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Sample records for basic principles shift

  1. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  2. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  3. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  4. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  5. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M; M Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W(-1). Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  6. Basic principles of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, William; Schofield, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product stability, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least squares regression analysis should be employed to model potency decay. The use of such tools provides incentive to properly design vaccine stability studies, while holding stability measurements to specification presents a disincentive for collecting valuable data. The laws of kinetics such as Arrhenius behavior help practitioners design effective accelerated stability programs, which can be utilized to manage stability after a process change. Design of stability studies should be carefully considered, with an eye to minimizing the variability of the stability parameter. In the case of measuring the degradation rate, testing at the beginning and the end of the study improves the precision of this estimate. Additional design considerations such as bracketing and matrixing improve the efficiency of stability evaluation of vaccines.

  7. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  8. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  9. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All...

  10. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  11. Basic principles and applications of photoelectrochemical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Grgur, Branimir N.; id_orcid 0000-0003-4684-9053

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the basic principles of photoelectrochemistry and photo electrochemical reactions. Considered the application photoelectrochemicl cells in the conversion of the sun iradiation energy into electricity. In addition, the working principle of new types of fuel photoelectrochemical fuel cells that can simultaneously produce electricity and perform degradation of polluting organic substances is discussed.

  12. Basic principles in custody assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, G A

    1978-11-01

    The paper discusses some of the principles of custody assessments in divorce proceedings. It is felt that such assessments should be undertaken only upon the request of the judge or both lawyers. The assessment should be extensive and should include collecting and collating all available data obtained through interviews or letters. The report should include historical material, the formulation, and the reasons for the recommendations. Clinically, the important issue is to decide under whose care the child's growth and development is enhanced. Factors that help in this decision include the emotional ties between the parent and the child, the capacity of each parent to provide physically and emotionally, the preference of the child, and the need for continuity. The psychiatric and moral "fitness" of parents is critically reviewed. It is maintained that no parent should be given an inherent preference in custody rulings. Finally, it is argued that access should be expected after divorce and should be changed or eliminated only under strict conditions.

  13. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  14. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  15. Basic principles of bioethics and orthodox ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The galloping progress in genetic and medical technology has led to the birth of the new science of bioethics. Bioethics examines the ethical dimension of problems arising from the application of the discoveries in the fields of biology and genetics and the effects they may have on nature and people in particular, from the aspect of anthropological teaching of the church Fathers.Aim: The aim of this article is: a the delimitation of the scientific field of bioethics and its historical background, b the emergence of the principles of the science of bioethics, c the determination of the principles of orthodox morality though which the issues arising from the application of genetic engineering in human are faced.Material and Method: The method used to collect material for the writing of this article “principles of bioethics and orthodox morality”, was the widespread review of international and Greek bibliography. For the collection of the English bibliography the electronic database CINAHL was used. The keywords used in combination were Bioethics orthodox ethics. Results: The basic principle of bioethics are: a the principle of autonomy, b the principle of equivalence, c the principle of not causing harm and pain, d the principle of utility or beneficence, e the principle of justice. The orthodox approach to the issues arising from the application of genetics human is based on the Orthodox anthropology, as expressed in the Bible and the texts of the Fathers of the Church. The centerpieces of the Biblical and Patristic anthropology are: a that man was created as the exact replica of the Triune God and b that man is a single psychosomatic entity.

  16. Flow cytometry: basic principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Aysun; Alizada, Günel; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf; Nalbant, Ayten

    2017-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a sophisticated instrument measuring multiple physical characteristics of a single cell such as size and granularity simultaneously as the cell flows in suspension through a measuring device. Its working depends on the light scattering features of the cells under investigation, which may be derived from dyes or monoclonal antibodies targeting either extracellular molecules located on the surface or intracellular molecules inside the cell. This approach makes flow cytometry a powerful tool for detailed analysis of complex populations in a short period of time. This review covers the general principles and selected applications of flow cytometry such as immunophenotyping of peripheral blood cells, analysis of apoptosis and detection of cytokines. Additionally, this report provides a basic understanding of flow cytometry technology essential for all users as well as the methods used to analyze and interpret the data. Moreover, recent progresses in flow cytometry have been discussed in order to give an opinion about the future importance of this technology.

  17. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  18. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  19. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

  20. Grounding language processing on basic neurophysiological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Singer, Wolf

    2015-06-01

    In animal models the neural basis of cognitive and executive processes has been studied extensively at various hierarchical levels from microcircuits to distributed functional networks. This work already provides compelling evidence that diverse cognitive functions are based on similar basic neuronal mechanisms. More recent data suggest that even cognitive functions realized only in human brains rely on these canonical neuronal mechanisms. Here we argue that language, like other cognitive functions, depends on distributed computations in specialized cortical areas forming large-scale dynamic networks and examine to what extent empirical results support this view.

  1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INTER-FIRM COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Busygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of presence in the Russian economy, various forms of co-operation and collaboration. The author summarizes and complemented the fundamental principles of functioning of the economic system, conducted in-depth analysis of interfi rm cooperation. The article explains the importance of inter-fi rm cooperation in achieving sustainable development of innovative enterprises. Emphasizes the role of the cluster approach to create new forms of knowledge, the formation of new scientifi c and technical fi elds, to support education, commercialization of innovations. Analyzes the problems of implementation of cluster initiatives inRussia. Provides guidelines for coordination, state regulation of inter-fi rm cooperation

  2. Basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammer, Roland. E-mail: roland@s-word.stanford.edu

    2003-03-01

    In diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), image contrast is determined by the random microscopic motion of water protons. During the last years, DWI has become an important modality in the diagnostic work-up of acute ischemia in the CNS. There are also a few promising reports about the application of DWI to other regions in the human body, such as the vertebral column or the abdomen. This manuscript provides an introduction into the basics of DWI and Diffusion Tensor imaging. The potential of various MR sequences in concert with diffusion preparation are discussed with respect to acquisition speed, spatial resolution, and sensitivity to bulk physiologic motion. More advanced diffusion measurement techniques, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging, are also addressed.

  3. Nutritional toxicology: basic principles and actual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcock, J N

    1990-01-01

    Nutritional toxicology is a specialty that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition and toxicology. Many problems of substantial importance to health and food safety involve interactions of nutrition process and requirement with the effects of toxicological impact. Solution of these problems requires research that meets the procedural and design criteria of experimental nutrition and these of experimental toxicology. The relationships may be described in three basic categories: (1) influence of nutrition on toxicities; (2) influence of toxicants on nutrition; and (3) toxicities of nutrients. Trypsin inhibitor research, an example of diet impacting on toxicological response, illustrates the necessity of controlling nutritional composition aspects that can confound the results. Prolonged acetaminophen administration provides an example of the effects of toxicants on nutritional requirement and function which could be important for persons with marginal sulphur amino acid intake.

  4. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down

  5. Some basic principles for linear coupled dynamic thermopiezoelectricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗恩; 邝君尚

    1999-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way some basic principles for linear coupled dynamic thermopiezoelectricity can be established systematically. An important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem in linear coupled dynamic thermopiezoelectricity, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for eleven-field, nine-field, six-field and three-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  6. Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in 's

  7. Contemporary Value of Marxism’s Basic Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾守旺

    2013-01-01

    Socialist system is incomparably superior in that it jumped off the grafting Grand Canyon that social development have to go through. In socialist China, mode of production is directly brought in line with the more advanced production standards not by capitalism. It is vital for inner-party democracy and social harmony to adhere to the basic principles of Marxism.

  8. Declaration of Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Education does not flourish in prisons because of prevailing notions about the punitive and retributive purposes of prisons. The United Nations is considering a Declaration of Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners that is intended to bring education to the forefront of criminal justice policy. (SK)

  9. Power electronics basics operating principles, design, formulas, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Yuriy; Chaplygin, Evgeny; Voronin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Power Electronics Basics: Operating Principles, Design, Formulas, and Applications provides fundamental knowledge for the analysis and design of modern power electronic devices. This concise and user-friendly resource:Explains the basic concepts and most important terms of power electronicsDescribes the power assemblies, control, and passive components of semiconductor power switchesCovers the control of power electronic devices, from mathematical modeling to the analysis of the electrical processesAddresses pulse-width modulation, power quality control, and multilevel, modular, and multicell

  10. Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

  11. Basic Principles of Betavoltaic Elements and Prospects of their Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Davydov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic technical principles and means of increase in betavoltaitic elements effectiveness have been analyzed by comparing with their closest analogue – photoelectric semiconductor converters. The geometric parameters of radiation sources for these elements and their capacities have been estimated. It is shown the radiation source 63Ni foil thickness should not exceed a few micrometers, and maximum energy conversion efficiency can achieve ~ 16 %.

  12. Basic Theoretical Principles Pertaining to Thermal Protection of Oil Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Shirokov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains formulation of basic theoretical principles pertaining to thermal protection of an oil transformer in accordance with classical theory of relay protection and theory of diagnostics with the purpose of unification of terminological and analytical information which is presently available in respect of this problem. Classification of abnormal thermal modes of an oil transformer and also algorithms and methods for operation of diagnostic thermal protection of a transformer have been proposed.

  13. Basic didactic principles in the study of mathematical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testоv Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understanding in the study of basic mathematical concepts in mathematics education has exacerbated during recent years. This is largely due to the fact that the style of thinking of pupils and students thanks to the intensive use of the Web becomes figurative and emotional, less inclined to abstract constructions. Fragments-clip thinking has become more common for most of students. The article deals with the didactic principles to be used in the study of mathematical concepts, which will contribute to achieving understanding.

  14. Basic principles of Hasse diagram technique in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Rainer; Voigt, Kristina

    2008-11-01

    Principles of partial order applied to ranking are explained. The Hasse diagram technique (HDT) is the application of partial order theory based on a data matrix. In this paper, HDT is introduced in a stepwise procedure, and some elementary theorems are exemplified. The focus is to show how the multivariate character of a data matrix is realized by HDT and in which cases one should apply other mathematical or statistical methods. Many simple examples illustrate the basic theoretical ideas. Finally, it is shown that HDT is a useful alternative for the evaluation of antifouling agents, which was originally performed by amoeba diagrams.

  15. Crown lengthening: basic principles, indications, techniques and clinical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Simon; Andreana, Sebastiano

    2004-11-01

    Sometimes, in order to properly restore teeth, surgical intervention in the form of a crown-lengthening procedure is required. Crown lengthening is a periodontal resective procedure, aimed at removing supporting periodontal structures to gain sound tooth structure above the alveolar crest level. Periodontal health is of paramount importance for all teeth, both sound and restored. For the restorative dentist to utilize crown lengthening, it is important to understand the concept of biologic width, indications, techniques and other principles. This article reviews these basic concepts of clinical crown lengthening and presents four clinical cases utilizing crown lengthening as an integral part of treatments, to restore teeth and their surrounding tissues to health.

  16. Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Basic Principles and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Philip M; Rochfort, Keith D; O'Connor, Brendan F

    2017-01-01

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline basic laboratory protocols to partially purify a soluble serine peptidase from bovine whole brain tissue, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described.

  17. Basic principles of information technology organization in health care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J A

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of information technology (IT) organization within health sciences centers. The paper considers the placement of the leader of the IT effort within the health sciences administrative structure and the organization of the IT unit. A case study of the University of Missouri-Columbia Health Sciences Center demonstrates how a role-based organizational model for IT support can be effective for determining the boundary between centralized and decentralized organizations. The conclusions are that the IT leader needs to be positioned with other institutional leaders who are making strategic decisions, and that the internal IT structure needs to be a role-based hybrid of centralized and decentralized units. The IT leader needs to understand the mission of the organization and actively use change-management techniques.

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A to Part 272—Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an investment. The DoD Components are to view and manage basic...

  19. Basic principles of aggressive rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović Emilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation after ACL (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has drastically changed over the last decade, with the adoption of a more aggressive approach, right from the first day after surgery. Progress in the effectiveness of rehabilitation is based on improvements in operative techniques, as well as on the encouraging results of histological studies regarding graft healing. Despite a huge amount of research papers on this topic, a rehabilitation golden standard still has not been established, due to the complexity of this problem. In this review, we point out the basic principles of rehabilitation after arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction based on actual practices, as well as the importance of specific procedures for the prevention of complications during the postoperative period. The importance of range-of-motion exercises, early weight bearing, an appropriate gait scheme, patella mobilisation, pain and oedema control, as well as stretching and balance exercises is explained. The functional advantages of closed kinetic chain exercises, as well as their influence on the graft are also described, in comparison to open kinetic chain exercises. The fundamentals of returning to sports are revealed and the specific aspects of rehabilitation regarding graft choice are pointed out. While waiting for new clinical investigations, which are expected to enable the establishment of a rehabilitation golden standard, the outlined principles should be followed. The complexity of this injury requires treatment in highly specialised institutions.

  20. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPORT TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martsenyuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Undeveloped infrastructure and the system of public and tourist transport services prevent boom and spread of tourism glory of the country. Therefore, the development of tourist infrastructure and transport communication routes is a priority task. Methodology. Article methodology is based on the use of consequent methodological technique. Findings. Author analyzed the situation of tourism industry in Ukraine, set the basic principles for the tourism development and its priorities. The article contains the author's point of view on the fact that the tourism industry is of paramount importance to the state economics, and the development of this sector of public life should be a priority task for the near future. Originality. According to the author, the development of the inbound tourism is more reasonable, because it provides additional workplaces and exchange earnings. The author insists that the raise of quality level of domestic tourist services to the European standards would accelerate the development of Ukrainian tourism and would attract more holidaymakers from Ukraine and neighbouring countries. Practical value. The rational measures, which were taken regarding the proposed directions for the tourism development, can improve competitiveness of the Ukrainian tourist industry on the European tourist market.

  2. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (BECHTEREW'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandor Fedorovich Erdes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the reasons behind the development of modern approaches to its therapy are briefly described. The main tasks and principles of non-pharmacological and drug therapies for ASare briefly reported. The need for therapeutic physical training is emphasized, since its role in maintaining the functional status in this group of patients has been proved. The lecture casts doubt on effectiveness of physiotherapy andother physical techniques because of the poor evidence base. The lecture emphasizes the disease-modifying role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and requirement to receive them constantly for patients with Bechterew's disease. Meanwhile, the basic anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with this disease are reported to play an auxiliary role and to have no effect on disease progression. The pronounced clinical effectiveness of all tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors is emphasized; certain differences in their therapeutical effect are described. The problems of surgical treatment, which deal with correction of disease complications or undesirable effects, are discussed.

  3. Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In other to prevent fish deterioration, every fish processor must strive to employ the best method possible in handing fish to maximize returns on processing investment. Fish canning, mince fish, fish silage, acid silage, fermented silage, composition of silage, nutritional value of fish silage, fish meal, raw materials for fish meal production, general processes in fish meal production: wet process, dry process, composition and quality, problems in fish processing, production of fish meal locally, local alternatives, comparison between fish silage and fish meal, product evaluation, quality control assessment methods, fish storage, fish anatomy and physiology, chemical composition of fish, fish spoilage types, fish off-flavor management and control, off-flavor mechanism, offflavor in live fish, other causes of off-flavor in fish, natural chemicals in fish, culture system and fish off-flavor control are reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products.

  4. Basic Principles of Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy is a psychotherapy modality that helps the patient recognize the relationship between disruptions in social rhythms and the onset of previous episodes of psychiatric disorders. It uses psychoeducation and behavioral techniques to maintain social rhythm and sleep/wake regularity. It is closely related to and ldquo;social zeitgeber theory and rdquo; that emphasizes the importance that social rhythm regularity may play in synchronization of circadian rhythms in individuals with or at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy have been shown to stabilize social rhythms and enhance course and outcome in bipolar disorder. This review focuses on the theoretical principles and the basic steps of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy as a psychotherapy approach in bipolar disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included interpersonal social rhythm therapy, bipolar, mood disorders. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and randomized controlled trials of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in bipolar disorder selected. These researches also summarized on the final part of this review. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 438-446

  5. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  6. [The basic principles of the antibiotic therapy of burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseva, M; Khadzhiĭski, O; Grigorov, G; Dimitrova, A

    1995-01-01

    Proceeding from many years experience with antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections in burnt patients, accumulated in the Section of Burns and Plastic Surgery, and pertinent literature reports, the basic principles of antibacterial therapy in this contingency of patients are set forth. A detailed protocol is presented, based on: 1) presence of clinical and laboratory evidence of infection and its location, and the most likely causing agents involved, 2) bacteriological data on the commonest causing agents of local and systemic infection in burns, and their sensitivity to antibiotics, 3) duration and surface, deepness and location of the burn injury, and 4) spectrum of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and side effects of the various groups of antibiotics, consistent with the age and concomitant diseases of the patients. A number of antibiotic constellations in cases presenting sepsis where resorting to "blind" therapy is necessitated, are recommended. It is underscored that the protocol suggested is open for modifications, and also that antibiotic therapy efficiency may be anticipated only when combined with adequate infusional and operative management.

  7. The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, Leonid M

    2010-05-12

    The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to 'prove' the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today.

  8. On the Koplienko spectral shift function, I. Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Simon, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We study the Koplienko Spectral Shift Function (KoSSF), which is distinct from the one of Krein (KrSSF). KoSSF is defined for pairs $A,B$ with $(A-B)\\in\\calI_2$, the Hilbert-Schmidt operators, while KrSSF is defined for pairs $A,B$ with $(A-B)\\in\\calI_1$, the trace class operators. We review various aspects of the construction of both KoSSF and KrSSF. Among our new results are: (i) that any positive Riemann integrable function of compact support occurs as a KoSSF; (ii) that there exist $A,B$ with $(A-B)\\in\\calI_2$ so $\\det_2((A-z)(B-z)^{-1})$ does not have nontangential boundary values; (iii) an alternative definition of KoSSF in the unitary case; and (iv) a new proof of the invariance of the a.c. spectrum under $\\calI_1$-perturbations that uses the KrSSF.

  9. Ethics of Plant Breeding: The IFOAM Basic Principles as a Guide for the Evolution of Organic Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    The basic values of organic agriculture is laid down in the IFOAM four basic principles: the principle of health, the principle of ecology, the principle of fairness and the principle of care. These principles and the consequences and challenges for the further development of organic plant breeding

  10. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  11. Analysis on the Shift of Personal Pronoun in the Chinese Language - in Terms of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2013-01-01

    Personal pronoun shift is a common phenomenon that by using second or third personal pronoun, the speaker means first personal pronoun;or speaker means second personal pronoun but uses first or third personal pronoun instead. Since the phe⁃nomenon frequently appears in the Chinese language, a great number of linguists have studied the personal pronoun and the inter⁃pretation of their usage. However, the study for the causes of the phenomenon is not so systemic. This paper aims to explain the personal pronoun shift from the perspective of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle, which can help to discover the rela⁃tionship between Cooperative principle and politeness in the shift of personal pronoun.

  12. Coatings in Dentistry—A Review of Some Basic Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Johan M. Söderholm

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different coatings are used in dentistry in an attempt to prevent caries, improve bonding of restorative materials to tooth tissues, and coat implant surfaces in efforts to speed up osseointegration. These are just a few of the many coating applications used in dentistry. The intention of this review is not to cover the entire field of different coatings used in dentistry, because that topic is just too big to be covered in one single paper. Therefore, this review aims to highlight some fundamental coating principles and present these principles to an audience consisting mainly of dentists. To do so, this review will focus on the fundamental principles of coatings, namely surface properties/adhesives in general, since these topics form the foundation for most coating procedures used in dentistry.

  13. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…

  14. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  15. Basics and principles of radiopharmaceuticals for PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsak, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2010-03-15

    The presented review provides general background on PET radiopharmaceuticals for oncological applications. Special emphasis is put on radiopharmacological, radiochemical and regulatory aspects. This review is not meant to give details on all different PET tracers in depth but to provide insights into the general principles coming along with their preparation and use. The PET tracer plays a pivotal role because it provides the basis both for image quality and clinical interpretation. It is composed of the radionuclide (signaller) and the molecular vehicle which determines the (bio-)chemical properties (e.g. binding characteristics, metabolism, elimination rate)

  16. Optical properties of metallic nanoparticles basic principles and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trügler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fascinating world of plasmonics and physics at the nanoscale, with a focus on simulations and the theoretical aspects of optics and nanotechnology. A research field with numerous applications, plasmonics bridges the gap between the micrometer length scale of light and the secrets of the nanoworld. This is achieved by binding light to charge density oscillations of metallic nanostructures, so-called surface plasmons, which allow electromagnetic radiation to be focussed down to spots as small as a few nanometers. The book is a snapshot of recent and ongoing research and at the same time outlines our present understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles, ranging from the tunability of plasmonic resonances to the ultrafast dynamics of light-matter interaction. Beginning with a gentle introduction that highlights the basics of plasmonic interactions and plasmon imaging, the author then presents a suitable theoretical framework for the description of metallic nanostructu...

  17. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...

  18. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2012-12-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students' acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students' personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students' potential for intellectual and personal growth.

  19. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  20. Basic principles and laboratory analysis of genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Chanock, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    With the draft of the human genome and advances in technology, the approach toward mapping complex diseases and traits has changed. Human genetics has evolved into the study of the genome as a complex structure harbouring clues for multifaceted disease risk with the majority still unknown. The discovery of new candidate regions by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has changed strategies for the study of genetic predisposition. More genome-wide, "agnostic" approaches, with increasing numbers of participants from high-quality epidemiological studies are for the first time replicating results in different settings. However, new-found regions (which become the new candidate "genes") require extensive follow-up and investigation of their functional significance. Understanding the true effect of genetic variability on the risk of complex diseases is paramount. The importance of designing high-quality studies to assess environmental contributions, as well as the interactions between genes and exposures, cannot be stressed enough. This chapter will address the basic issues of genetic variation, including population genetics, as well as analytical platforms and tools needed to investigate the contribution of genetics to human diseases and traits.

  1. Some basic principles in dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO En; LI WeiHua

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it Is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  2. Some basic principles for the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity,in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo,some basic principles in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics can be established systematically. In this paper,an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given,which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation,it is not only possible to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem,but also to systematically derive the complementary functionals for the eleven-field,nine-field and six-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the three-field one in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore,with this approach,the intrinsic relationships among various principles can be explained clearly.

  3. Some basic principles in dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be estab- lished systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of con- volutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systemati- cally the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simpli- fied Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  4. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Hetland, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use.

  5. ECOLOGICAL LIFESTYLE, THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Nikolaevna Tarasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of approaches to the empirical study of the environmental aspects of lifestyle are presented the basic principles that distinguish ecological way of life off the set of environmental practices that need to be taken into account in empirical measurement, namely: systematicity, conceptuality, contextual conformity and processuality. The article provides a theoretical basis and operational definition as an ecological way of life in general and the principles that distinguish it from other concepts of environmental sociology.

  6. Basic Principles and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Stephan; Backens, Martin; Ahlhelm, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to assist daily clinical diagnostics. This review is intended to give an overview on basic principles of the technology, discuss some of its technical aspects, and present typical applications in daily clinical routine in neuroradiology.

  7. Application of basic principles of physics to head and neck MR angiography: troubleshooting for artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shilpa; Hakky, Michael; Kwak, Ellie; Jara, Hernan; Geyer, Carl A; Erbay, Sami H

    2013-05-01

    Neurovascular imaging studies are routinely used for the assessment of headaches and changes in mental status, stroke workup, and evaluation of the arteriovenous structures of the head and neck. These imaging studies are being performed with greater frequency as the aging population continues to increase. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiographic imaging techniques are helpful in this setting. However, mastering these techniques requires an in-depth understanding of the basic principles of physics, complex flow patterns, and the correlation of MR angiographic findings with conventional MR imaging findings. More than one imaging technique may be used to solve difficult cases, with each technique contributing unique information. Unfortunately, incorporating findings obtained with multiple imaging modalities may add to the diagnostic challenge. To ensure diagnostic accuracy, it is essential that the radiologist carefully evaluate the details provided by these modalities in light of basic physics principles, the fundamentals of various imaging techniques, and common neurovascular imaging pitfalls.

  8. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fursanov; I. Dul

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  9. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  10. Basic Principles and Utilization Possibilities’ of Ultrasonic Phased Array in Material Nondestructive Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Cap; Klara Capova; Dagmar Faktorova

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the basic principles of operation and with the utilization possibilities of phased array (PA) in materials nondestructive testing (NDT). The first part deals with description of PA arrangement modes, which enable to generate, focus and steer the ultrasonic beem. The second part deals with the description of electromagnetic acoustic transducer PA operation. The last part deals with the description of the utilization of PA in nondestructive testing of conductive materials a...

  11. An assessment of adherence to basic ecological principles by payments for ecosystem service projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, C M; Varga, A; Olmsted, P; Ingram, J C; Cattau, M; Freund, C; Wynn-Grant, R; Naeem, S

    2016-08-01

    Programs and projects employing payments for ecosystem service (PES) interventions achieve their objectives by linking buyers and sellers of ecosystem services. Although PES projects are popular conservation and development interventions, little is known about their adherence to basic ecological principles. We conducted a quantitative assessment of the degree to which a global set of PES projects adhered to four ecological principles that are basic scientific considerations for any project focused on ecosystem management: collection of baseline data, identification of threats to an ecosystem service, monitoring, and attention to ecosystem dynamics or the formation of an adaptive management plan. We evaluated 118 PES projects in three markets-biodiversity, carbon, and water-compiled using websites of major conservation organizations; ecology, economic, and climate-change databases; and three scholarly databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). To assess adherence to ecological principles, we constructed two scientific indices (one additive [ASI] and one multiplicative [MSI]) based on our four ecological criteria and analyzed index scores by relevant project characteristics (e.g., sector, buyer, seller). Carbon-sector projects had higher ASI values (P principles. Projects financed by public-private partnerships had significantly higher ASI values than projects financed by governments (P principles based on the inclusion of cobenefits, the spatial extent of a project, or the size of a project's budget. These findings suggest, at this critical phase in the rapid growth of PES projects, that fundamental ecological principles should be considered more carefully in PES project design and implementation in an effort to ensure PES project viability and sustainability.

  12. First-principles calculation of core-level binding energy shift in surface chemical processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Combined with third generation synchrotron radiation light sources, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with higher energy resolution, brilliance, enhanced surface sensitivity and photoemission cross section in real time found extensive applications in solid-gas interface chemistry. This paper reports the calculation of the core-level binding energy shifts (CLS) using the first-principles density functional theory. The interplay between the CLS calculations and XPS measurements to uncover the structures, adsorption sites and chemical reactions in complex surface chemical processes are highlight. Its application on clean low index (111) and vicinal transition metal surfaces, molecular adsorption in terms of sites and configuration, and reaction kinetics are domonstrated.

  13. BASIC REQUIREMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF CREATION ONBOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS OF LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE. B. Bodnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification of the basic principles of construction on-board diagnostic systems locomotive and choose from high-performance and reliable interface for the exchange of information on-board diagnostic systems. Methodology. Problem of getting correct and adequate information about the technical state of the technical object is solved with the use and compliance of the fundamental principles of modern computers. Findings. High-performance and reliable interface to exchange messages between different units of management systems and on-board diagnostic systems was selected. Properties which are required high data rate, high reliability and low error rate of information transfer. Originality. The main principles of building on-board diagnostic systems which ensure compliance locomotives accumulation of accurate and adequate information about the technical condition which is necessary to organize its maintenance and repair were formulated. Practical value. Diagnostic equipment designed with use of requirements set forth above and principles will affect the technical condition of the engine, increasing the likelihood of uptime, productivity and locomotive repair teams. The introduction of on-board diagnostic systems and stationary locomotives will significantly improve the system and optimize their maintenance costs of maintenance and repairs. Besides, information about diagnostic parameters changing accumulated with the aim of airborne systems will be used in order to create mathematical models that, in turn, will organize a system of maintenance and predict the technical condition of locomotives

  14. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅴ)-POLAR THERMOMECHANICAL CONTINUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish rather complete basic balance equations and boundary conditions for polar thermomechanical continua based on the restudy of the traditional theories of micropolar thermoelasticity and thermopiezoelectricity. The equations of motion and the local balance equation of energy rate for micropolar thermoelasticity are derived from the rather complete principle of virtual power. The equations of motion, the balance equation of entropy and all boundary conditions are derived from the rather complete Hamilton principle. The new balance equations of momentum and energy rate which are essentially different from the existing results are presented. The corresponding results of micromorphic thermoelasticity and couple stress elastodynamics may be naturally obtained by the transition and the reduction from the micropolar case, respectively. Finally, the results of micropolar thermopiezoelectricity are directly given.

  15. Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations.

  16. MRI of brain disease in veterinary patients part 1: Basic principles and congenital brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in veterinary patients and is quickly becoming the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of brain and intracranial disease. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of MRI, a description of sequences and their applications in brain imaging, and an approach to interpretation of brain MRI. A detailed discussion of imaging findings in general intracranial disorders including hydrocephalus, vasogenic edema, brain herniation, and seizure-associated changes, and the MR diagnosis of congenital brain disorders is provided. MRI evaluation of acquired brain disorders is described in a second companion article.

  17. Basic Principles and Utilization Possibilities’ of Ultrasonic Phased Array in Material Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Faktorova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the basic principles of operation and with the utilization possibilities of phased array (PA in materials nondestructive testing (NDT. The first part deals with description of PA arrangement modes, which enable to generate, focus and steer the ultrasonic beem. The second part deals with the description of electromagnetic acoustic transducer PA operation. The last part deals with the description of the utilization of PA in nondestructive testing of conductive materials and the advantages of PA utilization in inhomogeneous materials NDT.

  18. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  19. [Introduction to palliative care for the oncologist-history and basic principles of palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    The basic principle of palliative care has evolved over time and is the historical origin of the modern hospice. WHO proposed the first definition of palliative care in 1989, and the definition was revised in 2002. These definitions have something in common. Both relieve the pain and suffering to improve QOL. Palliative care is also good for any kind of life-threatening disease, regardless of whether it requires short or long term recuperation. That also need to be able to accept equally all the people of the community. The provision of general palliative care is the responsibility of all medical, nursing, and health professionals for the welfare of all patients with life-threatening disease. Specialist palliative care is based on the basic principles of palliative care, intensive clinical training, and systematic acquisition of knowledge and skills training to support palliative care education, clinical research and training provided by the profession. It has been established by nursing and medical experts in palliative care that palliative care can provide expertise in interdisciplinary teams in different settings. It is necessary that the medical system.

  20. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  1. Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-09-23

    Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture.

  2. ELT and Citizenship: Basic Principles to Raise Social Awareness Through Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rojas Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I delve into the concept of citizenship in connection with the teaching of English as an auxiliary channel for increasing social awareness and understanding among teachers and students. Taking into consideration current global realities and the local contexts in which English is acquired and used, I feel that foreign language classrooms become an important space in which students can identify with the social structures of different cultures as well as the roles they play in their own society. Thus, I will address basic concepts and principles for developing citizenship awareness and ELT instruction from perspectives as diverse as educational background, curriculum development, methodologies and student and teacher roles, among others.

  3. Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

  4. Introduction of measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics: Basic principles and recent trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Ebihara, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Measurement — the act of measuring physical properties that we perform — has the potential to contribute to the successful advancement of sciences and society. To open doors in physics and other sciences, various measurement methods and related applications have been developed, and ultrasound has remained a useful probe, power source, and interesting measurement object for the past two centuries. In this paper, we first summarize the basic principles of ultrasound from the viewpoint of measurement techniques for readers who just have started studying or are interested in the field of ultrasonic electronics. Moreover, we also introduce recent studies — ultrasonic properties of materials, measurement techniques, piezoelectric devices, nonlinear acoustics, biomedical ultrasound, and ocean acoustics — and their trends related to measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics to provide some ideas for related applications.

  5. Basic principles of thermo-acoustic energy and temporal profile detection of microwave pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V G; Vdovin, V A

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles of a thermo-acoustic method developed for the detection of powerful microwave pulses of nanosecond duration are discussed.A proposed method is based on the registration of acoustic pulse profile originated from the thermal expansion of the volume where microwave energy was absorbed.The amplitude of excited acoustic transient is proportional to absorbed microwave energy and its temporal profile resembles one of a microwave pulse when certain conditions are satisfied.The optimal regimes of microwave pulse energy detection and sensitivity of acoustic transient registration with piezo-transducer are discussed.It was demonstrated that profile of a microwave pulse could be detected with temporal resolution of 1 - 3 nanosecond.

  6. Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases.   This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice.   The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...

  7. Fractals in the Neurosciences, Part I: General Principles and Basic Neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Jelinek, Herbert; Pellionisz, Andras J; Losa, Gabriele Angelo

    2014-08-01

    The natural complexity of the brain, its hierarchical structure, and the sophisticated topological architecture of the neurons organized in micronetworks and macronetworks are all factors contributing to the limits of the application of Euclidean geometry and linear dynamics to the neurosciences. The introduction of fractal geometry for the quantitative analysis and description of the geometric complexity of natural systems has been a major paradigm shift in the last decades. Nowadays, modern neurosciences admit the prevalence of fractal properties such as self-similarity in the brain at various levels of observation, from the microscale to the macroscale, in molecular, anatomic, functional, and pathological perspectives. Fractal geometry is a mathematical model that offers a universal language for the quantitative description of neurons and glial cells as well as the brain as a whole, with its complex three-dimensional structure, in all its physiopathological spectrums. For a holistic view of fractal geometry of the brain, we review here the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences.

  8. [The issues and basic principles of training of physicians of clinical laboratory diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, V T; Naumova, E V

    2012-07-01

    The article considers the main positions concerning the clinical laboratory diagnostics as an independent clinical specialty and the principles of professional training and improvement of specialists. The basic issues complicating the training and improvement of personnel to be kept in line with actual needs of laboratory service of public health system are discussed. Among them are the availability of laboratory academic sub disciplines demanding a profound special theoretical education and technical skills; the need to account in the process of professional training the variety of forms, sizes and types of laboratory structures in different medical institutions; the need of special training programs for numerous specialists with non-medical basic education. The combination of the present system of postgraduate training of specialists on chairs of state educational organizations with initiative involvement of specialists in various public forms of permanent professional improvement (professional scientific societies meetings, research conferences, internet seminars, etc.) is supported Along with a positive appraisal of the existing system of training in the state educational institutions and corresponding regulation documents, a critique is expressed regarding certain actual documents which improperly limit the administrative functions of physicians of clinical laboratory diagnostics and complicate training of bacteriologists for clinical laboratories.

  9. On a new formulation of microphenomena: Basic principles, stationary fields and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afshin Shafiee

    2011-06-01

    In a series of essays, beginning with this article, we are going to develop a new formulation of microphenomena based on the principles of reality and causality. The new theory provides us with a new depiction of microphenomena assuming a unified concept of information, matter and energy. So, we suppose that in a definite microphysical context (including other interacting particles), each particle is enfolded by a probability field whose existence is contingent on the existence of the particle, but it can locally affect the physical status of the particle in a context-dependent manner. The dynamics of the whole particle-field system obeys deterministic equations in a manner such that when the particle is subjected to a conservative force, the field also experiences a conservative complex force, the form of which is determined by the dynamics of the particle. So, the field is endowed with a given amount of energy, but its value is contingent on the physical conditions the particle is subjected to. Based on the energy balance of the particle and its associated field, we argue why the field has a probabilistic objective nature. The basic elements of this new formulation, its application for some stationary states and its nonlinear generalization for conservative systems are discussed here.

  10. Basic Principles of Planar Chromatography and Its Potential for Hyphenated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    Sample preparation, detection, identification, and quantitative determination of biomolecules are presented in this chapter. Advantages of planar chromatography and the basic principles (chambers, sample application, and chromatogram development) are also described. Rapid detection of biomolecules plays a strategical role in their investigation. Hyphenated techniques such as planar chromatography coupled to UV diode array detection and to mass spectrometry provide on-line extensive structural information on the metabolites prior to their isolation. In this chapter, the combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with biomolecules specific detection by diode array scanning (DAD), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TLC-FTIR) is discussed. In the last part of the chapter, the reader will gain useful information about a recent method of planar chromatography - multidimensional planar chromatography (MD-PC) and information on application of different modes of multidimensional planar chromatography and combination of this technique with diode array detection (MD-PC-DAD) and HPLC-DAD for separation, detection, and qualitative and quantitative determination of biomolecules. Planar chromatography as a pilot technique for HPLC is also described.

  11. Continuous Dual Resetting of the Immune Repertoire as a Basic Principle of the Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC) such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR) of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity. The CDR functions as a consequence of system's thermodynamically determined intrinsic tendency to acquire new states of inner equilibrium and equilibrium against the environment. Consequently, immune repertoire undergoes continuous dual (two-way) resetting: against the physiologic continuous changes of self and against the continuously changing environment. The CDR-based dynamic concept of immunity describes mechanisms of self-regulation, tolerance, and immunosenescence, and emphasizes the significance of immune system's compartmentalization in the pathogenesis of ICIC. The CDR concept's relative simplicity and concomitantly documented congruency with empirical, clinical, and experimental data suggest it may represent a plausible theoretical framework to better understand the human immune system function. PMID:28246613

  12. Continuous Dual Resetting of the Immune Repertoire as a Basic Principle of the Immune System Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Balzar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity. The CDR functions as a consequence of system’s thermodynamically determined intrinsic tendency to acquire new states of inner equilibrium and equilibrium against the environment. Consequently, immune repertoire undergoes continuous dual (two-way resetting: against the physiologic continuous changes of self and against the continuously changing environment. The CDR-based dynamic concept of immunity describes mechanisms of self-regulation, tolerance, and immunosenescence, and emphasizes the significance of immune system’s compartmentalization in the pathogenesis of ICIC. The CDR concept’s relative simplicity and concomitantly documented congruency with empirical, clinical, and experimental data suggest it may represent a plausible theoretical framework to better understand the human immune system function.

  13. Contactless inductive flow tomography: basic principles and first applications in the experimental modelling of continuous casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.

    2016-07-01

    Contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the flow structure of a liquid metal from the magnetic fields measured at various positions outside the fluid body which are induced by the flow under the influence of one or multiple applied magnetic fields. We recap the basic mathematical principles of CIFT and the results of an experiment in which the propeller-driven three-dimensional flow in a cylindrical had been reconstructed. We also summarize the recent activities to utilize CIFT in various problems connected with the experimental simulation of the continuous casting process. These include flow reconstructions in single-phase and two-phase flow problems in the Mini-LIMMCAST model of slab-casting, studies of the specific effects of an electromagnetic stirrer attached to the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), as well as first successful applications of CIFT on the background of a strong electromagnetic brake field. We conclude by discussing some remaining obstacles for the deployment of CIFT in a real caster.

  14. Theoretical simulations of proton conductivity: Basic principles for improving the proton conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D.W.M.; Kuleshova, L.N.; D' Aguanno, B. [CRS4, Parco Scientifico e Technologico, Sardegna Ricerca, Edificio 1, Loc. Piscina Mana, Pula 09010 (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proton conduction have been performed, to get insight into basic principles of potential improvements of proton conductivity in polyelectrolyte membranes. For the simulations the reactive force field for water (RWFF) was used, which allows bond dissociation of water, acids and hydronium ions. The effects are shown to be fundamental relevance for the diffusion of protons in membranes. One and two-dimensional conductors, and a Nafion trademark membrane have been modeled in our simulations. The two-dimensional model imitates a metal phosphate; the one-dimensional model imitates an idealized pore of hydrated Nafion membranes. The MD simulations of proton conductivity of the metal phosphate show the dissociation of the acid -POH groups and their participation in the proton transport. Several simulations are performed with acids of different strength and the effect of the acid's strength on the diffusion and on the conductivity is analyzed. The importance of the ion coupling on the conductivity is firstly proved in tubes, which imitate an ideal pore inside a membrane. Afterwards, the coupling is investigated in a real hydrated Nafion membrane by a non-equilibrium MD simulation. The results suggest a soliton-like behavior for proton conductivity in membranes. (author)

  15. New equipment for shifting belt conveyors and rails of basic mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.

    1977-07-01

    Notes that equipment used in the Polish brown coal surface mines for shifting belt conveyors and rail tracks is easily damaged, particularly under difficult mining conditions in autumn and spring. After the difficult season 1974-1975 the Poltegor Project Center investigated the possibility of constructing new equipment for shifting rails and belt conveyors. In January 1976 the first three prototypes of the PP-12 shifting machine, installed on the DET-250 tractor (produced in GDR), and with GP-12 type grab, were produced. The first tests of PP-12 machines in brown coal surface mines under difficult conditions were positive. The amount of damage decreased, wear of parts also decreased, fuel consumption fell and efficiency of the shifting machines increased. The price of one GP-12 grab produced according to plans developed by Poltegor is 4 times lower than price of the grab imported from FRG (produced by Krupp). Detailed technical specifications of the PP-12 shifting machine as well as the GP-12 grab are given. (In Polish)

  16. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅷ)-PRINCIPLE OF TOTAL WORK AND ENERGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tian-min

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical incompleteness of the existing conservation laws of energy for polar continuum mechanics is further clarified. For completeness, the principles of total work and energy and of total work and energy of incremental rate type are postulated. Via total variations of the former and the latter of them, the principles of virtual displacement and microrotation & stress and couple stress as well as virtual velocity and angular velocity &stress rate and couple stress rate are immediately obtained, respectively. From these principles all balance equations and boundary conditions for micropolar mechanics are naturally and simultaneously deduced. The essential differences between the nontraditional results obtained in this paper and the existing conservation laws of energy are expounded.

  17. The presence of communication in the basic organizational principles of the University of Zulia towards the student sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castellano Ramírez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is centered in detecting the presence of comunication towards the student sector, like a formal element in the redaccion of the organization basic principles (OBP of La Universidad del Zulia, such as Mision, Vision, Values, Polítics, Objectives and Strategies. Starting from the theoric approach of that the OBP conform the basic component of the Corporative Identity, in wish are rised the other three: the organizational beheivier, the simbology or visual identity and the comunication. Through the documentary research it has concluded that the communication towards the student community is not taken in count in the redaction of the basic principles, it is mentioned only in the comunicational politic but in a very general way.

  18. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 1: BASIC THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of shear zones have included collection of data on fractures showing no indication of displacement which are termed as 'blank' fractures. A method aimed at mapping fault structures and stress fields has been developed on the basis of results of paragenetic analysis of measurements of abundant fractures. The method is termed as 'specialized mapping', firstly, due to its specific structural goal so that to distinguish it from the conventional geological mapping of regions in nature, and, secondly, because of the specific procedure applied to refer to fractures as references to decipher fault-block patterns of natural regions. In Part 1, basic theoretical concepts and principles of specialized mapping are described. Part 2 is being prepared for publication in one of the next issues of the journal; it will cover stages of the proposed method and describe some of the cases of its application.In terms of general organizational principles, specialized mapping is similar to other methods based on structural paragenetic analysis and differs from such methods in types of paragenesises viewed as references to reveal crustal fault zones. Such paragenesises result from stage-by-stage faulting (Fig 2 and Fig. 7 during which stress fields of the 2nd order are regularly changeable within the shear zone. According to combined experimental and natural data, a complete paragenesis of fractures in the shear zone includes a major (1st order fault plane and fractures of other seven types, R, R’, n, n’, t, t’ and T (2nd order (Fig. 4 and Fig 8. At the fracture level, each of them corresponds to a paragenesis including three nearly perpendicular systems of early ruptures (Fig. 1, which are based on two classical patterns of conjugated fractures, one of which is consistent with the position of the fault plane (Fig. 3. Taking into account that strike-slip, reverse and normal faults are similar in terms of mechanics (i.e. they are formed due to

  19. Basic Principles of Financial Planning in Ex-ante Deposit Insurance Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica Ognjenović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores main principles of financial planning in ex-ante deposit insurance schemes from a theoretical perspective and in terms of the EU Directive on deposit- guarantee schemes. Further on, the paper assesses how these principles and standards are used in financial planning in deposit insurance schemes around the world for annual budgeting, strategic planning and optimalization of available financial resources. After reviewing available references and different practices, the conclusion is that there are no clear internationally accepted principles for deposit insurers’ financial planning, except some broad and general guidelines. Practices in the industry differ significantly. Given the fact that deposit insurance is in fact a monopolistic business, lack of clear principles and lack of proper financial planning may lead to inadequacy of ex-ante funds and negligence on the side of the management of deposit insurance schemes.

  20. Functional Assessment of Corticospinal Conduction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Basic Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, S.; Peller, M.; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2010-01-01

    Here we review how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used in clinical practice to examine the functional integrity of the fast conducting fibres of the human corticomotor path ways. We first summarise the technical and physiological principles of TMS that are relevant to its clinical use...

  1. Technology insight: metabonomics in gastroenterology-basic principles and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Nielsen, Ole H; Wang, Yulan L;

    2008-01-01

    Metabonomics-the study of metabolic changes in an integrated biologic system-is an emerging field. This discipline joins the other 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics) to give rise to a comprehensive, systems-biology approach to the evaluation of holistic in vivo function. Metabonom...... of metabonomics in basic and clinical research, with emphasis on applications in the field of gastroenterology....

  2. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

  3. Temperament: Theory and Practice. Brunner/Mazel Basic Principles into Practice Series, Volume 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Stella; Thomas, Alexander

    This book outlines the basic tenets and applications of the theory of temperament based on the findings of the New York Longitudinal Study begun in 1956. It describes the concept and definition of temperament, reviews studies that support and expand on the definition, and explores temperament and its impact across various practice settings and…

  4. Generation Shifting and the Principle of Continuity in Norwegian Tax Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer Frederik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With effect as from 1st January 2014 Norway abolished the inheritance tax and introduced the so-called continuity principle in income taxation. This means that heirs and receivers of gifts step into the tax basis and other tax positions of the giver and the deceased. Some additional requirements apply to some tax positions, in particular tax positions not related to assets (typically deferral of capital gains and carry forward of losses. Dwelling-houses and farms and forestries which the deceased or the giver could have sold without capital gains taxation is excepted.

  5. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Its Application to Traumatic Brain Injury: Basic Principles and Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Reliability and Validation of DW-MRI Measurements and Tractography Chemical tracing of the human brain in-vivo is difficult, limited to post - mortem case...parameters. Section III de- scribes the principles of DTI and tractography and dis- cusses post -processing and structural features extracted from the DTI...technical Sections II-IV and only focus on Sections I, V-VI. 1.1. Challenges of Detecting Mild TBI Brain Lesions and Predicting the Outcomes of TAI In the

  6. Translating molecular medicine into clinical tools: doomed to fail by neglecting basic preanalytical principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannello Ferdinando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary discusses a study on measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 in serum of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients recently published in Journal of Molecular Medicine. This study can be considered the typical "obstacle" to effective translational medicine as previously documented in JTM journal. Although serum has been frequently proven as inappropriate sample for determining numerous circulating MMPs, among them MMP-9, there are over and over again studies, as in this case, that measure MMP-9 in serum. Comparative measurements in serum and plasma samples demonstrated higher concentrations for MMP-9 in serum due to the additional release from leukocytes and platelets following the coagulation/fibrinolysis process. From this example it can be concluded that translating basic research discoveries into clinical tools needs a more intensive exchange between basic biomedical research and clinical scientists already in an early stage. Otherwise a lost of translation, as discussed in JTM journal, seems to be inevitable.

  7. Neutrons in studies of phospholipid bilayers and bilayer–drug interaction. I. Basic principles and neutron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belička M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper, we demonstrate several possibilities of using neutrons in pharmaceutical research with the help of examples of scientific results achieved at our University. In this first part, basic properties of neutrons and elementary principles of elastic scattering of thermal neutrons are described. Results of contrast variation neutron diffraction on oriented phospholipid bilayers with intercalated local anaesthetic or cholesterol demonstrate the potential of this method at determination of their position in bilayers. Diffraction experiments with alkan-1-ols located in the bilayers revealed their influence on bilayer thickness as a function of their alkyl chain length.

  8. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and “static” properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement… can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the “vacuum rest frame”, VRF. But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a “grand unification” view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  9. Stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: Basic possibilities of serially connected columns using the "PRISMA" principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyiredy, Sz; Szucs, Zoltán; Szepesy, L

    2007-07-20

    A new procedure (stationary phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography: SOS-LC) is described for the optimization of the HPLC stationary phase, using serially connected columns and the principle of the "PRISMA" model. The retention factors (k) of the analytes were determined on three different stationary phases. By use of these data the k values were predicted applying theoretically combined stationary phases. These predictions resulted in numerous intermediate theoretical separations from among which only the optimal one was assembled and tested. The overall selectivity of this separation was better than that of any individual base stationary phase. SOS-LC is independent of the mechanism and the scale of separation.

  10. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅰ)-MICROPOLAR CONTINUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    Based on the restudies of existing polar continuum theories rather completesystems of basic balance laws and equations for micropolar continuum theory are presented.In these new systems not only the additional angular momentum, surface moment and bodymoment produced by the linear momentum, surface force and body force, respectively, butalso the additional velocity produced by the angular velocity are considered. The newcoupled balance laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy arereestablished. From them the new coupled local and nonlocal balance equatiors arenaturally derived. Via contrast it can be clearly seen that the new results are believed to berather general and complete.

  11. Basic mapping principles for visualizing cancer data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Cynthia A

    2006-02-01

    Maps and other data graphics may play a role in generating ideas and hypotheses at the beginning of a project. They are useful as part of analyses for evaluating model results and then at the end of a project when researchers present their results and conclusions to varied audiences, such as their local research group, decision makers, or a concerned public. Cancer researchers are gaining skill with geographic information system (GIS) mapping as one of their many tools and are broadening the symbolization approaches they use for investigating and illustrating their data. A single map is one of many possible representations of the data, so making multiple maps is often part of a complete mapping effort. Symbol types, color choices, and data classing each affect the information revealed by a map and are best tailored to the specific characteristics of data. Related data can be examined in series with coordinated classing and can also be compared using multivariate symbols that build on the basic rules of symbol design. Informative legend wording and setting suitable map projections are also basic to skilled mapmaking.

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nano-Optics : Principles Enabling Basic Research and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John; Silvestri, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of nano-optics, including basic theory, experiment and applications, particularly in nanofabrication and optical characterization. The contributions clearly demonstrate how advances in nano-optics and photonics have stimulated progress in nanoscience and -fabrication, and vice versa. Their expert authors address topics such as three-dimensional optical lithography and microscopy beyond the Abbe diffraction limit, optical diagnostics and sensing, optical data- and telecommunications, energy-efficient lighting, and efficient solar energy conversion. Nano-optics emerges as a key enabling technology of the 21st century. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physics through chemistry, to biology and engineering. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Erice, 4-19 July, 2015.

  13. Basic principles for the life time of mechanical NPP components and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Bartonicek, J.

    2010-07-01

    The life time of systems, structures and components (SCC) is determined by two main principles. First of all the required quality has to be produced during the design and fabrication process. This means that quality has to be produced and can't be improved by excessive inspections. The second one is that the initial quality has to be maintained during operation. This concerns safe operation during the total lifetime (lifetime management), safety against ageing phenomena (ageing management) as well as proof of integrity (e.g. break exclusion or avoidance of fracture). Within this field life time and ageing management are key elements. The task of the design is to prove that the requirements for e.g. strength, integrity, functionality and leak-tightness with the required safety margins are fulfilled. The quality that can be reached during the design phase depends on the amount of knowledge about the possible degradation mechanism and on their causes, on the design assumptions (e.g. dimensions, material properties, etc.) and on the used analyses methods and verification procedures. During the erection phase of the plant, the design assumptions have to be verified and the actual design (as built) has to be documented. (Published in summary form only)

  14. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPherson Douglas W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented.

  15. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  16. Innovation-marketing enterprise development of innovation-market orientation: basic principles and modelling aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Dubnytsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The study is devoted to the solution of the urgent scientific and other problems the development of enterprises in the global economy and the development of the theoretical and methodological aspects of innovative management and marketing of the enterprise development innovation and market orientation on the basis of formation of the system principles of innovative development, marketing management within the processes of globalization. The results of the analysis. It is revealed that one of the main problems for modern Ukrainian enterprises is the preservation of competitiveness and the maintenance of business activity in the conditions of the external environment which is continuously changing. It is shown that the economy of the country which wants to develop in the conditions of innovative orientation and increase of the level of motivation in organizational innovation are the main reason to secure enterprises the conditions for the implementation of innovation-marketing orientation, especially in the framework of international commodity markets. It is proved that the company has the influence on the nonlinear nature for the development of the components of open socio-economic systems. It is revealed that in its activity the enterprise has a high degree of dynamism and variability of the external environment, which contributes to the emergence of new laws for the development and control of nonlinear dissipative media. Also, in the global economy within the geo-space there is a place for ‘the presence of co-evolutional effects”. In the study we have got the characteristic of cases within the framework of the need for innovation-marketing development of the enterprise. The substantive aspects of the strategic approach, which are specified in the principles system of the innovative development management of the enterprise-marketing orientation in the global economy are considered. It is found that formation of the

  17. Goal Commitments and the Content of Thoughts and Dreams: Basic Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eKlinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1 An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2 Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3 When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4 When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5 Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and

  18. Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual's commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person's own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain's default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory consolidation.

  19. Monkeys choose as if maximizing utility compatible with basic principles of revealed preference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Bernier, Alexandre; Plott, Charles R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2017-03-07

    Revealed preference theory provides axiomatic tools for assessing whether individuals make observable choices "as if" they are maximizing an underlying utility function. The theory evokes a tradeoff between goods whereby individuals improve themselves by trading one good for another good to obtain the best combination. Preferences revealed in these choices are modeled as curves of equal choice (indifference curves) and reflect an underlying process of optimization. These notions have far-reaching applications in consumer choice theory and impact the welfare of human and animal populations. However, they lack the empirical implementation in animals that would be required to establish a common biological basis. In a design using basic features of revealed preference theory, we measured in rhesus monkeys the frequency of repeated choices between bundles of two liquids. For various liquids, the animals' choices were compatible with the notion of giving up a quantity of one good to gain one unit of another good while maintaining choice indifference, thereby implementing the concept of marginal rate of substitution. The indifference maps consisted of nonoverlapping, linear, convex, and occasionally concave curves with typically negative, but also sometimes positive, slopes depending on bundle composition. Out-of-sample predictions using homothetic polynomials validated the indifference curves. The animals' preferences were internally consistent in satisfying transitivity. Change of option set size demonstrated choice optimality and satisfied the Weak Axiom of Revealed Preference (WARP). These data are consistent with a version of revealed preference theory in which preferences are stochastic; the monkeys behaved "as if" they had well-structured preferences and maximized utility.

  20. Magnetic nanoparticle heating and heat transfer on a microscale: Basic principles, realities and physical limitations of hyperthermia for tumour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutz, Silvio; Hergt, Rudolf

    2013-12-01

    In this review article we present basic principles of magnetically induced heat generation of magnetic nanoparticles for application in magnetic particle hyperthermia. After explanation of heating mechanisms, the role of particle-particle as well as particle-tissue interactions is discussed with respect to achievable heating power of the particles inside the tumour. On the basis of heat transfer theory at the micro-scale, the balance between generated and dissipated heat inside the tumour and the resulting damaging effects for biological tissue is examined. The heating behaviour as a function of tumour size is examined in combination with feasible field strength and frequency. Numerical calculations and experimental investigations are used to show the lower tumour size limit for tumour heating to therapeutically suitable temperatures. In summary, this article illuminates practical aspects, limitations, and the state of the art for the application of magnetic heating in magnetic particle hyperthermia as thermal treatment of small tumours.

  1. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses.

  2. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅵ)-CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND INERTIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the coupled conservation laws, the local conservation equations and the jump conditions of mass and inertia for polar continuum theories. In this connection the new material derivatives of the deformation gradient, the line element, the surface element and the volume element were derived and the generalized Reynolds transport theorem was presented. Combining these conservation laws of mass and inertia with the balance laws of momentum, angular momentum and energy derived in our previous papers of this series, a rather complete system of coupled basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories is constituted on the whole. From this system the coupled nonlocal balance equations of mass, inertia, momentum, angular momentum and energy may be obtained by the usual localization.

  3. PET/TAC: Basic principles, physiological variants and artifacts; PET/TAC: Generalidades, variantes fisiologicas y artefactos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, A.M. [Especialista en Medicina Nuclear, Profa. Depto. Radiologia de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation is about the basic principles, physiologic variants and devices that work in the PET/TAC technique. Next the conclusions obtained in the same one are presented: For a correct evaluation of the PET/TAC images with FDG is necessary the knowledge of the image acquisition technique, as well as of the physiologic distribution of the FDG, variants of the normality, benign causes of captation and more frequent devices. The introduction of this hybrid procedure allows the correct anatomical localization and identification of the deposits of FDG largely avoiding false or doubtful interpretations, but it can also originate not specific devices existent in the conventional PET. The previous knowledge of the possible devices will make possible in certain cases its elimination and in other its identification avoiding incorrect interpretations. (Author)

  4. The Basic Principles of Comprehensive Rule by Law%全面依法治国的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方乐

    2015-01-01

    全面依法治国的基本原则,指的是要坚持中国共产党的领导、坚持人民主体地位、坚持法律面前人人平等、坚持依法治国和以德治国相结合、坚持从中国实际出发等五项内容. 这五项基本原则是一个有机整体,其主体内容与精神实质紧密相关,知识立场与功能预期密切相连,行动指向与制度需求相辅相成. 厘清并坚持全面推进依法治国的五项基本原则,有利于统一思想、凝聚全党全国各族人民在法治问题上的共识,保障依法治国沿着正确的方向前进.%Basic principles of comprehensive governing the country by law refer to the five elements :adhere to the leadership of the Communist Party of China , adhere to the dominant position of the people , adhere to equality before the law , adhere to the rule of law and the rule of virtue , and adhere to the national situation of China .These five basic principles are an organic integri-ty, whose main content is closely related to the spiritual substance , the knowledge position and functional prediction are closely associated , the action direction and the system requirements complement each other .It is conducive to the unity of thinking , the cohesion of the consensus of the whole party and ethnic groups in the rule of law , to guarantee the correct advancing direction of governing the country by law .

  5. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  6. Basic Principles of MLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rambla-Alegre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC is an efficient alternative to conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography with hydro-organic mobile phases. Almost three decades of experience have resulted in an increasing production of analytical applications. Current concern about the environment also reveals MLC as an interesting technique for “green” chemistry because it uses mobile phases containing 90% or more water. These micellar mobile phases have a low toxicity and are not producing hazardous wastes. The stationary phase is modified with an approximately constant amount of surfactant monomers, and the solubilising capability of the mobile phase is altered by the presence of micelles, giving rise to a great variety of interactions (hydrophobic, ionic, and steric with major implications in retention and selectivity. From its beginnings in 1980, the technique has evolved up to becoming in a real alternative in some instances (and a complement in others to classical RPLC with aqueous-organic mixtures, owing to its peculiar features and unique advantages. The addition of an organic solvent to the mobile phase was, however, soon suggested in order to enhance the low efficiencies and weak elution strength associated with the mobile phases that contained only micelles.

  7. The stem-cell application in ischemic heart disease: Basic principles, specifics and practical experience from clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Longer life duration, different clinical presentations of coronary disease, as well as high incidence of comorbidity in patients with ischemic heart disease have led to an increase in the incidence of ischemic heart failure. Despite numerous and new treatment methods that act on different pathophysiological mechanisms that cause heart failure, and whose aim is to slowdown or stop the progression of this devastating disease, morbidity and mortality in these patients remain high. These facts have firstly led to the introduction of the experimental, and then clinical studies with the application of stem cells in patients with ischemic heart disease. Previous studies have shown that the application of stem cells is a feasible and safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, but the efficacy of these methods in both of the abovementioned clinical syndromes has yet to be established. This review paper outlines the basic principles of treatment of ischemic heart disease with stem cells, as well as the experience and knowledge gained in previous clinical studies.

  8. Statistical Contact Angle Analyses with the High-Precision Drop Shape Analysis (HPDSA Approach: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface science, which includes the preparation, development and analysis of surfaces and coatings, is essential in both fundamental and applied as well as in engineering and industrial research. Contact angle measurements using sessile drop techniques are commonly used to characterize coated surfaces or surface modifications. Well-defined surfaces structures at both nanoscopic and microscopic level can be achieved but the reliable characterization by means of contact angle measurements and their interpretation often remains an open question. Thus, we focused our research effort on one main problem of surface science community, which is the determination of correct and valid definitions and measurements of contact angles. In this regard, we developed the high-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA, which involves a complex transformation of images from sessile drop experiments to Cartesian coordinates and opens up the possibility of a physically meaningful contact angle calculation. To fulfill the dire need for a reproducible contact angle determination/definition, we developed three easily adaptable statistical analyses procedures. In the following, the basic principles of HPDSA will be explained and applications of HPDSA will be illustrated. Thereby, the unique potential of this analysis approach will be illustrated by means of selected examples.

  9. Ion-exchange chromatography: basic principles and application to the partial purification of soluble mammalian prolyl oligopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Philip M; Dowling, Oonagh; O'Connor, Brendan F

    2011-01-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline protocols necessary to partially purify a serine peptidase from bovine whole brain cytosolic fraction, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described. The target serine peptidase, prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC3.4.21.26), is an 80-kDa enzyme with endopeptidase activity towards peptide substrates of ≤30 amino acids. POP is a ubiquitous post-proline cleaving enzyme with particularly high expression levels in the mammalian brain, where it participates in the metabolism of neuroactive peptides and peptide-like hormones (e.g. thyroliberin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone).

  10. Phase contrast imaging of the breast. Basic principles and steps towards clinical implementation; Phasenkontrastbildgebung der Brust. Grundlagen und Schritte zur klinischen Implementierbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, S.; Sztrokay-Gaul, A.; Auweter, S.D.; Hellerhoff, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Mammography is the only imaging technique approved for nationwide breast cancer screening. Digital full field mammography has improved mammographic image quality. Nevertheless, mammography has a low positive predictive value and a low sensitivity especially in mammographically dense breasts. One of the major limitations is the inherently low contrast between healthy breast parenchyma and breast cancer. Phase contrast imaging is based on the phase shift that occurs when X-rays encounter a change in refractive index between different materials. The improved soft tissue contrast makes the technology particularly promising for breast diagnostics. The studies presented here suggest that phase contrast imaging provides additional diagnostic information both using phase contrast mammography and phase contrast computed tomography (CT). This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of the phase contrast imaging and describes recent developments towards in vivo and ex vivo phase contrast imaging of the breast. (orig.) [German] Brustkrebs ist weltweit die haeufigste Tumorerkrankung und die haeufigste Krebstodesursache der Frau. Die Mammographie ist die einzige zugelassene bildgebende Methode zur Brustkrebsfrueherkennung im Rahmen flaechendeckender Screeningprogramme. Trotz Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet und der Befundungsperformance durch die Einfuehrung der digitalen Vollfeldmammographie sind der positiv-praediktive Wert und die Sensitivitaet der Mammographie insbesondere bei mammographisch dichtem Druesenkoerper eingeschraenkt. Dies ist u. a. auf die geringen Dichteunterschiede zwischen gesundem Brustdruesengewebe und intramammaeren Malignomen zurueckzufuehren. Die Phasenkontrastbildgebung macht sich die Phasenverschiebung von Roentgenstrahlen zunutze, die an Materialgrenzen mit unterschiedlichen Brechungsindizes entsteht. Die Technik bietet einen potenziell

  11. The Mode Evolution of Basic Human Rights Principle at Chinese Constitution%基本人权原则在中国宪法中的模式嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施秀艳

    2011-01-01

    Basic human rights principle is one of the constitution principles. Though each nation's constitution manifestation pattern is different, the basic human rights principle is confirmed in the constitution, so as China's constitution. China's four constitution confirmed the basic human rights principle with the silent and obvious ways. The silent way esperienced the post-roll mode and the pre-roll mode which showed the evolution process of basic human fights at Chinese constitution and revealed the historical process of people's more and more attention in China.%基本人权原则是宪法基本原则之一,虽然各国宪法表现形式不同,但都在宪法中确认了基本人权原则,我国宪法也同样如此.中国四部宪法确认基本人权原则,分别采取了默示型和明示型确认模式,其中默示型确认模式又经历了后置式和前置式两个发展阶段,体现了基本人权原则在中国宪法中的演变过程,也揭示了人权在我国日益受到关注和重视的历史脉络.

  12. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  13. Control of multiscale systems with constraints. 1. Basic principles of the concept of evolution of systems with varying constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, S; Novikov, V

    2013-01-01

    Physical fundamentals of the self-organizing theory for the system with varying constraints are considered. A variation principle, specifically the principle of dynamic harmonization as a generalization of the Gauss-Hertz principle for the systems with varying internal structure is formulated. In compliance with this principle the system evolves through dynamics of the processes leading to harmonization of the internal multiscale structure of the system and its connections with external actions as a result of minimizing the dynamic harmonization function. Main principles of the shell model of self-organization under the action of the dominating entropic disturbance are formulated.

  14. Evaluation of the structural determinants of polymeric precipitation inhibitors using solvent shift methods and principle component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dallas B; Bergström, Christel A S; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-08-05

    The presence of polymers within solid dose forms, such as solid dispersions, or liquid or semisolid formulations, such as lipid-based formulations, can promote the maintenance of drug supersaturation after dissolution or dispersion/digestion of the vehicle in the gastrointestinal tract. Transiently stable supersaturation delays precipitation, increases thermodynamic activity, and may enhance bioavailability and reduce variability in exposure. In the current study a diverse range of 42 different classes of polymers, with a total of 78 polymers across all classes, grades, and molecular weights were examined, to varying degrees, as potential polymeric precipitation inhibitors (PPIs) using a solvent shift method to initiate supersaturation. To provide a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of polymer utility the data were also analyzed, along with a range of physicochemical descriptors of the polymers employed, using principle component analysis (PCA). Polymers were selectively tested for their ability to stabilize supersaturation for nine poorly water-soluble model drugs, representing a range of nonelectrolytes, weak acids, and weak bases. In general, the cellulose-based polymers (and in particular hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, HPMC, and its derivatives) provided robust precipitation inhibition across most of the drugs tested. Subsequent PCA indicate that there is consistent PPI behavior of a given polymer for a given drug type, with clear clustering of the performance of polymers with each of the nonelectrolytes, weak bases, and weak acids. However, there are some exceptions to this, with some specific drug type-polymer interactions also occurring. Polymers containing primary amine functional groups should be avoided as they are prone to enhancing precipitation rates. An inverse relationship was also documented for the number of amide, carboxylic acid, and hydroxyl functional groups; therefore for general good PPI performance the number of these

  15. 核损害赔偿的基本原则%The Basic Principles of Nuclear Damage Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘风景; 郑建保

    2014-01-01

    核能的和平发展和利用,是20世纪人类最重大的科技成就之一。核电站于上世纪50年代左右开始起步,到本世纪已经达到了商业化发展的水平,成为一种具有吸引力的能源。但是,核能的和平利用在给人类社会带来巨大好处的同时,也伴随着巨大的风险。随着前苏联切尔诺贝利和日本福岛等重大核事故的不断发生,核安全特别是核损害赔偿问题日益引起国际社会的广泛关注。通过对与核损害赔偿有关的国际公约和各国国内法进行系统整理,总结出核损害赔偿的基本原则,可为我国制定《核安全法》提供有益的经验。%Utilizing and developing nuclear energy peacefully is a great scientiifc achievement for human in 20th Century. For instance, nuclear energy station, which launched in the last 50 years of 20th Century. has reached a common application in business this century and utilizing of nuclear energy beneifts human a lot. however, it also brings great risks. With the serious nuclear accidents happened in Chernobyl, the former Soviet Union and Fukushima, Japan, nuclear security, especially nuclear damage compensation continually arouses more attention from international community. In view of this, it is necessary to summarize the basic principles of nuclear damage compensation, which will contribute to the making of the Nuclear security law of China.

  16. Renewal of basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories (Ⅺ)——consistency problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tian-min

    2007-01-01

    Some consistency problems existing in continuum field theories are briefly reviewed. Three arts of consistency problems are clarified based on the renewed basic laws for polar continua. The first art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for polar continua. The second art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for polar continua and for other nonpolar continua. The third art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for micropolar continuum theories and the dynamical equations for rigid body. The results presented here can help us to get a deeper understanding the structure of the basic laws for various continuum theories and the interrelations between them. In the meantime, these results obtained show clearly that the consistency problems could not be solved in the framework of traditional basic laws for continuum field theories.

  17. The Theoretical Basis and Basic Principles of Knowledge Network Linking%知识网络链接的理论基础与基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永常

    2012-01-01

    知识网络链接是进行动态知识构建的本质要求,有助于泛在知识服务的实现。本文从理论基础和基本原则揭示了知识网络链接的原理。%Knowledge network linkage (KNL) is the essence of dynamic knowledge architecture, and is helpful realizes the ubiquitous knowledge service. To promulgate the basic principle of KNL, author explores its theoretical foundation and basic rules.

  18. Basic principles of renewal of sportsmen with myofascial by a pain syndrome taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko G.D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine and learn the fundamentals of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome, taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation. Material: the data analyzed and summarized the scientific and methodological literature; sites on the internet. Results: the analysis of specialized literature on development features myofascial pain syndrome in athletes. Myofascial pain syndrome is widespread in sports practice. It is characterized by muscle spasms and trigger points, palpation of which there is a growing pain. The basic principles of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome. The questions of the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, taking into account the influence of psychological factors on the recovery of athletes. Conclusions: the presented strategy is comprehensive physical rehabilitation. Recommended keeping the basic principles of the recovery of athletes and the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation.

  19. A resonance shift prediction based on the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle for cylindrical cavities with a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco Santillan, Arturo; Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on the resonance frequency shift for a plane-wave mode in a cylindrical cavity produced by a rigid sphere is reported in this paper. This change of the resonance frequency has been previously considered as a cause of oscillational instabilities in singlemode acoustic levitation...

  20. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Contributes to a Shift in the Angioregulatory Activity of Retinal Glial (Müller) Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafai, Yousef; Iandiev, Ianors; Lange, Johannes; Yang, Xiu Mei; Wiedemann, Peter; Bringmann, Andreas; Eichler, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with pro-angiogenic and neurotrophic effects. The angioregulatory role of this molecule may become especially significant in retinal neovascularization, which is a hallmark of a number of ischemic eye diseases. This study was undertaken to reveal expression characteristics of bFGF, produced by retinal glial (Müller) cells, and to determine conditions under which glial bFGF may stimulate the proliferation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Immunofluorescence labeling detected bFGF in Müller cells of the rat retina and in acutely isolated Müller cells with bFGF levels, which increased after ischemia-reperfusion in postischemic retinas. In patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy or myopia, the immunoreactivity of bFGF co-localized to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in surgically excised retinal tissues. RT-PCR and ELISA analyses indicated that cultured Müller cells produce bFGF, which is elevated under hypoxia or oxidative stress, as well as under stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines, including pro-inflammatory factors. When retinal endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of media from hypoxia (0.2%)-conditioned Müller cells, a distinct picture of endothelial cell proliferation emerged. Media from 24-h cultured Müller cells inhibited proliferation, whereas 72-h conditioned media elicited a stimulatory effect. BFGF-neutralizing antibodies suppressed the enhanced endothelial cell proliferation to a similar extent as anti-VEGF antibodies. Furthermore, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK−1/−2) in retinal endothelial cells was increased when the cells were cultured in 72-h conditioned media, while neutralizing bFGF attenuated the activation of this signaling pathway. These data provide evidence that retinal (glial) Müller cells are major sources of bFGF in the ischemic retina. Müller cells under

  1. Basic fibroblast growth factor contributes to a shift in the angioregulatory activity of retinal glial (Muller cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Yafai

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is a pleiotropic cytokine with pro-angiogenic and neurotrophic effects. The angioregulatory role of this molecule may become especially significant in retinal neovascularization, which is a hallmark of a number of ischemic eye diseases. This study was undertaken to reveal expression characteristics of bFGF, produced by retinal glial (Müller cells, and to determine conditions under which glial bFGF may stimulate the proliferation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Immunofluorescence labeling detected bFGF in Müller cells of the rat retina and in acutely isolated Müller cells with bFGF levels, which increased after ischemia-reperfusion in postischemic retinas. In patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy or myopia, the immunoreactivity of bFGF co-localized to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive cells in surgically excised retinal tissues. RT-PCR and ELISA analyses indicated that cultured Müller cells produce bFGF, which is elevated under hypoxia or oxidative stress, as well as under stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines, including pro-inflammatory factors. When retinal endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of media from hypoxia (0.2%-conditioned Müller cells, a distinct picture of endothelial cell proliferation emerged. Media from 24-h cultured Müller cells inhibited proliferation, whereas 72-h conditioned media elicited a stimulatory effect. BFGF-neutralizing antibodies suppressed the enhanced endothelial cell proliferation to a similar extent as anti-VEGF antibodies. Furthermore, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/-2 in retinal endothelial cells was increased when the cells were cultured in 72-h conditioned media, while neutralizing bFGF attenuated the activation of this signaling pathway. These data provide evidence that retinal (glial Müller cells are major sources of bFGF in the ischemic retina. Müller cells under

  2. MIPv6基本原理与仿真%The Basic Principle and Simulation of MIPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾方

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes MIPv6 (Mobile IPv6) principle. And comparative analysis the principles ofMIPv6 based on MIPv4, then simulated RFC6275 which is a open source protocol by NS3, and comparative analysis of their characteristics.%本文简述MIPv6(移动IPv6)的原理。在MIPv4基础上对MIPv6的原理进行了对比分析,并通过NS3仿真平台对基于RFC6275标准的开源协议UMIPv6进行了仿真,对比分析了其特点。

  3. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2014-04-01

    With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  4. sp2/sp3 hybridization ratio in amorphous carbon from C 1s core-level shifts: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerle, Rainer; Riedo, Elisa; Pasquarello, Alfredo; Baldereschi, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we address C 1s core-level shifts in amorphous carbon. Experimental results are obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) on thin-film samples of different atomic density, obtained by a pulsed-laser deposition growth process. The XPS spectra are deconvoluted into two contributions, which are attributed to sp2- and sp3-hybridized atoms, respectively, separated by 0.9 eV, independent of atomic density. The sp3 hybridization content extracted from XPS is consistent with the atomic density derived from the plasmon energy in the EELS spectrum. In our theoretical study, we generate several periodic model structures of amorphous carbon of different densities applying two schemes of increasing accuracy in sequence. We first use a molecular-dynamics approach, based on an environmental-dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian to quench the systems from the liquid phase. The final model structures are then obtained by further atomic relaxation using a first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave approach within density-functional theory. Within the latter framework, we also calculate carbon 1s core-level shifts for our disordered model structures. We find that the shifts associated to threefold- and fourfold- coordinated carbon atoms give rise to two distinct peaks separated by about 1.0 eV, independent of density, in close agreement with experimental observations. This provides strong support for decomposing the XPS spectra into two peaks resulting from sp2- and sp3-hybridized atoms. Core-hole relaxations effects account for about 30% of the calculated shifts.

  5. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅱ)-MICROMORPHIC CONTINUUM THEORY AND COUPLE STRESS THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.

  6. uSIMPK. An Excel for Windows-based simulation program for instruction of basic pharmacokinetics principles to pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Dion R

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom.

  7. Oncology. Pt. 1. General part, epidemiology - pathogenesis - basic principles of therapy. 2. upd. ed.; Die Onkologie. T. 1. Allgemeiner Teil, Epidemiologie - Pathogenese - Grundprinzipien der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiddemann, Wolfgang [Muenchen Univ. Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany). Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III; Bartram Claus R. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Humangenetik

    2010-07-01

    The book Oncology is aimed to communicate the compiled knowledge on tumor development and cancer: fundamental knowledge base, practice related know-how for diagnostics and therapy. Part 1 includes the following chapters: epidemiology and pathogenesis, basic principles of diagnostics, basic principles of therapy, complication of malign growth, tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, female genital carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract carcinomas, respiratory tract and lung carcinomas, carcinomas in the head - neck area, bone and soft tissue carcinomas, pediatric tumors, hematological neoplasm, other carcinomas. The book can be used as reference for clinical work. [German] Die gesamte Onkologie - verlaessliches Wissen fuer Ihre Kompetenz. ''Die Onkologie'' stellt sich der Herausforderung, das staendig wachsende Wissen ueber Tumorerkrankungen in seiner Gesamtheit zu vermitteln. Sowohl inhaltlich als auch didaktisch auf hoechsten Niveau: Fundiertes Grundlagenwissen zum umfassenden Nachschlagen Praxisrelevantes Know-how fuer Diagnostik und Therapie Systematischer Aufbau fuer das Verstaendnis der komplexen Zusammenhaenge Die Onkologie - eine Enzyklopaedie der modernen klinischen Tumorlehre. Angesehene Experten aus Klinik, Forschung und Praxis liefern Ihnen in Teil1 klinisches Grundlagenwissen zu den Grundprinzipien der Therapie, Epidemiologie, Aetiologie und Pathogenese, sowie zu Komplikationen des malignen Wachstums. Zum Nachschlagen und Anwenden: finden Sie alle Optionen - auch fuer Ihren schwierigsten Fall. Der uebersichtliche Aufbau und die exzellenten Abbildungen erleichtern Ihnen das schnelle Auffinden und Verstaendnis der gesuchten Informationen. Fuer den Alltag onkologisch taetiger Aerzte ist Die Onkologie ein unentbehrlicher Meilenstein. (orig.)

  8. The rights of shareholders – basic principle of corporate governance by means of case-specific jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Doru BÎGIOI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Respecting shareholders’ rights represents one of the fundamental principles of corporate governance, underpinning the establishment of economic entities, as a form of association of individuals and / or legal entities in order to carry out profit-oriented activities. However, there are situations in which the management, the other shareholders, or even the authorities, do not respect certain shareholders’ rights, leading to a number of negative effects, such as the closing of companies. Based on these considerations, in this paper, we set as research objective to analyze the circumstances, which may affect shareholders’ rights. To meet the research objectives, we analyzed the case-specific jurisprudence published by the courts of law till 31st of December 2015. The results of the study show that the shareholders’ rights, which are not respected, include: the property right, the right to receive dividends, the right to participate and vote in the general assemblies of shareholders, the right to be elected in the governing bodies, and not the least, the most important one in accounting terms, the right to be informed.

  9. The frog vestibular system as a model for lesion-induced plasticity: basic neural principles and implications for posture control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois M Lambert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the CNS to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the central nervous system include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims towards a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of

  10. Discussion on Basic Principles of Digital Medical Archives%浅议医疗档案数字化的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晶

    2015-01-01

    From the point of the medical records,medical archives digitizing is also the inevitable development trend of medical archives. This paper mainly discusses the digital medical archives basic principles to be followed,hoping to provide valuable reference for the realization of the digital medical archives.%从医疗档案角度而言,医疗档案实现数字化是医疗档案的必然发展趋势。本文重点探讨了医疗档案数字化需遵循的基本原则,以此为医疗档案数字化的实现提供具有价值的参考凭据。

  11. Basic principle and standard procedure of hernia surgery%疝外科的基本原则和手术规范流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革; 唐健雄

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle of the hernia surgery is to find the hernia sac, reduce the contents, find the hernia ring and repair the abdominal wall defect.In recent years, the field of hernia surgery has a rapid development and the basic principle of hernia surgery has an obvious change in specific details.The standard procedure of hernia surgery is the guide of our work in practice to determine whether patients need surgical treatment.If operation is available, suitable method should be chosen and surgeons should pay attention to the special problems of hernia surgery in the perioperative period.According to the standard operation procedure in practice, the lowest morbidity of intraoperative complication may occur and patients will have the maximal gain.%疝外科的基本原则是找到疝囊、回纳疝内容物、发现疝环及腹壁缺损并进行修补.近年来,疝外科领域取得了飞速的发展,其基本原则在具体细节方面有了巨大的变化.疝外科手术的规范流程是指导我们在实践工作中判断患者是否需要手术治疗,如果可以手术治疗应采用何种方法,围手术期需要注意的疝外科特有的问题.按照手术规范流程来进行实际工作,可以使患者在术中发生并发症的可能降到最低,术后得到最大的收益.

  12. Discussion on the Basic Principle of Food Safety Risk Management%食品安全风险管理基本理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为军; 魏益民; 郭波莉; 魏帅

    2011-01-01

    本文就食品安全风险管理的概念、原则和实施框架等基本理论问题进行了探讨.食品安全风险管理是风险分析体系的重要组成部分,是在风险评估结果基础上的政策选择过程,包括选择实施适当的控制理念以及法规管理措施.食品安全风险管理包括风险评价、选择评估、执行评估、监控和回顾4个要素.%This paper discussed the basic principle of food safety risk management, which includes the concept, principles and implement framework. Risk management is one of the important components of risk analysis. Risk management is defined as the process of weighing policy alternatives in the light of the results of risk assessment and selecting and implementing appropriate control options, including regulatory measures. The framework includes 4 elements: risk evaluation, risk management option assessment, implementation of management decision, and monitoring and review.

  13. Principles of macro-methodic of junior female gymnasts’ training to sport exercises for gymnastic all round competitions at specialized basic stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potop V.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: working out of principles of junior female gymnasts’ macro-methodic training to sport exercises for all round competitions at stage of specialized basic training. Material: in the research 19 girl-gymnasts from reserve of combined team of Romania participated. Measurements and assessment of technical fitness at training sessions and in conditions of competitions were conducted at 120 training sessions (10 sessions a week. Results: we worked out and realized experimentally and in training sessions principles of macro-methodic training to gymnastic exercises. Macro-methodic of training is presented in structure of long-term programs of training for all round competitions. Macro-methodic is presented as combination of elements of motor, technical, didactic and technological structures of sport exercises (in the present article it was described on material of vaults of Yurchenko’s type. Conclusions: macro-methodic permits to state optimal algorithm of mastering of theoretical and practical materials at training sessions. Besides, it permits to demonstrate steady growth of sport results at competitions. With it individual-age features of junior female gymnasts, tendencies and specialists’ requirements are considered.

  14. Molecular imaging of apoptosis and necrosis - basic principles of cell biology and use in oncology; Molekulare Bildgebung von Apoptose und Nekrose - Zellbiologische Grundlagen und Einsatz in der Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, I.; Traeber, F.; Block, W.; Schild, H. [Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Soon molecular imaging techniques will play a prominent role in basic scientific research and clinical approaches. In particular, important aspects of medicine such as apoptosis and gene- and stem-cell therapy will play a pivotal role in radiology too. This review presents the basic principles of apoptosis, recent results and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a precisely regulated, complex cascade of molecular events to eliminate individual cells. Disturbances may lead to diseases like malignancies and neurodegenerative diseases that are of clinical relevance. Several therapeutic strategies in oncology are based on apoptosis induction; conversely, resistance to therapy is indicative of decreased apoptosis induction. Whereas up to now the clinician had to depend exclusively on biopsy specimens to detect apoptosis, the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of this cell-biological phenomenon in vivo opens up new horizons in future. This review focuses on different modifications of this imaging technique, with and without the use of molecular probes (e.g. annexin V, synaptotagmin I), in vitro and in vivo using the various detector systems (like MRI, flow cytometry) currently available. Future perspectives are also addressed. (orig.)

  15. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  16. A Research on the Basic Principles and Principle Innovation in Modern, Chinese Economics%现代中国经济学基本原理及学科形态创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵复斌

    2012-01-01

    近代至现代时期,国际国内已发生了两个“社会转型”的根本性变化。以此为新的社会背景和历史条件,现代中国经济学基础理论及学科形态开始面临两大课题:一是处于源头上的马克思经济学如何“坚持与创新”的前提问题,二是我们的学科模式怎样“改革与开放”的衔接问题。探索并解决此类基本问题,将会让我们获得某个“杠杆支点”或“开放出口”,这既利于满足现代社会主义的物化实践需要,又利于推动中国经济学走向世界的步伐。本文根据两个“社会转型”的客观实际,推导、论证《资本论》的商品两因素分析将发生重大变化并获得相应进展,由此深化马克思经济学的分析基本点。建筑其上的现代中国经济学及政治经济学的系列概念、原理、规律及学科形态也将发生微妙变化,它们涉及对价值、剩余价值、使用价值、交换价值、质量价值、数量价值等的重新定位,和对资本本原、本质、构成及过程的扩大化认识与论证。%From modern to contemporary eras, two fundamental " social transformations" have taken place in both international and domestic contexts. The basic theories and principle construction modes in modern Chinese economies are accordingly faced up with two fundamental problems, against these new social backgrounds and historical conditions. The first one is the premise that how Marxist economics, as the source theory, carries out "adherence and innovation". The second one is how to make our principle modes in conformity with the " Reform and Opening - up" policy. Explorations and solutions to these fundamental problems offer us a "lever support point" or an "open outlaying". This satisfies the physical practice needs of modern socialism, and pushes Chinese economics forward onto the world stage. Based on the objective situations of the two " social transformations" , this

  17. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    Background Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs) and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this

  18. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Low

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  19. Environmental law. An introduction to the basic principles with special consideration of the law relating to water, pollution abatement, waste, and nature conservation. Umweltrecht. Eine Einfuehrung in die Grundlagen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Wasser-, Immissionsschutz-, Abfall- und Naturschutzrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K. (Fachhochschule fuer Oeffentliche Verwaltung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Gelsenkirchen (Germany, F.R.))

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST).

  20. PCB测试机的基本测试原理与方法%Basic Test Principle and Method of PCB testing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊霞

    2015-01-01

    文章首先介绍PCB测试机系统组成,根据PCB测试机的基本原理即欧姆定理,采用先自检,再自学习,最后针对不同的检测要求,采用不同的测试方法,有两点间导通测试,两点间绝缘测试,及多点绝缘测试。测出被测点间是导通或者绝缘。%This paper first introduced the configuration of PCB testing machine system, according to the basic principle of PCB testing machine,namely,the Ohm theorem, conduct the conduction testing and insulation testing be-tween 2 points through self-inspection, self-learning, finally adopting different methods according to different detection requirements and find out whether it is conducting or insulating between the 2 points.

  1. 图书馆灰色文献资源开发与利用的基本原则%The Basic Principles of Development and Utilization for Library of Grey Literature Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚南

    2016-01-01

    为保证图书馆灰色文献资源开发和利用的合法性、有效性、稳定性和可持续性,必须制定一些具有普遍性的基本原则,即无论什么类型或规模的知识服务机构,开发和利用何种类型的灰色文献都应当遵循的原则。这些原则包括尊重版权原则、资源遴选原则、长期保存原则、建以致用原则和持续发展原则,其中以尊重版权原则为首要原则,它是保证图书馆灰色文献资源开发利用合法性的基础,也是最为基本的原则;资源遴选原则和建以致用原则可保证图书馆灰色文献的有效性,长期保存原则和持续发展原则可保证图书馆灰色文献的稳定性和可持续性。%In order to ensure the legality, validity, stability and sustainability of the development and utilization of library’s grey literature resources, some basic principles with universality must be formulated,that should be followed by the knowledge service agencies with any types and sizes,and in the development and utilization of the grey literature resources of any types. These principles include the respect copyright principle,resources selection principle,long-term preservation principle,use oriented construction principle and sustainable development the principle,among which the respect copyright principle is the prime principle,which is the foundation for ensuring the legality of the development and utilization of library’s grey literature resources,and also is the most basic principle;the resources selection principle and use oriented construction principle can guarantee the validity of library’s grey literature resources, and the long-term preservation principle and sustainable development principle can ensure the stability and sustainability of library’s grey literature resources, and the long-term preservation principle and sustainable development principle can ensure the stability and sustainability of library’s grey literature

  2. 预算法定原则的起源及其基本构成要素%On the Origin and Basic Elements of Budget Legal Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟继光

    2016-01-01

    Constructing the legal frame of public budget in China should follow the budget legal princi-ple.Modern budget system originated in England along with the establishment of tax legal principle.The United Kingdom constituted a series of acts and established the budget legal principle from the eigh-teenth century to the nineteenth century.The United States began to establish budget system in the twentieth century.The Congress constituted Budget and Accounting Act in 1 921 and the budget legal principle was established in USA.France,the Netherlands,Germany,Finland and other countries began to constitute budget legal principle in their Constitutions from the nineteen century and this is a sign of the establishment of budget principle worldwide.The budget legal principle comprises of three basic ele-ments:budget containing whole finance income and expenses,one year act restricted by Constitution and expense being not contained in budget but established by law.The restriction of Constitutions to budget comprises of adopting the form of law,the power of conducting budget belonging to govern-ment,budget which cannot be the warrant of tax,budget which cannot deprive of the people's legal rights,the term of budget being only one year,budget which should follow the principle of making both ends meet,budget which cannot be the warrant of expense of illegal warrant and budget which should follow technical requirements.The means of Constitutions solving the problem of budget inconsistent with the fact comprise of budget excess,expense in advance and extending the effect of budget.%构建中国公共预算法律框架必须遵循预算法定原则。现代预算制度起源于英国,与税收法定原则同步。从18世纪到19世纪,英国通过一系列法律实现了预算法定原则。美国在其宪法中规定了税收法定原则和财政支出法定原则。美国在20世纪初开始建立预算制度,通过1921年的《预算和会计法》,预算法定

  3. Basic principles of knowledge management and its application to the industrial company in tactical operations of maintenance and operational exploitation: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although knowledge and its management is, and has been, studied in depth, particularly since the 90’s decade of the past century, especially for the strategic management, innovation, trade, or business administration, there are still many questions on how it articulates or transfers and the barriers to its management, especially when we talk about internal tactical activities that affect staff that we could call "offices", such as maintenance and industrial assembly or exploitation and conduction of the facilities. Because of the peculiarities normally seen in this kind of activity in the industrial companies, the knowledge of these people is strongly based on their experience (strong tacit component, difficult to measure and articulate, and on many occasions, however, this rupture of information-knowledge, can represent a high cost for the company (often assumed to be something inevitable due to the increase in production and service downtime, loss of efficiency, or tuning time of new staff to these areas.Design/methodology/approach: After a description of the State of the art and the basic principles of knowledge management, a qualitative study in an industrial company has been carried out, within the areas of operation and maintenance, in order to know the barriers and facilitators that such involved personnel finds in order to achieve an adequate transmission and use of that knowledge.Findings and Originality/value: Learn about barriers, facilitators and impact that offers the knowledge management in the areas of industrial maintenance, especially among professionals in offices which operate with a high degree of tacit knowledge and with a heavy dependence on the company on these professionals.Research limitations/implications: Those characteristics of a qualitative study in a particular area and within a geographical area, although it can be extrapolated to other types of companies and regional areas.Practical implications: Learn

  4. Perspectives for Developing New Tuberculosis Vaccines Derived from the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: I. Basic Principles, II. Preclinical Testing, and III. Clinical Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Arthur M; Dey, Bappaditya

    2013-01-25

    Part I. Basic Principles. TB vaccines cannot prevent establishment of the infection. They can only prevent an early pulmonary tubercle from developing into clinical disease. A more effective new vaccine should optimize both cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) better than any existing vaccine. The rabbit is the only laboratory animal in which all aspects of the human disease can be reproduced: namely, the prevention of most primary tubercles, the arrestment of most primary tubercles, the formation of the tubercle's solid caseous center, the liquefaction of this center, the formation of cavities and the bronchial spread of the disease. In liquefied caseum, virulent tubercle bacilli can multiply extracellularly, especially in the liquefied caseum next to the inner wall of a cavity where oxygen is plentiful. The bacilli in liquefied caseum cannot be reached by the increased number of activated macrophages produced by TB vaccines. Therefore, new TB vaccines will have little or no effect on the extracellular bacillary growth within liquefied caseum. TB vaccines can only increase the host's ability to stop the development of new TB lesions that arise from the bronchial spread of tubercle bacilli from the cavity to other parts of the lung. Therefore, effective TB vaccines do not prevent the reactivation of latent TB. Such vaccines only control (or reduce) the number of metastatic lesions that result after the primary TB lesion was reactivated by the liquefaction process. (Note: the large number of tubercle bacilli growing extracellularly in liquefied caseum gives rise to mutations that enable antimicrobial resistance-which is a major reason why TB still exists today). Part II. Preclinical Testing. The counting of grossly visible tubercles in the lungs of rabbits after the inhalation of virulent human-type tubercle bacilli is the most pertinent preclinical method to assess the efficacy of new TB vaccines (because an effective vaccine will

  5. Role of Logic and Mentality as the Basics of Wittgenstein's Picture Theory of Language and Extracting Educational Principles and Methods According to This Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Nasrabadi, Hassanali Bakhtiyar

    2016-01-01

    The present paper attempts to recognize principles and methods of education based on Wittgenstein's picture theory of language. This qualitative research utilized inferential analytical approach to review the related literature and extracted a set of principles and methods from his theory on picture language. Findings revealed that Wittgenstein…

  6. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  7. 农作物总DNA提取的基本原理和主要方法概述%Basic Principle and Main Method of Crop Total DNA Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮

    2011-01-01

    概述了农作物DNA提取的基本原理,总结了DNA提取各步骤的操作经验,并介绍了几种常用的DNA提取方法.%The paper summarizes the basic principle of crop DNA extraction and the operation experience of each DNA extraction step,and introduces several commonly used DNA extraction method.

  8. Specific Content of the Basic Human Rights Principle Recognized by China's Constitution%我国宪法确认基本人权原则具体内容之分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施秀艳

    2013-01-01

      Basic human rights principle is a fundamental principle established by the constitutions of various countries in the world. Chi-na's Constitution confirms the basic human rights principle by stipulating the fundamental rights. Fundamental rights is regulated by the Constitution, which has the core status in the rights system and constitutes the basis of the common legal rights. With respective character-istics and specific content defects, all previous constitutions of China have different influences on fundamental rights. Studying the consti-tution confirmation process on the basic human rights has significant reference values in further improving the basic human rights legisla-tion and in implementing a protection system of the basic human rights.%  基本人权原则是世界各国宪法所确立的一项基本原则,我国宪法通过规定基本权利来确认基本人权原则。基本权利是由宪法规定的、在权利体系中居于核心地位,是构成普通法律权利的基础。我国历部宪法对基本权利的规定各有其特点以及具体内容方面的缺陷,从而产生了不同的影响。研究我国宪法对基本人权原则具体内容的确认过程,对今后进一步完善基本人权立法、落实基本人权保障制度具有重大的借鉴价值。

  9. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  10. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  11. Basic principles of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation——remain essentially the same despite all apparent changes%论心肺复苏的核心原理——万变不离其宗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆义

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the basic principles of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The main points include the Venturi - effect in the mouth - to - mouth ventilation, the key points of chest compression analyzed with the Newton's laws of mechanics and law of energy conservation, and the development of electrical defibrillator with the Joule - Lenz law in the physics and principle of negation of negation in the philosophy. To master the basic principles of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation was the basis for studying and expanding the technique competence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.%本文对心肺复苏(CPR)的一些核心原理进行了论述,主要内容有口对口人工呼吸与文丘里效应,用牛顿力学三大定律和能量守恒定律等原理解析胸部按压的操作要点,物理学的焦耳-楞次定律和哲学的否定之否定规律与体外电除颤技术的发展等;还提出掌握CPR的核心原理是发展和学习CPR技术的基础.

  12. Development of an e-learning system for teaching endoscopists how to diagnose early gastric cancer: basic principles for improving early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kenshi; Uedo, Noriya; Muto, Manabu; Ishikawa, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    We developed an internet e-learning system in order to improve the ability of endoscopists to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage. The efficacy of this system at expanding knowledge and providing invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer was demonstrated through an international multicenter randomized controlled trial. However, the contents of the system have not yet been fully described in the literature. Accordingly, we herein introduce the contents and their principles, which comprise three main subjects: technique, knowledge, and experience. Since all the e-learning contents and principles are based on conventional white-light endoscopy alone, which is commonly available throughout the world, they should provide a good reference point for any endoscopist who wishes to devise learning materials and guidelines for improving their own clinical practice.

  13. Basic Principles of Seam Design for Pattern Design in Garment Industry%服装工业版型缝份设计的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正春; 潘力

    2012-01-01

      This article explained the concepts and principles of seam design, emphasizing its importance in pattern design in garment industry.%  本文介绍了服装工业用版型的缝份设计的概念、原则,强调了缝份设计在服装版型设计中的重要性。

  14. The Principle of Administrative Emergency Basic Philosophy Consideration%行政应急性原则的基础理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莘

    2012-01-01

    Based on the principle of administrative emergency research and conceptual controversy carding, this article defines the administration emergency principle value orientation is to protect the order, embody the administrative power of concentration and expansion of public attention, priority, benefit, efficiency and fairness. It summed up the ultimate goal of the principle administrative emergency, namely the administration emergency principle and ultimately to translate into how rational allocation of administrative power and protect rights of relative person. For balance between public interests and individual interests, public order and freedom of citizens, proper institutional arrangement will be done. Finally, in emergency situations, public power should have an internal balance.%本文通过对行政应急性原则的研究现状及概念争议的梳理,界定行政应急性原则的价值取向为秩序保护,体现为行政权的集中与扩张,公益优先、兼顾私益,效率优先兼顾公平三个方面,进而总结行政应急原则的终极目标,即行政应急性原则最终还是要转化为如何合理配置行政权与保护相对人权利这一经典问题。在兼顾公共利益和个人利益,兼顾公共秩序与公民自由的基础上,进行恰当的制度安排。最后,在应急状态下,公权力要有一种内部的平衡。

  15. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  16. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W.

    2007-01-01

    Latin America is a popularly accepted world region. A systematic review of geographic interpretations of Latin America reveals that the origin of the term goes back to the mid-nineteenth century and that the region's boundaries have shifted over time. This article argues that four basic principles operate in the formation of world regions such as…

  17. A Review on the Basic Principles Involved in Animal Training%动物行为训练的理论基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赫

    2014-01-01

    本文阐述了动物行为训练的生物学背景和相应的心理学和神经生理学原理,论述了动物四种学习方式以及动物训练的两种方法:强化和惩罚。%A wide range of background and relative principles of psychology and neurophysiology are reviewed for animal training. This paper discussed four different styles on animal learning. Two methods of animal training are presented by reinforcement and punishment.

  18. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  19. On the Basic Principles of Speciality Setup in Local University%论地方高校专业设置的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 李枭鹰

    2013-01-01

    Speciality Setup improving the quality of higher education in particular the quality of undergraduate education has an important fundamental and guiding role ,we must adhere to scientific principles in order to achieve good results.Local university speciality setup must adhere to the principle of serving national development strategies ,serving the local and regional economic and social development ,serving the development needs of the school.%专业设置对于全面提高高等教育质量特别是人才培养质量有着重要的基础性和导向性作用,必须坚持科学的原则才能取得良好成效。地方高校专业设置要坚持服务国家发展战略原则、服务地方和区域经济社会发展原则、服务学校发展需要原则。

  20. 论杜鲁门政府对华政策的“基本原则”%On the Basic Principle of President Truman’s China Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德春

    2014-01-01

    杜鲁门政府对华政策的“基本原则”是“不支持中国中央政府进行自相残杀的战争”。正是遵循这种基本方针,杜鲁门政府才坚持执行调解国共争端的政策。除了竭力促成停战协定之外,当全国性内战爆发后,杜鲁门政府立即对好战的国民党政府实施严厉的军火禁运。马歇尔将军和杜鲁门总统起初在国际政治问题上有些天真和理想主义,他们误以为国共政治争端可以通过政治谈判得到解决。固守“美国的基本原则”就是这种思想的真实反映。%The basic principle of President Truman’s China policy was that the United States would not support the Central Government of China in fratricidal war. Persisting in such a guiding principle, Truman’s administration insisted on mediating the political disputes between the Nationalists and Communists. Besides he did his utmost persuading both sides to reach a truce agreement. Truman’s administration made a very se⁃vere arms embargo at once to the belligerent National Government of China when the civil war broke out. Both General Marshall and President Truman were naive idealists in international politic at first, they thought wrong⁃ly what the political dispute between Nationalists and Communists could be settled by political negotiations. Dogged persistence in the basic U.S. principle truly reflected this kind of idea.

  1. Powerful flaring configurations in solar active regions: magnetic topology via special features of delta-structure phenomenon. I. Basic principles of topological model

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, R N; Marushin, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The close connection of magnetic field structure on the one hand and observable features of complex ARs with high flare efficiency on the other one is investigated in frames of so-called dynamic classification of flaring magnetic configurations (FMC) and the simple topological model of interacting magnetic complexes (IMC) suggested by Ikhsanov (1982). The primary objective of the present work is to expose general statements of the specified model and classification, the secondary one assumes the critical analysis and logical generalization of several important regularities being frequently observable in evolution stages of a typical complex AR with powerful flares including proton ones. Those cases are basically examined where the development of photospheric situation was marked by the formation of delta-configuration phenomenon described by Kunzel (1960) as one of the most impressive precursors of high flare activity. Without trying to use any additional assumptions and alternative hypotheses, the qualitativ...

  2. SUMMARY OF BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ACOUSTIC THEORY = POLUIÇÃO SONORA: SÍNTESE DE PRINCÍPIOS FUNDAMENTAIS DA TEORIA ACÚSTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bressane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies are reported on noise pollution literature, with many different approaches. However, there are evident in such publications fundamentals of acoustic theory, aiming at a more appropriate characterization of sound phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an alternative source of consultation for those faced with the fragmented and too much information, sometimes an obstacle to understanding main physical aspects of noise pollution. This paper to present and discuss concepts concerning the sound properties, principles of sound propagation and related phenomena. = Inúmeros são os trabalhos reportados na literatura sobre poluição sonora, com as mais diversas ênfases e enfoques. Todavia, tais publicações não evidenciam os fundamentos da teoria acústica, visando uma caracterização mais apropriada do fenômeno sonoro. O presente trabalho tem por finalidade proporcionar uma fonte alternativa de consulta para aqueles que deparam com a fragmentada e demasiada quantidade de informações, por vezes obstáculo para compreensão física dos principais aspetos da poluição sonora. Aqui são discutidos e apresentados os principais conceitos relacionados às propriedades do som, princípios de propagação e fenômenos sonoros correlatos.

  3. Superficial Talk about Basic Principles and Requirements for News Criticism%浅议新闻批评的基本原则和基本要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中

    2015-01-01

    新闻批评很容易对社会公众产生重大影响,形成广泛、强大社会舆论.积极正确的新闻批评能够给和谐社会带来正能量,起到积极的监督效果,弘扬正气,维护公理;消极错误的新闻批评会对社会带来不利的、甚至是破坏性效果,使得新闻批评起不到应有的积极作用,失去理性和责任.因此,怎样正确地、科学地开展新闻批评,确保其监督的效果始终是积极、健康、正确的方向.就是我们要探讨的新闻批评要坚持的原则和要求.%News Criticism can easily produce important influence on social public and form extensive strong social public opinion. Positive and correct news criticism can bring about positive energy to a harmonious society, produce an active supervisory effect, develop healthy atmosphere and preserve generally acknowledged truth. Negative and wrong news criticism may bring about bad, even destructive effect to the society, make the criticism not play the active role that it should do, lose reasons and responsibility. Therefore, how to carry out news criticism correctly and scientifically to make sure its supervisory effect always goes in a positive, healthy and correct direction will be the principles requirements we are going to talk about and news criticism should insist on.

  4. El muestreo en investigación cualitativa: principios básicos y algunas controversias Sampling in qualitative research: basic principles and some controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez-Salgado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos de la elección de los participantes en una investigación cualitativa, en contraste con los que rigen al muestreo probabilístico en la investigación epidemiológica. Se proponen los conceptos de generalizabilidad nomotética e ideográfica, y los de transferibilidad y reflexividad, para una mejor comprensión de las diferencias. Se mencionan los fundamentos de los principales tipos de muestreo que suelen utilizarse en investigación cualitativa, el significado del concepto de saturación y algunos de sus cuestionamientos. Por último, se plantean algunas reflexiones en torno a las controversias suscitadas en los últimos años sobre las diversas perspectivas paradigmáticas desde las cuales se puede efectuar hoy día la investigación cualitativa, sus posibilidades de combinación con la investigación epidemiológica, y algunas implicaciones para el estudio de los problemas de salud.This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.

  5. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C A; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy ("Pre-RT-MRI examination") and at the time of BT ("BT MRI examination") with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  6. 词汇语用学的发展及其基本原则%The Development of Lexical Pragmatics and Its Basic Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2012-01-01

    词汇语用学是近年来语言学特别是语用学领域迅速发展的一门新兴分支学科。人们在语言运用以及研究词汇意义的过程中,意识到词汇项目不仅有本身的词汇意义,而且还依赖使用时的语用条件。词汇语用学是一种在语义学和语用学界面上形成的、把词汇意义和词汇运用结合起来的理论模式。词语意义及其所指范围的扩充和缩略都涉及寻找最佳关联信息的语用充实,而不是其自身编码的字面意义或原型意义。本文通过对词汇语用学产生和发展过程的叙述,从传统词汇语义学解释词语意义的局限性出发,探讨词汇语用学对词语意义进行动态解释的基本原则。%Lexieal pragmaties is a rising branch discipline of linguistics especially pragmatics developing rapidly. In the process of language using and word - meaning research, people realize that word items not only have the meaning of themselves, but aLso are comprehended depend on pragmatic condition when they are used. Lexieal pragmaties is one theo- retical model formed on the boundary of semantics and pragmatics, and it combines word meaning and word usage together. The extending and narrowing of word meaning and its signified area all refer to pragmatic enrichment which looks for the best relevant information, but not literal meaning encoded by itself or prototypical meaning. The intention of this paper is to discuss how lexical pragmatics interprets word meaning dynamically through the description about the limitations of tradition- al lexical semantics, on the other hand, to discuss the pragmatic enrich on the basic of Relevance Theory.

  7. Técnicas básicas de electroencefalografía: principios y aplicaciones clínicas Basic techniques of electroencephalography: principles and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramos-Argüelles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El electroencefalograma es una técnica de exploración funcional del sistema nervioso central (SNC, de relativa antigüedad, pero que aún hoy día sigue siendo una herramienta de gran ayuda para el clínico en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de algunas patologías, como pueden ser la epilepsia, las encefalopatías, alteraciones del estado de conciencia, infecciones del SNC, etc. Es, por otro lado, una herramienta diagnóstica con aplicaciones que están en plena expansión, en combinación con otras técnicas neurofisiológicas, como es en el campo del estudio y diagnóstico de la patología de sueño (polisomnografía, test de latencias múltiples del sueño... y la monitorización intraoperatoria junto con los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales. Se describen en este trabajo cuáles son los fundamentos técnicos de la electroencefalografía, haciendo especial hincapié en sus principales aplicaciones clínicas y en las perspectivas del futuro.The electroencephalogram is a technique for the functional exploration of the central nervous system (CNS. It is a relatively old technique but even today it continues to be a tool of great assistance to the clinician in diagnosing and treating certain pathologies, such as epilepsy, encephalopathies, alterations to the state of consciousness, CNS infections, etc. On the other hand, it is a diagnostic tool whose applications are expanding in combination with other neurophysiological techniques, such as in the field of the study and diagnosis of sleep pathology (polysomnography, multiple sleep latency test... and in intraoperative monitoring together with somasensory evoked potentials. This article describes the basic techniques of electroencephalography, with special emphasis on its main clinical applications and on future perspectives

  8. 医学伦理学之“医德基本原则”说课设计%The basic principle of medical ethics of medical ethicspractice design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉环; 彭立华; 张茜; 白吉可

    2014-01-01

    To analysis the basic principle of“medical ethics”practice in the design of the processing of teaching material, teaching methods and learning. the teaching design and teaching reflection is discussed,how to use modern education theory and psychology sociology theory to guide the teaching of medical ethics of medical undergraduates section design,in order to improve the teaching quality.%就“医德基本原则”说课设计中教材的处理、教法和学情分析,通过教学过程设计和教学反思等环节探讨了如何利用现代教育学理论和心理社会学理论来指导医学本科生的医学伦理学章节教学设计,以期提高教学质量。

  9. Basic Principle that should be followed for Innovative High-tech Products and Equipment Technology%创新型高科技产品及其制备应遵循的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方震

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the basic principle that should be followed for innovative high-tech products and preparation technology,this paper narrates the manufacturing technology,preparation technology,market value and environmental influence;and discusses the importance of innovative high-tech products from eight aspects.%从创新型高科技产品及制备技术应遵循的基本原则讲起,阐述了制造工艺、制备技术、市场价值、环境影响等方面内容,从8个方面论证了创新型高科技产品的重要性。

  10. Theoretical Discussion of Coordinated Fund Management of Basic Public Health and Basic Medical Services Based on the Principle of Labour Voucher%基于工分制原理的基本公共卫生与基本医疗服务经费统筹管理的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 张韬; 王洪兴; 厉勤; 李幼子

    2016-01-01

    While the coordinated management of fund for basic public health and basic medical services provides an opportunity for the integration of content and resources of basic public health and basic medical services,the principle of labour voucher creates technical conditions for this opportunity:the principle of labour voucher has resolved the financial accounting issues,eliminating the following problems of community health services;the building of the mechanism of funds allocation by the principle of labor voucher could ensure the transparency of information and is conducive to the establishment of performance appraisal system for community health service settings and their staffs,effectively guiding supply - side behavior;the fund allocation mechanism could also guide residents′ health seeking behavior indirectly through the supply side,and promote residents and medical staffs to improve their health and save fund together by price leverage and reward allocation. The study is still at theoretical stage,thus the feasibility of the research result needs to be further tested.%基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务经费的统筹管理,为基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务内容整合和资源整合提供了契机,而工分制原理则为这种契机创造了技术条件:工分制原理首先解决了经费核算问题,为社区卫生服务机构解决了后顾之忧;通过工分制原理构建经费分配机制,保证了信息透明性,有利于社区卫生服务机构绩效考核和机构内员工绩效考核机制的建立,从而有效引导供方行为;基于工分制原理构建的经费分配机制,可以通过供方间接引导居民就医行为,也可以通过价格杠杆和分配奖励促使居民与医务人员一起为提高自身健康水平和节约经费努力。本研究尚处于理论阶段,研究成果的可行性还有待实践的检验。

  11. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  12. 艺术创作或鉴赏中形式美把握的基本途径%The Basic Principle for Artistic Creation and Formal Beauty in Appreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀雄

    2013-01-01

      As for the feelings of artworks or products, there are two categories, one is appreciation, and the other is judgment. Most people only reach the point of appreciation, and could not able to step into the period of judgment. According to teaching prac-tice experience for many years, the author is to sum up twelve basic principles for artistic creation and formal beauty in appreciation. If you comprehend and master these principles, there will be possible to improve judgment ability for artworks and expand your cultur-al view as well.%  就艺术品或产品感受的观点来说,可分为两个层次,一为欣赏,二为鉴赏。大部分人都只停留在欣赏的阶段,无法达到鉴赏的层次。笔者根据多年的教学实践经验,归纳提出了艺术创作或鉴赏中形式美表达的12种基本方法。领悟和掌握这些方法,有望在短时间内提高对艺术品的鉴赏能力,拓展人的文化视野。

  13. "以学生为中心"教学原则下的外语教师的素质与培养%Basic Quality & Training of Foreign Language Teachers under the Student-centered Teaching Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐慧

    2015-01-01

    "以学生为中心"的教学原则 ,近几年在外语教学过程中已经得到了积极推广和实施 ,并且在外语教学方面收到了明显的效果.为了使教和学更好地结合起来 ,体现"以学生为中心"的原则 ,还应进一步明确外语教师应具备的素质及培养途径.%The"student-centered"teaching principle has been widely accepted and implemented among teach-ers and students in the recent years of foreign language teaching .According to the principle ,students could give full play to their subjective initiative and creativity under the instruction and guide of teachers .To fur-ther combine teaching with learning ,teachers should receive trainings on their basic quality to better guide students in their learning .

  14. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  15. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  16. Basic bioreactor design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't K.; Tramper, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a graduate course in biochemical engineering, provides the basic knowledge needed for the efficient design of bioreactors and the relevant principles and data for practical process engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. Includes exercises.

  17. Nutrition in pregnancy: basic principles and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plećas, Draga; Plesinac, Snezana; Kontić Vucinić, Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Healthy diet in pregnancy should guarantee proper fetal growth and development, maintain (and promote) maternal health and enable lactation. Nutritional counseling and interventions need to be an integral part of antenatal care and continue during pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, as well as the short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common in women who begin the gestation as undernourished or obese in comparison to pregnant women whose weight is within normal ranges. Increased nutritional and energy needs in pregnancy are met through numerous metabolic adaptations; pregnancy is successfully achieved within wide range of variations in energy supply and weight gain. However, if nutrient restriction exceeds the limits of adaptive responses, evidence indicates that fetus will develop the alternative metabolic competence that might emerge as a disease (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke) in adult life.

  18. Software Defined Radio: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a review of the SDR (Software Defined Radio technology, including hardware schemes and application fields. A low performance device is presented and several tests are executed with it using free software. With the acquired experience, SDR employment opportunities are identified for low-cost solutions that can solve significant problems. In addition, a list of the most important frameworks related to the technology developed in the last years is offered, recommending the use of three of them.

  19. The basic principles of habit formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Everything you ever achieve in life is up to yon. The only limits you actually have are those placed by your own imagination. Therefore, take complete control of your life by consciously choosing the habits you develop.

  20. LASER-BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra Nitish

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER is a mechanism for emitting electromagnetic radiation, often visible light, via the process of stimulated emission. Coherence, monochromaticity, collimation, spectral brightness and high intensity are the main characteristics of laser light. There are different types of lasers. Levels of system are Three and Four level systems. Ruby laser was the first laser to be invented in 1960.apart from that lasers like tunable lasers and gallium nitride lasers are in use to obtain a wide range of wavelength.

  1. Nutrition in pregnancy: Basic principles and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plećaš Draga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diet in pregnancy should guarantee proper fetal growth and development, maintain (and promote maternal health and enable lactation. Nutritional counseling and interventions need to be an integral part of antenatal care and continue during pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, as well as the short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common in women who begin the gestation as undernourished or obese in comparison to pregnant women whose weight is within normal ranges. Increased nutritional and energy needs in pregnancy are met through numerous metabolic adaptations; pregnancy is successfully achieved within wide range of variations in energy supply and weight gain. However, if nutrient restriction exceeds the limits of adaptive responses, evidence indicates that fetus will develop the alternative metabolic competence that might emerge as a disease (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke in adult life.

  2. Basic principles of ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N K Rai; A Y Lakshmanna; V V Namboodiri; S Umapathy

    2012-01-01

    When a light beam passes through any medium, the effects of interaction of light with the material depend on the field intensity. At low light intensities the response of materials remain linear to the amplitude of the applied electromagnetic field. But for sufficiently high intensities, the optical properties of materials are no longer linear to the amplitude of applied electromagnetic field. In such cases, the interaction of light waves with matter can result in the generation of new frequencies due to nonlinear processes such as higher harmonic generation and mixing of incident fields. One such nonlinear process, namely, the third order nonlinear spectroscopy has become a popular tool to study molecular structure. Thus, the spectroscopy based on the third order optical nonlinearity called stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a tool to extract the structural and dynamical information about a molecular system. Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) is analogous to SRS but is more sensitive than SRS. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis of SRS (URLS) techniques which have been developed in our laboratory.

  3. On the Basic Principles of Igneous Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    How and why Differentiation occurs has dominated Igneous Petrology since its beginning (~1880) even though many of the problems associated with it have been thoroughly solved. Rediscovery of the proverbial wheel with new techniques impedes progress. As soon as thin section petrography was combined with rock and mineral chemistry, rock diversity, compositional suites, and petrographic provinces all became obvious. The masterful 1902 CIPW norm in a real sense solved the chemical mystery of differentiation: rocks are related by the addition and subtraction of minerals in the anciently appreciated process of fractional crystallization. Yet few believed this, even after phase equilibria arrived. Assimilation, gas transfer, magma mixing, Soret diffusion, immiscibility, and other processes had strong adherents, even though by 1897 Becker conclusively showed the ineffectiveness of molecular diffusion in large-scale processes. The enormity of heat to molecular diffusion (today's Lewis no.) should have been convincing; but few paid attention. Bowen did, and he refined and restated the result; few still paid attention. And in spite of his truly masterful command of experiment and field relations in promoting fractional crystallization, Fenner and others fought him with odd arguments. The beauty of phase equilibria eventually dominated at the expense of knowing the physical side of differentiation. Bowen himself saw and struggled with the connection between physical and chemical processes. Progress has come from new concepts in heat transfer, kinetics, and slurry dynamics. The key approach is understanding the dynamic competition between spatial rates of solidification and all other processes. The lesson is clear: Scholarship and combined field, laboratory and technical expertise are critical to understanding magmatic processes. Magma is a limitlessly enchanting and challenging material wherein physical processes buttressed by chemistry govern.

  4. MIGRAINE: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Esin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern recommendations for the migraine attack treatment and it's prophylaxis are analyzed in this review. Established, that acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac potassium, ibuprofen, naproxen, paracetamol, metamizol and their combination with caffeine are drugs of the first choice for migraine attack treatment. Metoclopramide and domperidone are used to reduce nausea and vomiting. Also triptans are high effective drugs for migraine attack treatment. Metoprolol, propranolol, flunarizine, valproic acid can be used for migraine prophylaxis. Drugs of the second choice are: amitriptyline, venlafaxine, naproxen and bisoprolol.

  5. 《马克思主义基本原理概论》整体性教学的几点思考%A Few Thoughts on Integrated Teaching Method of Introduction to Basic Principles of Marxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云阁

    2011-01-01

    整体性教学是《马克思主义基本原理概论》课程教学题中应有之义。用马克思主义的世界观和方法论统领教学.用人类社会发展的规律性这一主线贯穿教学,用人的自由而全面发展这一马克思主义的理论旨归规范教学,是实现《马克思主义基本原理概论》整体性教学的基本路径。整体与部分的矛盾、课时少与内容多的矛盾、教学内容的丰富性与教师知识结构专业性的矛盾,是实现《马克思主义基本原理概论》整体性教学必须破解的主要问题。%Employing the integrated teaching method is matched with the intrinsic characteristics ofthe course of Introduction to Basic Principles of Marxism. To guide the teaching process by the Marxist World Outlook and Methodology, to run through the teaching process by the mainline ot development principles of human society and to direct the teaching process by the Marxist theory of the comprehensive and free development of human are the fundamental routes to implement the integrated teaching method in this course. However, the three contradictions between integrity and portion, the inadequacy of class hour and the abundant capacity of this course, the richness of teaching content and the teachers" professional knowledge structure are the urgent issues to be solved in order to implement the integrated teaching method.

  6. Dynamic sealing principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  7. 团队项目教学法在全科医学概论教学中的应用与探讨%Application of Team Project Teaching Method in the Teaching of Basic Principles of General Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱舜; 张昊; 汪小玉

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the application of team project teaching method in the teaching of the basic principles of general practice. Methods A questionnaire - based survey was performed in 98 medical students majoring in clinical medicine who had experienced the team project teaching method in the learning of basic principles of general practice. Results Of the 98 students, 80 ( 81. 6% ) took an active part in the project, 63 ( 64. 3% ) were equal to team roles, 90 ( 91. 8% ) could take the initiative to communicate with others, 59 ( 60. 2% ) thought the team leader did well in project planning and team management, 81 ( 82. 1% ) believed that the project could satisfy the teaching goals, 89 ( 90. 8% ) believed the teacher had provided necessary guidance. Conclusion Team project teaching method improves medical students'career aspiration to becoming a general practitioner and their professional quality, and promotes teachers' professional competence and standard of teaching%目的 了解团队项目教学法在全科医学概论教学中对医学生全科医疗职业能力培养的影响.方法 对2010级、2011级临床医学专业2个班共98名学生进行全科医学概论团队项目教学的尝试,并采用问卷进行调查.结果 有81.6%(80/98)的学生积极参与团队项目教学;64.3%(63/98)的学生认为自己能够胜任团队角色,91.8%(90/98)的学生能主动相互交流,60.2%(59/98)的学生认为团队长在项目策划与团队管理方面做得较好;82.7%(81/98)的学生认为项目内容符合教学需要;90.8%(89/98)的学生认为教师起到了指导作用.结论 团队项目教学法有助于医学生全科医生职业志向及职业素质的培养,有助于提高教师的专业能力与教学水平.

  8. Prevent and Avoid the Conflicts of Interests: Basic Principles and Supervisory Mechanisms%利益冲突防范与回避:基本原则与监督机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅铭晨

    2012-01-01

    腐败与权力主体在利益冲突中不中立、甚至直接成为利益冲突的一方有密切关系。由于非公共利益的驱动,权力必然会千方百计地摆脱监督和规范,从而形成腐败的温床。防范利益冲突,避免政府直接成为利益冲突的一方。应当坚持服从公共利益、维护社会利益、尊重私人利益三项基本原则。回避利益冲突,确保政府在各方利益冲突中保持中立,应当坚持依法处置、公平公正、公开透明三项基本原则。应当积极构建权力阳光运行机制、加强党纪政纪监督、强化人大监督、严肃行政诉讼制度,建立健全利益冲突防范与回避的监督机制。%Corruption doesn't stand in a neutral position when having conflicts with the power possessors. Conversely, it is even closely related to one side in the conflicts of interests. Driven by non-public interests, power possessors will try every means to avoid being supervised and restrained, which consequently breeds corruption. In order to avoid the conflicts of interests and prevent the government from becoming one party in the conflicts, three basic principles must be emphasized. We should firmly adhere to public interests, safeguard social interests and respect personal interests. For the purpose of avoiding the conflicts of interests and ensure the neutrality of our government, we should cling to three basic principles which include penalty in accor- dance with the law, equality and justice, and openness and transparency. Meanwhile, we should actively establish a system to run power transparently, enhance the supervision over disciplines in the Party and the government, strengthen the supervision by the National People's Congress, standardize the administrative prosecution system, and establish and complete the supervi- sory mechanisms to prevent and avoid the conflicts of interests.

  9. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  10. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    in a student dormitory and found that players did not shift their electricity use, because they were unwilling to change their schedules and found it easier to focus on reducing electricity use. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for encouraging shifting, and also the challenges of integrating...

  11. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  12. 我国行政法基本原则的反思与重述——基于宪法及行政法律规范文本的分析%Reflection and Restatement on the Basic Principles in Chinese Administrative Law——Based on the Analysis on the Text of Constitution and Administrative Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代温世

    2012-01-01

    Most scholars on administrative law determine the basic principles of Chinese administrative law based on the criteria,but there are several problems in this study such as the uncertainness of the criteria.Foreign experience has shown that the establishment of basic principles in administrative law should be based on regulated foundation.Only administration by law can be defined basic principle to build basic principles in Chinese administrative law from the texts researching Chinese constitution and administrative regulations.The principle of law priority,the principle of law reservation and the principle of administrative procedures by law are interpreted from the principle of administrative by law.%行政法学者多是依据标准来确定我国行政法基本原则,但该研究进路存在着标准的不确定性等问题。域外经验表明,行政法基本原则的确立应具有规范依据。考察我国宪法及行政法律规范,从文本出发来构建我国行政法基本原则,能够称其为基本原则的只有依法行政原则。从依法行政原则中能够演绎出法律优位原则、法律保留原则和行政程序法定原则。

  13. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments.

  14. 试论报纸版面色彩运用应遵循的基本原则%On the Basic Principles of Color Application in Newspaper Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革生

    2012-01-01

    The application of format colors used as an organic part of the editing plays an important role to the effect of the newspaper dissemination. The basic principles followed by the newspaper format colors should be to establish a predominant color, pay attention to the collocation of color harmony, and bring color contrast into full play. The color arrangement should pursue entirety, and the color application should be concise, sprightly and harmonious.%版面色彩运用作为彩报编辑的有机组成部分对于报纸传播效果发挥着重要作用。报纸版面色彩运用应遵循的基本原则是:确定好主色调,注重色彩和谐的搭配;发挥色彩对比组合的功效;色块安排应避零求整;色彩运用追求简洁、明快、和谐。

  15. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  16. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  17. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  18. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  20. 问题、基础与方法:新时期做好群众工作的思考%An Examination of the Mass Work in the New Era:Problems, Basic Principles and Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶淑艳

    2014-01-01

    In the new era when the reform is deepened in an all-round way and the whole nation is striving under the leadership of the Party after the “two centenary goals” and the China dream of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the importance of the masses to the success of the strategic plans developed by the Party Central Committee is self-evident. The paper discusses the main problems in the Party’s mass work under the new situation and presents the basic principles as well as specific methods for solving the problems with the hope that they can be of some reference value to the mass work. As historical materialists, we always believe that the masses are the decisive force to promote social progress and social change.%当前,我们正处在进行全面深化改革,党领导全国人民为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗的新时期,要完成党中央制定的各项战略部署,人民群众的重要性自不待言。本文探讨了新形势下党的群众工作存在的主要问题,并提出了解决问题的基础和具体方法,以期为做好群众工作提供借鉴。

  1. Principios básicos de resonancia magnética cardiovascular (RMC: secuencias, planos de adquisición y protocolo de estudio Basic principles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR: sequences, acquisition planes and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la patología del sistema cardiovascular por resonancia magnética (RMC es una de las aplicaciones más actuales de esta técnica diagnóstica, ya que permite estudiar la anatomía y función del corazón y grandes vasos de forma exacta y reproducible. La complejidad de la técnica viene dada por la localización y orientación anatómica de las estructuras cardiovasculares, las secuencias específicas que se deben emplear y la ausencia de familiarización por parte de los radiólogos con la patología cardiovascular. En este trabajo se describen los principios básicos de la RMC. Se exponen la utilidad clínica de las secuencias anatómicas, funcionales y secuencias de flujo, se describen los planos de adquisición en un estudio de RMC convencional y se propone un protocolo de estudio sencillo.Evaluation of the cardiovascular system with magnetic resonance (CMR has become one of the most relevant and up-to-the-minute clinical applications of this diagnostic technique, as CMR makes possible an exact and reproducible study of the anatomy and function of the heart and great vessels. The complexity of this technique is mainly due to the anatomical location and orientation of the cardiovascular structures, the specific CMR sequences that have to be used and a lack of familiarity amongst radiologists regarding cardiovascular pathology. In this report the most basic principles of CMR are described. The clinical usefulness of anatomical, functional, and flow quantification sequences are discussed, conventional CMR acquisition planes are described, and an easy CMR study protocol is proposed.

  2. 试论我国农村饮用水源法治的基本原则%On the Basic Principles of the Rule of Law of Rural Drinking Water Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张戈跃; 聂杨涛

    2014-01-01

    The source safety in rural drinking water is the core of safety,which concerns the stable and sustainable development in ru⁃ral areas,also an important part of“beautiful country”construction in our country. But due to long-term neglect of protecting rural drink⁃ing water sources,at present the safety of drinking water sources in rural areas of our country is becoming severe. By analyzing the cause of problems,this paper intends to establish the basic principles of the rule of law for drinking water source safety,which has an important sig⁃nificance.%农村饮用水源安全是农村饮水安全的核心,关系到农村地区的稳定和可持续发展,也是我国“美丽乡村”建设的重要内容。但由于长期对农村饮用水源保护的忽视,导致目前我国农村饮用水源安全问题突出。分析造成我国农村饮用水源问题的原因,确立我国农村饮用水源法治的基本原则,对实现我国农村饮用水源法治及安全具有重要的现实意义。

  3. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  4. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  5. Power Shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "We are entering a new era of world history: the end of Western domination and the arrival of the Asian century. The question is: will Washington wake up to this reality?" This is the central premise of Kishore Mahbubani's provocative new book The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East.

  6. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  7. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  10. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  14. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  17. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  18. “马克思主义基本原理”课就业教育向度分析%Employment Guidance of the Teaching of Basic Principles of Marxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文海

    2011-01-01

    就业问题是大学生带有根本性的实际问题,就业教育应该是“马克思主义基本原理”(以下简称“原理”)这一课程理论联系实际教学的重要内容。“原理”课教学的就业教育即是在理论教学的基础上。对大学生进行马克思主义工作世界观、价值观、生存方法论的教育,它不同于专门设立的“大学生就业创业教育课程”。教育的主要方式是:在“原理”课的价值意义上,要对大学生进行马克思主义就业价值意义教育;在就业教育内容上.要厘清马克思主义不同组成部分的教育侧重点;在教学主体上,教师要把理论融于大学生就业实际并生成主体化的新思想和话语方式.要将理论教学的行之有效的方法应用于就业教育。%The employment is a fundamental and actual problem with the college students and employment guidance should be the key part of teaching Basic Principles of Marxism as a course of theory with practice. The employment guidance in the teaching of this course, namely, on the basis of theoretical teaching, should teach the college students with job outlook, values and survival methodology, which is different from the special course of Guidance of Employment and Entrepreneurship of College Students. The main ways are: to teach the students with the value of employment of Marxism from the significance of this course; as to the content of employment guidance, to figure out the focus of the different parts of Marxism; about the teaching body, teachers should com- bine the theories with the actual employment of the college students and generate the new ideas and discourse, and apply the effec- tive method of theoretical teaching in employment guidance.

  19. 自然灾害动态风险分析基本原理的探讨%Exploration on the Basic Principles of Dynamic Risk Analysis in Natural Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇福

    2015-01-01

    随着自然环境的变化和人类社会的发展,自然灾害的风险必然发生变化。变化着的风险,称为动态风险。该文概述了动态风险研究的现状,指出更新算法和趋势预测法只适于研究惯性型动态风险,没有触及动态风险的本质,进而界定随着综合环境和内在属性的变化而变化的风险才是动态风险。人们所能研究的仅仅是认知动态风险。提出了以“研究综合环境和内在属性变化对风险源和风险承受体的影响”为核心,并对风险源和风险承受体进行耦合的自然灾害动态风险分析基本原理。%With the changes in the natural environment and the development of human society, the risk of natural disasters will inevitably change.A changing risk is called as a dynamic risk.This article outlines the re-search status of dynamic risks and points out that the update algorithms and trend forecasting methods are only suit-able to study the dynamic risks due to inertia, which do not touch the nature of dynamic risks, and we define the dynamic risks with the changes in integrated environmental and intrinsic properties.People can study only the per-ceived dynamic risk.The basic principles of dynamic risk analysis are proposed.The key tasks are to study the effects of the changes in integrated environmental and intrinsic properties on risk sources and risk-bearing bodies, and how coupling of risk sources and risk-bearing bodies.

  20. La sismique de puits. Première partie : le profil sismique vertical. Principes de base, applications et mise en oeuvre Well Seismic Surveying. Part One : Vertical Seismic Profiling. Basic Principles, Applications and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La sismique réflexion de surface fournit une image en temps du sous-sol. Pour obtenir un calage en profondeur plus précis que celui obtenu en utilisant les vitesses déduites des données sismiques, les géophysiciens utilisent des données de puits telles que carottage sismique et diagraphie sonique, et plus récemment le profil sismique vertical (PSV. La nécessité de mieux connaître les réservoirs pour les exploiter de façon optimale a conduit les géophysiciens à développer des techniques particulières de sismique de puits à plus haute résolution que la sismique conventionnelle de surface. Cet article, composé de trois chapitres, présente de façon pratique les différentes méthodes utilisées en sismique de puits et leurs applications en exploration pétrolière ou en géophysique de gisement. Le premier chapitre traite des principes de base, des applications et de la mise en oeuvre du PSV. Le deuxième chapitre est consacré au traitement du PSV et à ses applications particulières à la connaissance du gisement. Le troisième chapitre traite du profil sismique vertical déporté et de la sismique de puits à puits. Surface seismic reflection provides a time image of the subsurface. To obtain a more accurate depth calibration than that is obtained by using velocities deduced from seismic data, geophysicists are now using well data such as uphole surveys and sonic logs, and more recently vertical seismic profiling (VSP. . The need to have a better understanding of reservoirs so as to exploit them to the optimum has led geophysicists to develop specific well seismic techniques having higher resolution than conventional surface seismic surveying. This article gives a practical description of the methods used in well seismic surveying and their applications in petroleum exploration or reservoir geophysics. It is made up of three parts. The first part deals with the basic principles, applications and implementation of VSP. The

  1. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  2. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  3. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  4. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  5. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  6. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  8. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  9. Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

  10. Electronic imaging fundamentals: basic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, K N

    1983-01-01

    Introduction of the computer into the field of medical imaging, as typified by the extensive use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), created an important need for a basic understanding of the principles of digital imaging. This paper reviews these fundamental principles, starting with the definition of images and the interaction of these images with television display systems, then continuing with a detailed description of the way in which imaging systems are specified. This work defines the basic terms and concepts that will be used throughout the contents of this issue.

  11. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  12. Basic Principle of Molecular Dynamics and Application in The Filed of Biologic Molecules Simulation%分子动力学模拟及在生物大分子模拟领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冠辰

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了分子动力学的发展历史、基本理论、基本步骤以及其作为基本研究手段来进行生物大分子模拟领域的应用。%This article briefly describes the molecular dynamics of development history,basic theory,basic steps and basic research as a means to carry out simulation in the field of application of biological macromolecules.

  13. Methodological principles outline discipline "Organization studies-tourism activity" using information technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic methodological principles of the disciplines of tourism and local history with information technology. 15 analyzed the literature and experience of leading experts in the field of sports and health tourism, and orienteering. Identified principles of academic disciplines of tourism and local history: the shift in emphasis from sports tourism to the cognitive, health tourism, the development of spiritual qualities, acquisition of life skills in nature, discovery and development of pedagogical and psychological abilities, character traits through the study of native land, the development of cognitive-research abilities, physical abilities, motor skills, application of modern information technology.

  14. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  15. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  16. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  17. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  18. Phase extraction based on sinusoidal extreme strip phase shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple synthetic aperture imaging can enlarge pupil diameter of optical systems, and increase system resolution. Multiple synthetic aperture imaging is a cutting-edge topic and research focus in recent years, which is prospectively widely applied in fields like astronomical observations and aerospace remote sensing. In order to achieve good imaging quality, synthetic aperture imaging system requires phase extraction of each sub-aperture and co-phasing of whole aperture. In the project, an in-depth study about basic principles and methods of segments phase extraction was done. The study includes: application of sinusoidal extreme strip light irradiation phase shift method to extract the central dividing line to get segment phase extraction information, and the use of interference measurement to get the aperture phase extraction calibration coefficients of spherical surface. Study about influence of sinusoidal extreme strip phase shift on phase extraction, and based on sinusoidal stripe phase shift from multiple linear light sources of the illumination reflected image, to carry out the phase shift error for inhibiting the effect in the phase extracted frame.

  19. Guarani Basic Course, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…

  20. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  1. Braun-Le Chatelier principle in dissipative thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pavelka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Braun-Le Chatelier principle is a fundamental result of equilibrium thermodynamics, showing how stable equilibrium states shift when external conditions are varied. The principle follows from convexity of thermodynamic potential. Analogously, from convexity of dissipation potential it follows how steady non-equilibrium states shift when thermodynamic forces are varied, which is the extension of the principle to dissipative thermodynamics.

  2. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  3. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

    2014-03-18

    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  4. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  5. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  6. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  7. 中国旅游基本法的必要性、立法模式及其立法原则剖析%Chinese tourism basic law's necessity,legislation mode and its legislation principle probing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱茂慧; 刘枫虹

    2012-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is Tourism Basic Law in China.In this paper,four important points are contained.The first point tries to prove the necessity of Tourism Basic Law,while the other three points study on the nature and content.The first part is mainly about the essential necessity of Tourism Basic Law,which serves for the needs of the development of tourism.The second part reviews the patterns of the Tourism Basic Law.The third part studies on the character of Tourism Basic Law.In part four,the writer's viewpoints about the four principals of Tourism Basic Law.First,promote the development of tourism.Second,guarantee tourism stakeholders' rights.Third,reasonably exploit and protect the tourism resources.Fourth,make scientific management on tourism industry.%本文从旅游基本法的必要性、形式、性质等方面,分别从旅游的本质、旅游业的发展和旅游的社会及环境问题等角度对我国旅游基本法的模式和基本性质争议进行剖析,最后提出了中国旅游基本法的基本原则:①促进旅游事业的发展;②保障旅游相关主体的合法权益;③合理开发和保护旅游资源;④科学管理旅游业。本文希冀通过对旅游基本法的剖析对旅游基本法在立法必要性上、立法模式上以及立法原则上有更进一步的认识,以起到抛砖引玉之作用。

  8. Peakfitter — an integrated Excel-based Visual Basic program for processing multiple skewed and shifting Gaussian-like spectral peaks simultaneously: application to radio frequency glow discharge ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eanes, Ritchie C.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2000-04-01

    This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), a section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text is accompanied by an electronic archive, stored on the SAE homepage at (http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/sabe). The archive contains program and data files. The main article discusses the scientific spectroscopic and instrumental aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the program and data files. The work deals with a Microsoft Excel Visual Basic program, Peakfitter, which can process multiple Gaussian-shaped spectral peaks quickly and easily. The program employs Microsoft Excel Solver to process any Gaussian-like spectra that can be opened in Microsoft Excel 97. Up to three peaks in one to 225 spectra, each containing up to 2000 data points can be processed per data file to give background corrected peak areas for both raw data and its associated fit data as calculated by the trapezoidal method or by simple successive addition of channel intensities across each peak. Concurrently output also includes fit peak heights for Gaussian-shaped spectral peaks. Use of other statistical distributions such as the Lorentzian model requires only slight modification to a template file. Hence, Peakfitter was actually written as two application programs, 'Gaussfitter' and 'Lorenfitter' to accommodate spectra of Gaussian or Lorentzian character, respectively. Written initially to process data from a radio frequency glow discharge ion trap mass spectrometer (rf-GD/ITMS), the program is useful for processing sequentially acquired spectra, which have a limited number of data points across each peak. The user may examine and manipulate program variables in cases where the raw data is skewed with respect to the fit data. An assessment of Peakfitter is given using rf-GD/ITMS elemental analysis and ion-molecule reaction data. Peakfitter's (i.e. 'Gaussfitter's) utility in processing rf-GD/ITMS spectra is characterized by a slight

  9. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  10. Essentials of Basic Writing Pedagogy for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Reabeka

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing paradigm shift in librarianship that prompts the application of pedagogy throughout our professional practice. In light of the special attention to basic writing development in community college curricula, this article provides an overview of basic writing pedagogy. It discusses the overall college-level writing and research…

  11. Principles of digital image synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1995-01-01

    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,

  12. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  13. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  14. PEOPLE AS THE CENTER-BASIC PRINCIPLE OF SPORT DEVELOPMENT IN NEW CENTUR%“以人为本”--新世纪体育发展的基本理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴立新

    2001-01-01

    采用文献和逻辑方法, 综述了20世纪人类发展观由“以物为中心”向“以人为中心”的转变进程,阐述了马克思主 义关于人与社会协调发展的思想内涵,分析了新世纪我国提出的“以人为本”促进经济和社 会协调发展,提高人民生活质量的指导思想,对“以人为本”作为新世纪体育发展理念的背 景和理论基础作出客观判断,旨在理性地认识新世纪体育事业的发展。%The aim of this article is to understand reasoningly the development of sport in the new century by literature and logica l analysis method. It was described the change of mankind's developmental view from Material as Cen ter to People as Center during 20 century. The article was explained Marxism con notation about harmonious development of people and society. It was also analyze d people as center that was provided as principle for improving life quality and harmonious development. The article was estimated objectively background and th eoretic essence of people as center as principle of sport development in the new century.

  15. Cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-10-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  16. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  17. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  18. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  19. Principles of Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalyar, Stephen R.

    This article reviews the basic principles of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The introductory section provides an overview of the HPLC technique, placing it in historical context and discussing the elementary facts of the separation mechanism. The next section discusses the nature of resolution, describing the two principal aspects, zone center separation and zone spreading. The third section takes a detailed look at how HPLC is used in practice to achieve a separation. It discusses the three key variables that need to be adjusted: retention, efficiency, and selectivity. A fourth section is concerned with various relationships of practical importance: flow rate, temperature, and pressure. A final section discusses future trends in HPLC.

  20. Principles of smile design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvaneswaran Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile.

  1. Principles of smile design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

    2010-10-01

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile.

  2. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  3. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  4. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  5. 公司财务管理基本原则及目标探析%An Analysis and Research on the Basic Principles and Management Goals of Finance Management in Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小华; 周燕; 胥清

    2009-01-01

    财务管理是一个企业经济管理工作中的主要内容之一,有着非常重要的意义.目标利润的最大化,每股利润或资本利润率最大化,企业价值的最大化等都与财务管理有着十分密切的关联.本文主要通过对财务管理原则及目标的分析,来揭示财务管理在整个企业管理过程中的作用和地位.%Finance management is of significance in the economy management of an enterprise. And there is a high correlation between finance management and the maxmization of the goal profits, of every stockholder's profits,of the whoh capitalization and of the values of the enterprise. This paper has conducted an analysis of the goals and principles of finance management, and discussed about the roles of finance management played in the management of the enterprise.

  6. Basic Principles on Formulating and Implementing Allocation and Planning of Public Hospitals%制定与实施公立医院设置与发展规划的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任苒

    2011-01-01

    It is very significant for formulating and implementing the allocation and planning of public hospitals. It is not only that the reform of public hospitals is the important and difficult point, but also it is the basis for health reform and the reflection the final outcome of the reform. The necessity and guiding principles for formulating and implementating the allocation and planning of public hospitals are discussed, and the suggestions on bringing into it to public hospital reform, building the medical care system, and clarifying the the functions and roles for all level governments and so on are put forward.%制定与实施公立医院的设置和规划有着重要的意义,不仅因为公立医院改革是医改的重点和难点;而且,公立医院的设置和规划是公立医院改革的重要依据,也是医改最终效果的体现.讨论了制定与实施公立医院设置与发展规划的必要性和指导原则,提出将其纳入公立医院改革和医疗服务体系建设中及明确各级政府职责与分工等建议.

  7. 正念干预的临床应用价值、原理及基本实践技巧%The clinical value, principle, and basic pracitcal technique of mindfulness interveniton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 吴城瀚; 范晓舵

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness intervention is a psychotherapy based on the Buddhist practice of meditation, combining the theories and methodology of contemporary psychology. The empirical research in recent years has indicated that mindfulness interveniton yields favorable results including reduciton of depression relapse, alleviation of the symptoms of depression and anxiety, reduction of substance abuse, relief of pain, blood pressure management, enhancement of immunity, and improvement of sleep. Currently, mindfulness therapy has become the mainstream of psychotherapy in the realm of European and American psychotherapy. The fields of psychology and psychotherapy in China have also begun to introduce mindfulness intervention in recent years. However, there is a lack of relevant practice and research in the field of clinical mental health. This article will briefly introduce the concept of mindfulness, the basic mechanism of the interveniton, and the basic skills and guidelines in clinical pracitce.%正念干预是基于佛教修行的冥想,结合当代心理学理论和方法所发展的一种心理疗法。近年来的实证研究表明正念干预在降低抑郁复发,缓解抑郁、焦虑症状,减少物质滥用,减轻疼痛,血压管理,提高免疫力,改善睡眠等方面的应用均产生了良好的效果。当前,正念疗法在欧美心理治疗界中已成为心理治疗的主流。近几年我国心理学界和心理治疗领域也开始对正念治疗进行介绍,但在临床精神健康领域却缺乏相关的实践和研究。本文将对正念的概念,干预的基本机制,临床实践中的基本技能和指导原则简要介绍。

  8. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Principles A Appendix A to Part 230 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... Principles General Principles Table of Contents A. Basic Considerations 1. Composition of total costs...

  9. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  10. 农田重金属污染微生物修复技术研究进展%Discussion of Basic Principles of Microbial Remediation Technique of Soils Contaminated by Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪峰

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the current situation of soil pollution by heavy metals ,discusses the basic concept and main ways of microbial remediation technique for the polluted soils .And then it analyzes the problems existing in the process of treating soil pollution by using microbial remediation technique , and also prospects the researches on strengthening the microbe-plant biorremediation techniques .%指出了土壤重金属污染日益成为农业生态环境治理的主要研究课题之一,综述了我国重金属土壤污染的现状、微生物修复技术机理,探讨了微生物修复技术在土壤重金属污染治理过程中存在的问题,对微生物-植物联合修复技术的强化措施进行了展望。

  11. Geriatrics and radiation oncology. Pt. 1. How to identify high-risk patients and basic treatment principles; Geriatrie und Radioonkologie. T. 1. Identifikation des Risikopatienten und Grundsaetzliches zur Behandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fels, Franziska [DiaCura Coburg, Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Klinikum Coburg (Germany); Klinik fuer Geriatrie und Rehabilitation, Klinikum Coburg (Germany); Kraft, Johannes W. [Klinik fuer Geriatrie und Rehabilitation, Klinikum Coburg (Germany); Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. [DiaCura Coburg, Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Klinikum Coburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Until the mid of this century, 33% of the Western population will be {>=} 65 years old. The percentage of patients being {>=} 80 years old with today 5% will triple until 2050. Therefore, radiation oncologists must be familiar with special geriatric issues to meet the increasing demand for multidisciplinary cooperation and to offer useful and individual treatment concepts. Patients and Methods: This review article will provide basic data on the definition, identification and treatment of geriatric cancer patients. Results: The geriatric patient is defined by typical multimorbidity (15 items) and by age-related increased vulnerability. Best initial identification of geriatric patients will be provided by assessment including the Barthel Index evaluating self-care and activity in daily life, by the Mini-Mental Status Test that will address cognitive pattern, and by the Timed 'Up and Go' Test for evaluation of mobility. As for chemotherapy, standard treatment was associated with increased toxicity, consequently, dose modifications and supportive treatment are of special importance. Conclusion: Geriatric cancer patients need to be identified by special assessment instruments. Due to increased toxicity following chemotherapy, supportive measures seem important. Radiation treatment as a noninvasive and outpatient-based treatment remains an important and preferable option. (orig.)

  12. Optimal Social Management Rules Is Not Equal to the Basic Principles of Justice:Cohen’s Criticism on Justice Constructivism of Rawls%最优的社会管理规则不等于正义的基本原则--柯亨驳罗尔斯的正义建构主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增收; 柯林霞

    2014-01-01

    In A Theory ofJustice,Rawls proposes a method-constructivism to obtain the principle of social justice.In or-der to fully demonstrate the Rawls principle that justice contains unjust element,in the book named Rescuing Justice and Equality,analytical Marxism representative G.A.Cohen criticizes the constructivist method which Rawls used to obtain the principle of social justice.Cohen logically proposes and proves a“fact-insensitive”proposition about the relationship between facts and principles,and then argues that there are two kinds of confusion in Rawls’s principle of justice.Final-ly he believes that it is the confusion that caused Rawls mistook optimal social management rules as the basic principles of justice.This paper introduces several representative scholars’comment on Cohen.%罗尔斯在《正义论》中提出了一种用来获取社会正义原则的建构主义方法。为了全面论证罗尔斯正义原则所包含的不正义,分析马克思主义学派代表人物G.A.柯亨在《拯救正义和平等》一书中论证了该方法没有资格用来获取正义的基本原则。他逻辑上首先提出并论证了事实与原则关系的“非敏于事实”命题,即为了反映事实,那些反映事实的原则必须反映那些不反映事实的原则;然后以此命题为基础具体指证了罗尔斯正义建构主义中存在的两个混淆:把社会管理规则等同于基本原则,把服务于正义价值的原则等同于服务于其他价值的原则;最后得出结论认为正是这两个混淆导致了罗尔斯把最优的社会管理规则当作了正义的基本原则。为此,介绍了英语世界中几位有代表性的学者对柯亨这一批判的评论。

  13. “马克思主义基本原理概论”课趣味教学探索%Exploration of“Introduction to the Basic Principles of Marxism”Teaching Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽

    2012-01-01

      高等学校思想政治理论课是大学生思想政治教育的主渠道,思想政治理论课是大学生的必修课,是帮助大学生树立正确世界观、人生观、价值观的重要途径,体现了社会主义大学的本质要求。本文简要阐述了现今“原理”课的授课状况,以及在讲授这门课时所必须应对的一些挑战,从对课本知识点的处理着手,强调了教师在备课时应该注意的五点细节,又从案例互动和课堂知识竞赛两个方面,阐述如何调动学生上课积极性。%  colleges and universities ideological and political theory courses is the main channel of the ideological and political education, ideological and political theory course is a required course for college students, is an important way to help students to establish a correct outlook on the world, life and values??, reflecting the essential requirement of socialism University. This article briefly describes the modern principle "lesson teaching position, as well as proceed, emphasized the five o'clock details should be noted that when teachers prepare lessons taught in this class are some of the challenges that must be addressed, from the point of textbook knowledge processing, and from The two aspects of the case interaction and classroom knowledge contest on how to mobilize the class, the students enthusiasm.

  14. MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS SYSTEMS THINKING SKILLS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILDEOVÁ, Stanislava

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.

  15. 电力通信系统防雷技术设计应坚持的基本原则和方法%Basic Principle and Method for the Anti-thunder Technology Design of Electric Power Telecommunication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶平; 温志波; 刘仲达

    2015-01-01

    一方面,随着国民经济的发展,智能电网的建设不断深入,电力通信系统的应用日益广泛,重要性不断增加;而另一方面,电力通信系统因其耐雷电过压能力差而容易损坏,造成损失。电力通信系统一旦遭受雷击而出现故障会造成调度中断或系统瘫痪,进而造成大面积停电等事故,因此,对于电力通信而言,雷击的危害是不可忽视和必须解决的。本文作者结合具体实践经验,较全面地总结了在进行电力通信系统防雷设计过程中必须坚持的三个原则:综合防雷原则、科学有效原则和经济实用原则;以期达到保护电力通信系统及其设备的目的。%On the one hand, with the development of national economy and the deepening construction of smart grid, the electric power communication system is becoming more and more widely applied with increasing importance. On the other hand, electric power communication system is easy to damage and cause losses because of its poor resistance to lightning overvoltage. Once there is lightning strike and failure in electric power communication system, it will cause interruption or dispatching system paralysis, and then causing blackouts and other accidents. Therefore, for the electric power communication, the harm of lightning is not to be ignored and must be solved. Combined with concrete practice experience, this paper sums up the three principles in the process of electric power communication system lightning protection design:integrated lightning protection, scientific and effective and economical, in order to achieve the purpose of protection of electric power communication system and its equipment.

  16. The research progress of basic principle and application of CBCT%CBCT 的基本原理及在口腔各科的应用进展CBCT 的基本原理及在口腔各科的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠昊; 朱红华; 段涛; 李志民; 孙宏晨; Farman AG; Scarfe WC

    2015-01-01

    目的:锥形束 CT (cone beam computer tomography ,CBCT )应用于口腔科进行三维立体成像,具有广泛的临床应用前景。本文主要综述 CBCT 成像的基本原理,以及在口腔种植科、正畸科、颌面外科和内科等口腔临床科室应用的最新进展。%CBCT has been widely applied to oral department and achieved very good effect .The purpose of this paper is to review the basic principle and application of CBCT in some of oral departments .

  17. Sign (di)Lemma for Dimension Shifting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Nitsure

    2009-04-01

    There is a surprising occurrence of some minus signs in the isomorphisms produced in the well-known technique of dimension shifting in calculating derived functors in homological algebra. We explicitly determine these signs. Getting these signs right is important in order to avoid basic contradictions. We illustrate the result – which we call as the sign lemma for dimension shifting – by some de Rham cohomology and Chern class considerations for compact Riemann surfaces.

  18. Cooperative emission from nuclei: The collective Lamb shift and electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlsberger, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The narrow nuclear resonances of Moessbauer isotopes constitute almost ideal two-level systems to study cooperative effects in the interaction of x-rays with matter. Embedding an ensemble of resonant Moessbauer nuclei into a planar cavity facilitates the excitation of superradiant oscillatory eigenmodes via pulses of synchrotron radiation. These modes exhibit a large collective Lamb shift that can be controlled via the excitation conditions and the cavity geometry. Cooperative emission in connection with the radiative coupling of two resonant ensembles in a cavity leads to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). This contribution gives a review on cooperative effects in nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. Special emphasis is given to the basic principles of recent experiments that led to the observation of the collective Lamb shift and EIT with nuclear resonances in the regime of hard x-rays. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  20. Exploring and practice of monographic pedagogy in the course“An Introduction to Basic Principles of Marxism”%“马克思主义基本原理”课程专题式教学改革的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏湘涛

    2015-01-01

    The reform of monographic pedagogy in the course “An Introduction to Basic Principles of Marxism”should aim to the reform of monographic,research orient and practice.Special topics should be set to solve the students’thought puzzles and theory problems.Students’forum is a proper tool to stimulate students to join this course.The academic taste should be high-lighted to improve students’ability to solve reality problem using Marxism principles.%“马克思主义基本原理”课程的专题式教学改革,应以“专题式研究型实践性”教学模式改革为总体目标,科学设置专题,切实解开学员现实关切的思想疑惑和理论扣子;要将“学员论坛”作为专题式教学的重要形式,充分调动和发挥学员参与政治理论课的积极性、主动性、创造性;在专题式教学中突出学术品位,切实提高学员运用马克思主义基本原理解决现实问题的能力。

  1. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  2. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  3. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  4. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framewo...... as to understand how learners posses or can develop broader critical media literacies and visual digital literacies in education.......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...... and interviews) collected during a game workshop where students, studying to become game designers, developed a number of games. The visual digital literacy framework we propose consists of five main major components: Gamescape Principles, Interpretation, Style, Experiences and Practices. For the purpose...

  5. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  6. Principle of reflecting measurement system for roller wear and software simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Wang, Kai; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Yutian

    2006-11-01

    Roller plays an important role in rolling mill. However, the effective surface of roller is limited. After long time working, the surface of roller will wear. The roller wear will result in difficult controlling of shape and thickness of steel board. Further more, it can lead to the decline of product quality. So the measurement of roller wear is very urgent for rolling mill to ensure their product quality. In this paper, a measurement method for roller wear is introduced in detail. This method offers advantages of sensitivity, immediate response, electromagnetic interference, simplicity and non-contact. It can detect in the atrocious condition on-line and examine roller wear precisely and real time. It is an effective method at low cost instance. The basic principle of this system is optical reflection principle. In the paper, after explaining the principle of this measurement system, an error compensation algorithm is exactly calculated to improve accuracy of this measurement system. This algorithm is brought out to offset the shift of measurement track. And a simulation-software program is compiled with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 based on this principle. By using this simulation-software, the date of I/O signal for this system is gained. And the signal verse is automatically drawn in this software.

  7. 新型混合动力变速器原理及其无动力中断换档过程分析%Working Principle of a Novel Hybrid T ransmission and Analysis of Its No-pow er Interrupt Shift Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟再敏; 张磊; 吴海康; 余卓平; 王心坚

    2016-01-01

    介绍了一种新型定轴式混合动力变速器的原理,其电机动力传递路径可以切换这一技术特征一方面使电机能够利用档位速比高效地向轮边提供动力,另一方面可以克服自动机械式变速器换档过程中存在动力中断的问题。通过双中间轴传动方案可利用有限的空间实现多个档位,最大限度地增加与变速器串联布置电机的设计空间。基于一款微型乘用车进行了定轴式混合动力变速器的速比设计并完成了动力性的校核,通过仿真说明了无动力中断换档功能的实现过程,证明其能够有效解决动力中断。%The working principle and structure of a novel fixed shaft type hybrid power transmission for hybrid vehicle is introduced ,by which the motor power transfer path can be switched .On one hand , the motor can be used to provide power to the wheel side with high efficiency using the gear ratio .On the other hand ,the power interrupt problem can be overcome in the process of AMT shift .Through twin countershaft transmission scheme ,several gear ratios are realized based on limited space and the design space for the arrangement of the motor in tandem with transmission is achieved .The driving performance of a mini passenger prototype car is analyzed .The gear shift process without power inter-rupt is explained through detailed simulations .The results prove that EM T can effectively solve the power interrupt problem during gear shift process .

  8. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    This article describes and defines a number of basic concepts that are commonly used in archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, sometimes in particular ways, and attempts to clarify some of the issues of confusion that frequently arise. It is aimed primarily at archaeologists and ethnographers entering or exploring the field and emphasizes the broad principles that are generally of importance to them, while trying to avoid unnecessary complications as well as technical details. It is not aimed at those studying historical sources from antiquity onward, who need a more sophisticated knowledge of positional astronomy, mathematically formulated. Further detail can be found in a variety of sources, including a number aimed specifically at archaeoastronomers.

  9. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  11. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  12. In-line phase shift tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammonds, Jeffrey C.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.; Donnelly, Edwin F. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to (1) demonstrate laboratory measurements of phase shift images derived from in-line phase-contrast radiographs using the attenuation-partition based algorithm (APBA) of Yan et al.[Opt. Express 18(15), 16074–16089 (2010)], (2) verify that the APBA reconstructed images obey the linearity principle, and (3) reconstruct tomosynthesis phase shift images from a collection of angularly sampled planar phase shift images.Methods: An unmodified, commercially available cabinet x-ray system (Faxitron LX-60) was used in this experiment. This system contains a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a nominal focal spot size of 10 μm. The digital detector uses CsI/CMOS with a pixel size of 50 × 50 μm. The phantoms used consisted of one acrylic plate, two polystyrene plates, and a habanero pepper. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed from 51 images acquired over a ±25° arc. All phase shift images were reconstructed using the APBA.Results: Image contrast derived from the planar phase shift image of an acrylic plate of uniform thickness exceeded the contrast of the traditional attenuation image by an approximate factor of two. Comparison of the planar phase shift images from a single, uniform thickness polystyrene plate with two polystyrene plates demonstrated an approximate linearity of the estimated phase shift with plate thickness (−1600 rad vs −2970 rad). Tomographic phase shift images of the habanero pepper exhibited acceptable spatial resolution and contrast comparable to the corresponding attenuation image.Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of laboratory-based phase shift tomosynthesis and suggests that phase shift imaging could potentially provide a new imaging biomarker. Further investigation will be needed to determine if phase shift contrast will be able to provide new tissue contrast information or improved clinical performance.

  13. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  14. Introduction on PET : Description of Basics and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Elsinga, Philip H; van Waarde, Aren; Paans, Anne MJ; Dierckx, Rudi AJO

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (or PET) is a non-destructive imaging technique in nuclear medicine with several unique properties: high sensitivity, low radiation dose, possibility to correct data for attenuation and scatter (thus quantitative), radioactive labeling of natural substances or drugs with

  15. Basic concepts and principles of stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarleveld, T.R.; Khandelwal, R.A.; Olivier, B.E.; Teusink, B.; Bruggeman, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic networks supply the energy and building blocks for cell growth and maintenance. Cells continuously rewire their metabolic networks in response to changes in environmental conditions to sustain fitness. Studies of the systemic properties of metabolic networks give insight into metabolic pla

  16. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Peter [Technical Univ. Munich (Germany). Immission Research; Dameris, Martin [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling (Germany). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensive coverage of ozone both in the upper and the lower atmosphere. Essential overview of atmospheric ozone research written by two experienced and acknowledged experts. Numerous qualified references to the scientific literature. Peter Fabian and Martin Dameris provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of established scientific knowledge about ozone in the atmosphere. They present both ozone changes and trends in the stratosphere, as well as the effects of overabundance in the troposphere including the phenomenon of photosmog. Aspects such as photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics and global ozone distribution as well as various techniques for ozone measurement are treated. The authors outline the various causes for ozone depletion, the effects of ozone pollution and the relation to climate change. The book provides a handy reference guide for researchers active in atmospheric ozone research and a useful introduction for advanced students specializing in this field. Non-specialists interested in this field will also profit from reading the book. Peter Fabian can look back on a life-long active career in ozone research, having first gained international recognition for his measurements of the global distribution of halogenated hydrocarbons. He also pioneered photosmog investigations in the metropolitan areas of Munich, Berlin, Athens and Santiago de Chile, and his KROFEX facility provided controlled ozone fumigation of adult tree canopies for biologists to investigate the effects of ozone increases on forests. Besides having published a broad range of scientific articles, he has also been the author or editor of numerous books. From 2002 to 2005 he served the European Geosciences Union (EGU) as their first and Founding President. Martin Dameris is a prominent atmospheric modeler whose interests include the impacts of all kinds of natural and man-made disturbances on the atmospheric system. His scientific work focuses on the connections between ozone and climate changes. For many years he has been an active contributor to the WMO scientific ozone depletion assessments, which have been used to monitor the depletion and recovery of the ozone layer in accordance with the Montreal Protocol.

  17. Basic principles regarding strength, flexibility, and stability exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheo, William; Baerga, Luis; Miranda, Gerardo

    2012-11-01

    Strength, flexibility, and stability are physiologic parameters associated with health-related physical fitness. Each of these domains affects health in general, the risk of injury, how an injury is treated, and performance in activities of daily living and sports. These domains are affected by individual phenotype, age, deconditioning, occupational activity, and formal exercise. Deficits or loss of strength, flexibility, and stability can be prevented or reduced with exercise programs. Normal muscle strength has been associated with general health benefits, increased life expectancy, psychological benefits, prevention of illness, and reduction of disability in older adults. Static flexibility programs have been shown to improve joint range of motion and tolerance to stretch but do not appear to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injury and may impair muscle performance immediately after a static stretch. Dynamic flexibility, on the other hand, may enhance power and improve sports-specific performance. Stability training leads to improved balance and neuromuscular control, may prevent injury to the knee and ankle joints, and can be used for treatment of patients with low back pain.

  18. Student friendly quantum field theory basic principles & quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Klauber, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    By incorporating extensive student input and innovative teaching methodologies, this book aims to make the process of learning quantum field theory easier, and thus more rapid, profound, and efficient, for both students and instructors. Comprehensive explanations are favored over conciseness, every step in derivations is included, and ‘big picture’ overviews are provided throughout. Typical student responses indicate how well the text achieves its aim.

  19. Basic Principles of the System of Social Services and Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaklina Peto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  20. Gravitoelectromagnetism: Basic principles, novel approaches and their application to Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bakopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the theory of Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM). In the first part of this work we present a brief review of gravitoelectromagnetism, we locate and discuss all the problems which appear in this approach. We also try to avoid these problems by proposing new approaches in which we use the additional degrees of freedom of the gravitational field. In the second part of this work, we review our previous work regarding the construction of a tensorial theory, using the formalism of General Relativity, which aims to describe the true electromagnetism. We also extend this theory in order to make it more realistic. Finally in the third part of this work, we investigate the existence of gravitational invariants similar to the electromagnetic ones.

  1. Basic HR Risk Management Principles in Digital Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Mirembe, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are responsible for causing risk as well as mitigating risk. This paper focuses on the human resources management risk remedies for digital libraries. Risk management aims at identifying, assessing and resolving risk items before they become disasters to an organization or digital library. Effective risk management plans should include short-term and long-term risks to project schedules, costs, and the functionality, adequacy and quality of project deliverables. Risks can bec...

  2. Conflict at work: Basic principles and applied issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu

    2011-01-01

    Conflict at work is quickly classified as a "darkside" construct that has primarily negative, destructive, and aversive consequences to individual employees’ well-being and task performance, to citizenship behavior and performance in work teams, and to organizational fitness and survival chances. In

  3. Basic principles, mosaic of knowledges and adaptive silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Achievements of ecological science and direct experience are of great help for the interpretation of forest ecosystem dynamics and the definition of adaptive procedures for forest manipulation, i.e. adaptive silviculture.

  4. Tips for leaders, part I: basic principles of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2011-08-01

    There are many important leadership skills that can be learned from experience, mentoring, reading, discussions, lectures, etc. The subjects include not only business topics and communication skills but also a variety of tips on what to do and what not to do. These include desirable styles of leadership, how to gain the trust of others in the organization, the significance of the appropriate delegation of tasks, the importance of teams, how to manage change, how to win during a crisis, what to do in the early days of becoming a new leader, preventing the loss of one's practice to a rival organization, improving quality, and others. There are also many important attributes of leaders, including having a strong moral compass. Although each of these topics could be a book in of itself, this short series of articles will briefly examine these issues and others.

  5. Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid: basic principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, Roy H.; Kennedy, James C.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous photosensitizing pigments that absorb visible light and are selectively retained in neoplastic tissue are being investigated as potential photochemotherapeutic agents. While much emphasis is being placed on the synthesis of new, far-red absorbing photosensitizers, an alternative approach has been to stimulate the human body to produce its own natural photosensitizer, namely protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is rapidly bioconverted into PP by mitochondria, the process being particularly efficient in tumor cells. Since PpIX has a natural and rapid clearing mechanism (via the capture of iron in the process of being converted into heme), ALA-PDT does not suffer from lingering skin phototoxicity. ALA may be introduced orally, intravenously, or topically, and ALA-PDT has been shown to be effective in the treatment of both malignant and non-malignant lesions.

  6. Basic principles and clinical advancements of muscle electrotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    Muscle electrotransfer covers the delivery of molecules to muscle tissue by means of electric pulses. This method has proven highly efficient in transferring, in particular, plasmid DNA to muscles, resulting in long-term expression of the transferred genes. DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue has...... clinical potential within DNA vaccination, systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins and correction of gene defects in muscles. In the recent years, DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue has reached clinical advancement with 8 on-going clinical trials. In the present review, I will draw on the experiences...... obtained from the clinical studies, in understanding the mechanistic and practical advantages and limits of muscle electrotransfer. The effect of applying electric pulses to muscle tissue will be described in details, while present and future clinical applications are reviewed....

  7. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Soloviev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  8. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed.

  9. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-08-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  10. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  11. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  12. Universal Grammar and the Basic Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwisch, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of Basic Variety (BV) principles proposed by Klein and Perdue, arguing that some of them need clarification with learner varieties and that they are not part of Universal Grammar (UG) as they exclude phenomena (e.g., psych verbs) that cannot be excluded from the core of natural language. (15 references) (Author/CK)

  13. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  14. Quantized beam shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R

    2015-01-01

    We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  15. Egalitarianism, basic structure and rawlsian contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Fatauros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses whether it is appropriate to judge individual actions with the same principles of justice applicable to institutions. In order to achieve its aim the paper reviews Rawls` theory of justice and some objections against it. Critics of Rawlsian theory of justice deny that its principles only evaluate basic institutions. Furthermore, they claim that justice does not only require just institutions but just individual actions as well. The background hypothesis of this paper is that some principles suitable for some social contexts are not useful to judge other kind of social interactions. The argument relies on a normative interpretation of the notion of basic structure, which is considered a key element to defend the institutional character of the rawlsian account of justice.

  16. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  17. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  18. 基于个性化教育理念的“马克思主义基本原理概论”教学改革研究%On Teaching Reforms of Introducation to Basic Principles of Marxism Based on Individulized Education Phylosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧腊梅

    2015-01-01

    In consideration of the status and nature of the course of Introducation to Basic Principles of Marxism, studies are carried out to probe the teaching reforms of the course based on the individulized education phylosophy and the individulized education methods of the course from the aspects of perceiving students’ personal differences, enlarging multi-dimensional teaching measures, integrating high-quality education resources, streching teaching practice arrangements and changing course assessment manners.%鉴于“马克思主义基本原理概论”课程的地位和性质,探索基于个性化教育理念的课程教学改革研究,着力从认知学生个性差异、拓展多维教学方法、整合优质教育资源、延伸教学实践环节、变革课程考核方式等方面探索课程的个性化教育路径。

  19. Teaching and research of College Basic Computer course based on task-driven and SMART principle%基于任务驱动与SMART原则的大学计算机基础课程教学改革与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 刘环; 茹小光; 张建莉; 兰坤

    2016-01-01

    利用任务驱动教学法对大学计算机基础课程进行教学方案设计,并运用SMART原则合理制定任务。从教学实践的角度,结合具体案例论证了基于任务驱动与SMART原则的教学方法更能调动学生自主学习的积极性,提高了学生解决实际问题的能力,在长治医学院教学改革中取得了良好的效果。%This thesis employs task⁃driven teaching method to design the teaching plan of basic computer courses in college and uses the principle of SMART to formulate the tasks reasonably. From the perspective of teaching practice, it combines the concrete cases to illustrate task⁃driven⁃based and SMART principle⁃based teaching method, which fully mobilizes the students to study more actively and independently and improves the students’ ability of solving the practical problems. It has gained a good effect in the educational reform in our college.

  20. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  1. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  2. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  3. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  4. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activi

  5. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  6. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  7. First- principles Study of Effect of Electronic Structures and Red- shift on Heavy S doping Anatase TiO2%S高掺杂对锐钛矿TiO2电子结构和红移影响的第一性原理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯清玉

    2011-01-01

    基于密度泛函理论框架下的第一性原理平面波超软赝势方法,建立了未掺杂单胞和两种不同掺杂S原子浓度的锐钛矿TiO2模型,分别对模型进行了几何结构优化、态密度分布、能带分布、差分电荷密度分布、集居数和吸收光谱的计算.结果发现:掺杂后O原子2p态、S原子3p态和Ti原子3d态在导带内发生了强烈的杂化耦合作用,Ti原子3d态的电子向S原子3p态转移,引起导带下移;O原子2p态和S原子3p态在价带中杂化耦合作用,引起价带上移,引起了带隙变窄发生红移现象,同时,高掺杂S原子浓度越高红移越显著,计算结果与实验结果相一致.%In order to investigate the effect of heavy S - doping on the electronic structure of anatase TiO2, and to discover the mechanism of its band gap narrowed after S - doping, we carry out first - principles studies based on density - functional theory ( DFT) for anatase TiO2 system. We study the band structures, densities of states, difference to the electron density, population analysis and spectrum of absorption. The result shows that after S - doping, a strong hybrid coupling would happen at the conduction band ( CB) area of S atoms 3p orbit, 0 atoms 2p orbit and Ti atoms 3d orbit, which would lead to electrons of Ti atoms on the 3d orbit moving to 3p orbit of S atoms, conduction band becoming lower, and valence band arising becoming raise. Band gap would become narrow and the red shift electrophoresis would happen. Moreover, the effect of red shift increases with the concentration of S atoms increasing. The result of experiment is agreement with the theoretical result.

  8. Contribution of Ayurveda in foundation of basic tenets of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalare, Kiran A; Nanote, Kalpana D; Gawai, Vijay U; Gotmare, Ashish Y

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as "principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics.

  9. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  10. Generating Combinations by Three Basic Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-xi Cheng

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of listing combinations using a special class of operations, prefix shifts. Com- binations are represented as bitstrings of O's and l's, and prefix shifts are the operations of rotating some prefix of a bitstring by one position to left or right. We give a negative answer to an open problem asked by F. Ruskey and A. Williams (Generating combinations by prefix shifts, In Proc. Llth Annual International Computing and Combinatorics Conference 2005, LNCS 3595, Springer, 2005, pp.570~576), that is whether we can generate combinations by only using three very basic prefix shifts on bitstrings, which are transposition of the first two bits and the rotation of the entire bitstring by one position in either direction (I.e., applying the permutations σ2, σn and σn1- to the indices of the bitstrings).

  11. 5 CFR 2635.101 - Basic obligation of public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.101 Basic... the Federal Government, each employee shall respect and adhere to the principles of ethical conduct... employees to place loyalty to the Constitution, the laws and ethical principles above private gain....

  12. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  13. Basic Structure Design and Working Principle Analysis of the Photo electric Instrument to Automatically Sort Male and Female Silk worm Eggs%雌雄蚕卵光电自动分选仪器的基本结构设计与工作原理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋礽苏; 蓝景平; 华娇; 夏世峰; 祝新荣; 陈诗; 孟智启

    2011-01-01

    依据雄蚕品种和限性卵色蚕品种不同性别的卵色差别,实现雌雄蚕卵全部存活的前提下自动、快速、准确分离.应用光电识别等原理设计的雌雄蚕卵分选仪器通过单通道光电计数控量供卵、多通道分流和转盘斜刮排序等技术,使蚕卵整齐有适当间距地排列成辐射状的48路,形成同时运行的48个单元,经可编程颜色传感器检测识别后,通过电磁分离器分选,将雌雄蚕卵分离.该雌雄蚕卵自动分选仪器的基本结构设计与工作原理可实现预期目标:不损伤雌蚕卵,使雌雄蚕卵都能存活;分选效率高,设计分卵速度达12万粒/h,准确率超过95%.%According to color difference of eggs from either male-specific silkworm varieties or egg-color sex-limited silkworm varieties, an instrument has been developed to fulfill the automatic, rapid and accurate separation of male and remale silkworm eggs while keeping both male and female eggs alive. This male and female silkworm eggs automatic separation instrument, designed based on electric and optical identification (EOID) and other mechanic principles, employed technologies such as controlling the amount of available eggs by single-channel optical counting, multi-channel diversion, and sorting by turntable and inclined scratching to make all silkworm eggs neatly arranged in 48 radial arrays with proper space between them, forming 48 units running at the same time. After detection and recognition by the programmable color sensor, male and female silkworm eggs were separated by an electromagnetic separator. The basic structure design and working principle of this male and female silkworm eggs automatic separation instrument could realize the expected objectives: it does not harm the female eggs, thus both male and female eggs are alive; it has high separation efficiency, with a designed sorting speed of 120 000 eggs/h and an accuracy rate of over 95%.

  14. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  15. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LightWater Reactors (CASL). Fivemain types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  16. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  17. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Rjabchenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic positions, characteristics for all pricing system. The essence of such pricing principles as scientific substantiation of prices, target direction of prices, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process, interrelation between pricing policy and general enterprise strategy, principle of legality, planned character, proportionality, adequacy, principle of interdependence between types and forms of selling, flexibility principle is considered.The table of the resulted principles allows us to group them after the followings descriptions:general principles: planned character principle, principle of legality, principle of proportionality, principle of adequacy, principle of flexibility;main principles: principle of scientific prices substantiation, principle of prices target direction, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process;specific principles: principle of connection between pricing policy and general strategy of enterprise, principle of interrelation between types and forms of selling, principle connected with the features of products which will be distribute, principle connected with buyers quality maintenance;individual principles: principle connected with market structure, principle that applies to the choice of reaction type and market conditions change and so on.Conclusions and directions of further researches. Research of theoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing forming

  18. Getting Back to the Basics of Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Because surveys now can be implemented with relative ease and little cost, many researchers are overlooking the basic principles of survey research. This chapter discusses sources of error that researchers should consider when conducting a survey, and gives readers basic suggestions for reducing error. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  19. On the Teaching Ideas of Basic Principle of Marxism-Combing Problem-based Teaching with Topic-oriented Teaching%马克思主义基本原理概论教学思路探讨--问题式教学与专题式教学相结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓喜道; 夏建华

    2015-01-01

    In terms of teaching of Basic principle of Marxism in colleges and universities, combining the Problem-based teaching with Top-oriented teaching is a kind of more effective teaching ideas. Based on the Problem-based teaching and establish special topics, and carry out the Problem-based teaching by way of the layout problems, ask questions, discussions, analyses and explainations, inductions and summaries, teachers should focus on combining it with Top-oriented teaching method, and playing guide part in teaching and better motivating students' learning initiative, and will also promote teachers' academic accomplishment with their teaching art.%在高校马克思主义基本原理概论教学中,将问题式教学与专题式教学相结合是一种颇具时效性的教学思路。以问题为原则确立专题,通过布置问题,提问、讨论、分析和讲解,归纳和总结等环节开展问题式教学,应注意以问题式教学法为核心,以专题式教学法确定教学内容结构,充分发挥教师引导性与与激发学生学习主动性,将教师的学术素养与教学艺术有机结合。

  20. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  1. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  2. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  3. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  4. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples...... of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... with enough knowledge to recognize, understand, and evaluate nonlinear optical phenomena. Structured so that the first five chapters are dedicated to the description of the fundamental formalism of nonlinear optics, and the last five chapters are devoted to a description of practical devices based...

  5. Principles of rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  6. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  7. Automobile Transmission Shift Control Based on MMAS and BP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The neural network control model of automobile automatic transmission has been developed, which make the optimum shift decision based on the vehicle velocity, the vehicle acceleration and the throttle opening. The MAX-MIN ant syste (MMAS is introduced to train the neural network weights and thresholds. The basic theory and steps of MMAS algorithm are given, and applied in the automatic transmission shift control. Experimental results show that the automatic transmission shift control system based on MMAS, comparing to the system based on ACO-BP, has better capability of gear recognition, and can make shift decision promptly and effectively.

  8. Introducing Viewpoints of Mechanics into Basic Growth Analysis : (VII) Mathematical Properties of Basic Growth Mechanics in Ruminant

    OpenAIRE

    Shimojo, Masataka; Shao, Tao; Masuda, Yasuhisa

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate mathematical properties of basic growth mechanics in ruminant by introducing newly developed viewpoints into mathematical operations of basic growth function. The negative sign, which appeared naturally by taking the square root of the differential equation based on basic growth mechanics, gave mathematical contradictions to the differential principle. In the process of correcting those contradictions, viewpoints of interest were newly introduced to giv...

  9. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  10. 29 CFR 779.101 - Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption... Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.101 Guiding principles for...; Fleming v. Hawkeye Pearl Button Co., 113 F. 2d 52.) Conditions specified in the language of the Act...

  11. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  12. A novel random phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method that reconstructs the information of specimen by using random phase shift step in digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The principles of the method are described and discussed in detail. In practical experiment, because the phase shifter is neither perfectly linear nor calibrated, digital holograms with inaccurate phase shift step are recorded by the charge-coupled device (CCD). The phase could be accurately reconstructed from the recorded digital holograms by using the random phase-shifting algorithm, which makes up for reconstructed phase error caused by ordinary phase-shifting algorithm. The phase aberration compensation is also discussed. In order to verify the flexibility of the proposed method, numerical simulation of random phase-shifting DHM was carried out. The simulation results illustrated that the presented method is effective when the phase shift step is unknown or random in DHM.

  13. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Berçot', Filipe Faria; Fidalgo Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thaís; Alves,Luiz Anastacio

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this publication are on ResearchGate and have made the full-text available on their profiles. As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching–learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces “Virtual Immunology,” a software program available free of charge in Portuguese...

  14. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part I: Basic concepts and expected benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper, the first from a series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ultrasound, discusses the basic principles and ultrasound-related problems of pulse compression. The concepts of signal modulation and matched filtering are given, and a simple model...... of attenuation relates the matched filter response with the ambiguity function, known from radar. Based on this analysis and the properties of the ambiguity function, the selection of coded waveforms suitable for ultrasound imaging is discussed. It is shown that linear frequency modulation (FM) signals have...... the best and most robust features for ultrasound imaging. Other coded signals such as nonlinear FM and binary complementary Golay codes also have been considered and characterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to frequency shifts. Using the simulation program Field II, it is found...

  15. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  16. Lifelong Education in Jewish Sources: Principles and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodesh, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Jewish cultural tradition shows strong support for lifelong learning and study for its own sake. Basic principles of Jewish education include functionalism (life change resulting from education) and accessibility (all are entitled to education). (SK)

  17. A Shift of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Administrative reforms are shifting prefecture government powers to the county level in an effort to boost local economies on July 8, the government of China’s southernmost Hainan Province announced that it was to hand over 177 of its administrative powers to county-level governments. The move practically dismantled the powers of the

  18. Refugees: do not forget the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malé, S

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the main challenges faced by relief workers in meeting the needs of refugees in terms of their health and nutritional status. The main causes of refugee deaths in "emergencies" have been documented and identified. This has allowed the definition of technical principles for health interventions in refugee settings: a multi-sectoral approach; involving the refugees; meeting specific needs of refugee children and women; instituting a simple and reliable health information system; and ensuring proper management and coordination among all partners. Two examples selected from UNHCR field operations illustrate how important it is to adhere to the basic technical principles. Finally, the article also emphasizes that health assistance in refugee situations takes place in a context which is complex and comprises many variables. In addition to their qualifications and experience, health professionals must also be aware of the global dynamics of a conflict situation. Their leading principle should be that all human beings have the right to appropriate health care.

  19. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  20. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  1. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  2. Health Literacy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. 1 Health literacy is dependent on individual and systemic factors: Communication skills of lay persons and professionals Lay and professional ...

  3. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  4. Principles of photography in rhinoplasty for the digital photographer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ravi S; Sykes, Jonathan M; Most, Sam P

    2010-04-01

    The art and technology of photography can be overwhelming to the facial plastic surgeon. Photographic documentation of patients undergoing rhinoplasty is essential for patient consultation, perioperative planning, and postsurgical evaluation. Possession of a basic understanding of photographic principles, technique, equipment, as well as consideration regarding consistency of patient positioning is essential for producing the best photographic results. This article reviews the basic principles of photography and discusses their application to facial plastic surgery practice, and rhinoplasty in particular.

  5. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  6. 德育创新不能背离教育的历史逻辑和德育的基本原理——与高德胜教授商榷%The Innovation of Moral Education Should Not Deviate from the Historical Logic of Education and the Basic Principles of Moral Education ---Consulting with Professor Gao Desheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文全

    2011-01-01

    学校德育应关注儿童的生活世界与现实利益,但学校德育与儿童的生活世界保持恰当的距离,并主动引领和建构人们的道德生活更是学校教育发展的必然结果和要求。从教育史、哲学、逻辑学、伦理学和德育学等角度分析,有的生活德育论者置教育的历史与现实以及一些基本原理和常识于不顾,否定人类道德行为的认知前提,鼓吹直觉、潜意识等非理性主义。所谓“在生活中展开的德育其过程与生活过程相一致”的生活德育论,无视学校德育的自觉性,夸大生活德育的教育功能,将青少年品德形成发展规律与学校德育规律混为一谈,甚至混淆了德育学科的基本概念。%The school moral education should pay attention to the children's life world and their actual benefits, but it is the necessary result and request of the development of the school education that should keep the proper distance with the children's life world to lead and construct the people's moral life actively. Analyzing from the multi-disciplinary perspective of educational history, philosophy, logic, ethics and the science of moral education, it is found out that some scholars of the theory of life moral education turn a deaf ear to both the history and reality of education and the basic principles and common sense of education. They neglect the cognition premise of human moral behavior, and advocate the non-rationalism as intuition and sub-consciousness, etc. The theory of life moral education advocates "the process of moral education in life is the same as the process of life", and disregards the consciousness of the school moral education and overemphasizes the educational function of the life moral education. The theory of life moral education confuses the law of teenagers' moral development with the law of school moral education. Even it confuses the basic definitions of the moral education, etc.

  7. Absolute surface metrology with a phase-shifting interferometer for incommensurate transverse spatial shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E E

    2014-02-10

    We consider the detailed implementation and practical utility of a novel absolute optical metrology scheme recently proposed for use with a phase-shifting interferometer (PSI). This scheme extracts absolute phase differences between points on the surface of the optic under test by differencing phase maps made with slightly different transverse spatial shifts of that optic. These absolute phase (or height) differences, which for single-pixel shifts are automatically obtained in the well-known Hudgin geometry, yield the underlying absolute surface map by standard wavefront reconstruction techniques. The PSI by itself maps surface height only relative to that of a separate reference optic known or assumed to be flat. In practice, even relatively high-quality (and expensive) transmission flats or spheres used to reference a PSI are flat or spherical only to a few dozen nanometers peak to valley (P-V) over typical 4 in. apertures. The new technique for removing the effects of the reference surface is in principle accurate as well as simple, and may represent a significant advance in optical metrology. Here it is shown that transverse shifts need not match the pixel size; somewhat counterintuitively, the single-pixel spatial resolution of the PSI is retained even when transverse shifts are much coarser. Practical considerations for shifts not necessarily commensurate with pixel size, and broader applications, are discussed.

  8. "Protection of European taxpayers by the principle of equality"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Saddiki, J.; Gribnau, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In general, the formal definition of the principle of equality is basically the same in the countries compared in this contibution. On the other hand, the fact that courts apply this principle according to their national point of view may account for some differences. Consequently, the same factual

  9. Corrective justice as a principle of civil liability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the principle of corrective justice as one of the basic principles of civil liability in the context of the modern living and increasing risks. The question that is raised with this paper is the influence the modern living and increasing risks have on the established bases of civil liability and tort law in general.

  10. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  11. On the Lamb shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, D. [Av. Tobalaba 3696, Puente Alto, Santiago, Metropolitana (Chile)

    2008-02-15

    The Lamb shift is calculated, in an approximate way, considering the hydrogen atom as an isolated physical system; the quantized radiation field does not play any role in the present approach. Our formalism is based on the generalization of the Dirac wave equation that incorporates the effects of the electron self-fields directly into it. Both the physical picture as well as the mathematical formalism have their roots in the classical theory of the electron. (author)

  12. REGION-WISE VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES ON LARGE STRAIN FOR CONSOLIDATION THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiao-hui; LI Yong-le; LUO Xin

    2005-01-01

    The difference of constitutive character and large deformation as to soil mass are basic questions to analyze deformational feature. According to the description method of limited deformation, the large deformation consolidation equations of soil mass were created and its variational principles were rigorously testified. The regionwise variational principles of consolidation theory were deduced using sub-structure continuous condition of region-wise. Quoting the method of Lagrangian multiplier operator, generalized variational principles of region-wise of large deformation consolidation in the nonconstrained condition were created and approved.

  13. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  14. RESTRUKTURISASI PEMBIAYAAN MURABAHAH DALAM MENDUKUNG MANAJEMEN RISIKO SEBAGAI IMPLEMENTASI PRUDENTIAL PRINCIPLE PADA BANK SYARIAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Murabahah finance to syariah bank was restructured by rescheduling, reconditioning, and prudential principle. It means that syariah bank had considered various aspects, such as, minimizing syariah bank risk and not making customers disadvantageous, even making both parties advantageous, in the restructuring. Then, the syariah bank must also consider basic Islamic economic principles, such as, riba, gharar and maisir as carefulness in Islamic law. Furthermore, applications of customer service principles, such as, know your customer principles, syariah principle and syariah accounting principle are an inherent part which cannot be separated from prudential principle. Application of the principles is syariah bank loyalty to valid regulation in restructuring finance.

  15. Energy phase shift as mechanism for catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2012-05-01

    Catalysts are agents that by binding reactant molecules lower the energy barriers to chemical reaction. After reaction the catalyst is regenerated, its unbinding energy recruited from the environment, which is associated with an inevitable loss of energy. We show that combining several catalytic sites to become energetically and temporally phase-shifted relative to each other provides a possibility to sustain the overall reaction by internal \\'energy recycling\\', bypassing the need for thermal activation, and in principle allowing the system to work adiabatically. Using an analytical model for superimposed, phase-shifted potentials of F 1-ATP synthase provides a description integrating main characteristics of this rotary enzyme complex. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Back to Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Abigail

    1998-01-01

    Offers some key business principles with the hope of helping educational facilities managers improve their operations. Looks at customer service, disparate databases, technological concerns, the mission of facility management, how to improve the bottom line, staffing ideas, future planning, and management suggestions. Lists seven habits of…

  17. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  18. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  19. Electrostatics determine vibrational frequency shifts in hydrogen bonded complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arghya; Mondal, Sohidul Islam; Sen, Saumik; Ghosh, Debashree; Patwari, G Naresh

    2014-12-14

    The red-shifts in the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration of C-H∙∙∙X (X = O, N) hydrogen-bonded complexes increase with an increase in the basicity of the Lewis base. Analysis of various components of stabilization energy suggests that the observed red-shifts are correlated with the electrostatic component of the stabilization energy, while the dispersion modulates the stabilization energy.

  20. Interactive computing in BASIC an introduction to interactive computing and a practical course in the BASIC language

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Peter C

    1973-01-01

    Interactive Computing in BASIC: An Introduction to Interactive Computing and a Practical Course in the BASIC Language provides a general introduction to the principles of interactive computing and a comprehensive practical guide to the programming language Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC). The book starts by providing an introduction to computers and discussing the aspects of terminal usage, programming languages, and the stages in writing and testing a program. The text then discusses BASIC with regard to methods in writing simple arithmetical programs, control stateme

  1. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  2. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  3. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  4. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  5. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  6. Modeling of the Voltage Injecting Phase-Shifting Transformers%电压注入式移相器建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on the circuit structure of the voltage injecting phase -shifting transformers, and according to the basic principle of transformers, the three-sequence equivalent circuit of the static state is derived. The single machine and infinite system with the voltage injecting phase -shifting transformer is simulated for the equivalent circuit, and the results prove the validity of the equivalent circuit.%根据电压注入式移相器电路结构,基于变压器的基本原理推导得到了其稳态的三序等值电路.结合一个含电压注入式移相器的单机无穷大系统,对得到的等值电路进行了仿真验证,结果证实了所得等值电路的正确性.

  7. Philosophy of democracy and Principles of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Chovancová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the title of suggests the article deals with the problems of democracy, its philosophy and also dominant principles. The author reflects interpretation of democracy on the society with their different understand.             Democracy represents a form of government, a way of political life where these principles are put into practice.             Democracy and its separate principles are expressed in the ultimate legal rules in the democratic countries. Principle of participation as a democratic principle rests with the fact that citizens have right to participate in state administration either directly or via their elected representatives. This principle also ensures that citizens participating in state administration enjoy equal basic rights and liberties and also guarantees that no person can be excluded from participation in state administration or from access to elected or other posts.             Methodology: In the article I using method of analyze - I analyzing dominant problems of democracy-its principles in democratic countries. Another method is comparation- understanding democracy from historical aspect. And the end I also using method of synthesis-explanation democracy understand today.

  8. Principles of Physics For Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Radi, Hafez A

    2013-01-01

    This textbook presents a basic course in physics to teach mechanics, mechanical properties of matter, thermal properties of matter, elementary thermodynamics, electrodynamics, electricity, magnetism, light and optics and sound. It includes simple mathematical approaches to each physical principle, and all examples and exercises are selected carefully to reinforce each chapter. In addition, answers to all exercises are included that should ultimately help solidify the concepts in the minds of the students and increase their confidence in the subject. Many boxed features are used to separate the examples from the text and to highlight some important physical outcomes and rules. The appendices are chosen in such a way that all basic simple conversion factors, basic rules and formulas, basic rules of differentiation and integration can be viewed quickly, helping student to understand the elementary mathematical steps used for solving the examples and exercises. Instructors teaching form this textbook will be able...

  9. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Carpenter, Steve; Foley, Jonathan A.; Folke, Carl; Walker, Brian

    2001-10-01

    All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

  10. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  11. Korean Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  12. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  13. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  14. Basic Library List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, William L., Jr.

    Reported is an initial attempt to define a minimal college mathematics library. Included is a list of some 300 books, from which approximately 170 are to be chosen to form a basic library in undergraduate mathematics. The areas provided for in this list include Algebra, Analysis, Applied Mathematics, Geometry, Topology, Logic, Foundations and Set…

  15. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  16. Basic Drafting: Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The second of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 12 topics in the following units: sketching techniques, geometric constructions, orthographic views, dimensioning procedures, basic tolerancing, auxiliary views, sectional views, inking tools and techniques, axonometrics, oblique, perspective, and computer-aided drafting.…

  17. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members at a lower cost. The four basic types of managed care plans are: HMO (Health Maintenance Organization). When you join an HMO, you choose a ... may have to pay more. EPO (Exclusive Provider Organization). An EPO is like a PPO, only ... Health Plan (CDHP) This type of plan is fairly new. It lets you ...

  18. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  19. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  20. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...

  1. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  2. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Paul; Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and...

  3. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  4. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  5. Electrical principles and technology for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to introduce students to the basic electrical and electronic principles needed by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of the subject, and the author has followed his usual successful formula, incorporating many worked examples and problems (answers supplied) into the learning process.Electrical Principles and Technology for Engineering is John Bird's core text for Further Education courses at BTEC levels N11 and N111 and Advanced GNVQ. It is also designed to provide a comprehe

  6. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  7. The rat in basic therapeutic research in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, R; Clausen, J; Albrecht, H

    2009-10-01

    The Similia Principle, the basis of homeopathy, implies that substances initiating symptoms when applied to healthy biological systems can be utilized as remedies to treat a diseased system with similar symptoms. Depending whether the remedy substance was of the same type as the etiologic agent, treatment is classified as either homologous or heterologous. The intact rat is the biological system most utilized in basic science homeopathic research. The Homeopathy Basic Research experiments (HomBRex) database (about 1300 experiments on model biological systems in homeopathic research) was analyzed for homologous and heterologous treatments of disease states of intact rats. The relationship between the Similia Principle and hormesis is discussed.

  8. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  9. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  10. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  11. Type WYZ-97 Eighteen-information Noninsulate Frequency-shift Automatic Blocking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Type WYZ-97 eighteen-information noninsulate frequency-shift automatic blocking system is the most advanced railroad signaling system in China nowadays.The article introduced its principles,technical targets,features and the applications.

  12. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  13. Visual Basic educational programme

    OpenAIRE

    Pranaitis, Arūnas

    2005-01-01

    Visual basic educational programme Informational Technologies has become such a popular subject that they are applied in all works of life. However, Informational Technologies are still rarely used in the lessons at school. There are such reasons of the mentioned issue: · Insufficient base of computers, · The old software and its disadvantages, · The lack of computerized educational programmes. The aim of the work was to prove that it is actual to create computerized educat...

  14. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  15. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  16. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  17. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  18. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco

    2014-05-19

    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease.

  19. Principles of the Lean Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír SMUTNÝ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies have to fight not only with the high rate of competition on the global market, but also with problems that relate with the financial crisis. They have to find new ways how they can stay on the global market and it can be talk also about their survival in context of the financial crisis. The way, how they can improve their management, can be the implementation of the Lean Company concept. The basics of this concept were developed in 50th of 20th century in Japan.The aims of this article are to characterize the main principles of the Lean Company, which come out from effective management methods, advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of this concept into the practice. The important part of this article is created SWOT analysis, which shows strong and weak points, opportunities and threats of this concept.

  20. Equivalence principles exotica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S. UNNIKRISHNAN; George T. GILLIES

    2008-01-01

    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  1. Software citation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfon M. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Software is a critical part of modern research and yet there is little support across the scholarly ecosystem for its acknowledgement and citation. Inspired by the activities of the FORCE11 working group focused on data citation, this document summarizes the recommendations of the FORCE11 Software Citation Working Group and its activities between June 2015 and April 2016. Based on a review of existing community practices, the goal of the working group was to produce a consolidated set of citation principles that may encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for software citation across disciplines and venues. Our work is presented here as a set of software citation principles, a discussion of the motivations for developing the principles, reviews of existing community practice, and a discussion of the requirements these principles would place upon different stakeholders. Working examples and possible technical solutions for how these principles can be implemented will be discussed in a separate paper.

  2. On basic equation of statistical physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢修三

    1996-01-01

    Considering that thermodynamic irreversibility, the principle of entropy increase and hydrodynamic equations cannot be derived rigorously and in a unified way from the Liouville equations, the anomalous Langevin equation in Liouville space or its equivalent generalized Liouville equation is proposed as a basic equation of statistical physics. This equation reflects the fact that the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is stochastic, but not deterministic. From that the nonequilibrium entropy, the principle of entropy increase, the theorem of minimum entropy production and the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy have been derived. The hydrodynamic equations, such as the generalized Navier-Stokes equation and the mass drift-diffusion equation, etc. have been derived from the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy. This equation has the same equilibrium solution as that of the Liouville equation. All these are unified and rigorous without adding any extra assumption. But it is difficult to prove that th

  3. The principles of teratology: are they still true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jan M

    2010-10-01

    James Wilson originally proposed a set of "Principles of Teratology" in 1959, the year before he helped to found the Teratology Society. By 1977, when these Principles were presented in a more definitive form in Wilson and Fraser's Handbook of Teratology, they had become a standard formulation of the basic tenets of the field. Wilson's Principles have continued to guide scientific research in teratology, and they are widely used in teaching. Recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular and cellular bases of embryogenesis serve only to provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental developmental mechanisms that underlie Wilson's Principles of Teratology.

  4. Holographic data storage system combining shift-multiplexing with peristrophic-multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kengo; Tsukamoto, Yu; Okubo, Kaito; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is a next-generation optical storage that uses the principles of holography. The multiplex holographic recording method is an important factor that affects the recording capacity of this storage. Various multiplex recording methods have been proposed so far. In this study, we focus on shift multiplexing with spherical waves and propose a method of shift multiplex recording that combines the peristrophic multiplexed recording. Simulation and experimental verification shows that the proposed method is effective in principle.

  5. The Principle of the Fermionic Projector, Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The "principle of the fermionic projector" provides a new mathematical framework for the formulation of physical theories and is a promising approach for physics beyond the standard model. The book begins with a brief review of relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics and classical gauge theories, with the emphasis on the basic physical concepts and the mathematical foundations. The external field problem and Klein's paradox are discussed and then resolved by introducing the so-called fermi...

  6. The shifting geography and language of cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-05-11

    With the increase in scientific activity globally, the geographical focus of basic research is shifting away from the West. At the same time, multidisciplinary approaches are uncovering new layers in our understanding of how cells work. How will these trends affect cell biology in the near future?

  7. Understanding regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heymann, Matthias; Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    power largely failed until the late 1970s. Denmark was the first country to develop reliable wind energy converters and successfully use wind power in the course of the 1970s and 80s. The reinvention of wind power use has been described as a remarkable success story. Wind technology development...... in Denmark proved more successful than heavily funded efforts in the USA, Sweden or Germany. Within few years, Danish wind turbines dominated California wind parks and outclassed the turbines from other producers. Since the 1980s, all successful wind turbine producers copied basic features of “Danish Design......Wind power was an important power source not only in the preindustrial era but also into the nineteenth and early twentieth century. In most regions by the mid twentieth century the ubiquitous windmill was quickly replaced by alternative power sources, mainly electricity. Efforts to revive wind...

  8. Basic Statistical Concepts for Sample Size Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal K Dhulkhed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For grant proposals the investigator has to include an estimation of sample size .The size of the sample should be adequate enough so that there is sufficient data to reliably answer the research question being addressed by the study. At the very planning stage of the study the investigator has to involve the statistician. To have meaningful dialogue with the statistician every research worker should be familiar with the basic concepts of statistics. This paper is concerned with simple principles of sample size calculation. Concepts are explained based on logic rather than rigorous mathematical calculations to help him assimilate the fundamentals.

  9. Integration of basic electromagnetism and engineering technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1995-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetism is taught as a part of most contemporary electrical engineering curricula. Usually a basic course is intended to cover all the fundamental electromagnetic theory which is needed in later engineering courses. However it is often found that students fail to understand...... theoretical course contents have been reduced to a core of fundamental principles. These are combined with the study of magnetic properties of materials closely related to manufacturer's data sheets. To enhance the understanding of these fundamentals, practical topics from engineering technology are included....... Components or systems that combine magnetic, electrical and mechanical aspects are preferred. Also, a series of hands-on lab projects give the students an opportunity to learn by doing. The topics that are covered by the course are outlined. By integrating the teaching of basic physical laws...

  10. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  11. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  12. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  13. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  14. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  15. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  16. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutations (galactosemia) also contribute to perturbations of the menstrual cycle. Although not perfect, mouse model have helped to identify and confirm additional components and pathways in menstrual cycle function and dysfunction in humans. PMID:18574203

  17. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  18. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  19. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  20. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  1. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  2. An adaptation to changes in knee muscle strength is a basic principle for rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction%适应膝关节肌力变化:是重建前交叉韧带后康复治疗的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建

    2014-01-01

    databases was performed for articles related to muscle strength change after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, elevation methods, muscle function rehabilitation published from January 2000 to January 2014. The keywords were“anterior cruciate ligament;hamstring;muscle strength;electromechanical delay”in English and Chinese. Final y 34 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Removal of the hamstring tendon can decrease muscle strength of the involved knee flexor and tibial internal rotation strength, then affect the involved knee stability and functional ability. Based on the clinical signs and isokinetic testing results, we can assess the clinical effects after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The change of H/Q ratio can be used to guide the rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Graft remodeling process after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has a longer period than other animal experimental studies, and tendon relaxation degree is an important factor influencing electromechanical delay. Based on the basic rehabilitation principles, the rehabilitation training is adjusted timely according to the individual functional level to ful y embody the individualized training. Both domestic and foreign researches indicate that the rehabilitation process begins before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, in order to start training of muscle contraction as early as possible to maximize prevent muscle atrophy. The problems are mainly concentrated in the more refined and scientific rehabilitation methods and the degree of early rehabilitation training.

  3. A Navajo Paradigm for Long Life Happiness--and for Reversing Navajo Language Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Navajo model by which individuals may assume responsibility for reversing Navajo language shift. Argues that reversing Navajo language shift requires that Navajos acknowledge the problem, that Navajo principles of balance and the natural order be applied to the problem, and that Navajo individuals and families make a commitment to…

  4. Principles Scientifiques, Principes Philosophiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Gaston Granger

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A principle is a starting point of departure as well as a rule. In science principles are either alleged evident rules or generalizations of already accepted laws, or formal determinations for objects in a given domain. Thus two problems arise: first, does their nature have a conventional character? and sencond, what kind of truth is to be assigned to them. In philosophy principles are taken as a method of thinking as well as fundamental experiences. Even though they are points of departure, their true meaning is known only after a philosophical job is done. Thus, paradoxically enough, we can say that in both science and philosophy a principle is at the same time in the begining and in the end.

  5. The Symmetry Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Rosen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The symmetry principle is described in this paper. The full details are given in the book: J. Rosen, Symmetry in Science: An Introduction to the General Theory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995.

  6. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  7. Send Student Interest Skyward!: Soaring Teaches Aeronautics Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Joe; Wallace, Art

    2011-01-01

    Gliders and sailplanes provide a great launching platform for teaching about technology and scientific principles. Soaring is technological innovation in action, using earth's natural resources for energy and endurance during flight. This article focuses on the basics of soaring, which educators can use to increase excitement and interest in the…

  8. Send Student Interest Skyward! Soaring Teaches Aeronautics Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Joe; Wallace, Art

    2011-01-01

    Gliders and sailplanes provide a great launching platform for teaching about technology and scientific principles. Soaring is technological innovation in action, using earth's natural resources for energy and endurance during flight. This article focuses on the basics of soaring, which educators can use to increase excitement and interest in the…

  9. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  10. Civil Affairs Authorities Bent on Protecting People s Basic Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In response to the global financial crisis,China's civil affairs au-thorities redoubled their effort in 2009 to improve the livelihood of the Chinese people and protect their basic rights and interests under the constitutional principle of respectingand protecting human rights.

  11. Variational analysis and generalized differentiation I basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mordukhovich, Boris S

    2006-01-01

    Contains a study of the basic concepts and principles of variational analysis and generalized differentiation in both finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional spaces. This title presents many applications to problems in optimization, equilibria, stability and sensitivity, control theory, economics, mechanics, and more.

  12. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  13. Heisenberg's observability principle

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, JE

    2014-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper ‘Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations’ marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be ‘founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable’. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpr...

  14. Ternary optical computer principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.

  15. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  16. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  17. On the Supervision Mechanism of Conditional Non-prosecution System---From the Perspective of the Basic Principles of the Criminal Procedure Law%论附条件不起诉之监督机制--以刑事诉讼法基本原则为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴璨

    2015-01-01

    刑事诉讼法原则是贯穿于整个刑事诉讼的指导思想,在附条件不起诉的监督制度中,互相制约、严格遵守法定程序等基本原则都所有体现。但因现行附条件不起诉监督制度存在不足,导致了部分刑事诉讼法原则在附条件不起诉监督制度适用还存在很大的空间。诸如,在附条件不起诉决定程序,完善互相制约原则的适用,构建法院司法审查权提前介入制度;完善严格遵守法律程序原则的适用,确立程序违法的附条件不起诉决定撤销制度;在附条件不起诉救济程序中,完善检察权专属于检察机关行使原则,赋予检察机关对不法的附条件不起诉决定的撤销权。此外,严格的惩戒制度也是遏制不起诉裁量权滥用的重要力量。%Principles of criminal procedure law is the guiding ideology,which exists throughout all criminal proceedings. In conditional non-prosecution supervision system, the principles of the mutual restriction and observing the statutory procedures are all strictly reflected. However, current conditional non-prosecution supervision system exist deficiency, which creates that the appliance of some principles has adequate space in conditional non-prosecution supervision system. Such as in conditional non-prosecution decision procedure, establishing the system of judicial review power of early intervention, to improve the appliance of the mutual restriction principle; establishing withdraw system of conditional non-prosecution decision and to improve the appliance of observing the statutory procedures principle if procedures illegal, while in the conditional non-prosecution relief program, to improve the appliance of principle of prosecutorial power belonging to exclusively prosecution and giving prosecutors the revocation right of illegal conditional non-prosecution decision. Moreover, strict disciplinary system is a major force to curb the abuse of conditional non

  18. Unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified new way proposed by Luo, the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics can be established systematically. This new variational principles can fully characterize the initial-boundary-value problem of this dynamics. In this paper, the expression of the generalized principle of virtual work for electromagnetic dynamics is given. Based on this equation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work in electromagnetic dynamics, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for eleven-field, nine-field and six-field unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics, and the potential energy functionals for four-field and three-field ones by the generalized Legendre transformation given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  19. Generalized uncertainty principles

    CERN Document Server

    Machluf, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reason...

  20. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  1. Beam shifts and distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Aiello, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    When a beam of light is reflected by a smooth surface its behavior deviates from geometrical optics predictions. Such deviations are quantified by the so-called spatial and angular Goos-Haenchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts of the reflected beam. These shifts depend upon the shape of the incident beam, its polarization and on the material composition of the reflecting surface. In this article we suggest a novel approach that allows one to unambiguously isolate the beam-shape dependent aspects of GH and IF shifts. We show that this separation is possible as a result of some universal features of shifted distribution functions which are presented and discussed.

  2. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  3. Basics of plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuderi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to contemporary plasma physics that discusses the most relevant recent advances in the field and covers a careful choice of applications to various branches of astrophysics and space science. The purpose of the book is to allow the student to master the basic concepts of plasma physics and to bring him or her up to date in a number of relevant areas of current research. Topics covered include orbit theory, kinetic theory, fluid models, magnetohydrodynamics, MHD turbulence, instabilities, discontinuities, and magnetic reconnection. Some prior knowledge of classical physics is required, in particular fluid mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. The mathematical developments are self-contained and explicitly detailed in the text. A number of exercises are provided at the end of each chapter, together with suggestions and solutions.

  4. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  5. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  6. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  7. 浅谈人文关怀教育在马克思主义理论课教学中的运用——以《马克思主义基本原理概论》课为例%A Brief Discussion on the Humane Care Education in Marxist Theory Teaching——A case study of Introduction to basic principles of Marxism course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王功名

    2011-01-01

    马克思的全部理论都洋溢着人文关怀的思想。从人文关怀教育与马克思主义理论教学的关系出发,在分析马克思主义理论课人文关怀教育现状的基础上,提出人文关怀教育在《马克思主义基本原理概论》课教学中实现的途径与方法。该研究对深入挖掘和大力弘扬马克思主义人文关怀的思想有一定的理论价值和实践意义。%All Marx's theory is filled with humanistic thoughts.This article starts from the humanities education and the Marx doctrine theory teaching relation sets out,in the analysis of Marx theory course humanities concern education present situation in the foundation,proposing the way and method for the humanities concern education in the Marx doctrine in the teaching of the course of Introduction to the Basic Principle of Marxism.The study of deep mining and vigorously carry forward the Marx doctrine humanistic thoughts have certain theory value and the practice significance.

  8. Basic design of beamline and polarization control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The basic concept of synchrotron radiation beamlines for vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray experiments has been introduced to beginning users and designers of beamlines. The beamline defined here is composed of a front end,pre-mirrors, and a monochromator with refocusing mirrors, which are connected by beam pipes, providing monochromatic light for the experiments. Firstly, time characteristics of the synchrotron radiation are briefly reviewed.Secondly, the basic technology is introduced as the fundamental knowledge required to both users and designers. The topics are photoabsorption by air and solids, front ends and beam pipes, mirrors, monochromators, and filters. Thirdly,the design consideration is described mainly for the designers. The topics are design principle, principle of ray tracing,optical machinery and control, and vacuum. Fourthly, polarization control is considered. The topics are polarizers,polarization diagnosis of beamline, and circularly-polarized light generation. Finally, a brief summary is given introducing some references for further knowledge of the users and the designers.

  9. Effects of shifting time on pressure impact in hydraulic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhen-cai; CHEN Guo-an

    2005-01-01

    The limitations in existing measures for absorbing pressure impact in hydraulic systems were summarized in this paper. Based on the forming principle of the oil in a hydrostatic closed pressure chamber, the underlying reasons of the pressure impact were analyzed theoretically, the intrinsic laws that the extent of the pressure impact in hydraulic oil lines are affected by some factors, such as oil elastic modulus, oil line's geometrical volume, and changing rate of oil volume versus time etc, were discussed. Experimental investigations into pressure impact in all pressure chambers because of shifting were conducted under different working conditions by employing a special experimental system. The effects of shifting time on pressure impact were studied. A new concept with universal meaning, i.e. optimal shifting time, and its characterizing parameter and the methods of shifting at optimal shifting time were also proposed. The results show that shifting time lag △t is of rationality and maneuverablility. The higher the working pressure, the shorter the shifting time.

  10. Shifting problems and shifting policies to reduce student drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2016-01-01

    -out, as well as the policies that have been implemented in pursuit of improving student retention. The review identifies two pervasive ways in which the drop-out problem has been framed in both policy and research. The first locates the drop-out problem with individual students, while the second locates...... the problem with the educational system. This study of Danish vocational education policy examines both (i) how student attrition has been framed in different periods, and (ii) the solutions that have been prescribed in accordance with shifting conceptualisations of early school leaving. The author’s inquiry...... finds that the rate of student drop-out has been a cause for ongoing concern among policy makers for more than a century, and that the framing of the problem has shifted considerably over time. The problem has variously been placed with the individual apprentice, the basic structure of vocational...

  11. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  12. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  13. Regime shifts in resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Resource management has to take account of the possibility of tipping points and regime shifts in ecological systems that provide the resources. This article focuses on the typical model of regime shifts in the ecological literature and analyzes optimal management and common-property issues when tra

  14. A Principle of Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  15. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  16. Basic Questions of Kant's Ethics of Responsibility The Reverse Order Interpretation of Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals%康德责任论伦理学的基本问题——关于《道德形而上学原理》的倒序解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯书生

    2012-01-01

    Just as any moral philosopher with systematic theory in history, the basic viewpoints on human is the basic point of departure of Kant' s ethics of responsibility. The rationality of his theory lies in the rationality of Kant' s basic viewpoints on human. Kant emphasizes human rationality and reveals the hu- man autonomy as the intrinsic human freedom of will, as the nature. Based on this judgment, foundation of his ethics of respons Kant takes the human autonomy, i. e. ibility.%如同人类历史上任何一位有系统理论体系的道德哲学家一样,关于人的基本看法是康德责任论伦理学的基本出发点,其理论的合理性在很大程度上就取决于康德关于人的基本看法的合理性。康德通过强调人是有理性的东西,从类的角度深刻合理地揭示了人有自主能动性这一本质属性。基于这一判断,康德将人的自主能动性,也即人的意志自由作为责任论伦理学的基础。

  17. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  18. Identifying and Investigating the Late-1960s Interhemispheric SST Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Liu, Y.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The global north-south interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) difference experienced a pronounced and rapid decrease in the late 1960s, which has been linked to drying in the Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia. However, some basic questions about the interhemispheric SST shift remain unresolved, including its scale and whether the constituent changes in different basins were coordinated. In this study, we systematically investigate the spatial and temporal behavior of the late-1960s interhemispheric SST shift using ocean surface and subsurface observations. We also evaluate potential mechanisms using control and specific-forcing CMIP5 simulations. Using a regime shift detection technique, we identify the late-1960s shift as the most prominent in the historical observational SST record. We additionally examine the corresponding changes in upper-ocean heat content and salinity associated with the shift. We find that there were coordinated upper-ocean cooling and freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic, the region of the largest-magnitude SST decrease during the interhemispheric shift. These upper-ocean changes correspond to a weakened North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). However, the THC decrease does not fully account for the rapid global interhemispheric SST shift, particularly the warming in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Basics of aerothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    This successful book gives an introduction to the basics of aerothermodynamics, as applied in particular to winged re-entry vehicles and airbreathing hypersonic cruise and acceleration vehicles. The book gives a review of the issues of transport of momentum, energy and mass, real-gas effects as well as inviscid and viscous flow phenomena. In this second, revised edition the chapters with the classical topics of aerothermodynamics more or less were left untouched. The access to some single topics of practical interest was improved. Auxiliary chapters were put into an appendix. The recent successful flights of the X-43A and the X-51A indicate that the dawn of sustained airbreathing hypersonic flight now has arrived. This proves that the original approach of the book to put emphasis on viscous effects and the aerothermodynamics of radiation-cooled vehicle surfaces was timely. This second, revised edition even more accentuates these topics. A new, additional chapter treats examples of viscous thermal surface eff...

  20. [Basic research in pulmonology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the articles dealing with basic science published in recent issues of Archivos de Bronconeumología. Of particular interest with regard to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were an article on extrapulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress and another on bronchial remodeling. The articles relating to asthma included a review on the use of drugs that block free immunoglobulin-E and an article about the contribution of experimental models to our knowledge of this disease. Two of the most interesting articles on the topic of lung cancer dealt with gene therapy and resistance to chemotherapy. Also notable were 2 studies that investigated ischemia-reperfusion injury. One evaluated tissue resistance to injury while the other analyzed the role played by interleukin-8 in this process. On the topic of pulmonary fibrosis, an article focused on potential biomarkers of progression and prognosis; others dealt with the contribution of experimental models to our understanding of this disorder and the fibrogenic role of transforming growth factor b. In the context of both sleep apnea syndrome and pulmonary infection, studies investigating the role of oxidative stress were published. Finally, 2 studies analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and other pulmonary infections.