of research methods, the research team developed a literacy by faith and morality, physical and mental qualities, literacy and basic skills three dimensions, eight areas, 40 the basic requirements for vocational teachers constitute the basic literacy standards.

  11. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : young people (aged 18-24).

    OpenAIRE

    Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Aarts, L. Kars, V. Brandstaetter, C. Bauer, R. Broughton, J. Haddak, M. Lefèvre, M. Pascal, L. Amoros, E. Zielinska, A. Wnuk, A. Lucas, M. Pace, J.-F. Sanmartin, J. Kirk, A. & Thomas, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this Basic Fact Sheet, „young people? are defined as those who are between 18 and 24 years old. In general, young people worldwide are far more likely to be victims in road accidents than people in any other age group. More than 58.000 persons aged 18-24 years old were killed in traffic accidents, in 161 European Union countries within the decade 1999 - 2008. This number represents almost a fifth of all traffic accident fatalities in those countries (18%). The number of young people killed...

  12. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  13. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL STANDARD «SAFE LIFE OF THE POPULATION ON RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES. SAFE USE OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS. THE BASIC FRAMEWORK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of the Federal target program «Managing the consequences of radiation accidents for the period till 2015» the National Standard «Safe life of the population on radioactive contaminated territories. Safe use of agricultural lands. The basic framework» has been developed. Its aim is to ensure safe use of agricultural lands in the areas affected by radiation incidents, accidents and disasters.

  15. Introducing standardized “readbacks” to improve patient safety in surgery: a prospective survey in 92 providers at a public safety-net hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Hari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication breakdowns represent the main root cause of preventable complications which lead to harm to surgical patients. Standardized readbacks have been successfully implemented as a main pillar of professional aviation safety for decades, to ensure a safe closed-loop communication between air traffic control and individual pilots. The present study was designed to determine the perception of staff in perioperative services regarding the role of standardized readbacks for improving patient safety in surgery at a single public safety-net hospital and level 1 trauma center. Methods A 12-item questionnaire was sent to 180 providers in perioperative services at Denver Health Medical Center. The survey was designed to determine the individual participants’ perception of (1 appropriateness of current readback processes; (2 willingness to attend a future training module on this topic; (3 specific scenarios in which readbacks may be effective; and (4 perceived major barriers to the implementation of standardized readbacks. Survey results were compared between departments (surgery versus anesthesia and between specific staff roles (attending or midlevel provider, resident physician, nursing staff, using non-parametric tests. Results The response rate to the survey was 50.1 % (n = 92. Respondents overwhelmingly recognized the role of readbacks in reducing communication errors and improving patient safety. There was a strong agreement among respondents to support participation in a readbacks training program. There was no difference in the responses between the surgery and anesthesia departments. There was a statistically significant difference in the healthcare providers willingness to attend a short training module on readbacks (p  The main challenge for respondents, which emanated from their responses, appeared to relate to determining the ideal scenarios in which readbacks may be most appropriately used. Overall

  16. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  17. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  18. Conventions, Recommendations, Safety Standards, Laws and Regulations. Annex VIII of Technical Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outlined are relevant articles from the International Labour Organization Convention concerning the protection of workers against ionizing radiations; Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident; Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; Convention on Nuclear Safety; Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management; International Guidelines and Recommendations; Japanese Regulatory Instruments

  19. Standard operating and safety protocols and guidelines for packing and transport of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiopharmaceutical Program of BRIT is involved in the manufacturing of ready to use in-vivo radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy for the last three decades. Radiopharmaceuticals include, 131I - Sodium iodide formulations both solution and solid dosage form (gelatin capsules) for diagnosis and therapy thyroid disorders, 131I-MIBG injection for diagnosis and therapy of adrenal medullae tumors and their mets., 153Sm-EDTMP and 32P-Sodium orthophosphate injection for palliative treatment, 51Cr-Sodium chromate injection for RBC labeling and 99Mo-Sodium molybdate for 99mTc solvent extraction. BRIT's RPh. Program facility is a state of art radioisotope laboratory classified as Type-III facility for handling radioisotopes of Group-II, Group-III and Group-IV approved by erstwhile RPAD, BARC (presently known as AERB). This facility meets all the radiological safety requirements as per AERB guidelines. Our facility has a multi room complex with clear demarcation of radioactive and non radioactive zones. All rooms with floors, walls and working surfaces-smooth and easy to clean and decontaminate. All radioactive laboratory areas is provided with excellent light, and ventilation at rate of not less than 10 air changes per hour once through (to prevent recirculation of exhausted air), with air conditioning for comfortable working. Processing, formulation and dispensing of in-vivo Radiopharmaceutical Products is carried out in Production Plants (PP), β, γ- Glove boxes (GB) and Fume hoods (FH) under strictly adherence to the standard operation protocols based on the ALARA principle in compliance to GMP Codes. Final product consignments are packed, following the Standard Operating Protocol of packaging and dispatched to the Nuclear medicine Centers as per the IAEA guidelines and AERB regulations for shipment of radioactive consignments. At our facility, all the ready to use in-vivo radiopharmaceuticals consignments are packed in approved Type-A containers

  20. Employers' perceptions and attitudes toward the Canadian national standard on psychological health and safety in the workplace: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi

    2016-01-01

    The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive. PMID:26303900

  1. Catalogue of standards at the Safety Analysis department library, the first of March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of ANS and ANSI/ANS, ANSI/ASME american standards, Regulatory guides (Power Reactor Division), IEEE standards, to which are added ANSI american standards, AFNOR french standards, all of them being updated until to day. This computed compilation is divided into three parts: 1) main descriptor categories; 2) list of american standards in chronological order, list of AFNOR french standards, list of Regulatory guides in numerical order. 3) list of descriptors in alphabetic order

  2. Trends in fuel reprocessing safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the operation of a fuel reprocessing plant in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) and the plan for a second fuel reprocessing plant, the research on fuel reprocessing safety, along with the reprocessing technology itself, has become increasingly important. As compared with the case of LWR power plants, the safety research in this field still lags behind. In the safety of fuel reprocessing, there are the aspects of keeping radiation exposure as low as possible in both personnel and local people, the high reliability of the plant operation and the securing of public safety in accidents. Safety research is then required to establish the safety standards and to raise the rate of plant operation associated with safety. The following matters are described: basic ideas for the safety design, safety features in fuel reprocessing, safety guideline and standards, and safety research for fuel reprocessing. (J.P.N.)

  3. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1203 - ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes 2 Figure 2 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  4. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Environmental Health and Safety Risks'' (62 FR 19855, April 23, 1997), applies to any rule that: (1) Is... FR 12869, 12870 (March 7, 1977). b. Physical Dimensions Test The purpose of the physical dimensions... indicates that there could be a safety risk from that tire's not matching well with its rim, or not...

  5. 28 CFR 97.20 - Standards to ensure the safety of violent prisoners during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prisoners during transport. 97.20 Section 97.20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... safety of violent prisoners during transport. Companies covered under this section must comply with applicable State and federal laws that govern the safety of violent prisoners during transport. In...

  6. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, 110, 112, 114, 117, 120, 123, 129...). Similarly, in 1996, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service instituted HACCP... Safety and for Preventive Controls for Human Food'' so that the food industry, consumers,...

  7. Fire and Safety Standard of Indian Hospitals: A Lesson from AMRI - Kolkata Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Editor in Chief

    2012-01-01

    Recent devastating fire in AMRI, one of the five star hospitals in Kolkata, India has shaken entire medical professionals, administrators and Governments. The possible violation of fire safety norm in this hospital which took ninety two lives needs a serious thinking regarding hospital fire safety in India or elsewhere in the world

  8. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... rulemaking activity. \\1\\ 72 FR 3904; January 26, 2007. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) stated that 97 percent... speed of large trucks and buses under its jurisdiction to 62 mph since 1994. In Australia, large...

  9. Appraisal for Turkey of the safety of the transport of radioactive material. Provision for the application of the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has the specific statutory function within the United Nations system of establishing standards of safety for the protection of health against exposure to ionizing radiation. As part of this mandate, the IAEA has issued Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and has also established the Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) to carry out, at the request of States, appraisals of the implementation of these regulations. The IAEA carried out such an appraisal in Turkey from 3 to 14 March 2003. The appraisal addressed all relevant transport activities in Turkey, both national and international, for all modes of transport. This report summarizes the findings of the four independent experts who participated in the appraisal

  10. Study on the Quality Management of Basic Level Inspection and Testing Laboratory of Agricultural Product Quality and Safety%基层农产品质量安全检测实验室质量管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李尧琴; 杨丽军; 张乃华

    2012-01-01

    The basic level inspection and testing laboratory of agricultural product quality and safety plays an important role in managing agricultural product quality and safety.In order to ensure and further improve the testing capability and standard,the laboratory should establish and document a comprehensive quality management system,focused on the essential aspects for enhancing the quality management,including the starting point of quality management,quality policy and objective,professional training,organizational culture,instrument acquisition and record management.%基层农产品质量安全检测实验室在农产品质量安全监督管理中具有重要的作用。为了保证和提高检测能力和水平,实验室应当建立完善的质量管理体系并形成文件,抓住质量管理的起点、质量方针和目标、教育培训、组织文化、仪器配置、记录管理等重点环节,加强质量管理。

  11. Safety classification of items in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of integrality, moderation and equilibrium should be considered in the safety classification of items in nuclear power plant. The basic ways for safety classification of items is to classify the safety function based on the effect of the outside enclosure damage of the items (parts) on the safety. Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant adopts Russian VVER-1000/428 type reactor, it safety classification mainly refers to Russian Guidelines and standards. The safety classification of the electric equipment refers to IEEE-308(80) standard, including 1E and Non 1E classification. The safety classification of the instrumentation and control equipment refers to GB/T 15474-1995 standard, including safety 1E, safety-related SR and NC non-safety classification. The safety classification of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant has to be approved by NNSA and satisfy Chinese Nuclear Safety Guidelines. (authors)

  12. SRAM-Based FPGA Systems for Safety-Critical Applications:A Survey on Design Standards and Proposed Methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cinzia Bernardeschi; Luca Cassano; Andrea Domenici

    2015-01-01

    As the ASIC design cost becomes affordable only for very large-scale productions, the FPGA technology is currently becoming the leading technology for those applications that require a small-scale production. FPGAs can be considered as a technology crossing between hardware and software. Only a small-number of standards for the design of safety-critical systems give guidelines and recommendations that take the peculiarities of the FPGA technology into consideration. The main contribution of this paper is an overview of the existing design standards that regulate the design and verification of FPGA-based systems in safety-critical application fields. Moreover, the paper proposes a survey of significant published research proposals and existing industrial guidelines about the topic, and collects and reports about some lessons learned from industrial and research pro jects involving the use of FPGA devices.

  13. Clearance values and permitted activities in the new EU radiation protection basis safety standards; Freigrenzen und Freigabewerte in den neuen Strahlenschutz-Grundnormen der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The current draft version of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the European Union of 24 May 2013 introduces new and joint values for exemption and clearance (from IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7). The mass related activity values will then be numerically identical for general exemption and for unconditional clearance (the existing sets of exemption values will be kept, but only for 'moderate amounts'). The hitherto existing principle that clearance levels must not exceed exemption values (so that no cleared material would need to be regarded as radioactive) therefore now needs to be discarded. If options of clearance for a specific purpose as laid down in Sect. 29 para. 2 no. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance disappeared, a tremendous increase of the amount of radioactive waste and of costs for radwaste disposal would result, as was discussed elsewhere. The guiding light from this dilemma comes from the way in which the principles for clearance and exemption are treated in the new IAEA BSS. The primary criterion for clearance and exemption is not formed by sets of activity values, which are only derived limits, but by the criterion of trivial dose, which is the original limit. On this basis, all seeming conflicts between clearance levels and exemption values dissolve. (orig.)

  14. Determination of the standards of the thermo-physiological tolerance for working in basic nuclear installation in TIVA protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the duration limited exposure (DLE) for working in a contaminated zone in a basic nuclear installation using the new ventilated TIVA protective clothing. Five subjects underwent a treadmill exercise (3.5 km/h, 3% of slope) of up to 2 h in a climatic chamber at 25, 35, and 45 deg. C. Cardiac frequency, rectal temperature and skin temperature were continuously recorded. The dehydration level was measured by the loss of weight during the exercise. At 25 deg. C, thermal and cardiovascular thresholds are not reached; the risk is dehydration if the exercise is prolonged. In contrast, the thresholds for Tre at 39 deg. C (97 ± 29 and 69 ± 28 min for 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively) and for the increase in Tre (+1.5 deg. C) are reached earlier (84 ± 38 min and 57 ± 21 min at 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). This leads to a higher heat storage (42.2 ± 22.9 W/m2 and 63.7 ± 29.4 W/m2, at 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively), which constitutes a higher risk of heat illnesses. The dehydration level is 2% of the weight for the tests at 35 and 45 deg. C. As a consequence, DLE for working in a contaminated zone in a basic nuclear installation in environmental conditions and using the new ventilated TIVA protective clothing, as encountered in our experiments, are proposed to avoid hyperthermic accidents. (authors)

  15. Standardization of domestic human reliability analysis and experience of human reliability analysis in probabilistic safety assessment for NPPs under design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the background and development activities of domestic standardization of procedure and method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to avoid the intervention of subjectivity by HRA analyst in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as possible, and the review of the HRA results for domestic nuclear power plants under design studied by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. We identify the HRA methods used for PSA for domestic NPPs and discuss the subjectivity of HRA analyst shown in performing a HRA. Also, we introduce the PSA guidelines published in USA and review the HRA results based on them. We propose the system of a standard procedure and method for HRA to be developed

  16. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  17. Catalogue and classification of technical safety standards, rules and regulations for nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is an up-dated version of the report 'Catalogue and Classification of Technical Safety Rules for Light-water Reactors and Reprocessing Plants' edited under code No EUR 5362e, August 1975. Like the first version of the report, it constitutes a catalogue and classification of standards, rules and regulations on land-based nuclear power reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The reasons for the classification system used are given and discussed

  18. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., child passenger safety is an area of great importance to the agency. Children restrained using seat... involved in a collision would experience an inadvertent buckle release upon loading of the belt, and...

  19. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Leszczynski Dariusz; Xu Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in ...

  20. Wireless Instrumentation for Safety Critical Systems. Technology, Standards, Solutions and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Stig; Aakvaag, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is an important part of everyday life, but has until recently been considered too unreliable for use in industrial processes. In particular, there has been reluctance to accept wireless systems as part of safety critical operations. This report considers the pros and cons of wireless communication in Safety Instrumented Systems. The report provides an introduction to wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the underlying technology for wireless instrumentation, presenting the ...

  1. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Adequacao das normas brasileiras de radioprotecao aos principios fundamentais de seguranca da International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities.

  2. Standardized Curriculum for Electrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: electrician I and II. The 11 units in electrician I are as follows: orientation; safety; tools, equipment, materials/supplies; basic principles and theory; DC circuits; AC circuits; blueprints and load calculations; load centers and…

  3. A Criteria Standard for Conflict Resolution: A Vision for Guaranteeing the Safety of Self-Separation in NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky; Narkawicz, Anthony; Maddalon, Jeffrey; Hagen, George

    2010-01-01

    Distributed approaches for conflict resolution rely on analyzing the behavior of each aircraft to ensure that system-wide safety properties are maintained. This paper presents the criteria method, which increases the quality and efficiency of a safety assurance analysis for distributed air traffic concepts. The criteria standard is shown to provide two key safety properties: safe separation when only one aircraft maneuvers and safe separation when both aircraft maneuver at the same time. This approach is complemented with strong guarantees of correct operation through formal verification. To show that an algorithm is correct, i.e., that it always meets its specified safety property, one must only show that the algorithm satisfies the criteria. Once this is done, then the algorithm inherits the safety properties of the criteria. An important consequence of this approach is that there is no requirement that both aircraft execute the same conflict resolution algorithm. Therefore, the criteria approach allows different avionics manufacturers or even different airlines to use different algorithms, each optimized according to their own proprietary concerns.

  4. Comparison measurements with official neutron personal dosemeters - Implementation of changes according to the new Euratom basic standard 96/29 applicable in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Directive concerning personal dosimetry services determines that the PTB has to perform annual comparison measurements of all types of neutron personal dosemeters used in Germany. Up to now the measurement quantity has been the directional dose equivalent H'(10). As a consequence of the acceptance of the Euratom basic standard 96/29 by the German government, in the future the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) will be used for these comparison measurements. This work describes the determination of the personal dose equivalent for calibration, presents the necessary conversion coefficients, and describes the relevant irradiation conditions. (orig.)

  5. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Operational safety - the IAEA response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety is an international issue. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency is growing because it offers a centre for contact and exchange between East and West, North and South. New initiatives are under way to intensify international co-operative safety efforts through exchange of information on abnormal events at nuclear power plants, and through greater sharing of safety research results. Emergency preparedness also lends itself to international co-operation. A report has been prepared on the need for establishing mutual emergency assistance. By analysing possible constraints to bilateral or multinational efforts in advance, a basis for agreement at the time of an emergency is being worked out. Safety standards have been developed in several areas. The NUSS Codes and Guides, now almost complete, make available to countries starting a nuclear power programme a coherent set of nuclear safety standards. A revised set of Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection has been issued in 1982. (author)

  8. Bottom-up engineering of biological systems through standard bricks: a modularity study on basic parts and devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modularity is a crucial issue in the engineering world, as it enables engineers to achieve predictable outcomes when different components are interconnected. Synthetic Biology aims to apply key concepts of engineering to design and construct new biological systems that exhibit a predictable behaviour. Even if physical and measurement standards have been recently proposed to facilitate the assembly and characterization of biological components, real modularity is still a major research issue. The success of the bottom-up approach strictly depends on the clear definition of the limits in which biological functions can be predictable. RESULTS: The modularity of transcription-based biological components has been investigated in several conditions. First, the activity of a set of promoters was quantified in Escherichia coli via different measurement systems (i.e., different plasmids, reporter genes, ribosome binding sites relative to an in vivo reference promoter. Second, promoter activity variation was measured when two independent gene expression cassettes were assembled in the same system. Third, the interchangeability of input modules (a set of constitutive promoters and two regulated promoters connected to a fixed output device (a logic inverter expressing GFP was evaluated. The three input modules provide tunable transcriptional signals that drive the output device. If modularity persists, identical transcriptional signals trigger identical GFP outputs. To verify this, all the input devices were individually characterized and then the input-output characteristic of the logic inverter was derived in the different configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Promoters activities (referred to a standard promoter can vary when they are measured via different reporter devices (up to 22%, when they are used within a two-expression-cassette system (up to 35% and when they drive another device in a functionally interconnected circuit (up to 44%. This paper

  9. Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  10. Radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. Nuclear radiation is a powerful source of benefit to mankind, whether applied in the field of medicine, agriculture, environmental management or elsewhere. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Safety Department aiming at establishing Basic Safety Standard requirements in all Member States. (IAEA)

  11. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  12. Standard review plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revised information is presented concerning the stress analysis of engineered safety systems; control rod drive systems; reactor core isolation coding system; residual heat removal system; emergency core cooling system; station service water system; reactor auxiliary coding water systems; main steam supply system; and condensate and feedwater system

  13. Enforcement of radiation safety standards and experience in the regulatory control of exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory provisions for radiation protection and their enforcement in India are discussed in this paper. The rules and regulations framed for radiation safety cover all the nuclear fuel cycle activities as well as the application of radiation sources in industrial, medical and research institutions. The enforcement aspects and experience in the control of exposures are presented. (author)

  14. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... rules for meat and poultry (9 CFR part 417) (61 FR 38806, July 25, 1996). In the Federal Register of... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... human consumption (the produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice...

  15. 75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... crashes, NHTSA published in the Federal Register (74 FR 22348) a final rule substantially upgrading...), computer simulation, engineering analysis, engineering judgment or other means.\\5\\ \\5\\ See 71 FR 28183... Vehicle Safety Act with respect to: \\6\\ 49 U.S.C. 30112(a) and 30115. \\7\\ See 70 FR at 7432-33, 49 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 810 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... hand-loading method. (8) Belt conveyor haulage is not used in this underground mine for section/main... haulage slope of this anthracite mine is typical of those in the anthracite region, with a relatively high angle and frequently changing pitches. (2) A functional safety catch capable of working in slopes...

  17. 78 FR 59066 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... region, having a relatively high angle and frequently changing pitches. ] (2) A functional safety catch... approximately ten primary belt-conveyor drives and an average of sixty (60) sprays along each eight secondary... than the 300 ton per shift criteria using the hand-loading method. (8) Belt conveyor haulage is...

  18. 78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) preceding this final rule, published on August 18, 2010 (75 FR 50958), proposed to call... the service life of a motorcoach can be 20 years or longer. We estimated that the cost of retrofitting... the Motorcoach Enhanced Safety Act relating to improved oversight of motorcoach service...

  19. 76 FR 3211 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Ejection Mitigation; Phase-In Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... to 5 injuries. Pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) combined account for 50 percent of... priority plan, ``NHTSA Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Supporting Research: 2003-2006'' (68 FR 43972; July 18... Rollover was published in June 2003 (68 FR 36534, Docket 14622). A major undertaking implementing the...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARD AND SAFETY-FIRST CONSTRAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Intarapapong, Walaiporn; Hite, Diane; Renck, Ashley Wood

    2002-01-01

    The uncertainty weather condition could pose some challenge in achieving environmental target. In this study, we use a bioeconomic model to calculate the impacts of alternative management systems. Under different safety-first constraints on the levels of environmental runoff, obtaining from APEX, optimal net return of alternative cropping practices is estimated.

  1. 77 FR 32698 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Safety Standards for Roof Bolts in Metal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... for Roof Bolts in Metal and Nonmetal Mines and Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... underground metal, nonmetal, and coal mines or falls of highwall in surface metal and nonmetal mines, are... underground metal and nonmetal mines and underground coal mines. MSHA is particularly interested in...

  2. 78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... 20 mph to 25 mph rigid barrier crash test (65 FR 30680). \\11\\ On September 2, 1993, NHTSA amended... considering unbelted crash test requirements date back to the 1970s (35 FR 16927).\\14\\ To do so without a...; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT....

  3. 浅析EHS管理体系与企业安全生产标准化的有效结合应用%The effective combination of application of EHS management system and enterprise safety production standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景南

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic concept of EHS security management system and enterprise safety production standardization, the same point, the two are different, the implementation of hardware and software integration elements are discussed.%介绍EHS管理体系和企业安全生产标准化的基本概念,对二者的相同点、不同点,推行要素和软硬件的结合进行了探讨。

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 364 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) such standards relating to asset quality, earnings, and stock valuation as they determine to be... establish standards relating to asset quality, earnings, and stock valuation that the agencies determine to... capital and reserves. The institution should: 1. Compare recent earnings trends relative to equity,...

  5. LIMITATION OF POPULATION EXPOSURE INDOORS DUE TO NATURAL IRRADIATION SOURCES: IAEA NEW SAFETY STANDARDS PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article contains the analysis of the main expected changes in the setting standards of population exposure from natural sources in connection with the publication of the new IAEA standard «Protection of the Public against Exposure Indoors due to Natural Sources of Radiation».

  6. 76 FR 16640 - Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ..., Attention: April E. Nelson, Acting Director, Office of Standards, Regulations and Variances. 4. Hand..., Arlington, Virginia 22209-3939, Attention: April E. Nelson, Acting Director, Office of Standards... to operating sections is less than 1 hour; (3) During the winter months, outside temperatures...

  7. 77 FR 71717 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... to three additional SAE documents. \\1\\ 72 FR 68234, (Dec. 4, 2007). The agency published the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposing to reorganize the standard on December 30, 2005. 70 FR 77454, (Dec... boundaries that were removed during the administrative rewrite of the standard. \\2\\ 76 FR 41181, (July...

  8. 77 FR 71752 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit... substantive changes to the requirements of the standard. \\1\\ 70 FR 77454, (Dec. 30, 2005). Based on the... would have no impact on the substantive requirements of the standard. \\2\\ 72 FR 68234, (Dec. 4, 2007)....

  9. 78 FR 37706 - Safety Standards for Infant Walkers and Infant Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... for Infant Walkers, with 22 modifications to make the standard more stringent. 75 FR 35266. ASTM... assessment bodies for testing infant walkers (75 FR 35282 (June 21, 2010)) and infant swings (78 FR 15836..., with two modifications to make the standard more stringent. 77 FR 66703. ASTM notified CPSC that...

  10. Preliminary standard review guide for Environmental Restoration/Decontamination and Decommissioning safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review guide is based on the shared experiences, approaches, and philosophies of the Environmental Restoration/Decontamination and Decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) subgroup members. It is presented in the form of a review guide to maximize the benefit to both the safety analyses practitioner and reviewer. The guide focuses on those challenges that tend to be unique to ER/D ampersand D cleanup activities. Some of these experiences, approaches, and philosophies may find application or be beneficial to a broader spectrum of activities such as terminal cleanout or even new operations. Challenges unique to ER/D ampersand D activities include (1) consent agreements requiring activity startup on designated dates; (2) the increased uncertainty of specific hazards; and (3) the highly variable activities covered under the broad category of ER/D ampersand D. These unique challenges are in addition to the challenges encountered in all activities; e.g., new and changing requirements and multiple interpretations. The experiences in approaches, methods, and solutions to the challenges are documented from the practitioner and reviewer's perspective, thereby providing the viewpoints on why a direction was taken and the concerns expressed. Site cleanup consent agreements with predetermined dates for restoration activity startup add the dimension of imposed punitive actions for failure to meet the date. Approval of the safety analysis is a prerequisite to startup. Actions that increase expediency are (1) assuring activity safety; (2) documenting that assurance; and (3) acquiring the necessary approvals. These actions increase the timeliness of startup and decrease the potential for punitive action. Improvement in expediency has been achieved by using safety analysis techniques to provide input to the line management decision process rather than as a review of line management decisions. Expediency is also improved by sharing the safety input and resultant decisions with

  11. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  12. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  13. Barriers to the Adoption of Safety-Engineered Needles Following a Regulatory Standard: Lessons Learned from Three Acute Care Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrea; Mustard, Cameron A.; Holness, D. Linn; Nichol, Kathryn; Breslin, F. Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of jurisdictions have introduced regulation to accelerate the adoption of safety-engineered needles (SENs). This study examined the transition to SENs in three acute care hospitals prior to and following the implementation of a regulatory standard in Ontario. This paper focuses on the ongoing barriers to the prevention of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. Methods: Information from document review and 30 informant interviews were used to prepare three case studies detailing each organization's implementation activities and outcomes. Results: All three hospitals responded to the regulatory requirements with integrity and needlestick injuries declined. However, needlestick injuries continued to occur during the activation of safety devices, during procedures and during instrument disposal. The study documented substantial barriers to further progress in needlestick injury prevention. Conclusions: Healthcare organizations should focus on understanding their site-specific challenges that contribute to ongoing injury risk to better understand issues related to product limitations, practice constraints and the work environment. PMID:26571471

  14. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  15. Critical features of an auditable management system for an ISO 9000-compatible occupational health and safety standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S; Dyjack, D T

    1997-04-01

    An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001: 1994-harmonized occupational health and safety (OHS) management system has been written at the University of Michigan, and reviewed, revised, and accepted under the direction of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) Task Force and the Board of Directors. This system is easily adaptable to the ISO 14001 format and to both OHS and environmental management system applications. As was the case with ISO 9001: 1994, this system is expected to be compatible with current production quality and OHS quality systems and standards, have forward compatibility for new applications, and forward flexibility, with new features added as needed. Since ISO 9001: 1987 and 9001: 1994 have been applied worldwide, the incorporation of harmonized OHS and environmental management system components should be acceptable to business units already performing first-party (self-) auditing, and second-party (contract qualification) auditing. This article explains the basis of this OHS management system, its relationship to ISO 9001 and 14001 standards, the philosophy and methodology of an ISO-harmonized system audit, the relationship of these systems to traditional OHS audit systems, and the authors' vision of the future for application of such systems. PMID:9115086

  16. Safety Regulations for Ionizing Radiations. Vietnam Standard (TCVN 4397-87)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulations were prepared for purpose of providing basic requirements of ionizing radiation protection and giving guide for design criteria of radiation installations in Vietnam. The allowable maximum levels for personnel categories are established. Regulated are methods for handling sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, transfer and transport of radioactive materials. Defined requirements and operating conditions that must be met. Determined are procedures and actions of decontamination. (N.H.A)

  17. Safety provisions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety of nuclear power plants is determined by a deterministic approach complemented by probabilistic considerations. Much use has been made of the wealth of information from more than 6000 years of reactor operation. Design, construction and operation is governed by national and international safety standards and practices. The IAEA has prepared a set of Nuclear Safety Standards as recommendations to its Member States, covering the areas of siting, design, operations, quality assurance, and governmental organisations. In 1988 the IAEA published a report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group on Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, summarizing the underlying objectives and principles of excellence in nuclear safety and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. The paper will summarize some of the key safety principles and provisions, and results and uses of Probabilistic Safety Assessments. Some comments will be made on the safety of WWER 440/230 and WWER-1000 reactors which are operated on Bulgaria. 8 figs

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  19. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  20. Safety design requirements for safety systems and components of JSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety design requirements for JSFR were summarized taking the development targets of FaCT project and design feature of JSFR into account. The related safety principle and requirements for Monju, CRBRP, PRISM, SPX, LWRs, IAEA standards, goals of GIF and basic principle of INPRO etc. were also taken into account so that the safety design requirements can be a next-generation global-standard. The development targets for safety and reliability are set based on that of FaCT. Namely, ensuring safety and reliability equal to future LWR and related fuel cycle facilities. In order to achieve these targets, the defence-in-depth philosophy is used as the basic safety design principle. General features of the safety design requirements are 1) Achievement of higher reliability, 2) Achievement of higher inspectability and maintainability, 3) Introduction of passive safety features, 4) Reduction of operator action needs, 5) Design consideration against Beyond Design Basis Events, 6) In Vessel Retention of degraded core materials, 7) Prevention and mitigation against sodium chemical reactions, 8) Design against external events. Current specific requirements for the each system and component are summarized taking the basic design concept of JSFR into account, which is an advanced loop type large output power plant with mixed oxide fuelled core. (author)

  1. Nordic Nuclear Safety Research 1994 - 2008: From standardized 4-year classics to customized R and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a presentation of NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), its work and achievements in the years 1994 - 2008, during which the author served as Nordic secretary and (later) as coordinator. NKS and the Nordic perspective are briefly introduced together with the NKS support structure, organization and administration: Owners, Board, Nordic secretary, Bureau and Secretariat. The author then embarks on a journey through the modern history of NKS work. The last two of the six fixed 4-year programs are described as regards planning, contents, project work, administration, dissemination of results, evaluations and conclusions. The trip continues to the land of R and B and the present (2011) structure of two general frameworks, namely, NKS-R: reactor safety, and NKS-B: emergency preparedness; each consisting of a set of flexible activities; hence, R and B. The reasoning behind this makeover is touched upon together with the new organization and simpler administration that developed. Major activities and the produced results are introduced and the evaluations summarized. The author's own conclusions and recommendations are followed by a short and subjective list of references. In a number of appendices some important background material has been compiled: bullet point versions of minutes of Owners Group and Board meetings; economic contributions and budgets; the NKS policy document; an overview of all NKS programs and evaluations; lists of R and B activities and funding; the author's personal remarks; a list of some NKS documents (other than technical reports and minutes); and a list of acronyms used in this report. (Author)

  2. 78 FR 7458 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    .... 3. Regular Mail or Hand Delivery: MSHA, Office of Standards, Regulations and Variances, 1100 Wilson... seconds of continuous clothes cleaning time. 13. An appropriate hazard warning sign will be posted on the... permit no less than 20 seconds of continuous clothes cleaning time. 13. An appropriate hazard...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix D-1 to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agencies to establish standards relating to asset quality, earnings, and stock valuation that the agencies... capital and reserves. The institution should: 1. Compare recent earnings trends relative to equity, assets... exposure. F. Asset growth. G. Asset quality. H. Earnings. I. Compensation, fees and benefits....

  4. 78 FR 36598 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... resistor at the source transformer or power center, and through a grounding circuit originating at the... protection device will be set not to exceed the required short-circuit protection for the power cable or 75... standard exists which will at all times guarantee no less than the same measure of protection afforded...

  5. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... E274/E274M-11, ``Standard Test Method for Skid Resistance of Paved Surfaces Using a Full-Scale Tire... reference. * * * * * (d) * * * (28) ASTM E274-65T, ``Tentative Method of Test for Skid Resistance of... No. 301, Fuel System Integrity, reference ASTM E274-65T, ``Tentative Method of Test for...

  6. 76 FR 64384 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... surface diatomaceous earth mine and processing facility. One of the commercial applications of the... miners as is provided by the existing standard, and will allow Celite to maintain the commercial viability of the products that are mined at the Lompoc Plant. Dated: October 12, 2011. Patricia W....

  7. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... standards throughout the aviation industry is good public policy. Southwest Airlines opposed the draft... in the new FAA policy statement. Southwest Airlines also requested a statement within the MOU... adopt such changes. Southwest Airlines further requested that FAA/OSHA provide clarification...

  8. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... longer necessary. \\1\\ 73 FR 38372. Our belief stemmed from the fact that FMVSS No. 219 had succeeded in... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz USA... standard (73 FR at 38374). Agency Response: Our action today to withdraw the July 7, 2008 NPRM will...

  9. Copper 1 basic standards testing standards

    CERN Document Server

    eV, DIN

    2015-01-01

    Erstmals in englischer Übersetzung: Die aus drei Bänden bestehende Normensammlung zu Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen spiegelt den neuesten Stand der Normung wider. Der Teilungsband 1 (DIN Handbook 456/1) enthält die Prüf- und Grundnormen für Kupfer und Kupferlegierungen sowie die Produktnormen über Hüttenkupfer, Vorlegierungen und Schrotte. Die Vornorm DIN CEN/TS 13388 stellt im nationalen Anhang eine tabellarische Gegenüberstellung alter und neuer Werkstoffbezeichnungen bereit. Die Zusammensetzungen der Werkstoffe sind in die jeweiligen Produktnormen eingeflossen. Die entsprechenden Festlegungen

  10. US veterinary support to standardization of food and water safety and animal care and use within NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ronald L; Mann, Kelly A; Richards, Steven; Stevenson, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    NATO requires all standardization agreements and Al-lied Medical Publications to be reviewed at least once every 3 years to ensure they reflect current technologies and national military policies and procedures. This is particularly applicable with regard to veterinary medi-cine and food and water safety where advances in scientific knowledge and practices may result in documents quickly becoming obsolete. Such is the case with the 8 standardization agreements for which the FWSVS has responsibility; all are currently undergoing major revisions. With each revision, national representatives, including US veterinary and preventive medicine personnel, must review the documents to ensure there are no significant issues which would prevent ratification and implementation. This improves standardization and enhances interoperability between NATO partners to minimize duplication. This is accomplished by leveraging other national military capabilities, while maintaining confidence that the food, water, and veterinary support provided to their Warriors, support personnel, and animals in the field is safe and high in quality. Adherence to such standards is a major factor in maintaining the operational readiness of all alliance armed forces. PMID:23277450

  11. Ensuring safety of fuel cell applications and hydrogen refuelling. Legislation and standards; Polttokennosovellusten ja vetytankkauksen turvallisuuden varmistaminen. Saeaedoeksiae ja standardeja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.; Sarsama, J.

    2013-09-15

    Fuel cell technology is considered a promising alternative in terms of viable energy systems. The advantages of fuel cell systems include a good efficiency rate and the lack of harmful environmental emissions. Factors which may slow down the commercialisation of fuel cell technology, e.g. fuel cell vehicles, include the high price of hydrogen and the insufficiency of the infrastructure required for the distribution of hydrogen. A large proportion of major car manufacturers are committed to introducing fuel cell cars to the market by 2014-2016. In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles, this has to be aligned with the development of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. In the early commercialisation stages of a new technology, it is important to give the public correct, justified and understandable information on the safety of the fuel cell applications, and also on the measures taken to ensure the safety of applications. A lack of necessary information, inaccurate perceptions and prejudices can have an adverse effect on the public acceptance of fuel cell applications. Hazards and potential accidents related to fuel cell systems are mainly associated with the flammable substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane) used as fuel, the high pressure of hydrogen, electrical hazards, and dangers concerning technical systems in general. The fuel cell applications reviewed in this publication are transport applications and stationary applications and the refuelling system of gaseous hydrogen. The publication concentrates on fuel cells using hydrogen as fuel. The publication gives an overview of how EU-legislation (mainly various directives) and Finnish legislation applies to fuel cell systems and applications, and what kind of safety requirements the legislation sets. In addition, a brief overview of safety standards concerning fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling is presented. (orig.)

  12. Nordic Nuclear Safety Research 1994 - 2008: From standardized 4-year classics to customized R and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennerstedt, T.N.O. (TeknoTelje HB, Torhamn (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    This is a presentation of NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), its work and achievements in the years 1994 - 2008, during which the author served as Nordic secretary and (later) as coordinator. NKS and the Nordic perspective are briefly introduced together with the NKS support structure, organization and administration: Owners, Board, Nordic secretary, Bureau and Secretariat. The author then embarks on a journey through the modern history of NKS work. The last two of the six fixed 4-year programs are described as regards planning, contents, project work, administration, dissemination of results, evaluations and conclusions. The trip continues to the land of R and B and the present (2011) structure of two general frameworks, namely, NKS-R: reactor safety, and NKS-B: emergency preparedness; each consisting of a set of flexible activities; hence, R and B. The reasoning behind this makeover is touched upon together with the new organization and simpler administration that developed. Major activities and the produced results are introduced and the evaluations summarized. The author's own conclusions and recommendations are followed by a short and subjective list of references. In a number of appendices some important background material has been compiled: bullet point versions of minutes of Owners Group and Board meetings; economic contributions and budgets; the NKS policy document; an overview of all NKS programs and evaluations; lists of R and B activities and funding; the author's personal remarks; a list of some NKS documents (other than technical reports and minutes); and a list of acronyms used in this report. (Author)

  13. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  14. Role of Public Standards in the Safety and Efficacy of Biologic Medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Roger L.; Bristow, Adrian F.; Hauck, Walter W.; Srinivasan, V. Srini; Morris, Tina; Atouf, Fouad; Ambrose, Michael; Surendranath, Koduru V.; Chakrabarty, Ranjan; Menon, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we emphasize the importance of public monographs with reference materials, coupled with careful process and change control and attention to GMPs, as a means of advancing access to good quality, safe, and effective medicines, with emphasis on available and incoming biologic medicines. With adequate control of articles covered by a monograph, these public standards can form the basis for a global public quality platform that covers reference products, non-interchangeable referen...

  15. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  16. Acucise™ endopyelotomy in a porcine model: procedure standardization and analysis of safety and immediate efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreoni Cássio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The study here presented was done to test the technical reliability and immediate efficacy of the Acucise device using a standardized technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 56 Acucise procedures were performed in pigs by a single surgeon who used a standardized technique: insert 5F angiographic catheter bilaterally up to the midureter, perform retrograde pyelogram, Amplatz super-stiff guidewire is advanced up to the level of the renal pelvis, angiographic catheters are removed, Acucise catheter balloon is advanced to the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ level, the super-stiff guide-wire is removed and the contrast medium in the renal pelvis is aspirated and replaced with distilled water, activate Acucise at 75 watts of pure cutting current, keep the balloon fully inflated for 10 minutes, perform retrograde ureteropyelogram to document extravasation, remove Acucise catheter and pass an ureteral stent and remove guide-wire. RESULTS: In no case did the Acucise device present malfunction. The electrocautery activation time was 2.2 seconds (ranging from 2 to 4 seconds. The extravasation of contrast medium, visible by fluoroscopy, occurred in 53 of the 56 cases (94.6%. In no case there was any evidence of intraoperative hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that performing Acucise endopyelotomy routinely in a standardized manner could largely preclude intraoperative device malfunction and eliminate complications while achieving a successful incision in the UPJ. With the guidelines that were used in this study, we believe that Acucise endopyelotomy can be completed successfully and safely in the majority of selected patients with UPJ obstruction.

  17. [Experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk population health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, N V; Tutelyan, V A; Shur, P Z; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented the experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk for population health. Health risk assessment under the impact of tetracyclines with food showed that the content of residual amounts of these antibiotics at the level of 10 mg/kg (permissible residual tetracycline accepted in Customs Union Member Countries (CUMC) will not increase the risk to public health, including the most sensitive groups of the population. The assessment ofthe health risk associated with the receipt of ractopamine with food, showed that eating foods containing ractopamine at ADI level (0-1 mg/kg body weight), and even at the limit of quantification levels in meat products, is inadmissible because of unacceptable risk of functional disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The results of the substantiation of the permissible levels of nitrates content in crop production showed that at the level of exposure according to hygienic standards established in the CUMC as at the recommended and actual consumption levels of products ofplant origin, the health risk as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, does not exceed acceptable levels. The results of the assessment of the risk associated with the permissible levels of L. monocytogenes in certain food groups showed that an exposure level of hygienic standards established in the CUMC, standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and EU documents (before release to the market by the manufacturer) the health risk does not exceed the maximum permissible level of the appearance of serious diseases. Adoption of standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and the EU (for handling products in the market) is not acceptable because it can lead to an unacceptable risk of listeriosis for the population of the Russian Federation as a whole, and for the most sensitive groups. PMID:25831934

  18. Safety analysis of thorium-based fuels in the General Electric Standard BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A denatured (U-233/Th)O2 fuel assembly has been designed which is energy equivalent to and hardware interchangeable with a modern boiling water reactor (BWR) reference reload assembly. Relative to the reference UO2 fuel, the thorium fuel design shows better performance during normal and transient reactor operation for the BWR/6 product line and will meet or exceed current safety and licensing criteria. Power distributions are flattened and thermal operating margins are increased by reduced steam void reactivity coefficients caused by U-233. However, a (U-233/Th)O2-fueled BWR will likely have reduced operating flexibility. A (U-235/Th)O2-fueled BWR should perform similar to a UO2-fueled BWR under all operating conditions. A (Pu/Th)O2-fueled BWR may have reduced thermal margins and similar accident response and be less stable than a UO2-fueled BWR. The assessment is based on comparisions of point model and infinite lattice predictions of various nuclear reactivity parameters, including void reactivity coefficients, Doppler reactivity coefficients, and control blade worths

  19. International Standards in Vocational Education and Training for Financial Services Sector to Ensure Sustainable Development and Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the Triple E Project developed by EBTN for the purpose to work out qualifications standards for finance services sector in the focus of sustainable development and environmental safety. The Triple E is based on the three instruments – European qualification framework and concept of learning outcomes (EQF, credit system (ECVET and quality assurance (EQAVET for vocational education and training. These three systems are the building blocks of European policy in vocational education and qualifications system with the task to strengthen the integration processes in the European educational area. They also take into account the concept of UNESCO in the field of education and sustainable development. Besides, the article traces the history of relations between educational providers, employers and public authorities in the Russian Federation in the context of setting requirements for learning outcomes and qualifications. The concepts of qualification, velocity of changes in educational standards, the establishment of a national system of qualifications of the Russian Federation, the emergence of professional standards are carefully analyzed. Current and potential problems in the assessment of qualifications are referred to. It is stressed that the volume of open data in the area of professional development, education and labor should be increased and the quality thereof significantly improved.

  20. Innovative sub sea pipeline maintenance in line with emerging offshore trends and maintenance safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, George [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Sub sea hot tapping of pipelines is performed for a variety of reasons, including tie-ins, pipeline repair, insertion of instrumentation, facilitating chemical injection or providing access for temporary isolation tools. The full hot tap process - that is, installing the hot tap assembly, performing the tap and recovering the hot tap machine - is normally conducted with diver assistance. After bolting the assembly of the machine, isolation valve and fitting to the pipeline (or machine and isolation valve to a pre-installed flanged membrane on the pipeline), the divers then operate the machine to perform the tap, under instructions from - and supervision by - hot tap technicians located on deck of the diving support vessel (DSV). Subsequent unbolting and removal of the hot tap machine is also carried out by the divers. The demands of deep water have necessitated development of a totally diver-less, remote-controlled system. Diver operations are limited to a maximum of 300 meters of water depth, whereas a significant portion of existing sub sea field infrastructure, as well as projected future developments, are in deeper waters in depths up to 3,000 meters. In addition, diver safety concerns in shallow water, as well as impaired diver efficiency in difficult environmental conditions such as wave breaking zones, prompts the call for a reduction of diver exposure or complete elimination of diver assistance. The recent completion of a remote-controlled hot tap machine (the Sub sea 1200RC Tapping Machine) is a first step toward developing a totally diver-less system. The installation of the hot tap assembly and subsequent removal of the machine still require diver assistance, but the performance of the tap itself is remotely controlled by a hot tap technician from the deck of the DSV. The concept is a topside-driven hot tap machine with 'passive Remote Operating Vehicle (ROV) interface', which means a stationary ROV with its hydraulics and control system