WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic physical constraints

  1. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  2. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  3. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  4. Basic ionizing physic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    To become an expert in this field, radiographer must first master in radiation physics. That why the second chapter discussed on radiation physic. The topic that must covered such as atom and molecule, atomic structure, proton, isotope, half life, types of radiation and some basic formula such as formula for shielding, half life, half value layer, tenth value layer and more. All of this must be mastered by radiographer if they want to know more detail on this technique because this technique was a combination of theory and practical. Once they failed the theory they cannot go further on this technique. And to master this technique, once cannot depend on theory only. So, for this technique theory and practical must walk together.

  5. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  6. Phloem physics: mechanisms, constraints, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H

    2018-04-13

    Plants have evolved specialized vascular tissues for the distribution of energy, water, nutrients, and for communication. The phloem transports sugars from photosynthetic source regions (e.g. mature leaves) to sugar sinks (e.g. developing tissues such as buds, flowers, roots). Moreover, chemical signals such as hormones, RNAs and proteins also move in the phloem. Basic physical processes strongly limit phloem anatomy and function. This paper provides an overview of recent research and perspectives on phloem biomechanics and the physical constraints relevant to sugar transport in plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Basic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the chapters in this book are devoted to the theory of small amplitude perturbations which is the most well developed aspect of the subject. The remaining chapters are concerned with weak nonlinear waves, and collapse and self-focusing of Langmuir waves, two topics of widespread interest and application. A chapter on particle simulation has been included, as that numerical technique plays an essential role in the development an understanding of plasma physics

  8. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  9. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1976-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  10. Basic Concepts of Surface Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degras, D A

    1974-07-01

    The basic concepts of surface physics are given in this paper which deals mainly with the thermodynamics of metal surfaces. one finds also a short review of vibrational and electronic properties. Written for a Summer School, the text provides numerous references.

  11. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  12. Main physics features driving design concept and physics design constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Noboru; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Shin

    1987-07-01

    Major physics design philosophies are described, which are essential bases for a plasma design and may have significant impacts on a reactor design concept. Those design philosophies are classified into two groups, physics design drivers and physics design constraints. The design drivers are featured by the fact that a designer is free to choose and the choice may be guided by his opinion, such as ignition, a pulse length, an operation scenario, etc.. The design constraints may follow a physical law, such as plasma confinement, β-limit, density limit, and so on. (author)

  13. Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plasma Physics Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Khanapara, ..... tic wave) to form a random collection of the nonlinear wave grains (like ... [8] M S Sodha and S Guha, in Advances in plasma phyiscs edited by A ...

  14. Visual Basic Applications to Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitu, Catalin; Inpuscatu, Razvan Constantin; Viziru, Marilena

    2011-01-01

    Derived from basic language, VB (Visual Basic) is a programming language focused on the video interface component. With graphics and functional components implemented, the programmer is able to bring and use their components to achieve the desired application in a relatively short time. Language VB is a useful tool in physics teaching by creating…

  15. Constraints on particle physics from cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Charlton, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmology and particle physics have become symbiotic in their relationship. In the past, developments in physics have been used to explain astrophysics problems. Recently, cosmology also has been able to place constraints on particle properties and these constraints can be tested by experiment. Thus, the flow of information at the interface of particle physics and cosmology is no longer just one-way. (Astronomy is no longer a parasite of physics.) Many examples of the interchange are described in this review. The timeline of cosmology is rapidly filling in as later events find their explanations in earlier events. In this review, the authors mention what is known about each epoch and show how it might constrain the particle models. Since a great deal of effort is devoted currently to the study of the dark matter problem, special emphasis will be placed on this issue. This study of dark matter and galaxy formation will allow us to draw upon much of what was discussed in earlier epochs. This review draws heavily on a previous review by the authors

  16. From physical dose constraints to equivalent uniform dose constraints in inverse radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieke, Christian; Bortfeld, Thomas; Niemierko, Andrzej; Nill, Simeon

    2003-01-01

    Optimization algorithms in inverse radiotherapy planning need information about the desired dose distribution. Usually the planner defines physical dose constraints for each structure of the treatment plan, either in form of minimum and maximum doses or as dose-volume constraints. The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was designed to describe dose distributions with a higher clinical relevance. In this paper, we present a method to consider the EUD as an optimization constraint by using the method of projections onto convex sets (POCS). In each iteration of the optimization loop, for the actual dose distribution of an organ that violates an EUD constraint a new dose distribution is calculated that satisfies the EUD constraint, leading to voxel-based physical dose constraints. The new dose distribution is found by projecting the current one onto the convex set of all dose distributions fulfilling the EUD constraint. The algorithm is easy to integrate into existing inverse planning systems, and it allows the planner to choose between physical and EUD constraints separately for each structure. A clinical case of a head and neck tumor is optimized using three different sets of constraints: physical constraints for all structures, physical constraints for the target and EUD constraints for the organs at risk, and EUD constraints for all structures. The results show that the POCS method converges stable and given EUD constraints are reached closely

  17. Basic physics of one-dimensional metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1976-01-01

    Largely nonmathematical qualitative lectures are given on the basic physics of nearly one-dimensional conductors. The main emphasis is placed on the properties of a purely one-dimensional electron gas. The effects of a real system having interchain coupling, impurities, a compressible lattice, lattice distortions and phonon anomalies are discussed

  18. Donor Financing of Basic Education: Opportunities and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Liesbet; Wathne, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been made in improving access to basic education in recent years, but international support has been less than promised and the "funding gap" to achieve universal primary education remains stubbornly present. This article identifies six interrelated factors that constrain such donor financing. Prioritization of basic education,…

  19. Basic theoretical physics a concise overview

    CERN Document Server

    Krey, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This concise treatment embraces, in four parts, all the main aspects of theoretical physics (I . Mechanics and Basic Relativity, II. Electrodynamics and Aspects of Optics, III. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics). It summarizes the material that every graduate student, physicist working in industry, or physics teacher should master during his or her degree course. It thus serves both as an excellent revision and preparation tool, and as a convenient reference source, covering the whole of theoretical physics. It may also be successfully employed to deepen its readers' insight and add new dimensions to their understanding of these fundamental concepts. Recent topics such as holography and quantum cryptography are included, thus making this a unique contribution to the learning material for theoretical physics.

  20. The perceived constraints, motivation, and physical activity levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was threefold; Are Korean youth physically active to promote health during leisure time? What constraints to physical active do youth experience during leisure time? Are there relationships among constraints, motivation, and physical activity level? Of 1 280 youth randomly selected by a ...

  1. Unparticle physics constraints from the hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondrak, Michael Florian; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Unparticle stuff has been proposed as an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics by including scale invariant fields. In the framework of effective field theory, it describes the low-energy limit of a so-called Banks-Zaks sector which exhibits scale invariance below an energy scale Λ{sub U}. Unparticle fields are characterized by a non-integer canonical scaling dimension d{sub U}, which leads to unusual properties like resembling a fractional number of (un)particles. The existence of unparticle stuff may be detected experimentally through the interaction with conventional matter. After a review on the unparticle theory and the static potential due to virtual unparticle exchange, we focus on its impact on hydrogen atom energy levels. We obtain the energy shift of the ground state by using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and compare it with experimental data. In this way, bounds on the energy scale Λ{sub U} as a function of d{sub U} are derived. Finally, we offer a comparison with existing constraints in literature like the lepton magnetic anomaly. For some parameter regimes, the hydrogen bound provides competitive results.

  2. Theoretical physics 6 quantum mechanics : basics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to the basics of quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the physical understanding further on to quantized states. The first part of the book introduces wave equations while exploring the Schrödinger equation and the hydrogen atom. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the Dirac formulism of quantum mechanics. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this...

  3. Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    Continued technical developments are greatly changing medical diagnosis and medical care. In the field of cardiology, a number of new imaging techniques are currently available. This chapter reviews several topics that are important in the practice of nuclear cardiology. The first section discusses some of the basics of nuclear physics. Familiarity with these fundamentals is essential for an in-depth understanding of nuclear cardiology. The second section presents information on radiotracers and provides dosimetry estimates for commonly performed studies. The third section reviews the instruments used to detect radioactivity. The final section discusses computers and their applications and limitations in nuclear cardiology

  4. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  5. The basic physics of neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1999-01-01

    The basic physical principles behind the well-established but also developing practice of neutron scattering experiments are presented. A few examples are given either to illustrate the physical principles or to give an idea of the variety, importance or magnitude of various phenomena. The evolution of neutron scattering experimental techniques is investigated from a special aspect: the increasing capability of taking into account more and more important and sometimes decisive finer details by using more and more realistic mathematical models of the evolution of the neutrons from birth do death, eventually passing by the sample and being scattered more than one times. Working with such numerical 'virtual instruments' one will have to go far beyond notions like resolution function, convolution etc, and actually eliminate a large number of approximations currently in use. (K.A.)

  6. Protein Folding: Search for Basic Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Y. Torshin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How a unique three-dimensional structure is rapidly formed from the linear sequence of a polypeptide is one of the important questions in contemporary science. Apart from biological context of in vivo protein folding (which has been studied only for a few proteins, the roles of the fundamental physical forces in the in vitro folding remain largely unstudied. Despite a degree of success in using descriptions based on statistical and/or thermodynamic approaches, few of the current models explicitly include more basic physical forces (such as electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Moreover, the present-day models rarely take into account that the protein folding is, essentially, a rapid process that produces a highly specific architecture. This review considers several physical models that may provide more direct links between sequence and tertiary structure in terms of the physical forces. In particular, elaboration of such simple models is likely to produce extremely effective computational techniques with value for modern genomics.

  7. Atomic physics constraints on the X boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschura, Ulrich D.; Nándori, István

    2018-04-01

    Recently, a peak in the light fermion pair spectrum at invariant q2≈(16.7MeV ) 2 has been observed in the bombardment of 7Li by protons. This peak has been interpreted in terms of a protophobic interaction of fermions with a gauge boson (X boson) of invariant mass ≈16.7 MeV which couples mainly to neutrons. High-precision atomic physics experiments aimed at observing the protophobic interaction need to separate the X boson effect from the nuclear-size effect, which is a problem because of the short range of the interaction (11.8 fm), which is commensurate with a "nuclear halo." Here we analyze the X boson in terms of its consequences for both electronic atoms as well as muonic hydrogen and deuterium. We find that the most promising atomic systems where the X boson has an appreciable effect, distinguishable from a finite-nuclear-size effect, are muonic atoms of low and intermediate nuclear charge numbers.

  8. General quadratic gauge theory: constraint structure, symmetries and physical functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D M [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tyutin, I V [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-17

    How can we relate the constraint structure and constraint dynamics of the general gauge theory in the Hamiltonian formulation to specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially relate the constraint structure to the gauge transformation structure of the Lagrangian action? How can we construct the general expression for the gauge charge if the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation is known? Whether we can identify the physical functions defined as commuting with first-class constraints in the Hamiltonian formulation and the physical functions defined as gauge invariant functions in the Lagrangian formulation? The aim of the present paper is to consider the general quadratic gauge theory and to answer the above questions for such a theory in terms of strict assertions. To fulfil such a programme, we demonstrate the existence of the so-called superspecial phase-space variables in terms of which the quadratic Hamiltonian action takes a simple canonical form. On the basis of such a representation, we analyse a functional arbitrariness in the solutions of the equations of motion of the quadratic gauge theory and derive the general structure of symmetries by analysing a symmetry equation. We then use these results to identify the two definitions of physical functions and thus prove the Dirac conjecture.

  9. AECL programs in basic physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Dolling, G.; Harvey, M.; Milton, J.C.D.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes the CRNL program of research into the basic properties of atomic nuclei and condensed matter (liquids and solids). Brief descriptions are given of some of the current experimental programs done principally at the NRU reactor and MP tandem accelerator, the associated theoretical studies, and some highlights of past achievements

  10. Basic course in theoretical physics. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, H.D.

    1973-01-01

    This book is the first volume of an edition of two volumes which concern theoretical physics. In this volume the mechanics of a point mass, electric and magnetic fields, and the mechanics of two point, masses, rig: 1 bodies, and deformable 50 lids are considered. This book is suited for students who want to get some fundamental knowledge of theoretical physics. (HSI)

  11. Basic physics with ultra cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protasov, K.

    2007-01-01

    A short introduction to the physics of Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) is given. It covers different aspects from their discovery, their major properties as well as their using in the three experiments of fundamental physics: measurements of the neutron life time and of its electric dipole moment and studies of neutrons quantum states in the Earth's gravitational field. (author)

  12. A Joyous Romp Through Basic Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some years ago, this reviewer began an addi- tional preface to the Indian edition of the. Feynman Lectures on Physics (FLP) with the words, “The Feynman Lectures on Physics rank among the classics of our times, and it borders on impertinence to attempt to write a preface to them”. If a preface is impertinence, a review ...

  13. Determining physical constraints in transcriptional initiationcomplexes using DNA sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultzaberger, Ryan K.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2007-07-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is often under the control ofcooperatively acting transcription factors whose binding is limited bystructural constraints. By determining these structural constraints, wecan understand the "rules" that define functional cooperativity.Conversely, by understanding the rules of binding, we can inferstructural characteristics. We have developed an information theory basedmethod for approximating the physical limitations of cooperativeinteractions by comparing sequence analysis to microarray expressiondata. When applied to the coordinated binding of the sulfur amino acidregulatory protein Met4 by Cbf1 and Met31, we were able to create acombinatorial model that can correctly identify Met4 regulatedgenes.

  14. Basic radiation physics and chemistry of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybytniak, G.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    Composites are increasingly more important in the applied and fundamental polymer science, and the participation of radiation processing of these systems increase. In presented paper the newest achievements of radiation physics and chemistry of composites are reviewed. It is stressed, that although main experimental effort is directed towards the development of composites as such, and investigation of their specific properties, mechanical, physicochemical and physical, the radiation processing will enter the field on the wider scale, especially as concerns specialized plastics

  15. Operational symmetries basic operations in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saller, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the endeavour to relate the particle spectrum with representations of operational electroweak spacetime, in analogy to the atomic spectrum as characterizing representations of hyperbolic space. The spectrum of hyperbolic position space explains the properties of the nonrelativistic atoms; the spectrum of electroweak spacetime is hoped to explain those of the basic interactions and elementary particles. In this book, the theory of operational symmetries is developed from the numbers, from Plato’s and Kepler’s symmetries over the simple Lie groups to their applications in nonrelativistic, special relativistic and general relativistic quantum theories with the atomic spectrum for hyperbolic position and, in first attempts, the particle spectrum for electroweak spacetime. The standard model of elementary particles and interactions is characterized by a symmetry group. In general, as initiated by Weyl and stressed by Heisenberg, quantum theory can be built as a theory of operation groups an...

  16. Importance of basic research in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief survey is given of the significance of fundamental discoveries in nuclear physics. It is shown how theoretical and experimental discoveries transform our current views of the world around us and how in their practical implementation these discoveries bring revolutionary technical development. The latest progress in the field of elementary particles and their interactions and in the field of the atomic nucleus are briefly discussed. (I.W.)

  17. Basic research in theoretical high energy physics. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Activities in numerous areas of basic research in theoretical high energy physics are listed, and some highlights are given. Areas of research include statistical mechanics, quantum field theory, lattice gauge theories, and quantum gravity. 81 references

  18. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  19. Complexities and constraints influencing learner performance in physical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores complexities and constraints affecting performance and output of physical science learners in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was motivated by the desire of the researcher to establish, profile and characterise the complexities and constraints reminiscence of poor performance of learners in physical science as measured through end-of-year Grade 12 (final year of high school education examination results. Twenty six schools (n=26 were purposively selected from three circuits of education (n=3. From these schools, two learners were randomly selected (n=52 for interviews. In addition, two circuit managers (n=2 were conveniently selected as part of Key Informant Interviews (KII. For the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs, twelve (n=12 parents were randomly selected to form two groups of six members each. Multi-factor complexities and constraints impeding performance of learners were discovered. Intensive teacher in-service programme is recommended. Community engagement should be encouraged to educate parents on the value of involvement in the education of their children. Free access learner support structures such as Homework and Extra-lessons Assistance Centre (H&EACs should be established.

  20. Physical activity participation and constraints among athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Justin; Rogers, Katherine; Anderson, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have examined the physical activity (PA) habits of certified athletic trainers; however, none have looked specifically at athletic training students. To assess PA participation and constraints to participation among athletic training students. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level athletic training education programs (undergraduate and graduate) across the United States. Participants were 1125 entry-level athletic training students. Self-reported PA participation, including a calculated PA index based on a typical week. Leisure constraints and demographic data were also collected. Only 22.8% (252/1105) of athletic training students were meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for PA through moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise. Although 52.3% (580/1105) were meeting the recommendations through vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise, 60.5% (681/1125) were meeting the recommendations based on the combined total of moderate or vigorous cardiorespiratory exercise. In addition, 57.2% (643/1125) of respondents met the recommendations for resistance exercise. Exercise habits of athletic training students appear to be better than the national average and similar to those of practicing athletic trainers. Students reported structural constraints such as lack of time due to work or studies as the most significant barrier to exercise participation. Athletic training students experienced similar constraints to PA participation as practicing athletic trainers, and these constraints appeared to influence their exercise participation during their entry-level education. Athletic training students may benefit from a greater emphasis on work-life balance during their entry-level education to promote better health and fitness habits.

  1. Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs

  2. Basic concepts in physics from the cosmos to quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca

    2014-01-01

    "Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear....

  3. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  4. Physical activity and senior games participation: benefits, constraints, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, David; Henderson, Karla A; Wilson, Beth E

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the article was to examine the physical activity perceptions and behaviors of older adults who were active participants in a statewide senior games (i.e., North Carolina Senior Games; NCSG) program with its focus on year-round involvement through activities in local communities. A random sample of 440 older adults (55 years and older) completed a questionnaire in 2006 about their participation in community-based senior games. A uniqueness of this study is its focus on active older adults, which provides insight into how to maintain physical involvement. Older adults who were most active perceived the most benefits from senior games but did not necessarily have the fewest constraints. This study of NCSG as an organization designed to promote healthy living in communities offered an example of how a social-ecological framework aimed at health promotion can be applied.

  5. Investigating correlation between legal and physical property: possibilities and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, E.; Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary urban environment is characterized by complexity and mixed use of space, in which overlapping land parcels and different RRRs (Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities) are frequent phenomena. Internationally, real property legislation either focuses on surface property or has introduced individual 3D real property units. The former approach merely accommodates issues related to subdivision, expropriation and transactions on part of the real property above or below surface, while the latter provides for defining and registering 3D real property units. National laws require two-dimensional real property descriptions and only a limited number of jurisdictions provide for threedimensional data presentation and recording. International awareness on 3D Cadastre may be apparent through the proposals for transition of existing cadastral systems to 3D along with legal amendments improving national 3D Cadastre legislation. Concurrently the use of appropriate data sources and the correct depiction of 3D property units' boundaries and spatial relationships need to be addressed. Spatial relations and constraints amongst real world objects could be modeled geometrically and topologically utilizing numerous modeling tools, e.g. CityGML, BIM and further sophisticated 3D software or by adapting international standards, e.g. LADM. A direct correlation between legal and physical property should be based on consistent geometry between physical and legal space, improving the accuracy that legal spaces' volumes or locations are defined. To address these issues, this paper investigates correlation possibilities and constraints between legal and physical space of typical 3D property cases. These cases comprise buildings or their interior spaces with mixed use, as well as complex structures described by explicit facade patterns, generated by procedural or by BIM ready 3D models. The 3D models presented are evaluated, regarding compliancy to physical or legal reality.

  6. Basic structures of reality essays in meta-physics

    CERN Document Server

    McGinn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In Basic Structures of Reality, Colin McGinn deals with questions of metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of mind from the vantage point of physics. Combining general philosophy with physics, he covers such topics as the definition of matter, the nature of space, motion, gravity, electromagnetic fields, the character of physical knowledge, and consciousness and meaning. Throughout, McGinn maintains an historical perspective and seeks to determine how much we really know of the world described by physics. He defends a version of "structuralism": the thesis that our knowledge is p

  7. Greek Undergraduate Physical Education Students' Basic Computer Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakis, Manolis; Zounhia, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine how undergraduate physical education (PE) students feel about their level of competence concerning basic computer skills and to examine possible differences between groups (gender, specialization, high school graduation type, and high school direction). Although many students and educators believe…

  8. The Sequencing of Basic Chemistry Topics by Physical Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Doras; Hobden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' preferred teaching sequence for basic chemistry topics in Physical Science in South Africa, to obtain their reasons underpinning their preferred sequence, and to compare these sequences with the prescribed sequences in the current curriculum. The study was located within a pragmatic paradigm and…

  9. Basic concepts in physics. From the cosmos to quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A.; Perez Rojas, H.

    2014-01-01

    A clear, concise and beautifully written presentation of modern physics. Readers will not only learn physics, they will learn to enjoy it. Self-contained and comprehensive History, concepts and formal treatment go hand-in-hand. Suppresses mathematical technicalities in favor of a wide scope of topics. Suited for class use, e.g. as a textbook for the course ''Modern Physics'', but also ideal for ''lone explorers'' and other newcomers to physics. ''Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks'' is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book's fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn much about physics, they will also learn to love it.

  10. Squids: principles and basic applications in experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocio, M.

    1990-01-01

    The basic principles and the description of the technical aspects of SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are described. The applications of SQUIDs in experimental researches and low temperature physics experiments are given. The concepts of fluxoid quantization in a superconductor and Josephson tunnelling are reviewed. The principles, the operation, the noise and the different configurations of r.f. and direct current bias SQUIDs are summarized. The principal characteristics of several SQUIDs are reported

  11. The use of quizStar application for online examination in basic physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustijono, R.; Budiningarti, H.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to produce an online Basic Physics exam system using the QuizStar application. This is a research and development with ADDIE model. The steps are: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) development; 4) implementation; 5) evaluation. System feasibility is reviewed for its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The subjects of research are 60 Physics Department students of Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The data analysis used is a descriptive statistic. The validity, practicality, and effectiveness scores are measured using a Likert scale. Criteria feasible if the total score of all aspects obtained is ≥ 61%. The results obtained from the online test system by using QuizStar developed are 1) conceptually feasible to use; 2) the system can be implemented in the Basic Physics assessment process, and the existing constraints can be overcome; 3) student's response to system usage is in a good category. The results conclude that QuizStar application is eligible to be used for online Basic Physics exam system.

  12. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  13. Basic concepts in physics. From the cosmos to quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Perez Rojas, H. [ICIMAF, La Habana (Cuba). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    2014-08-01

    A clear, concise and beautifully written presentation of modern physics. Readers will not only learn physics, they will learn to enjoy it. Self-contained and comprehensive History, concepts and formal treatment go hand-in-hand. Suppresses mathematical technicalities in favor of a wide scope of topics. Suited for class use, e.g. as a textbook for the course ''Modern Physics'', but also ideal for ''lone explorers'' and other newcomers to physics. ''Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks'' is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book's fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn

  14. Bioinspired peptide nanotubes: deposition technology, basic physics and nanotechnology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, G; Beker, P; Koren, I; Yevnin, M; Bank-Srour, B; Mishina, E; Semin, S

    2011-02-01

    Synthetic peptide monomers can self-assemble into PNM such as nanotubes, nanospheres, hydrogels, etc. which represent a novel class of nanomaterials. Molecular recognition processes lead to the formation of supramolecular PNM ensembles containing crystalline building blocks. Such low-dimensional highly ordered regions create a new physical situation and provide unique physical properties based on electron-hole QC phenomena. In the case of asymmetrical crystalline structure, basic physical phenomena such as linear electro-optic, piezoelectric, and nonlinear optical effects, described by tensors of the odd rank, should be explored. Some of the PNM crystalline structures permit the existence of spontaneous electrical polarization and observation of ferroelectricity. The PNM crystalline arrangement creates highly porous nanotubes when various residues are packed into structural network with specific wettability and electrochemical properties. We report in this review on a wide research of PNM intrinsic physical properties, their electronic and optical properties related to QC effect, unique SHG, piezoelectricity and ferroelectric spontaneous polarization observed in PNT due to their asymmetric structure. We also describe PNM wettability phenomenon based on their nanoporous structure and its influence on electrochemical properties in PNM. The new bottom-up large scale technology of PNT physical vapor deposition and patterning combined with found physical effects at nanoscale, developed by us, opens the avenue for emerging nanotechnology applications of PNM in novel fields of nanophotonics, nanopiezotronics and energy storage devices. Copyright © 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  16. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  17. Basic experiments of reactor physics using the critical assembly TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru; Igashira, Masayuki; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Ken; Suzaki, Takenori.

    1994-02-01

    This report is based on lectures given to graduate students of Tokyo Institute of Technology. It covers educational experiments conducted with the Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in July, 1993. During this period, the following basic experiments on reactor physics were performed: (1) Critical approach experiment, (2) Measurement of neutron flux distribution, (3) Measurement of power distribution, (4) Measurement of fuel rod worth distribution, (5) Measurement of safety sheet worth by the rod drop method. The principle of experiments, experimental procedure, and analysis of results are described in this report. (author)

  18. Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.

    2015-04-01

    Earth's surface topography is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but dynamic topography - i.e. the topography due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the

  19. Proceedings of the 9. Workshop on Nuclear Physics - Communications of basic nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The abstracts of researches on basic nuclear physics of 9. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil are presented. Mathematical models and experimental methods for nuclear phenomenon description, such as nuclear excitation and disintegration of several nuclei were discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Applications of nanosecond, kilojoule lasers to the basic physics of waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas can sustain many normal modes of oscillation (waves), including both electromagnetic and electrostatic modes. These waves can interact by a wide variety of linear and nonlinear mechanisms, including mode coupling, mixing, and instabilities. Furthermore, such mechanisms compete, so that a given wave might be absorbed, might mode convert, or might decay by one of several instabilities, depending upon the specific circumstances in which it is produced. Moreover, such waves are important in many applications, including for example laser fusion, x-ray lasers, plasma accelerators, and ionospheric heating. Laser-produced plasmas can provide an effective medium for the studies of such waves and the related mechanisms. New opportunities will be made possible by the advent of comparatively inexpensive nanosecond, kilojoule lasers. One can now contemplate affordable experiments, not limited by programmatic constraints, that could study such the basic physics of the waves in such plasmas with unprecedented precision and in unprecedented detail

  1. Intention and constraints of Hong Kong secondary school Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of Hong Kong secondary school Physical Education teachers to promote Unified Sports® ... school subjects like Civic Education, Social Studies, Religious Studies or Liberal Studies.

  2. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Roberts, Luke F.; Hix, W. Raphael; Bruner, Blake D.; Kozub, Raymond L.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M.; Lingerfelt, Eric; Nesaraja, Caroline D.

    2008-01-01

    We performed new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio η given current observational uncertainties. We also performed sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the η constraint

  3. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: Impact of Nuclear Physics Uncertainties on Baryonic Matter Density Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael Scott; Bruner, Blake D; KOZUB, RAYMOND L.; Roberts, Luke F.; Tytler, David; Fuller, George M.; Lingerfelt, Eric; Hix, William Raphael; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2008-01-01

    We ran new Big Bang Nucleosynthesis simulations with the bigbangonline.org suite of codes to determine, from the nuclear physics perspective, the highest achievable precision of the constraint on the baryon-to-photo ratio eta given current observational uncertainties. We also ran sensitivity studies to determine the impact that particular nuclear physics measurements would have on the uncertainties of predicted abundances and on the eta constraint

  4. Basics of Laser Physics For Students of Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Karl F

    2012-01-01

    Basics of Laser Physics provides an introductory presentation of the field of all types of lasers. It contains a general description of the laser, a theoretical treatment and a characterization of its operation as it deals with gas, solid state, free-electron and semiconductor lasers and, furthermore, with a few laser related topics. The different subjects are connected to each other by the central principle of the laser, namely, that it is a self-oscillating system. Special emphasis is put on a uniform treatment of gas and solid-state lasers, on the one hand, and semiconductor lasers, on the other hand. The discussions and the treatment of equations are presented in a way that a reader can immediately follow. The book addresses undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering. Not only should it enable instructors to prepare their lectures, but it can be helpful to students for preparing for an examination.

  5. Physical activity, lifestyle and leisure constraints in a selected female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has revealed that physical activity and a healthy lifestyle are inter alia considered as crucial factors in maintaining optimal health. These relationships are however influenced by age and sex. Women are often constrained in their ability to reach optimum levels of physical activity participation and healthy lifestyle.

  6. Gender Performativity in Physics: Affordances or Only Constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper '"Physics and the girly girl--there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students'…

  7. W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from

  8. Current and future constraints on neutrino physics from cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, S.; Hamann, J.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non-standard interactions, can be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties. (authors)

  9. Geometric constraints on the space of N = 2 SCFTs. Part I: physical constraints on relevant deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip; Lotito, Matteo; Lü, Yongchao; Martone, Mario

    2018-02-01

    We initiate a systematic study of four dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) based on the analysis of their Coulomb branch geometries. Because these SCFTs are not uniquely characterized by their scale-invariant Coulomb branch geometries we also need information on their deformations. We construct all inequivalent such deformations preserving N = 2 supersymmetry and additional physical consistency conditions in the rank 1 case. These not only include all the ones previously predicted by S-duality, but also 16 additional deformations satisfying all the known N = 2 low energy consistency conditions. All but two of these additonal deformations have recently been identified with new rank 1 SCFTs; these identifications are briefly reviewed. Some novel ingredients which are important for this study include: a discussion of RG-flows in the presence of a moduli space of vacua; a classification of local N = 2 supersymmetry-preserving deformations of unitary N = 2 SCFTs; and an analysis of charge normalizations and the Dirac quantization condition on Coulomb branches. This paper is the first in a series of three. The second paper [1] gives the details of the explicit construction of the Coulomb branch geometries discussed here, while the third [2] discusses the computation of central charges of the associated SCFTs.

  10. Physical constraints determine the logic of bacterial promoter architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Daphne; Zabet, Nicolae Radu; Adryan, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) bind to their target sites on the DNA, where they regulate the rate at which genes are transcribed. Bacterial TFs undergo facilitated diffusion (a combination of 3D diffusion around and 1D random walk on the DNA) when searching for their target sites. Using computer simulations of this search process, we show that the organization of the binding sites, in conjunction with TF copy number and binding site affinity, plays an important role in determining not only the steady state of promoter occupancy, but also the order at which TFs bind. These effects can be captured by facilitated diffusion-based models, but not by standard thermodynamics. We show that the spacing of binding sites encodes complex logic, which can be derived from combinations of three basic building blocks: switches, barriers and clusters, whose response alone and in higher orders of organization we characterize in detail. Effective promoter organizations are commonly found in the E. coli genome and are highly conserved between strains. This will allow studies of gene regulation at a previously unprecedented level of detail, where our framework can create testable hypothesis of promoter logic. PMID:24476912

  11. Constraints on new physics from radiative B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ayan [INFN, Sezione di Roma,I-00185 Rome (Italy); Straub, David M. [Excellence Cluster Universe, TUM,Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-04-05

    A new phase for the measurements of radiative decay modes in b→s transitions has started with new measurements of exclusive modes by LHCb and with Belle-II showing distinctive promises in both inclusive and exclusive channels. After critically reviewing the hadronic uncertainties in exclusive radiative decays, we analyze the impact of recent measurements of the branching ratio and mass-eigenstate rate asymmetry in B{sub s}→ϕγ and of the angular distribution of B→K{sup ∗}e{sup +}e{sup −} at low q{sup 2} on new physics in the b→sγ transition.

  12. Basic physical processes and reduced models for plasma detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangeby, P. C.

    2018-04-01

    The divertor of a tokamak reactor will have to satisfy a number of critical constraints, the first of which is that the divertor targets not fail due to excessive heating or sputter-erosion. This paramount constraint of target survival defines the operating window for the principal plasma properties at the divertor target, the density n t and temperature, T t. In particular T et constitute, in effect, ‘code-experiments’ that—just as for actual experiments—can benefit from interpretation in terms of simple conceptual frameworks. 2 Point Model Formatting, 2PMF, of edge code output can provide such a conceptual framework. Methods of applying 2PMF are illustrated here with some examples.

  13. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  14. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-01-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  15. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  16. Annual progress report of the physical chemistry department. Basic research 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic research for 1987 in physical chemistry of the French Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed. Topics include molecular chemistry, isotopic geochemistry, molecular photophysics, laser photochemistry, solid and surface physical chemistry. A list of publications and thesis is given [fr

  17. Physical constraints on the likelihood of life on exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-04-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in exoplanetology is to determine whether a given planet is habitable. We estimate the relative likelihood of a planet's propensity towards habitability by considering key physical characteristics such as the role of temperature on ecological and evolutionary processes, and atmospheric losses via hydrodynamic escape and stellar wind erosion. From our analysis, we demonstrate that Earth-sized exoplanets in the habitable zone around M-dwarfs seemingly display much lower prospects of being habitable relative to Earth, owing to the higher incident ultraviolet fluxes and closer distances to the host star. We illustrate our results by specifically computing the likelihood (of supporting life) for the recently discovered exoplanets, Proxima b and TRAPPIST-1e, which we find to be several orders of magnitude smaller than that of Earth.

  18. Nuclear Physics Constraints on the Characteristics of Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truran, James W

    2012-01-01

    We review the nuclear physics that is associated with the outbursts of Type Ia (thermonuclear) supernova explosions and with the thermonuclear runaway events that define the outbursts of both classical novae and recurrent novae. We describe how distinguishing characteristics of these two classes of astrophysical explosion are strongly dependent both upon fuel ignition in degenerate matter and upon the rates of critical charged-particle reaction rates and weak interaction rates. In this centennial celebration of the important contributions of Rutherford and his collaborators to our understanding of the structure of the nucleus of an atom, it is quite interesting to note the evolution of the α-particle scattering experiments described in Rutherford's seminal paper (Rutherford 1911) to current studies of α-particle induced reactions and their defining roles in studies of stellar, nova, and supernova nucleosynthesis. We identify and discuss for example: (1) the manner in which (α, p) reactions in proximity to the Z = N line carry the major flows from 12 C and 16 O to 56 Ni in Type Ia supernovae; and (2) the critical role of the 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne reaction in possibly effecting 'breakout' of the Hot CNO cycles at the highest temperatures achievable in Classical Novae. In this contribution, we first review the current status our understanding of Type Ia supernova events and then that of Classical Novae.

  19. The effects of constraints and mastery on mental and physical health: Conceptual and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J; Mayer, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Perceived control and health are closely interrelated in adulthood and old age. However, less is known regarding the differential implications of 2 facets of perceived control, constraints and mastery, for mental and physical health. Furthermore, a limitation of previous research testing the pathways linking perceived control to mental and physical health is that mediation was tested with cross-sectional designs and not in a longitudinal mediation design that accounts for temporal ordering and prior confounds. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n = 7,612, M age = 68, SD = 10.66; 59% women) we examined the effect of constraints and mastery on 4-year changes in mental and physical health and whether physical activity mediated such effects in a longitudinal mediation design. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we modeled the 2-factor structure of perceived control that consisted of constraints and mastery. In our longitudinal mediation model, where we accounted for possible confounders (e.g., age, gender, education, neuroticism, conscientiousness, memory, and health conditions), constraints showed a stronger total effect on mental and physical health, than mastery, such that more constraints were associated with 4-year declines in mental and physical health. Physical activity did not mediate the effect of constraints and mastery on mental and physical health (indirect effect). To demonstrate the importance of a longitudinal mediation model that accounts for confounders, we also estimated the mediated effect using 2 models commonly used in the literature: cross-sectional mediation model and longitudinal mediation model without accounting for confounders. These mediation models indicated a spurious indirect effect that cannot be causally interpreted. Our results showcase that constraints and mastery have differential implications for mental and physical health, as well as how a longitudinal mediation design can illustrate (or not) pathways in

  20. Accelerating complex for basic researches in the nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovbnya, A.N.; Guk, I.S.; Kononenko, S.G.; Peev, F.A.; Tarasenko, A.S.; Botman, J.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 in NSC KIPT was begun the work on development the project of accelerator, base facility IHEPNP NSC KIPT electron recirculator SALO. The accelerator will be disposed in target hall of accelerator LU 2000 complex. It is projected first of all as facility for basic researches in the field of

  1. Very high plasma switches. Basic plasma physics and switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, H.J.; Roche, M.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of some high power switches recently developed for very high power technology is made with a special attention to the aspects of plasma physics involved in the mechanisms, which determine the limits of the possible switching parameters

  2. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  3. Some basic physics aspects of the Canadian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, C.H.

    1975-07-01

    The public is aware that nuclear reactors can be made to operate, so this paper treats reactor lattice and core physics as briefly as possible before proceeding to the physical principles of reactor control which currently seems of more public concern. First the role of delayed fission neutrons in slowing down the exponential divergence of a super-critical reactor is outlined. Next the physical basis of the various components of the power coefficient of reactivity is explained together with the methods of adjusting this coefficient toward the desired value. Finally, longer-term reactivity effects are discussed with emphasis on the several effects of Xe-135 'poison' on reactor design and operation. (author)

  4. Contributions of basic nuclear physics to the nuclear waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocard, Hubert

    2002-04-01

    Nuclear fission is presently a contested method of electricity production. The issue of nuclear waste management stands out among the reasons why. On the other hand, the nuclear industry has demonstrated its capacity to reliably generate cheap electricity while producing negligible amounts of greenhouse gases. These assets explain why this form of energy is still considered among the options for the long term production of electricity at least in developed countries. However, in order to tackle the still not adequately answered question of the waste, new schemes may have to be considered. Among those which have been advanced recently, the less polluting cycles such as those based on Thorium rather than Uranium and/or the transmutation of the minor actinides and some long lived fission products of the present cycle have been actively investigated. In both cases, it turns that the basic knowledge underlying these methods is either missing or incomplete. This situation opens a window of opportunity for useful contributions from basic nuclear physicists. This article describes some of them and presents the ongoing activities as well as some of the projects put forth for the short or medium term. .

  5. Analysis of differences in exercise recognition by constraints on physical activity of hospitalized cancer patients based on their medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ri; Jeon, Sang-Wan; Yi, Eun-Surk

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences among the hospitalized cancer patients on their perception of exercise and physical activity constraints based on their medical history. The study used questionnaire survey as measurement tool for 194 cancer patients (male or female, aged 20 or older) living in Seoul metropolitan area (Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon). The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis t -test, and one-way distribution using statistical program SPSS 18.0. The following results were obtained. First, there was no statistically significant difference between cancer stage and exercise recognition/physical activity constraint. Second, there was a significant difference between cancer stage and sociocultural constraint/facility constraint/program constraint. Third, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and physical/socio-cultural/facility/program constraint. Fourth, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Fifth, there was a significant difference between ancillary cancer treatment method and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Sixth, there was a significant difference between hospitalization period and positive perception/negative perception/physical constraint/cognitive constraint. In conclusion, this study will provide information necessary to create patient-centered healthcare service system by analyzing exercise recognition of hospitalized cancer patients based on their medical history and to investigate the constraint factors that prevents patients from actually making efforts to exercise.

  6. WE-D-BRB-01: Basic Physics of Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandy, B. [McLaren Cancer Institute (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The goal of this session is to review the physics of proton therapy, treatment planning techniques, and the use of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. The course material covers the physics of proton interaction with matter and physical characteristics of clinical proton beams. It will provide information on proton delivery systems and beam delivery techniques for double scattering (DS), uniform scanning (US), and pencil beam scanning (PBS). The session covers the treatment planning strategies used in DS, US, and PBS for various anatomical sites, methods to address uncertainties in proton therapy and uncertainty mitigation to generate robust treatment plans. It introduces the audience to the current status of image guided proton therapy and clinical applications of CBCT for proton therapy. It outlines the importance of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. Learning Objectives: Gain knowledge in proton therapy physics, and treatment planning for proton therapy including intensity modulated proton therapy. The current state of volumetric image guidance equipment in proton therapy. Clinical applications of CBCT and its advantage over orthogonal imaging for proton therapy. B. Teo, B.K Teo had received travel funds from IBA in 2015.

  7. WE-D-BRB-01: Basic Physics of Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjomandy, B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this session is to review the physics of proton therapy, treatment planning techniques, and the use of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. The course material covers the physics of proton interaction with matter and physical characteristics of clinical proton beams. It will provide information on proton delivery systems and beam delivery techniques for double scattering (DS), uniform scanning (US), and pencil beam scanning (PBS). The session covers the treatment planning strategies used in DS, US, and PBS for various anatomical sites, methods to address uncertainties in proton therapy and uncertainty mitigation to generate robust treatment plans. It introduces the audience to the current status of image guided proton therapy and clinical applications of CBCT for proton therapy. It outlines the importance of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. Learning Objectives: Gain knowledge in proton therapy physics, and treatment planning for proton therapy including intensity modulated proton therapy. The current state of volumetric image guidance equipment in proton therapy. Clinical applications of CBCT and its advantage over orthogonal imaging for proton therapy. B. Teo, B.K Teo had received travel funds from IBA in 2015.

  8. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  9. Basics of laser physics for students of science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Karl F

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introductory presentation of all types of lasers. It contains a general description of the laser, a theoretical treatment and a characterization of its operation as it deals with gas, solid state, free-electron and semiconductor lasers. This expanded and updated second edition of the book presents a description of the dynamics of free-electron laser oscillation using a model introduced in the first edition that allows a reader to understand basic properties of a free-electron laser and makes the difference to “conventional” lasers. The discussions and the treatment of equations are presented in a way that a reader can immediately follow. The book addresses graduate and undergraduate students in science and engineering, featuring problems with solutions and over 400 illustrations.

  10. Computer applications in physics with FORTRAN, BASIC and C

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Because of encouraging response for first two editions of the book and for taking into account valuable suggestion from teachers as well as students, the text for Interpolation, Differentiation, Integration, Roots of an Equation, Solution of Simultaneous Equations, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Matrix, Solution of Differential Equations, Solution of Partial Differential Equations, Monte Carlo Method and Simulation, Computation of some Functions is improved throughout and presented in a more systematic manner by using simple language. These techniques have vast applications in Science, Engineering and Technology. The C language is becoming popular in universities, colleges and engineering institutions. Besides the C language, programs are written in FORTRAN and BASIC languages. Consequently, this book has rather wide scope for its use. Each of the topics are developed in a systematic manner; thus making this book useful for graduate, postgraduate and engineering students. KEY FEATURES: Each topic is self exp...

  11. Establishing the Basic Concepts of a Healthy Physical Education through an Expert Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier López Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the basic knowledge needed by the sports practitioner who wishes to have a healthy physical education. To determine the necessary basic knowledge, we used a methodology of standard expertise, delving further into the subject by means of a semistructured interview. The interview was taped, transcribed and analyzed through the program Nudist NVivo. We have grouped the common responses emerging from the analysis into different categories, thus obtaining a total of 9 basic considerations which should be habitually transmitted to Physical Education students, so that they may achieve adequate self-management in the practice of physical activity.

  12. Constraints on cosmic opacity and beyond the standard model physics from cosmological distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avgoustidis, Anastasios [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max Planck Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul, E-mail: a.avgoustidis@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: clare.burrage@desy.de, E-mail: redondo@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [ICREA and Institute for Sciences of the Cosmos (ICC), University of Barcelona, IEEC, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2010-10-01

    We update constraints on cosmic opacity by combining recent SN Type Ia data with the latest measurements of the Hubble expansion at redshifts between 0 and 2. The new constraint on the parameter ε parametrising deviations from the luminosity-angular diameter distance relation (d{sub L} = d{sub A}(1+z){sup 2+ε}), is ε = −0.04{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08} (2-σ). For the redshift range between 0.2 and 0.35 this corresponds to an opacity Δτ < 0.012 (95% C.L.), a factor of 2 stronger than the previous constraint. Various models of beyond the standard model physics that predict violation of photon number conservation contribute to the opacity and can be equally constrained. In this paper we put new limits on axion-like particles, including chameleons, and mini-charged particles.

  13. Constraints on cosmic opacity and beyond the standard model physics from cosmological distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avgoustidis, Anastasios [DAMTP, CMS, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Centre for Theoretical Cosmology; Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Barcelona Univ., IEEC (ES). ICREA and Inst. for Sciences of the Cosmos (ICC)

    2010-04-15

    We update constraints on cosmic opacity by combining recent SN Type Ia data compilation with the latest measurements of the Hubble expansion at redshifts between 0 and 2. The new constraint on the parameter {epsilon} parametrising deviations from the luminosity-angular diameter distance relation (d{sub L}=d{sub A}(1+z){sup 2+{epsilon}}), is {epsilon}=-0.04{sub -0.07}{sup +0.08} (2-{sigma}). For the redshift range between 0.2 and 0.35 this corresponds to an opacity {delta}{tau}<0.012 (95% C.L.), a factor of 2 stronger than the previous constraint. Various models of beyond the standard model physics that predict violation of photon number conservation contribute to the opacity and can be equally constrained. In this paper we put new limits on axion-like particles, including chameleons, and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  14. Constraints on cosmic opacity and beyond the standard model physics from cosmological distance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Redondo, Javier; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-04-01

    We update constraints on cosmic opacity by combining recent SN Type Ia data compilation with the latest measurements of the Hubble expansion at redshifts between 0 and 2. The new constraint on the parameter ε parametrising deviations from the luminosity-angular diameter distance relation (d L =d A (1+z) 2+ε ), is ε=-0.04 -0.07 +0.08 (2-σ). For the redshift range between 0.2 and 0.35 this corresponds to an opacity Δτ<0.012 (95% C.L.), a factor of 2 stronger than the previous constraint. Various models of beyond the standard model physics that predict violation of photon number conservation contribute to the opacity and can be equally constrained. In this paper we put new limits on axion-like particles, including chameleons, and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  15. NMR - from basic physics to images of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Rex.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a remarkable phenomenon which involves the exchange of very weak radio frequency radiation between atomic nuclei and a sensitive detecting apparatus. It was originally regarded as a rather esoteric effect of great theoretical interest, but has since proved to have an amazing range of applications over many scientific disciplines, including nuclear physics, solid state physics, all branches of chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and most recently in medical diagnosis. In this Discourse the principles of NMR and trace briefly the history of its applications are examined and illustrated. Headings are: early history; nuclear resonance; relaxation time; the chemical shift; spin-spin coupling (NMR spectra); chemical shifts in biological tissue; NMR imaging; conclusions. (author)

  16. Basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. Final report of working party on common reactor physics code systems (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    A working party was organized for two years (2001-2002) on common reactor physics code systems under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics of JAERI. This final report is compilation of activity of the working party on common reactor physics code systems during two years. Objectives of the working party is to clarify basic concept of common reactor physics code systems to improve convenience of reactor physics code systems for reactor physics researchers in Japan on their various field of research and development activities. We have held four meetings during 2 years, investigated status of reactor physics code systems and innovative software technologies, and discussed basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. (author)

  17. Basic MRI Physics - A Visual Introduction for Laymen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars G.

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important imaging modalities due to its flexibility and high contrast between soft tissues. It is also known as a conceptually challenging technique. The purpose of the presentation is to demonstrate that MR techniques are maybe not as d......Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important imaging modalities due to its flexibility and high contrast between soft tissues. It is also known as a conceptually challenging technique. The purpose of the presentation is to demonstrate that MR techniques are maybe...... not as difficult to understand as often said [1]. In fact, the basic magnetic resonance phenomenon can be understood intuitively and even demonstrated with very simple means, including freely available software running directly in any browser [2]. A wide range of MRI techniques can be visualized [3] and understood...... which is incomprehensible to most people. In fact, MR is not a quantum phenomenon [5]. Spin and certain kinds of nuclear couplings relevant to MR are indeed of quantum origin. Spin is important for understanding MR, but even though this effect is mind-boggling, most people have little difficulty taking...

  18. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  19. Physics constraints on tokamak edge operational space and extrapolation to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igitkhanov, Yu.; Janeschitz, G.; Sugihara, M.; Pacher, H.D.; Post, D.E.; Pacher, G.W.; Pogutse, O.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper emphasises the theoretical understanding of the physical processes in the edge tokamak plasma and their attendant uncertainties and constraints. The various operational boundaries are represented in the edge operational space (EOS) diagram, the space of edge density and temperature, defined at the top of the H-mode transport barrier. The EOS is governed by four boundaries representing physical constraints for the edge plasma parameters. The first boundary represents the onset of type I ELM instabilities in terms of a critical pressure gradient for MHD stability at the edge which defines the maximum pedestal temperature for a given density once the width of the H-mode transport barrier at the edge (pedestal width) is known. The ideal ballooning mode is a candidate for this instability. The second boundary defines the boundary between type III ELM's, which are probably resistive MHD modes, and the ELM-free region. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of a Chaotic Double Pendulum in the Basic Level Physics Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanko, Peter

    2007-01-01

    First-year physics students at the Technical University of Budapest carry out a wide range of measurements in the Basic Level Physics Teaching Laboratory. One of the most exciting experiments is the investigation of a chaotic double pendulum by a V-scope, a powerful three-dimensional motion tracking system. After a brief introduction to the…

  1. The Primary Student Teachers' Views about a Blended Learning Application in a Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin Ekici, Fatma; Kara, Izzet; Ekici, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present an overview of the undergraduate blended Physics course that has been supported by the Moodle platform. The course that has been applied is a basic physics course for primary student teachers. The aim of Moodle is to create an online learning environment which helps students to have a virtual space where they can share…

  2. Interrelationship of motivation for and perceived constraints to physical activity participation and the well-being of senior center participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoko Miyake; Ellen Rodgers

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of motivation for and perceived constraints to physical activity (PA) participation and the well-being of senior center participants. A survey instrument made up of modified versions of the Sport Motivation and Perceived Constraints Scales, the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, and the Geriatric Depression Scale was administered at the...

  3. Tracking using motion estimation with physically motivated inter-region constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Omar

    2014-09-01

    We propose a method for tracking structures (e.g., ventricles and myocardium) in cardiac images (e.g., magnetic resonance) by propagating forward in time a previous estimate of the structures using a new physically motivated motion estimation scheme. Our method estimates motion by regularizing only within structures so that differing motions among different structures are not mixed. It simultaneously satisfies the physical constraints at the interface between a fluid and a medium that the normal component of the fluid\\'s motion must match the normal component of the medium\\'s motion and the No-Slip condition, which states that the tangential velocity approaches zero near the interface. We show that these conditions lead to partial differential equations with Robin boundary conditions at the interface, which couple the motion between structures. We show that propagating a segmentation across frames using our motion estimation scheme leads to more accurate segmentation than traditional motion estimation that does not use physical constraints. Our method is suited to interactive segmentation, prominently used in commercial applications for cardiac analysis, where segmentation propagation is used to predict a segmentation in the next frame. We show that our method leads to more accurate predictions than a popular and recent interactive method used in cardiac segmentation. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. New Physics constraints from rare b → s + (γ, ℓ+ℓ− decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobeth Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The experimental measurements of flavor-changing neutral-current B-meson decays governed by b → s + (γ, ℓ+ℓ− transitions have entered a new level of precision. Recent results by Belle, CDF, Babar, and LHCb on B → K(*ℓ+ℓ− and Bs → μ+μ− decays are used in model-(independent analyses to test the Standard Model predictions and to derive stronger constraints on nonstandard contributions. While in agreement with the Standard Model, they still leave sizable room for new physics.

  5. Physics constraints on the design of fast reactor safety test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.; Meneghetti, D.; Matos, J.; Snelgrove, J.; Shaftman, D.H.; Tzanos, C.; Lam, S.K.; Pennington, E.M.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics foundations common to all fast reactor safety test facilities and the constraints which they impose on the design. While detailed design discussions are confined to the experience with six ANL designs, available data from other designs are used to confirm the validity of the considerations and to broaden the scope of the discussion. This helps to view the various designs as a unified effort, to define their potential capabilities, and to assess how they could best complement each other

  6. Nordic congestion's arrangement as a model for Europe? Physical constraints vs. economic incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.-M.; Pignon, V.

    2005-01-01

    Congestion on power grids seems a physical reality, a 'hard' fact easy to check. Our paper models a different idea: congestion signal may be distorted by transmission system operators (TSOs). Indeed, congestion signals are not physical data but 'home made' conventions directly set by the TSOs in charge of the security of the system. These security norms are not stable and invariable because lines capacity limits are not constant. TSOs, therefore, define the congestion signal on a variable, complex and non-transparent constraint and may manipulate it for monetary purposes or for other personal agenda. In Nordic countries the coexistence of two congestion management methods in a 'Light Handed Regulation' framework makes this opportunistic behaviour even more likely. (author)

  7. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  8. Ferroelectric Thin Films Basic Properties and Device Physics for Memory Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films continue to attract much attention due to their developing, diverse applications in memory devices, FeRAM, infrared sensors, piezoelectric sensors and actuators. This book, aimed at students, researchers and developers, gives detailed information about the basic properties of these materials and the associated device physics. All authors are acknowledged experts in the field.

  9. Scholar-activating teaching materials for quantum physics. Pt. 2. Basic facts of quantum physics and heuristic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebel, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally in the center of interest on quantum physics referring to schools the question lies, whether electrons and photons are now particles or waves, a question, which is often characterized by the phrase ''wave-particle dualism'', which notoriously not exists in its original meaning. Against that by the author - basing on important preparatory works of Kueblbeck and Mueller - a new concept for the treatment of quantum physics for the school was proposed, which puts ''basic facts'' in the foreground, comparable with the Kueblbeck-Mueller ''characteristic features''. The ''basic facts'' are similar to axioms of quantum physics, by means of which a large number of experiments and phenomena can be ''explained'' at least qualitatively - in a heuristic way -. Instead of the so-called ''wave-particle dualism'' here uncertainty and complementarity are put in the foreground. The new concept is in the Internet under http://www.forphys.de extensively presented with many further materials. In the partial volumes of this publication manifold and carefully elaborated teaching materials are presented, by means of which scholars can get themselves the partial set of quantum physics referring to schools by different methods like learn at stations, short referates, Internet research, group puzzle, the query-sheet or the card-index method etc. In the present 2. part materials for the ''basic facts'' of quantum physics are prepared, by which also modern experiments can be interpreted. Here deals it with the getting of knowledge and application of the ''basic Facts''. This pursues also by real scholar experiments, simulations and analogy tests. The scholars obtain so more simply than generally a deeper insight in quantum physics.

  10. Application of basic physics principles to clinical neuroradiology: differentiating artifacts from true pathology on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Michael; Pandey, Shilpa; Kwak, Ellie; Jara, Hernan; Erbay, Sami H

    2013-08-01

    This article outlines artifactual findings commonly encountered in neuroradiologic MRI studies and offers clues to differentiate them from true pathology on the basis of their physical properties. Basic MR physics concepts are used to shed light on the causes of these artifacts. MRI is one of the most commonly used techniques in neuroradiology. Unfortunately, MRI is prone to image distortion and artifacts that can be difficult to identify. Using the provided case illustrations, practical clues, and relevant physical applications, radiologists may devise algorithms to troubleshoot these artifacts.

  11. Physical constraints in cell fate specification. A case in point: Microgravity and phenotypes differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Maria Grazia; Verna, Roberto; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2018-05-01

    Data obtained by studying mammalian cells in absence of gravity strongly support the notion that cell fate specification cannot be understood according to the current molecular model. A paradigmatic case in point is provided by studying cell populations growing in absence of gravity. When the physical constraint (gravity) is 'experimentally removed', cells spontaneously allocate into two morphologically different phenotypes. Such phenomenon is likely enacted by the intrinsic stochasticity, which, in turn, is successively 'canalized' by a specific gene regulatory network. Both phenotypes are thermodynamically and functionally 'compatibles' with the new, modified environment. However, when the two cell subsets are reseeded into the 1g gravity field the two phenotypes collapse into one. Gravity constraints the system in adopting only one phenotype, not by selecting a pre-existing configuration, but more precisely shaping it de-novo through the modification of the cytoskeleton three-dimensional structure. Overall, those findings highlight how macro-scale features are irreducible to lower-scale explanations. The identification of macroscale control parameters - as those depending on the field (gravity, electromagnetic fields) or emerging from the cooperativity among the field's components (tissue stiffness, cell-to-cell connectivity) - are mandatory for assessing boundary conditions for models at lower scales, thus providing a concrete instantiation of top-down effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eluding the Physical Constraints in a Nonlinear Interaction Sound Synthesis Model for Gesture Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Thoret

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a flexible control strategy for a synthesis model dedicated to nonlinear friction phenomena is proposed. This model enables to synthesize different types of sound sources, such as creaky doors, singing glasses, squeaking wet plates or bowed strings. Based on the perceptual stance that a sound is perceived as the result of an action on an object we propose a genuine source/filter synthesis approach that enables to elude physical constraints induced by the coupling between the interacting objects. This approach makes it possible to independently control and freely combine the action and the object. Different implementations and applications related to computer animation, gesture learning for rehabilitation and expert gestures are presented at the end of this paper.

  13. The Effects of Multimedia Computer- Assisted Instruction on Learning Basic Ballet Skills with Physical Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim Doaa Abd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer technology has become an integral part of physical education, yet there have been few studies exploring the use of multimedia technology in the instruction of Physical Education. The purpose of this study was to investigate if multimedia technology affected the learning of basic ballet skills. A total of 32 female students, mean age 18.1 years, studying at the Faculty of Physical Education Zagazig university were divided into two groups. The experimental group comprised 16 students. Participants in this group participated in a ballet class with multimedia technology for six weeks. Group two participated in the ballet class with the traditional method as the control group. Parameters assessed height, weight, age, and academic level. All participants were free of any disorders known to affect performance, such as bone fractures, osteoporosis, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Participants reported no use of anti-seizure drugs or alcohol. In addition, all participants were fully informed of the aims of the study, and gave their voluntary consent prior to participation. The measurement procedures were in accordance with ethical human experimentation. All statistical analyses were calculated with the SPSS statistical package. Results indicated significant differences between the two groups in learning the basic skills and levels of knowledge of ballet. Applying the proposed educational program meant using multimedia to teach basic ballet skills to second-year female students enrolled in the Faculty of Physical Education

  14. From Kaons to B mesons: Constraints on the Standard Model from Flavour Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocariz, J.

    2007-12-01

    The first chapter is a short summary of flavour physics in the Standard Model, and ends with a succinct description of the statistical approach used in CKM fitter. The second chapter discusses CP violation in the Kaon sector: constraints on the CKM matrix from measurements of ε K , ε'/ε, and the rare modes K + → π + νν-bar and K L → π 0 νν-bar are dealt with; the chapter ends with a prospective study on the potential of Kaon physics for the CKM matrix. The next two chapters describe physics analyses performed in the BaBar experiment; the amplitude analysis of B 0 → K + π - π 0 is first presented, followed by a succinct discussion of a preliminary time-dependent amplitude analysis of B 0 → K 0 π + π - . The discussion is finally completed with a qualitative description of a proposal for a combined study of B → Kππ modes to constrain the CKM matrix. The slides made for the presentation of this work have been added at the end of the document

  15. Evaluation of cross-section uncertainties using physical constraints for 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Saint Jean, Cyrille; Privas, Edwin; Archier, Pascal; Noguere, Gilles; Litaize, Olivier; Leconte, Pierre; Bernard, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced reactions between 0 eV and 20 MeV are based on various physical properties such as nuclear reaction models, microscopic and integral measurements. Most of the time, the evaluation work is done independently between the resolved resonance range and the continuum, giving rise to mismatches for the cross-sections, larger uncertainties on boundary and no cross-correlation between high-energy domain and resonance range. In addition the use of integral experiment is sometimes only related to central values (evaluation is 'working fine' on a dedicated set of benchmarks) and reductions of uncertainties are not straightforward on cross-sections themselves: working fine could be mathematically reflected by a reduced uncertainty. As the CIELO initiative is to bring experts in each field to propose/discuss these matters, after having presented the status of 238 U and 239 Pu cross-sections covariances evaluation (for JEFF-3.2 as well as the WPEC SG34 subgroup), this paper will present several methodologies that may be used to avoid such effects on covariances. A first idea based on the use of experiments overlapping two energy domains appeared in the near past. It was reviewed and extended to the use of systematic uncertainties (normalisation for example) and for integral experiments as well. In addition, we propose a methodology taking into account physical constraints on an overlapping energy domain where both nuclear reaction models are used (continuity of both cross-sections and derivatives for example). The use of Lagrange multiplier (related to these constraints) in a classical generalised least square procedure will be exposed. Some academic examples will then be presented for both point-wise and multi-group cross-sections to present the methodologies. In addition, new results for 239 Pu will be presented on resonance range and higher energies to reduce capture and fission cross-section uncertainties by using integral experiments (JEZEBEL experiment as

  16. An integrated model to measure service management and physical constraints' effect on food consumption in assisted-living facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chun; Shanklin, Carol W

    2008-05-01

    The United States is experiencing remarkable growth in the elderly population, which provides both opportunities and challenges for assisted-living facilities. The objective of this study was to explore how service management influences residents' actual food consumption in assisted-living facilities. Physical factors influencing residents' service evaluation and food consumption also were investigated. A total of 394 questionnaires were distributed to assisted-living residents in seven randomly selected facilities. The questionnaire was developed based on an in-depth literature review and pilot study. Residents' perceived quality evaluations, satisfaction, and physical constraints were measured. Residents' actual food consumption was measured using a plate waste technique. A total of 118 residents in five facilities completed both questionnaires and food consumption assessments. Descriptive, multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling techniques were employed. Service management, including food and service quality and customer satisfaction, was found to significantly influence residents' food consumption. Physical constraints associated with aging, including a decline in health status, chewing problems, sensory loss, and functional disability, also significantly influenced residents' food consumption. A significant relationship was found between physical constraints and customer satisfaction. Foodservice that provides good food and service quality increases customer satisfaction and affects residents' actual food consumption. Physical constraints also influence residents' food consumption directly, or indirectly through satisfaction. The findings suggest that food and nutrition professionals in assisted-living should consider the physical profiles of their residents to enhance residents' satisfaction and nutrient intake. Recommendations for exploring residents' perspectives are discussed.

  17. Characterization of basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 and its relevance for photovoltaics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHEN; Matthew C.BEARD; Jiang TANG; David C.BOBELA; Ye YANG; Shuaicheng LU; Kai ZENG; Cong GE; Bo YANG; Liang GAO; Yang ZHAO

    2017-01-01

    Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) is a promising absorber material for thin film photovoltaics because of its attractive material,optical and electrical properties.In recent years,the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Sb2Se3 thin film solar cells has gradually enhanced to 5.6%.In this article,we systematically studied the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 such as dielectric constant,anisotropic mobility,carrier lifetime,diffusion length,defect depth,defect density and optical band tail states.We believe such a comprehensive characterization of the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 lays a solid foundation for further optimization of solar device performance.

  18. Basic course theoretical physics. Vol. 5/1. Quantum mechanics - foundations. 7. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The favoured basic course theoretical physics covers in seven volumes all fields relevant for the diploma. Each volume mediates well thought the in each semester necessary theoretically-physical tools. Numerous exercise problem with extensive solutions serve for the deepening of the matter. The first part of the fifth volume begins with an inductive foundation of quantum mechanics in order to illustrate after a study and summary of the formal foundations of quantum mechanics on simple model systems the concepts and term formations. The present new edition was fundamentally worked out and supplemented. The meanwhile proved two-color presentation allows a very understandable and fast approach to the matter [de

  19. Preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure basic psychological needs in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-determination theory is a psychological approach to motivation that focuses on causes and consequences of human behavior regulation. According several authors, this theoretical framework could provide important information about the student’s motivational process to physical education class, however, in Portugal does not exists any instrument to measure the basic psychological needs in this domain. So, the main propose of this study is the preliminary adaptation to physical education contexts of Basic Psychological Needs Exercise Scale (Portuguese version: BPNESp, and determine their initial psychometrics properties through an exploratory factor analysis. This propose was accomplished with a sample of 150 students (n=150 from de 2nd and 3rd CEB, aged from 11 to 16 years (M = 13.39, SD = 1.44 with different levels of sports practice. Results revealed a factorial structure just like the original model (12 items grouped in 3 factors, with 4 items hitch factor and presents acceptable values of validity and reliability. Those findings allow us to conclude, that questionnaire can be used in future investigations to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education.

  20. Introduction to the basic concepts of modern physics special relativity, quantum and statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of a well-received textbook on modern physics theory. This book provides an elementary but rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework that will meet the needs of undergraduate students. In addition, a number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of solved problems are provided.Apart from a substantial extension of the proposed problems, the new edition provides more detailed discussion on Lorentz transformations and their group properties, a deeper treatment of quantum mechanics in a central potential, and a closer comparison of statistical mechanics in classical and in quantum physics. The first part of the book is devoted to special relativity, with a particular focus on space-time relativity and relativistic kinematics. The second part deals with Schrödinger's formulation of quantum mechanics. The presentation concerns mainly one-dimensional problems, but some three-dimensional examples are discussed in detail. The third...

  1. Selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang

    2002-01-01

    38 theses are presented in this selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system. It includes reactor physics and experiment, accelerators physics and technology, nuclear physics, material research and partitioning. 13 abstracts, which has been presented on magazines home and abroad, are collected in the appendix

  2. A first class constraint generates not a gauge transformation, but a bad physical change: The case of electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, J. Brian, E-mail: jbp25@cam.ac.uk

    2014-12-15

    In Dirac–Bergmann constrained dynamics, a first-class constraint typically does not alone generate a gauge transformation. By direct calculation it is found that each first-class constraint in Maxwell’s theory generates a change in the electric field E{sup →} by an arbitrary gradient, spoiling Gauss’s law. The secondary first-class constraint p{sup i},{sub i}=0 still holds, but being a function of derivatives of momenta (mere auxiliary fields), it is not directly about the observable electric field (a function of derivatives of A{sub μ}), which couples to charge. Only a special combination of the two first-class constraints, the Anderson–Bergmann–Castellani gauge generator G, leaves E{sup →} unchanged. Likewise only that combination leaves the canonical action invariant—an argument independent of observables. If one uses a first-class constraint to generate instead a canonical transformation, one partly strips the canonical coordinates of physical meaning as electromagnetic potentials, vindicating the Anderson–Bergmann Lagrangian orientation of interesting canonical transformations. The need to keep gauge-invariant the relation q-dot −(δH)/(δp) =−E{sub i}−p{sup i}=0 supports using the gauge generator and primary Hamiltonian rather than the separate first-class constraints and the extended Hamiltonian. Partly paralleling Pons’s criticism, it is shown that Dirac’s proof that a first-class primary constraint generates a gauge transformation, by comparing evolutions from identical initial data, cancels out and hence fails to detect the alterations made to the initial state. It also neglects the arbitrary coordinates multiplying the secondary constraints inside the canonical Hamiltonian. Thus the gauge-generating property has been ascribed to the primaries alone, not the primary–secondary team G. Hence the Dirac conjecture about secondary first-class constraints as generating gauge transformations rests upon a false presupposition about

  3. Basic guidelines to introduce electric circuit simulation software in a general physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The introduction of electric circuit simulation software for undergraduate students in a general physics course is proposed in order to contribute to the constructive learning of electric circuit theory. This work focuses on the lab exercises based on dc, transient and ac analysis in electric circuits found in introductory physics courses, and shows how students can use the simulation software to do simple activities associated with a lab exercise itself and with related topics. By introducing electric circuit simulation programs in a general physics course as a brief activitiy complementing lab exercise, students develop basic skills in using simulation software, improve their knowledge on the topology of electric circuits and perceive that the technology contributes to their learning, all without reducing the time spent on the actual content of the course.

  4. Introduction to the basic concepts of modern physics special relativity, quantum and statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo Maria

    2007-01-01

    These notes are designed as a text book for a course on the Modern Physics Theory for undergraduate students. The purpose is providing a rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework using elementary mathematical tools. A number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of exercises and answered questions are also given. The first part is devoted to Special Relativity concerning in particular space-time relativity and relativistic kinematics. The second part deals with Schroedinger's formulation of quantum mechanics. The presentation concerns mainly one dimensional problems, in particular tunnel effect, discrete energy levels and band spectra. The third part concerns the application of Gibbs statistical methods to quantum systems and in particular to Bose and Fermi gasses.

  5. Profile of Scientific Ability of Chemistry Education Students in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.

    2017-09-01

    The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.

  6. Experimental constraints on light scalar field models in cosmology and particle physics (SNLS and CMS experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveu, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The nature of dark energy and dark matter is still unknown today. Light scalar field models have been proposed to explain the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe and the apparent abundance of non-baryonic matter. In the first part of this thesis, the Galileon theory, a well-posed modified gravity theory preserving the local gravitation thanks to the Vainshtein screening effect, is accurately tested against recent cosmological data. Observational constraints are derived on the model parameters using cosmological distance and growth rate of structure measurements. A good agreement is observed between data and theory predictions. The Galileon theory appears therefore as a promising alternative to the cosmological constant scenario. In the second part, the dark matter question is explored through an extra-dimension theory containing massive and stable scalar fields called Branons. Branon production is searched for in the proton-proton collisions that were collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider. Events with a single photon and transverse missing energy are selected in this data set and compared to the Standard Model and instrumental background estimates. No signature of new physics is observed, so experimental limits on the Branon model parameters are derived. This thesis concludes with some ideas to reach an unified description of both models in the frame of extra-dimension theories. (author) [fr

  7. Basic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories: ACTILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K; Konashi, K; Fujii, T; Uehara, A; Nagasaki, S; Ohtori, N; Tokunaga, Y; Kambe, S

    2010-01-01

    Basic research in actinide chemistry and physics is indispensable to maintain sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. Actinides, especially minor actinides of americium and curium, need to be handled in special facilities with containment and radiation shields. To promote and facilitate actinide research, close cooperation with the facilities and sharing of technical and scientific information must be very important and effective. A three-year-program B asic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories , ACTILAB, was started to form the basis of sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. In this program, research on actinide solid-state physics, solution chemistry and solid-liquid interface chemistry is made using four main facilities in Japan in close cooperation with each other, where basic experiments with transuranium elements can be made. The 17 O-NMR measurements were performed on (Pu 0.91 Am 0.09 )O 2 to study the electronic state and the chemical behaviour of Am and Cm ions in electrolyte solutions was studied by distribution experiments.

  8. Sex and age differences in physical performance: A comparison of Army basic training and operational populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Esther O; Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Alemany, Joseph A; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the age- and sex-specific differences of physical fitness performances and Body Mass Index (BMI) in basic training and the operational Army. Cross-sectional Study. This secondary analysis utilizes retrospective surveys of U.S. Army Soldiers in Basic Combat Training (BCT) and operational units to compare physical performances between men and women as measured by the Army Physical Readiness Test (APFT). An ANOVA was used to compare mean differences in APFT results and BMI within sex-specific populations. A post hoc Tukey test identified specific mean differences. Adjusting for age, an ANCOVA was used to compare sex and occupation (infantry and non-infantry) differences in APFT results. Surveyed populations consisted of 2216 BCT Soldiers (1573 men and 643 women) and 5515 Operational Soldiers (4987 men and 528 women). Male and female operational Soldiers had greater muscular performance (79%-125% higher APFT push-ups, 66%-85% higher APFT sit-ups) and cardiorespiratory performance (22%-24% faster APFT 2-mile run times) than BCT Soldiers. Male BCT and operational Soldiers outperform their female counterparts on tests of muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance. Sex differences in physical performances attenuated among female Soldiers in operational units compared to BCT. Among male operational Soldiers, infantry Soldiers exhibited greater cardiorespiratory and muscular performance than non-infantry Soldiers. Higher BMI was associated with higher age groups, except for female BCT Soldiers. Gaps in cardiorespiratory and muscular performances between men and women should be addressed through targeted physical training programs that aim to minimize physiological differences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Basic quantum theory and measurement from the viewpoint of local quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    1999-04-01

    Several aspects of the manifestation of the causality principle in LQP (local quantum physics) are reviewed or presented. Particular emphasis is given to those properties which are typical for LQP in the sense that they do go beyond the structure of general quantum theory and even escape the Lagrangian quantization methods of standard QFT. The most remarkable are those relating causality to the modular Tomita-Takesaki theory, since they bring in the basic concepts of antiparticles, charge superselections as well as internal and external (geometric and hidden) symmetries. (author)

  10. Exploiting physical constraints for multi-spectral exo-planet detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, Éric; Devaney, Nicholas; Langlois, Maud; Hanley, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    We derive a physical model of the on-axis PSF for a high contrast imaging system such as GPI or SPHERE. This model is based on a multi-spectral Taylor series expansion of the diffraction pattern and predicts that the speckles should be a combination of spatial modes with deterministic chromatic magnification and weighting. We propose to remove most of the residuals by fitting this model on a set of images at multiple wavelengths and times. On simulated data, we demonstrate that our approach achieves very good speckle suppression without additional heuristic parameters. The residual speckles1, 2 set the most serious limitation in the detection of exo-planets in high contrast coronographic images provided by instruments such as SPHERE3 at the VLT, GPI4, 5 at Gemini, or SCExAO6 at Subaru. A number of post-processing methods have been proposed to remove as much as possible of the residual speckles while preserving the signal from the planets. These methods exploit the fact that the speckles and the planetary signal have different temporal and spectral behaviors. Some methods like LOCI7 are based on angular differential imaging8 (ADI), spectral differential imaging9, 10 (SDI), or on a combination of ADI and SDI.11 Instead of working on image differences, we propose to tackle the exo-planet detection as an inverse problem where a model of the residual speckles is fit on the set of multi-spectral images and, possibly, multiple exposures. In order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom, we impose specific constraints on the spatio-spectral distribution of stellar speckles. These constraints are deduced from a multi-spectral Taylor series expansion of the diffraction pattern for an on-axis source which implies that the speckles are a combination of spatial modes with deterministic chromatic magnification and weighting. Using simulated data, the efficiency of speckle removal by fitting the proposed multi-spectral model is compared to the result of using an approximation

  11. Modeling of physical fitness of young karatyst on the pre basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Galimskyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a program of physical fitness for the correction of the pre basic training on the basis of model performance. Material: 57 young karate sportsmen of 9-11 years old took part in the research. Results : the level of general and special physical preparedness of young karate 9-11 years old was determined. Classes in the control group occurred in the existing program for yous sports school Muay Thai (Thailand boxing. For the experimental group has developed a program of selective development of general and special physical qualities of model-based training sessions. Special program contains 6 direction: 1. Development of static and dynamic balance; 2. Development of vestibular stability (precision movements after rotation; 3. Development rate movements; 4. The development of the capacity for rapid restructuring movements; 5. Development capabilities to differentiate power and spatial parameters of movement; 6. Development of the ability to perform jumping movements of rotation. Development of special physical qualities continued to work to improve engineering complex shock motions on the place and with movement. Conclusions : the use of selective development of special physical qualities based models of training sessions has a significant performance advantage over the control group.

  12. Guidelines for DOE Long Term Civilian Research and Development. Volume III. Basic Energy Sciences, High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Research Panel prepared two reports. This report reviews the Department of Energy's Basic Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics programs. The second report examines the Environment, Health and Safety programs in the Department. This summary addresses the general value and priority of basic research programs for the Department of Energy and the nation. In addition, it describes the key strategic issues and major recommendations for each program area

  13. Competence of matric physical science teachers in some basic problem-solving strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailoo Selvaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Curriculum Statement for matric physical science places strong emphasis on the development of critical thinking and reasoning abilities of pupils. The successful implementation of this curriculum therefore requires teachers who are competent in the cognitive (intellectual skills and strategies needed for learning science effectively. Testing of teachers’ competence in this aspect is therefore important. I therefore analysed teachers’ answers to questions that were carefully designed to test competence in some basic intellectual strategies that are important for problem solving in physical science courses. A total of 73 matric physical science teachers, from about 50 Dinaledi schools in the North West and KwaZulu-Natal provinces in South Africa, were tested in five intellectual strategies: clear representation of problems, identifying and focusing on the goal, identification and use of relevant principles, use of equations for deductions and proceeding step-by-step with the solution. The teachers’ competence was poor in all the intellectual strategies tested. About 60% (the average performance in all 13 questions used for testing of teachers tested were unable to solve the questions correctly. An important objective of the curriculum is the development of critical thinking, scientific reasoning and strategies of pupils. This study shows that the achievement of this objective will be seriously handicapped because of the lack of competence of many teachers in intellectual strategies. There is therefore a need to train teachers in order to increase their competence in this aspect.

  14. Effectiveness of basic life support instruction in physical education students--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielec, Grzegorz; Klajman, Paweł; Pęczak-Graczyk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, 40% of injuries affecting school-age children are sports related. The role of physical education students, as future teachers, seems to be of high importance in terms of protecting children's safety during sports classes. The aim is to evaluate the level of basic life support (BLS) knowledge and skills in physical education students instructed with the use of different methods. Second-year physical education students (n=104, M age=20±0.6 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: experimental 1 (E1), experimental 2 (E2), and control (C). Group E1 students participated in a 2-hour BLS course based on computer-assisted presentations. Group E2 trainees practiced BLS algorithm in pairs during a 2-hour course. No manikins were used in both intervention groups. Students of Group C were asked to learn BLS algorithm on their own. All groups fulfilled a 10-question multiple-choice test on BLS at the beginning and the end of the experiment. After completing the course participants performed BLS on a manikin. The results of knowledge test were not significant before an experiment but differed essentially among the groups afterward (analysis of variance contrast analysis, peducation students. Moreover, permanent consultation on instructional methods with emergency medicine experts is recommended for university teachers.

  15. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology. Part I : Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Karmanto, Eko Edy; Supartini, Endang

    1996-04-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity was held by PPNY BATAN for monitoring the research Activity which achieved in BATAN. The Proceeding contains a proposal about basic which has physics; reactor physics and nuclear instrumentation. This proceedings is the first part from two part which published in series. There are 33 articles which have separated index

  16. Basic physical phenomena, neutron production and scaling of the dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    This paper presents an attempt at establishing a model theory for the dense plasma focus in order to present a consistent interpretation of the basic physical phenomena leading to neutron production from both acceleration and thermal processes. To achieve this, the temporal history of the focus is divided into the compression of the plasma sheath, a qiescent and very dense phase with ensuing expansion, and an instable phase where the focus plasma is disrupted by instabilities. Finally, the decay of density, velocity and thermal fields is considered. Under the assumption that Io 2 /sigmaoRo 2 = const and to/Tc = const, scaling laws for plasma focus devices are derived. It is shown that while generally the neutron yield scales with the fourth power of maximum current, neutron production from thermal processes becomes increasingly important for large devices, while in the small devices neutron production from acceleration processes is by far predominant. (orig.) [de

  17. Review and perspectives of electrostatic turbulence and transport studies in the basic plasma physics device TORPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, Fabio; Bovet, Alexandre; Fasoli, Ambrogio; Furno, Ivo; Gustafson, Kyle; Loizu, Joaquim; Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    TORPEX is a basic plasma physics toroidal device located at the CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. In TORPEX, a vertical magnetic field superposed on a toroidal field creates helicoidal field lines with both ends terminating on the torus vessel. We review recent advances in the understanding and control of electrostatic interchange turbulence, associated structures and their effect on suprathermal ions. These advances are obtained using high-resolution diagnostics of plasma parameters and wave fields throughout the whole device cross-section, fluid models and numerical simulations. Furthermore, we discuss future developments including the possibility of generating closed field line configurations with rotational transform using an internal toroidal wire carrying a current. This system will also allow the study of innovative fusion-relevant configurations, such as the snowflake divertor.

  18. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  19. Design of multiple representations e-learning resources based on a contextual approach for the basic physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, F.; Muliyati, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to design e-learning resources with multiple representations based on a contextual approach for the Basic Physics Course. The research uses the research and development methods accordance Dick & Carey strategy. The development carried out in the digital laboratory of Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Science Faculty, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result of the process of product development with Dick & Carey strategy, have produced e-learning design of the Basic Physics Course is presented in multiple representations in contextual learning syntax. The appropriate of representation used in the design of learning basic physics include: concept map, video, figures, data tables of experiment results, charts of data tables, the verbal explanations, mathematical equations, problem and solutions example, and exercise. Multiple representations are presented in the form of contextual learning by stages: relating, experiencing, applying, transferring, and cooperating.

  20. Freshman College Students’ Reasons for Enrolling in and Anticipated Benefits from a Basic College Physical Education Activity Course

    OpenAIRE

    Lackman, Jeremy; Smith, Matthew Lee; McNeill, Elisa Beth

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the rise in US obesity rates in adulthood, efforts are needed to assess physical activity engagement during the college years as a strategy to promote a lifetime of being physically active. This study identifies the reasons incoming college freshman enrolled in basic physical education activity courses (BPEAC) and the perceived benefits they anticipated receiving as a result of course participation. Methods Data collected from 302 college freshmen in September 2013...

  1. [Basic research in theoretical high energy physics.] Progress report, April 30, 1984-April 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported on non-perturbative problems in quantum field theories, including a field-theoretic issue regarding the relationship between operators on the lattice and in the continuum. The phase diagram of SU(3) lattice gauge theories with light fermions was investigated as a function of the gauge coupling and the fermion mass. A formulation of higher derivative gravity on a simplicial lattice was developed. Analytical and numerical work was carried out in two- and four-dimensional lattice gravity to study the phase diagram of the theory, the existence of nontrivial fixed points, and the question of the renormalization of the cosmological constant. A study was conducted on hadronic decay amplitudes in lattice gauge theory. Other studies conducted include: a covariant functional Schroedinger formalism for quantum field theory in curved space-time, constraints on magnetic mass, anomalies in reparameterization invariance in Type I superstrings, the Wess-Zumino action as an effective description of the anomalies of a theory, quantum fluctuations that can produce small regions of chirally symmetric phase in QCD, and supersymmetry anomalies. Also, the electric charge of a nonabelian magnetic monopole in the presence of fermions was related to a nonabelian generalization of the eta-invariant and computed exactly using Gauss' law. The mathematical connections between chiral anomalies, Levinson's theorem and symmetry breaking have been studied. The physics of fermion number fractionization was reviewed and a general topological theory was developed. The effect of instantons in the field theoretic description of the integral quantum Hall effect was studied. Some aspects of the anomaly cancellation of SO(32) superstring theory after compactification were examined. Also studied were dynamical supersymmetry brreaking and properties of quasi-crystals. 70 refs

  2. Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

    2012-10-01

    Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education.

  3. Constraint Lie algebra and local physical Hamiltonian for a generic 2D dilatonic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh; Rastgoo, Saeed; Vukašinac, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    We consider a class of two-dimensional dilatonic models, and revisit them from the perspective of a new set of ‘polar type’ variables. These are motivated by recently defined variables within the spherically symmetric sector of 4D general relativity. We show that for a large class of dilatonic models, including the case with matter, one can perform a series of canonical transformations in such a way that the Poisson algebra of the constraints becomes a Lie algebra. Furthermore, we construct Dirac observables and a reduced Hamiltonian that accounts for the time evolution of the system. (paper)

  4. Updated Status of the Global Electroweak Fit and Constraints on New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Baak, M; Haller, J; Hoecker, A; Kennedy, D; Moenig, K; Schott, M; Stelzer, J

    2012-01-01

    We present an update of the Standard Model fit to electroweak precision data. We include newest experimental results on the top quark mass, the W mass and width, and the Higgs boson mass bounds from LEP, Tevatron and the LHC. We also include a new determination of the electromagnetic coupling strength at the Z pole. We find for the Higgs boson mass (96 +31 -24) GeV and (120 +12 -5) GeV when not including and including the direct Higgs searches, respectively. From the latter fit we indirectly determine the W mass to be (80.362 +- 0.013) GeV. We exploit the data to determine experimental constraints on the oblique vacuum polarisation parameters, and confront these with predictions from the Standard Model (SM) and selected SM extensions. By fitting the oblique parameters to the electroweak data we derive allowed regions in the BSM parameter spaces. We revisit and consistently update these constraints for a fourth fourth fermion generation, two Higgs doublet, inert Higgs and littlest Higgs models, models with lar...

  5. Updated Status of the Global Electroweak Fit and Constraints on New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Baak, Max; Haller, Johannes; Hoecker, Andreas; Ludwig, Doerthe; Moenig, Klaus; Schott, Matthias; Stelzer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    We present an update of the Standard Model fit to electroweak precision data. We include newest experimental results on the top quark mass, the W mass and width, and the Higgs boson mass bounds from LEP, Tevatron and the cLHC. We also include a new determination of the electromagnetic coupling strength at the Z pole. We find for the Higgs boson mass (96 +31 -24) GeV and (120 +12 -5) GeV when not including and including the direct Higgs searches, respectively. From the latter fit we indirectly determine the W mass to be (80.359 +0.017 -0.010) GeV. We exploit the data to determine experimental constraints on the oblique vacuum polarisation parameters, and confront these with predictions from the Standard Model (SM) and selected SM extensions. By fitting the oblique parameters to the electroweak data we derive allowed regions in the BSM parameter spaces. We revisit and consistently update these constraints for a fourth family, two Higgs doublet, inert Higgs and littlest Higgs models, models with large,...

  6. Updated status of the global electroweak fit and constraints on new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baak, M.; Hoecker, A.; Schott, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Goebel, M.; Ludwig, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Haller, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Goettingen Univ. (Germany). II. Physikalisches Inst.; Moenig, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Stelzer, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2011-07-15

    We present an update of the Standard Model fit to electroweak precision data. We include newest experimental results on the top quark mass, the W mass and width, and the Higgs boson mass bounds from LEP, Tevatron and the LHC. We also include a new determination of the electromagnetic coupling strength at the Z pole. We find for the Higgs boson mass 96{sub -24}{sup +31} GeV and 120{sub -5}{sup +12} GeV when not including and including the direct Higgs searches, respectively. From the latter fit we indirectly determine the W mass to be (80.362{+-} 0.013)GeV. We exploit the data to determine experimental constraints on the oblique vacuum polarisation parameters, and confront these with predictions from the Standard Model (SM) and selected SM extensions. By fitting the oblique parameters to the electroweak data we derive allowed regions in the BSM parameter spaces. We revisit and consistently update these constraints for a fourth fermion generation, two Higgs doublet, inert Higgs and littlest Higgs models, models with large, universal or warped extra dimensions and technicolour. In most of the models studied a heavy Higgs boson can be made compatible with the electroweak precision data. (orig.)

  7. Visitor constraints to physical activity in park and recreation areas: differences by race and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja A. Wilhelm Stanis; Ingrid E. Schneider; Deborah J Chavez; Kimberly J. Shinew

    2009-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity are well recognized and documented, yet inactivity and obesity rates remain high in the U.S., particularly among racially and ethnically diverse populations. A greater understanding of factors that constrain physical activity in parks and recreation areas across various racial and ethnic groups may improve an agency’s ability to...

  8. Physical activity and the recreation opportunity spectrum: differences in important site attributes and perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.A. Wilhelm Stanis; I.E. Schneider; K.J. Sinew; D.J. Chavez; M.C. Vogel

    2009-01-01

    Both legislation and professional organizations call for parks and recreation agencies to address the need for greater physical activity among those living in the United States. A greater understanding of factors that facilitate and constrain physical activity in parks and recreation areas may improve agencies’ ability to address obesity and sedentary lifestyles. This...

  9. Monitored course at distance Nuclear Medicine: Introduction of Basic Physics Aspects. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; San Pedro, A.P.; Petrirena, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This project try to evaluated the use of specialized multimedia product for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be close related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques like nurse, surgeons, specialized physician, oncologist, etc. The multimedia product included two items: Introduction to Nuclear Medicine Techniques and Basic aspects of radiation physics. Each item contents an audio visual conference (Power Point) and a charter (PDF): with theoretic aspects, understand verification questions and self-evaluation activities. The product need only a PC compatible with window 98 (or more advanced version), and 130MBy of memory spaced for archive. In order to verify the effectiveness of the distance course, we tested its results in 4 specialists: 1 nurse, 1 radio-pharmacist, 1 cardiologist and 1 neurologist. After consult and clarify their doubts, a final test was applied in order to check the knowledge acquired. With 100 point of maximum score and 60-point minimum to pass, the test contented 2 types of questions: true or false choice (with 50 aspects to verify, 1.5 point/ correct answer) and many correct choices (5 questions, 5 point/correct answer). The average result was 91.5 points/ students (89.5- 94 points); the four students pass the test with very good degree of comprehension (1 very good and 3 excellent). The course was polled about the quality of the material and their comprehension degree, asking the student to make suggestions if were needed. The average evaluation was 94 points (91-95 points). The suggestions made were: increase the number of examples and practical sequences, the understand verification questions and include monitored practical exercise. Conclusion: the product can be useful for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques. Recommendation: The program should be enrich with the suggested things and extend to other important items like: radiation protection

  10. Moisture removal of paddy by agricultural residues: basic physical parameters and drying kinetics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniso, E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study basic physical parameters of three agricultural residues that could be used for prediction of paddy drying kinetics using desiccants, to investigate a suitable methodfor moisture reduction of fresh paddy using 3 absorbents, and to modify the drying model of Inoue et al. for determining the evolution of moisture transfer during the drying period. Rice husk, sago palm rachis andcoconut husk were used as moisture desiccants in these experiments. From the results, it was concluded that the apparent density of all adsorbents was a linear function of moisture content whilst an equilibriummoisture content equation following Hendersonís model gave the best fit to the experimental results. From studying the relationship between moisture ratio and drying time under the condition of drying temperaturesof 30, 50 and 70oC, air flow rate of 1.6 m/s and initial moisture content of absorbents of 15, 20 and 27% dry-basis, it was shown that the moisture ratio decreased when drying time increased. In addition, thethin-layer desiccant drying equation following of the Page model can appropriately explain the evolution of moisture content of paddy over the drying time. The diffusion coefficient of all absorbents, which was in therange of 1x10-8 to 6x10-8 m2/h, was relatively dependent on drying temperature and inversely related to drying time. The diffusivity of coconut husk had the highest value compared to the other absorbents.The simulating modified mathematical model to determine drying kinetics of paddy using absorption technique and the simulated results had good relation to the experimental results for all adsorbents.

  11. The influence of physical exertion on basic hematological parameters values and heart rate in trotters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slijepčević Dajana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of very important prerequisites for achieving good results in races, in addition to genetic predisposition, quality training and good health, are optimal values for number of erythrocytes, concentration of haemoglobin and hematocrit, of which depends efficient oxygen supply of muscles during great efforts. The stated values, along with data on heart rate, are useful indicators of the degree of horse fitness and readiness for horse race. The influence of physical exertion on the values of basic hematological parameters as well as on heart rate, was investigated on 6 trotters, in training at the Belgrade racetrack (one head of Italian trotter, male, 3 years old; 3 heads of American trotter, male, 3,4 and 6 years old and two heads of Serbian trotter, female, 4 and 5 years old. The blood samples for hematological tests were taken by punction of jugular vein in resting phase - immediately before the commencement of work, after light trot warming for 3000 m and fast trot for 1000 m, with 30 minutes rest between the two runnings. The heart rate was monitored continuously by radio telemetry cardiometer, from the moment they were taken from their boxes and harnessing to the completion of work. The obtained results confirm the relationship between the rise of heart rate and hematocrit values: maximal hematocrit values were determined after the first running (0.49±0.05, in regard to 0.42±0.03 in resting phase, but 30 minutes after the second running there was a slight drop of hematocrit values (0.46±0.04. The blood samples in both cases were taken after fast trot during which there were recorded maximal pulse values, so in the moment of sampling the pulse lowered close to the values in resting - after the first running from 192.23±19.66, and after the second from 180.33±17.22 to 40.67±5.76.

  12. Treatment of traumatised refugees with basic body awareness therapy versus mixed physical activity as add-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbrandt, Maja Sticker; Carlsson, Jessica; Lindberg, Laura Glahder

    2015-01-01

    . In clinical studies, physical activity has shown a positive effect on psychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety and for patients with chronic pain. However, scientific knowledge about physical activity as part of the treatment for traumatised refugees is very limited and no guidelines exist......-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The first group only receives treatment as usual while the second and the third groups receive either Basic-Body Awareness Therapy or mixed physical activity as add-on treatments. Each physical activity is provided for an individual 1-hour consultation per week...... as well as quality of life, functional capacity, coping with pain, body awareness and physical fitness. DISCUSSION: This study will examine the effect of physical activity for traumatised refugees. This has not yet been done in a randomised controlled setting on such a large scale before. Hereby the study...

  13. Tracking using motion estimation with physically motivated inter-region constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Omar; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Hong, Byungwoo; Yezzi, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for tracking structures (e.g., ventricles and myocardium) in cardiac images (e.g., magnetic resonance) by propagating forward in time a previous estimate of the structures using a new physically motivated motion estimation scheme

  14. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book I. Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is part one from two books published for the meeting contains papers on Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation as results of research activities in National Atomic Energy Agency. There are 39 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  15. Dark matter physics, flavor physics and LHC constraints in the dark matter model with a bottom partner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Tomohiro [Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kawamura, Junichiro [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Okawa, Shohei [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    In the scenario that dark matter (DM) is a weakly interacting massive particle, there are many possibilities of the interactions with the Standard Model (SM) particles to achieve the relic density of DM. In this paper, we consider a simple DM model where the DM candidate is a complex scalar boson. The model contains a new complex gauge singlet scalar boson and a new fermion whose gauge charge is the same as the right-handed down-type quark. We dub the new fermion the bottom partner. These new particles have Yukawa interactions with the SM down-type quarks. The DM candidate interacts with the SM particles through the Yukawa interactions. The Yukawa interactions are not only relevant to the annihilation process of the DM but also contribute to the flavor physics, such as the ΔF=2 processes. In addition, the flavor alignment of the Yukawa couplings is related to the decay modes of the bottom partner, and thus we can find the explicit correlations among the physical observables in DM physics, flavor physics, and the signals at the LHC. We survey the ΔF=2 processes based on the numerical analyses of the thermal relic density, the direct detection of the DM, and the current LHC bounds. We investigate the perturbative bound on the Yukawa coupling as well. A Study of a fermionic DM model with extra scalar quarks is also given for comparison.

  16. Constraints on the phase gamma and new physics from B --> kpi decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    He; Hsueh; Shi

    2000-01-03

    Recent results from CLEO on B-->Kpi indicate that the phase gamma may be substantially different from that obtained from other fit to the KM matrix elements in the standard model. We show that gamma extracted using B-->Kpi,pipi is sensitive to new physics occurring at loop level. It provides a powerful method to probe new physics in electroweak penguin interactions. Using effects due to anomalous gauge couplings as an example, we show that within the allowed ranges for these couplings information about gamma obtained from B-->Kpi,pipi can be very different from the standard model prediction.

  17. Course for monitored education at distance: 'Introduction to basic aspects of radiation physics in NM'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Adlin; Palau, Aley; Petrirena, Gregorio; Cardenas, Ana Ivis

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine became a multimodality speciality, related with a lot of personnel not specialized in NM techniques: who have not training in radiation aspects. These projects try to evaluate the use of specialized multimedia product for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques like nurses, surgeons, rheumatologists, etc. The multimedia product included two items: Introduction to Nuclear Medicine Techniques and Basic aspects of radiation physics. Each item contents an audio-visual conference (Power Point) and a charter (PDF): with theoretic aspects, understand verification questions and self-evaluation activities. The product need only a PC compatible with window 98 (or more advanced version), and 130MBy of memory spaced for archive. In order to verify the effectiveness of the distance course, we tested it in 10 students: 1 nurse, 1 radio-pharmacist, 1 cardiologist, 1 neurologist, 6 technologists. After consult and clarify their doubts, a final test was applied in order to check the knowledge acquired. With 100 point of maximum store and 60 point minimum to pass, the test contented 2 types of questions: true or false choice (with 50 aspects to verify 1.5 point/ correct answer) and many correct choices (5 questions, 5 point/correct answer). The average result was 85.6 points/ students: 6 -Excellent (90-100 points) , 3 -Very good (80-89 points) and 1 -Good (70-79 points). The course was polled about the quality of the material and their comprehension degree, asking the student to make suggestions if were needed. The average evaluation was 94 points (91-95 points). The suggestions made were: increase the number of examples and practical sequences, the understand verification questions and include monitored practical exercise. Conclusion: the product can be useful for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques. Recommendation: The

  18. Evaluation of Neutron-induced Cross Sections and their Related Covariances with Physical Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Archier, P.; Privas, E.; Noguère, G.; Habert, B.; Tamagno, P.

    2018-02-01

    Nuclear data, along with numerical methods and the associated calculation schemes, continue to play a key role in reactor design, reactor core operating parameters calculations, fuel cycle management and criticality safety calculations. Due to the intensive use of Monte-Carlo calculations reducing numerical biases, the final accuracy of neutronic calculations increasingly depends on the quality of nuclear data used. This paper gives a broad picture of all ingredients treated by nuclear data evaluators during their analyses. After giving an introduction to nuclear data evaluation, we present implications of using the Bayesian inference to obtain evaluated cross sections and related uncertainties. In particular, a focus is made on systematic uncertainties appearing in the analysis of differential measurements as well as advantages and drawbacks one may encounter by analyzing integral experiments. The evaluation work is in general done independently in the resonance and in the continuum energy ranges giving rise to inconsistencies in evaluated files. For future evaluations on the whole energy range, we call attention to two innovative methods used to analyze several nuclear reaction models and impose constraints. Finally, we discuss suggestions for possible improvements in the evaluation process to master the quantification of uncertainties. These are associated with experiments (microscopic and integral), nuclear reaction theories and the Bayesian inference.

  19. Optimal Attack Strategies Subject to Detection Constraints Against Cyber-Physical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan; Kar, Soummya; Moura, Jose M. F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an attacker against a cyberphysical system (CPS) whose goal is to move the state of a CPS to a target state while ensuring that his or her probability of being detected does not exceed a given bound. The attacker’s probability of being detected is related to the nonnegative bias induced by his or her attack on the CPS’s detection statistic. We formulate a linear quadratic cost function that captures the attacker’s control goal and establish constraints on the induced bias that reflect the attacker’s detection-avoidance objectives. When the attacker is constrained to be detected at the false-alarm rate of the detector, we show that the optimal attack strategy reduces to a linear feedback of the attacker’s state estimate. In the case that the attacker’s bias is upper bounded by a positive constant, we provide two algorithms – an optimal algorithm and a sub-optimal, less computationally intensive algorithm – to find suitable attack sequences. Lastly, we illustrate our attack strategies in numerical examples based on a remotely-controlled helicopter under attack.

  20. Physical and chemical constraints limit the habitat window for an endangered mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Cara; Prestegaard, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Development of effective conservation and restoration strategies for freshwater pearly mussels requires identification of environmental constraints on the distributions of individual mussel species. We examined whether the spatial distribution of the endangered Alasmidonta heterodon in Flat Brook, a tributary of the upper Delaware River, was constrained by water chemistry (i.e., calcium availability), bed mobility, or both. Alasmidonta heterodon populations were bracketed between upstream reaches that were under-saturated with respect to aragonite and downstream reaches that were saturated for aragonite during summer baseflow but had steep channels with high bed mobility. Variability in bed mobility and water chemistry along the length of Flat Brook create a “habitat window” for A. heterodon defined by bed stability (mobility index ≤1) and aragonite saturation (saturation index ≥1). We suggest the species may exist in a narrow biogeochemical window that is seasonally near saturation. Alasmidonta heterodon populations may be susceptible to climate change or anthropogenic disturbances that increase discharge, decrease groundwater inflow or chemistry, and thus affect either bed mobility or aragonite saturation. Identifying the biogeochemical microhabitats and requirements of individual mussel species and incorporating this knowledge into management decisions should enhance the conservation and restoration of endangered mussel species.

  1. Access Constraints Experienced by Physically Disabled Students at a South African Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, L.; de Beer, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in government law and policies have created the hope that people living with a disability will enjoy the same rights and privileges as the non-disabled. Unfortunately, only 2.8% of disabled persons have access to higher education. The aim of this study was to determine if a group of students, living with a physical disability,…

  2. Towards developing understanding of the drivers, constraints from the consumption values underpinning participation in physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, PJ; Williams-Burnett, N; Skinner, H

    2012-01-01

    Overall participation rates in physical activity across the UK have remained relatively static since the mid 1980s, with attendant causes for concern about the inequality of participation rates amongst various target groups that may be worthy of specific investigation. Behaviour change models from the fields of leisure studies, consumer behaviour and social psychology offer conceptualisation of a notion of exchange underpinning the expectancy-value process, noting that, in order to facilitate...

  3. Observational constraints on the physical nature of submillimetre source multiplicity: chance projections are common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Christopher C.; Chapman, Scott C.; Steidel, Charles C.; Golob, Anneya; Casey, Caitlin M.; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Zitrin, Adi; Blain, Andrew W.; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, Kristen E. K.; Farrah, Duncan; Ibar, Eduardo; Michałowski, Michał J.; Sawicki, Marcin; Scott, Douglas; van der Werf, Paul; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Geach, James E.; Gurwell, Mark; Petitpas, Glen; Wilner, David J.

    2018-05-01

    Interferometric observations have demonstrated that a significant fraction of single-dish submillimetre (submm) sources are blends of multiple submm galaxies (SMGs), but the nature of this multiplicity, i.e. whether the galaxies are physically associated or chance projections, has not been determined. We performed spectroscopy of 11 SMGs in six multicomponent submm sources, obtaining spectroscopic redshifts for nine of them. For an additional two component SMGs, we detected continuum emission but no obvious features. We supplement our observed sources with four single-dish submm sources from the literature. This sample allows us to statistically constrain the physical nature of single-dish submm source multiplicity for the first time. In three (3/7, { or} 43^{+39 }_{ -33} {per cent at 95 {per cent} confidence}) of the single-dish sources for which the nature of the blending is unambiguous, the components for which spectroscopic redshifts are available are physically associated, whereas 4/7 (57^{+33 }_{ -39} per cent) have at least one unassociated component. When components whose spectra exhibit continuum but no features and for which the photometric redshift is significantly different from the spectroscopic redshift of the other component are also considered, 6/9 (67^{+26 }_{ -37} per cent) of the single-dish sources are comprised of at least one unassociated component SMG. The nature of the multiplicity of one single-dish source is ambiguous. We conclude that physically associated systems and chance projections both contribute to the multicomponent single-dish submm source population. This result contradicts the conventional wisdom that bright submm sources are solely a result of merger-induced starbursts, as blending of unassociated galaxies is also important.

  4. The Fox and the Grapes-How Physical Constraints Affect Value Based Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Gross

    Full Text Available One fundamental question in decision making research is how humans compute the values that guide their decisions. Recent studies showed that people assign higher value to goods that are closer to them, even when physical proximity should be irrelevant for the decision from a normative perspective. This phenomenon, however, seems reasonable from an evolutionary perspective. Most foraging decisions of animals involve the trade-off between the value that can be obtained and the associated effort of obtaining. Anticipated effort for physically obtaining a good could therefore affect the subjective value of this good. In this experiment, we test this hypothesis by letting participants state their subjective value for snack food while the effort that would be incurred when reaching for it was manipulated. Even though reaching was not required in the experiment, we find that willingness to pay was significantly lower when subjects wore heavy wristbands on their arms. Thus, when reaching was more difficult, items were perceived as less valuable. Importantly, this was only the case when items were physically in front of the participants but not when items were presented as text on a computer screen. Our results suggest automatic interactions of motor and valuation processes which are unexplored to this date and may account for irrational decisions that occur when reward is particularly easy to reach.

  5. The Fox and the Grapes-How Physical Constraints Affect Value Based Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Woelbert, Eva; Strobel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental question in decision making research is how humans compute the values that guide their decisions. Recent studies showed that people assign higher value to goods that are closer to them, even when physical proximity should be irrelevant for the decision from a normative perspective. This phenomenon, however, seems reasonable from an evolutionary perspective. Most foraging decisions of animals involve the trade-off between the value that can be obtained and the associated effort of obtaining. Anticipated effort for physically obtaining a good could therefore affect the subjective value of this good. In this experiment, we test this hypothesis by letting participants state their subjective value for snack food while the effort that would be incurred when reaching for it was manipulated. Even though reaching was not required in the experiment, we find that willingness to pay was significantly lower when subjects wore heavy wristbands on their arms. Thus, when reaching was more difficult, items were perceived as less valuable. Importantly, this was only the case when items were physically in front of the participants but not when items were presented as text on a computer screen. Our results suggest automatic interactions of motor and valuation processes which are unexplored to this date and may account for irrational decisions that occur when reward is particularly easy to reach.

  6. Calculation of quantities of interest in high energy physics using visual basic 3.0. The Flow Tensor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Jipa, A.; Zaharia, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Flow Tensor is an important physical quantity in High Energy Physics. The program used for the calculation of the Flow Tensor has been a complex menu-driven application, to allow the selection of various triggers for the studied reaction, of the number of traces in each studied event, of the momentum cut values for the resulting particles of fragments in each event, etc. We realised all that requests using a very modern and powerful tool: Visual Basic 3.0. This programming system allows the realisation of Windows-like programs and has numerous facilities: OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), the possibility to create professional graphics, to work with databases, to create and compile Windows-like help files. All these advantages make the effort to learn Visual Basic 3.0 worthwhile. (author)

  7. Research-based assessment affordances and constraints: Perceptions of physics faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Bell, Alexander; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] To help faculty use research-based materials in a more significant way, we learn about their perceived needs and desires and use this information to suggest ways for the physics education research community to address these needs. When research-based resources are well aligned with the perceived needs of faculty, faculty members will more readily take them up. We used phenomenographic interviews of ordinary physics faculty and department chairs to identify four families of issues that faculty have around research-based assessments (RBAs). First, many faculty are interested in using RBAs but need help with the practicalities of administering RBAs: how to find them, which ones there are, and how to administer them. Second, at the same time, many faculty think that RBAs are limited and do not measure many of the things they care about, or are not applicable in their classes. They want assessments to measure skills, perceptions, and specific concepts. Third, many faculty want to turn to communities of other faculty and experts to help them interpret their assessment results and suggest other ways to do assessment. They want to better understand their assessment results by comparing to others and interacting with faculty from other schools to learn about how they do assessment. Fourth, many faculty consider their courses in the broader contexts of accountability and their departments. They want help with assessment in these broader contexts. We also discuss how a faculty member's role in their department and type of institution influence their perceived wants and needs around assessment.

  8. Proceeding on the scientific meeting and presentation on basic research of nuclear science and technology (book I): physics, reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarip; Prayitno; Samin; Agus Taftazani; Sudjatmoko; Pramudita Anggraita; Gede Sutresna W; Tjipto Sujitno; Slamet Santosa; Herry Poernomo; R Sukarsono; Prajitno

    2014-06-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, in Yogyakarta, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings which were divided into two groups that are physics and nuclear reactors. The proceedings consists of three articles from keynote speakers and 25 articles from BATAN and others participants.(PPIKSN)

  9. High school Physical Sciences teachers' competence in some basic cognitive skills

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaratnam, Mailoo

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of the national high school Physical Sciences curriculum in South Africa, which places strong emphasis on critical thinking and reasoning abilities of students, would need teachers who are competent in cognitive skills and strategies. The main objectives of this study were to test South African high school Physical Sciences teachers' competence in the cognitive skills and strategies needed for studying Physical Sciences effectively and also to identify possible r...

  10. Basic physics program for a low energy antiproton source in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Nieto, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize much of the important science that could be learned at a North American low energy antiproton source. It is striking that there is such a diverse and multidisciplinary program that would be amenable to exploration. Spanning the range from high energy particle physics to nuclear physics, atomic physics, and condensed matter physics, the program promises to offer many new insights into these disparate branches of science. It is abundantly clear that the scientific case for rapidly proceeding towards such a capability in North America is both alluring and strong. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Physical constraints in the deep hypolimnion of a subalpine lake driving planktonic Bacteria and Archaea distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bertoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the hydrodynamics of the hypolimnion of a deep holo-oligomictic lake (Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy, zmax¼370 m during the last 28 years showed that hypolimnetic waters remained isolated, not exchanging with the mixing zone even in winter when the full overturn conditions are most likely. The thickness of the isolated layer can range from 100 to 300 m. Thus, water masses of variable size reside in the lake for many years, and their physical and chemical conditions remain relatively unaffected by seasonal variability and epilimnetic imputs. In the hypolimnetic waters prokaryote abundance is three times lower than in the mixing layer but cell size is significantly higher. In addition, the relative abundance of Archaea and Crenarchaeota increases with depth in respect to that of Bacteria. The heterogeneous distribution of the two domains within the habitat can be attributed to the existence in the same environment of isolated water masses.

  12. Basic physics with ultra cold neutrons; Physique fondamentale avec des neutrons ultra froids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protasov, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Joseph Fourier, INPG, Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-01

    A short introduction to the physics of Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) is given. It covers different aspects from their discovery, their major properties as well as their using in the three experiments of fundamental physics: measurements of the neutron life time and of its electric dipole moment and studies of neutrons quantum states in the Earth's gravitational field. (author)

  13. Basic Guidelines to Introduce Electric Circuit Simulation Software in a General Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of electric circuit simulation software for undergraduate students in a general physics course is proposed in order to contribute to the constructive learning of electric circuit theory. This work focuses on the lab exercises based on dc, transient and ac analysis in electric circuits found in introductory physics courses, and…

  14. Capturing the complex behavior of hydraulic fracture stimulation through multi-physics modeling, field-based constraints, and model reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.; Chiaramonte, L.; Cruz, L.; Izadi, G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in the accuracy and fidelity of numerical methods have significantly improved our understanding of coupled processes in unconventional reservoirs. However, such multi-physics models are typically characterized by many parameters and require exceptional computational resources to evaluate systems of practical importance, making these models difficult to use for field analyses or uncertainty quantification. One approach to remove these limitations is through targeted complexity reduction and field data constrained parameterization. For the latter, a variety of field data streams may be available to engineers and asset teams, including micro-seismicity from proximate sites, well logs, and 3D surveys, which can constrain possible states of the reservoir as well as the distributions of parameters. We describe one such workflow, using the Argos multi-physics code and requisite geomechanical analysis to parameterize the underlying models. We illustrate with a field study involving a constraint analysis of various field data and details of the numerical optimizations and model reduction to demonstrate how complex models can be applied to operation design in hydraulic fracturing operations, including selection of controllable completion and fluid injection design properties. The implication of this work is that numerical methods are mature and computationally tractable enough to enable complex engineering analysis and deterministic field estimates and to advance research into stochastic analyses for uncertainty quantification and value of information applications.

  15. Approximate N3LO Higgs-boson production cross section using physical-kernel constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, D. de; Moch, S.; Hamburg Univ.; Vogt, A.

    2014-08-01

    The single-logarithmic enhancement of the physical kernel for Higgs production by gluon-gluon fusion in the heavy top-quark limit is employed to derive the leading so far unknown contributions, ln 5,4,3 (1-z), to the N 3 LO coefficient function in the threshold expansion. Also using knowledge from Higgs-exchange DIS to estimate the remaining terms not vanishing for z=m 2 H /s→1, these results are combined with the recently completed soft+virtual contributions to provide an uncertainty band for the complete N 3 LO correction. For the 2008 MSTW parton distributions these N 3 LO contributions increase the cross section at 14 TeV by (10±2)% and (3±2.5)% for the standard choices μ R =m H and μ R =m H /2 of the renormalization scale. The remaining uncertainty arising from the hard-scattering cross sections can be quantified as no more than 5%, which is smaller than that due to the strong coupling and the parton distributions.

  16. The Physical Constraints on a New LoBAL QSO at z = 4.82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Weimin; Bai, Jin-Ming [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Green, Richard; Fan, Xiaohui; Milne, Peter [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Grier, Catherine J.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zuo, Wenwen [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yang, Jinyi; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Jiang, Linhua; Yang, Qian [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Varricatt, Watson; Kerr, Tom; Benigni, Sam [UKIRT Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    Very few low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) QSOs have been found at high redshifts, to date. One high-redshift LoBAL QSO, J0122+1216, was recently discovered by the Lijiang 2.4 m Telescope, with an initial redshift determination of 4.76. Aiming to investigate its physical properties, we carried out follow-up observations in the optical and near-IR spectroscopy. Near-IR spectra from UKIRT and P200 confirm that it is a LoBAL, with a new redshift determination of 4.82 ± 0.01 based on the Mg ii emission-line. The new Mg ii redshift determination reveals strong blueshifts and asymmetry of the high-ionization emission lines. We estimate a black hole mass of ∼2.3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} and Eddington ratio of ∼1.0 according to the empirical Mg ii-based single-epoch relation and bolometric correction factor. It is possible that strong outflows are the result of an extreme quasar environment driven by the high Eddington ratio. A lower limit on the outflowing kinetic power (>0.9% L {sub Edd}) is derived from both emission and absorption lines, indicating that these outflows play a significant role in the feedback process that regulates the growth of its black hole, as well as host galaxy evolution.

  17. The role of social capital in the relationship between physical constraint and mental distress in older adults: a latent interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sok; Jang, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    Building upon the widely known link between physical and mental health, the present study explored the buffering effects of social capital (indicated by social cohesion, social ties, and safety) in the relationship between physical constraint (indicated by chronic conditions and functional disability) and mental distress (indicated by symptoms of depression and anxiety). Using data from 2,264 community-dwelling older adults in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) Wave 2 (M age = 74.51, SD = 6.67), a latent interaction model was tested. The model of mental distress, including both the main effect of physical constraint and social capital and their latent interaction, presented an excellent fit. The latent constructs of physical constraint (β = .54, p social capital (β = -.11, p interaction was also significant (β = -.26, p social capital had a heightened vulnerability to mental distress when faced with physical constraint, whereas the group with a high level of social capital demonstrated resilience. Findings call attention to ways to enhance older individuals' social capital in efforts to promote their health and well-being.

  18. Quantification of Physical Activity During Basic Combat Training and Associated Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    sock systems (6) and antiperspirants (7) to reduce foot blisters and the use of mouth guards for the reduction of orofacial injuries (S). These and...simplified list of lying down, sitting, standing, walking or very active. An Israeli Defense Forces study ញ) investigated overuse injuries and PAin ... orofacial injuries during United States Army Basic Military Training. Dent Traumata! 2006, 24:86-90. 9. U.S. Army Public Health Command, Injury

  19. The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to Be Physically Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Evelia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23 of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62 by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

  20. The Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Support the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs on the Motivation and Intentions to be Physically Active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Evelia; Coterón, Javier

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (n experimental = 30; n control = 23) of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62) by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.

  1. Quantum field theory I: Basics in mathematics and physics. A bridge between mathematicians and physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidler, Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    This is the first volume of a modern introduction to quantum field theory which addresses both mathematicians and physicists, at levels ranging from advanced undergraduate students to professional scientists. The book bridges the acknowledged gap between the different languages used by mathematicians and physicists. For students of mathematics the author shows that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to motivate the mathematical subjects and to discover interesting interrelationships between quite different mathematical topics. For students of physics, fairly advanced mathematics is presented, which goes beyond the usual curriculum in physics. (orig.)

  2. Quantum field theory I: Basics in mathematics and physics. A bridge between mathematicians and physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidler, Eberhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This is the first volume of a modern introduction to quantum field theory which addresses both mathematicians and physicists, at levels ranging from advanced undergraduate students to professional scientists. The book bridges the acknowledged gap between the different languages used by mathematicians and physicists. For students of mathematics the author shows that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to motivate the mathematical subjects and to discover interesting interrelationships between quite different mathematical topics. For students of physics, fairly advanced mathematics is presented, which goes beyond the usual curriculum in physics. (orig.)

  3. CONSTRAINTS OF THE PHYSICS OF LOW-MASS AGB STARS FROM CH AND CEMP STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Gobrecht, D. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, I-64100 (Italy); Karinkuzhi, D.; Goswami, A. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)

    2016-12-20

    We analyze a set of published elemental abundances from a sample of CH stars which are based on high resolution spectral analysis of ELODIE and SUBARU/HDS spectra. All the elemental abundances were derived from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres, and thus they represent the largest homogeneous abundance data available for CH stars to date. For this reason, we can use the set to constrain the physics and the nucleosynthesis occurring in low mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) s.tars. CH stars have been polluted in the past from an already extinct AGB companion and thus show s-process enriched surfaces. We discuss the effects induced on the surface AGB s-process distributions by different prescriptions for convection and rotation. Our reference theoretical FRUITY set fits only part of the observations. Moreover, the s-process observational spread for a fixed metallicity cannot be reproduced. At [Fe/H] > −1, a good fit is found when rotation and a different treatment of the inner border of the convective envelope are simultaneously taken into account. In order to increase the statistics at low metallicities, we include in our analysis a selected number of CEMP stars and, therefore, we compute additional AGB models down to [Fe/H] = −2.85. Our theoretical models are unable to attain the large [hs/ls] ratios characterizing the surfaces of those objects. We speculate on the reasons for such a discrepancy, discussing the possibility that the observed distribution is a result of a proton mixing episode leading to a very high neutron density (the so-called i-process).

  4. Basic course in theoretical physics. Vol. 2. Grundkurs in Theoretischer Physik. Bd. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, H D

    1975-01-01

    This book is the second volume of an edition of two volumes which concern theoretical physics. In this volume electrodynamics, the foundations of special relativity theory, and elementary quantum mechanics are introduced.

  5. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale between Portugal and Brazil Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Luis; Lettnin, Carla; Stobäus, Claus; Monteiro, Diogo; Davoglio, Tárcia; Moutão, João

    2016-02-19

    The main propose of this study is the cross-cultural validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale among Portugal and Brazil samples, through the study of measurement model invariance. Participated in this study, two independent samples, one with 616 Portuguese students, of the 2nd and 3rd basic grade of public school, aged between 9 and 18 years old and another with 450 Brazilian students, from 1st, 2nd and 3rd middle grade of public and private school, aged between 14 and 18 years old. The results support the suitability of the model (three factors, each one with four items), showing an adequate fit to the data in each sample (Portugal: χ2 = 203.8, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .062, NNFI = .926, CFI = .943, RMSEA = .070, RMSEA 90% IC = .060-.080; Brazil: χ2 = 173.7, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .052, NNFI = .940, CFI = .954, RMSEA = .073, RMSEA 90% IC = .061-.085), as well valid cross-cultural invariance among Portuguese e Brazilian samples (∆CFI ≤ .01). Those findings allow us to conclude that scale can be used to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education in Portugal and in Brazil.

  6. The Influence of Basic Physical Properties of Soil on its Electrical Resistivity Value under Loose and Dense Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, M. H. Z.; Ahmad, F.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Saad, R.

    2014-04-01

    Electrical resistivity technique has become a famous alternative tool in subsurface characterization. In the past, several interpretations of electrical resistivity results were unable to be delivered in a strong justification due to lack of appreciation of soil mechanics. Traditionally, interpreters will come out with different conclusion which commonly from qualitative point of view thus creating some uncertainty regarding the result reliability. Most engineers desire to apply any techniques in their project which are able to provide some clear justification with strong, reliable and meaningful results. In order to reduce the problem, this study presents the influence of basic physical properties of soil due to the electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition. Two different conditions of soil embankment model were tested under electrical resistivity test and basic geotechnical test. It was found that the electrical resistivity value (ERV, ρ) was highly influenced by the variations of soil basic physical properties (BPP) with particular reference to moisture content (w), densities (ρbulk/dry), void ratio (e), porosity (η) and particle grain fraction (d) of soil. Strong relationship between ERV and BPP can be clearly presents such as ρ ∞ 1/w, ρ ∞ 1/ρbulk/dry, ρ ∞ e and ρ ∞ η. This study therefore contributes a means of ERV data interpretation using BPP in order to reduce ambiguity of ERV result and interpretation discussed among related persons such as geophysicist, engineers and geologist who applied these electrical resistivity techniques in subsurface profile assessment.

  7. The influence of basic physical properties of soil on its electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, M H Z; Ahmad, F; Wijeyesekera, D C; Saad, R

    2014-01-01

    Electrical resistivity technique has become a famous alternative tool in subsurface characterization. In the past, several interpretations of electrical resistivity results were unable to be delivered in a strong justification due to lack of appreciation of soil mechanics. Traditionally, interpreters will come out with different conclusion which commonly from qualitative point of view thus creating some uncertainty regarding the result reliability. Most engineers desire to apply any techniques in their project which are able to provide some clear justification with strong, reliable and meaningful results. In order to reduce the problem, this study presents the influence of basic physical properties of soil due to the electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition. Two different conditions of soil embankment model were tested under electrical resistivity test and basic geotechnical test. It was found that the electrical resistivity value (ERV, ρ) was highly influenced by the variations of soil basic physical properties (BPP) with particular reference to moisture content (w), densities (ρ bulk/dry ), void ratio (e), porosity (η) and particle grain fraction (d) of soil. Strong relationship between ERV and BPP can be clearly presents such as ρ ∞ 1/w, ρ ∞ 1/ρ bulk/dry , ρ ∞ e and ρ ∞ η. This study therefore contributes a means of ERV data interpretation using BPP in order to reduce ambiguity of ERV result and interpretation discussed among related persons such as geophysicist, engineers and geologist who applied these electrical resistivity techniques in subsurface profile assessment.

  8. Phase equilibria constraints on the chemical and physical evolution of the campanian ignimbrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, S.J.; Spera, F.J.; Bohrson, W.A.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite is a > 200 km3 trachyte-phonolite pyroclastic deposit that erupted at 39.3 ?? 0.1 ka within the Campi Flegrei west of Naples, Italy. Here we test the hypothesis that Campanian Ignimbrite magma was derived by isobaric crystal fractionation of a parental basaltic trachyandesitic melt that reacted and came into local equilibrium with small amounts (5-10 wt%) of crustal rock (skarns and foid-syenites) during crystallization. Comparison of observed crystal and magma compositions with results of phase equilibria assimilation-fractionation simulations (MELTS) is generally very good. Oxygen fugacity was approximately buffered along QFM+1 (where QFM is the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer) during isobaric fractionation at 0.15 GPa (???6 km depth). The parental melt, reconstructed from melt inclusion and host clinopyroxene compositions, is found to be basaltic trachyandesite liquid (51.1 wt% SiO2, 9.3 wt% MgO, 3 wt% H2O). A significant feature of phase equilibria simulations is the existence of a pseudo-invariant temperature, ???883??C, at which the fraction of melt remaining in the system decreases abruptly from ???0.5 to point leads to abrupt changes in the composition, properties (density, dissolved water content), and physical state (viscosity, volume fraction fluid) of melt and magma. A dramatic decrease in melt viscosity (from 1700 Pa s to ???200 Pa s), coupled with a change in the volume fraction of water in magma (from ??? 0.1 to 0.8) and a dramatic decrease in melt and magma density acted as a destabilizing eruption trigger. Thermal models suggest a timescale of ??? 200 kyr from the beginning of fractionation until eruption, leading to an apparent rate of evolved magma generation of about 10-3 km3/year. In situ crystallization and crystal settling in density-stratified regions, as well as in convectively mixed, less evolved subjacent magma, operate rapidly enough to match this apparent volumetric rate of evolved magma production

  9. [Basic guidelines for detecting sedentarism and recommendations for physical activity in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Salgado, Juan José; Delgado-Martín, José Luis; Blanco-Iglesias, Orlando; Aldecoa-Landesa, Susana

    2015-03-01

    The detection of physical inactivity in adults, using simple and useful tools is primary objective in both public health and in clinical settings, since this risk factor is one of the major causes of non-communicable disease in the world, and is very prevalent in developed societies such as in Spain. Two validated instruments are described that are simple and useful for detecting and/or monitoring physical inactivity in adults: (i)the international physical activity questionnaire in its short version, and (ii)the pedometer to measure the number of steps taken in a day. Increased levels of physical activity are important for the primary prevention of some chronic diseases (coronary heart disease, type2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer) and to improve the quality of life. Medical personnel must determine the motivation level and the availability of patients and their families to change their behavior towards physical activity. Moderate-intensity physical activities have hardly any contraindications and the risks are few. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Parameterization of strombolian explosions: constraint from simultaneous physical and geophysical measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    gurioli, L.; Harris, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Strombolian activity is the most common type of explosive eruption (by frequency) experienced by Earth's volcanoes. It is commonly viewed as consisting of a succession of short discrete explosions where fragments of incandescent magma are ejected a few tens to hundreds meters into the air. This kind of activity is generally restricted to basaltic or basaltic-andesitic magmas because these systems have the sufficiently low viscosities so as to allow gas coalescence and decoupled slug ascent. Mercalli (1907) proposed one of the first formal classifications of explosive activity based on the character of the erupted products and descriptions of case-type eruptions. Later, Walker (1973) devised a classification based on grain size and dispersion, within which strombolian explosions formed the low-to-middle end of the classification. Other classifications have categorized strombolian activity on the basis of erupted magnitude and/or intensity, such as Newhall and Self's (1982) Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). Classification can also be made on the basis of explosion mechanism, where strombolian eruptions have become associated with bursting of large gas bubbles, as opposed to release of locked in bubble populations in rapidly ascending magma that feed sustained fountains. Finally, strombolian eruptions can be defined on the basis of geophysical metrics for the explosion source and plume ascent dynamics. Recently, the volcanology community has begun to discuss the difficulty of actually placing strombolian explosions within the compartments defined by each scheme. New sampling strategies in active strombolian volcanic fields have allowed us to parameterize these mildly explosive events both physically and geophysically. Our data show that individual 'normal' and "major" explosions at Stromboli are extremely small, meaning that the classical deposit-based classification thresholds need to be reduced, or a new category defined, if the 'strombolian' eruption style at

  11. History of science in basic physics education: what topics are part of this history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Coelho da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking as theme the use of the history and philosophy of science as a strategy for the physics teaching in high school, we aim to investigate which topics of physics have already been the object of proposals and investigations in this sense. For this, we search for papers in the two most traditional Brazilian journals in the physics education area, the “Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física” e the “Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física”. We found papers that addressed the following topics: electric and magnetic fields, gravitation, relativity, astronomy, energy, electromagnetism, relations between force and motion, units of measurement, atmospheric pressure and vacuum. In this context, we point out the pertinence in expanding the list of topics that are the subject of studies of this type.

  12. Basic Theory of Fractional Conformal Invariance of Mei Symmetry and its Applications to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shao-Kai; Dai, Yun; Yang, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Tian

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a basic theory of fractional dynamics, i.e., the fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry, and find a new kind of conserved quantity led by fractional conformal invariance. For a dynamical system that can be transformed into fractional generalized Hamiltonian representation, we introduce a more general kind of single-parameter fractional infinitesimal transformation of Lie group, the definition and determining equation of fractional conformal invariance are given. And then, we reveal the fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry, and the necessary and sufficient condition whether the fractional conformal invariance would be the fractional Mei symmetry is found. In particular, we present the basic theory of fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry and it is found that, using the new approach, we can find a new kind of conserved quantity; as a special case, we find that an autonomous fractional generalized Hamiltonian system possesses more conserved quantities. Also, as the new method's applications, we, respectively, find the conserved quantities of a fractional general relativistic Buchduhl model and a fractional Duffing oscillator led by fractional conformal invariance of Mei symmetry.

  13. The Analysis of Learning Obstacle and Students Learning Motivation of Prospective Math Teachers in Basic Physics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, D. T.; Suhandi, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Rusdiana, D.

    2017-02-01

    Learning motivation revealed as a whole intrinsic factor that created, maintained and supported students to achieve the goal of learning. As the bigger motivation came with bigger success, motivation was considered as the main key to reach what students have planned. There were intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence both the students and lecturers’ motivation. The factors in one hand, were essential to be defined by the lecturers in order to maintain and enhance the students’ enthusiasm. On the other hand, they also encouraged and thrilled the students to learn. The study aimed to expose and describe the motivational tendency and to knowledge and analyze learning obstacles faced by the students in basic physics class on students of prospective math teachers in FKIP Unswagati Cirebon. In addition, the study focused on the description of the six motivational components stated by Glyn and Koballa. The six were intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, the relevance of studying physics for subjective purposes, willpower, self assessment and anxiety. Class responses were determined through questionnaire with four main indicators; the causes of being less popular subject, the cause of being disfavored subject, the description of the way the students draw the examination on basic physics subject and the academic background of the students. The results showed that 54% students stated that physics was disfavored because the subject was difficult to understand, 49% stated that the cause of being disfavored of the subject was because physics required complicated mathematics. Most of the students preferred to have game based activities that boosted thinking skill. According to the analysis of the students’ motivation, the findings revealed that the students’ had high level of anxiety in learning the subject. They mostly expressed their anxiety appeared from the material density and text book based assignments.

  14. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

  15. Gender Approach at Physical Culture Lessons at the Second Stage of Basic High Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotilkin?, Irina M.; Anokhina, Olga V.; Galitsyn, Sergey V.; Byankina, Larisa V.; Chiligin, Dmitriy V.

    2016-01-01

    Gender approach in education is a specific impact on the development of boys and girls by the set of factors of education and training process. The objective of this research is the reasoning of applying gender approach at physical culture lessons and creating comfortable environment taking into account the psychophysiological differences of the…

  16. Computed tomography by reconstruction. Brain CT scanning. I. Basic physics, equipment, normal aspects, artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiras, J.; Palmieri, P.; Saudinos, J.; Salamon, G.

    1980-01-01

    The authors describe the physical basis, apparatus, normal images, and artefacts of computed tomography by reconstruction. Radio-anatomical sections enable clear comprehension of the computed tomography images. Other methods using computer reconstruction are outlined: tomography by Compton effect, tomography by positrons, tomography by gamma emission, tomography by protons, tomography by nuclear magnetic resonance [fr

  17. Global Energy Development and Climate-Induced Water Scarcity—Physical Limits, Sectoral Constraints, and Policy Imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current accelerated growth in demand for energy globally is confronted by water-resource limitations and hydrologic variability linked to climate change. The global spatial and temporal trends in water requirements for energy development and policy alternatives to address these constraints are poorly understood. This article analyzes national-level energy demand trends from U.S. Energy Information Administration data in relation to newly available assessments of water consumption and life-cycle impacts of thermoelectric generation and biofuel production, and freshwater availability and sectoral allocations from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank. Emerging, energy-related water scarcity flashpoints include the world’s largest, most diversified economies (Brazil, India, China, and USA among others, while physical water scarcity continues to pose limits to energy development in the Middle East and small-island states. Findings include the following: (a technological obstacles to alleviate water scarcity driven by energy demand are surmountable; (b resource conservation is inevitable, driven by financial limitations and efficiency gains; and (c institutional arrangements play a pivotal role in the virtuous water-energy-climate cycle. We conclude by making reference to coupled energy-water policy alternatives including water-conserving energy portfolios, intersectoral water transfers, virtual water for energy, hydropower tradeoffs, and use of impaired waters for energy development.

  18. PHYSICAL-CONSTRAINT-PRESERVING CENTRAL DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH A GENERAL EQUATION OF STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kailiang [School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tang, Huazhong, E-mail: wukl@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: hztang@math.pku.edu.cn [HEDPS, CAPT and LMAM, School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-01

    The ideal gas equation of state (EOS) with a constant adiabatic index is a poor approximation for most relativistic astrophysical flows, although it is commonly used in relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD). This paper develops high-order accurate, physical-constraints-preserving (PCP), central, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the one- and two-dimensional special RHD equations with a general EOS. It is built on our theoretical analysis of the admissible states for RHD and the PCP limiting procedure that enforce the admissibility of central DG solutions. The convexity, scaling invariance, orthogonal invariance, and Lax–Friedrichs splitting property of the admissible state set are first proved with the aid of its equivalent form. Then, the high-order central DG methods with the PCP limiting procedure and strong stability-preserving time discretization are proved, to preserve the positivity of the density, pressure, specific internal energy, and the bound of the fluid velocity, maintain high-order accuracy, and be L {sup 1}-stable. The accuracy, robustness, and effectiveness of the proposed methods are demonstrated by several 1D and 2D numerical examples involving large Lorentz factor, strong discontinuities, or low density/pressure, etc.

  19. Freshman College Students' Reasons for Enrolling in and Anticipated Benefits from a Basic College Physical Education Activity Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackman, Jeremy; Smith, Matthew Lee; McNeill, Elisa Beth

    2015-01-01

    Given the rise in US obesity rates in adulthood, efforts are needed to assess physical activity engagement during the college years as a strategy to promote a lifetime of being physically active. This study identifies the reasons incoming college freshman enrolled in basic physical education activity courses (BPEAC) and the perceived benefits they anticipated receiving as a result of course participation. Data collected from 302 college freshmen in September 2013 were analyzed. A paper-based questionnaire was administered to 78% of BPEAC sections offered at a large Southeastern University. Frequencies were presented for all participants, which were then compared by sex and course type. Kappa statistics were calculated to examine the concordance between participants' reasons for enrolling in the course and the benefits they anticipated from course enrollment. Diverse physical, mental, social, and academic reasons for enrolling in BPEAC were reported by study participants. Varied anticipated benefits from course participation were reported as well. Reported enrollment reasons and anticipated benefits differed by sex and course type. High concordance between matched enrollment reasons and anticipated benefits was observed. Implications highlight the need for universities to provide quality BPEAC, promote high-quality instruction, and offer a wide variety of physical education courses to meet the diverse needs of students.

  20. Benefits of physical exercise on basic visuo-motor functions across age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eBerchicci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance deficits of older adults are due to dysfunction at multiple levels. Age-related differences have been documented on executive functions; motor control becomes more reliant on cognitive control mechanisms, including the engagement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, possibly compensating for age-related sensorimotor declines. Since at functional level the PFC showed the largest age-related differences during discriminative response task, we wonder whether those effects are mainly due to the cognitive difficulty in stimulus discrimination or they could be also detected in a much easier task. In the present study, we measured the association of physical exercise with the PFC activation and response times (RTs using a simple response task (SRT, in which the participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible by manual key-press to visual stimuli. Simultaneous behavioral (RTs and electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were performed on 84 healthy participants aged 19-86 years. The whole sample was divided into three cohorts (young, middle-aged and older; each cohort was further divided into two equal sub-cohorts (exercise and not-exercise based on a self-report questionnaire measuring physical exercise. The EEG signal was segmented in epochs starting 1100 prior to stimulus onset and lasting 2-s. Behavioral results showed age effects, indicating a slowing of RTs with increasing age. The EEG results showed a significant interaction between age and exercise on the activities recorded on the PFC. The results indicates that: a the brain of older adults needs the PFC engagement also to perform elementary task, such as the SRT, while this activity is not necessary in younger adults, b physical exercise could reduce this age-related reliance on extra cognitive control also during the performance of a SRT, and c the activity of the PFC is a sensitive index of the benefits of physical exercise on sensorimotor decline.

  1. Basic physical and chemical information needed for development of Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to view track structure analysis as an application of a branch of theoretical physics (i.e., statistical physics and physical kinetics in the language of the Landau school). Monte Carlo methods and transport equation methods represent two major approaches. In either approach, it is of paramount importance to use as input the cross section data that best represent the elementary microscopic processes. Transport analysis based on unrealistic input data must be viewed with caution, because results can be misleading. Work toward establishing the cross section data, which demands a wide scope of knowledge and expertise, is being carried out through extensive international collaborations. In track structure analysis for radiation biology, the need for cross sections for the interactions of electrons with DNA and neighboring protein molecules seems to be especially urgent. Finally, it is important to interpret results of Monte Carlo calculations fully and adequately. To this end, workers should document input data as thoroughly as possible and report their results in detail in many ways. Workers in analytic transport theory are then likely to contribute to the interpretation of the results

  2. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  3. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and “static” properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement… can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the “vacuum rest frame”, VRF. But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a “grand unification” view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  4. New Ideas for the Extra Dimensions and for Deriving the Basic Laws of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As geometry is constructed from points and their separating distances, physics may be similarly constructed using identical material points and their separating distances with the additional requirement that all points have infinitesimal masses and move all the time at the speed of light. Pairs of such points can get locked together in circles to make doublet particles that can have any speed from zero to that of light, at which point the doublet disintegrates. Using this construct together with the rich mathematical properties of a 3D space, a mechanical definition of time, and simple symmetry rule for displacement, it is possible to derive many of the fundamental laws of physics such as the inverse square laws of gravitation and static electricity, many of the relativistic and quantum mechanical results such as the mass-energy conversion of Einstein and the quantized energy levels of Planck and Bohr. In addition, a better understanding of some illusive terms like inertia and force becomes possible. No arbitrary constants are needed in the process. Extra dimensions (variables that are not a distance are created as a result of this setup — but they are all found to be discrete. Mass, charge, spin, and time are some notable examples.

  5. Assessment of basic physical parameters of current Canadian-American National Hockey League (NHL ice hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sigmund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical parameters represent an important part of the structure of sports performance and significantly contribute to the overall performance of an ice hockey player. Basic physical parameters are also an essential part of a comprehensive player assessment both during the initial NHL draft and further stages of a professional career. For an objective assessment it is desirable to know the current condition of development of monitored somatic parameters with regard to the sports discipline, performance level and gaming position. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze and present the level of development of basic physical characteristics [Body Height (BH and Body Weight (BW] in current ice hockey players in the Canadian-American NHL, also with respect to various gaming positions. Another aim is to compare the results with relevant data of elite ice hockey players around the world. Methods: The data of 751 ice hockey players (age range: 18-43 years; 100% male from NHL (2014/2015 season are analyzed (goalkeepers, n = 67; defenders, n = 237; forwards, n = 447. Statistical data processing was performed using a single factor ANOVA and Fisher's (LSD post hoc test. The level of statistical significance was tested at a level of p ≤ .05; p ≤ .01. Effect size was expressed according to Cohen's d. Results: Current levels of monitored parameters of NHL players represent the values: BH = 186.0 ± 5.3 cm, BW = 91.7 ± 6.9 kg. Significant differences among positions were found for the BH (goalkeepers > defenders > forwards and BW (defenders > goalkeepers > forwards. Differences among forwards positions were also found for the BH (left wings > right wings > centers and BW (left wings > right wings > centers. Conclusion: The observed values represent the current level of basic physical parameters in professional ice hockey players in the NHL and can be considered

  6. Investigation of the basic reactor physics characteristics of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Ngo Quang [Centre for Nuclear Technique Application, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Thong, Ha Van; Khang, Ngo Phu [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was reconstructed from TRIGA MARK II reactor, built in 1963 with nominal power of 250 KW, and reached its planned nominal power of 500 kW for the first time in Feb. 1984. The Dalat reactor has some characteristics distinct from the former TRIGA reactor. Investigation of its characteristics is carried out by the determination of the reactor physics parameters. This paper represents the experimental results obtained for the effective fraction of the delayed photoneutrons, the extraneous neutron source left after the reactor is shut down, the lowest power levels of reactor critical states, the relative axial and radial distributions of thermal neutrons, the safe positive reactivity inserted into the reactor at deep subcritical state, the reactivity temperature coefficient of water, the temperature on the surface of the fuel elements, etc. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Geographic-didactical games as interactive tools to test and improve student's basic knowledge in Physical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.; Tintrup Gen. Suntrup, A.

    2009-04-01

    Due to an increasing disproportion between experienced teaching staff and student numbers at German universities, the time available for teaching the fundamental basic knowledge in Physical Geography was condensed during the past decade. Unfortunately, this mainly has been achieved at the expense of practical lessons of testing student's knowledge. The recent introduction of the Bachelor/Master degree has not solved this problem, but rather accelerated that tend. The "losers" of this tendency are those students enrolled in trainee teacher studies in Geography. In conjunction with the recent modifications of the study programs putting more focus on applied or specialized fields of Geography and its methodology, the trainee teacher students often express their critics and urgently demand opportunities to improve and test their basic knowledge (because it is especially that knowledge, they need at school and for their traditional examination). As the study program is quite dense, there is no room for special courses or seminars. By contrast, one has to use some free time slots available e.g. in the evenings of the usually quite long German excursions or of weekend seminars. However, after a day in the field or in the classroom, the teacher has to find a method owing enough excitement and clearly visible benefit for the students to achieve sufficient motivation. Interactive geographic-didactical games have been developed exclusively for this purpose and applied at different occasions. Those games had the goal of testing student's basic knowledge in a rather unconventional and "casual" style in order to motivate active participation. Most of the games could be played in small groups of students with the teacher only occasionally being involved as referee. Of course, the games had the general aim of improving the basic knowledge - or at least give the students the possibility to discover their own strength (or weakness) just before it is too late (as it e.g. would be

  8. Basic physics of Alfven instabilities driven by energetic particles in toroidally confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2008-01-01

    Superthermal energetic particles (EP) often drive shear Alfven waves unstable in magnetically confined plasmas. These instabilities constitute a fascinating nonlinear system where fluid and kinetic nonlinearities can appear on an equal footing. In addition to basic science, Alfven instabilities are of practical importance, as the expulsion of energetic particles can damage the walls of a confinement device. Because of rapid dispersion, shear Alfven waves that are part of the continuous spectrum are rarely destabilized. However, because the index of refraction is periodic in toroidally confined plasmas, gaps appear in the continuous spectrum. At spatial locations where the radial group velocity vanishes, weakly damped discrete modes appear in these gaps. These eigenmodes are of two types. One type is associated with frequency crossings of counterpropagating waves; the toroidal Alfven eigenmode is a prominent example. The second type is associated with an extremum of the continuous spectrum; the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode is an example of this type. In addition to these normal modes of the background plasma, when the energetic particle pressure is very large, energetic particle modes that adopt the frequency of the energetic particle population occur. Alfven instabilities of all three types occur in every toroidal magnetic confinement device with an intense energetic particle population. The energetic particles are most conveniently described by their constants of motion. Resonances occur between the orbital frequencies of the energetic particles and the wave phase velocity. If the wave resonance with the energetic particle population occurs where the gradient with respect to a constant of motion is inverted, the particles transfer energy to the wave, promoting instability. In a tokamak, the spatial gradient drive associated with inversion of the toroidal canonical angular momentum P ζ is most important. Once a mode is driven unstable, a wide variety of

  9. Application of FT NIR Spectroscopy in the Determination of Basic Physical and Chemical Properties of Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Procházková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop calibration models for determination of water activity and the content of fat, dry matter, salt, non collagen muscle protein and pH in dry cooked sausages. Samples (n = 42 were scanned in FT-NIR Analyzer and simultaneously analyzed by standard methods. The spectra were measured in the reflectance mode with a compressive cell between 10 000 and 4 000 cm-1, averaging 100 scans. Calibration models were developed using the partial least squares (PLS method. These calibration models were checked later by crossvalidation. The following statistical values were obtained: R (correlation coefficient = 0.997 and SEC (standard error of calibration = 0.002 for water activity, R = 0.966 and SEC = 0.023 for pH, R = 0.995 and SEC = 0.970 for dry matter content, R = 0.995 and SEC = 0.045 for salt content, R = 0.965 and SEC = 0.652 for non collagen muscle protein, R = 0.996 and SEC = 0.559 for fat content. The results of the study showed that FT-NIR is a suitable method for rapid analysis of physical and chemical properties of sausages.

  10. Basic Physical-Geographical Characteristics of Rava Island in the Zadar Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Magaš

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The island of Rava (3,62 km2, 120 inhabitants 1991, which makes part of the Zadar archipelago, belongs to the South Croatian (Dalmatian group of islands. In this paper, the features of its natural basis are elaborated as a part of the project connected with the geographical study of small Croatian islands. The authors anlyse its position, size and extent, geomorphology, geological composition and structure, climatovegetable properties, pedological and biogeographical features and waters. Attention has been paid to the importance of its dolomitic structure, favourable climatic conditions (precipitation, temperatures, winds, etc., lack of water and significance of its autochthonous vegetation. Special heed has been given to the properties of the sea surrounding the island (physical, chemical and biological parametres. Inhabitability and valuation depended on its physicogeographical potential, and the contemporary possibilities are based on it too. The paper offers a detailed list of texts published up to the present and some unpublished ones, which deal with the island that has not been specially treated so far.

  11. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  12. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H − extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases

  13. MO-DE-209-00: DBT Physics Basic to Advanced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is rapidly replacing mammography as the standard of care in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. DBT is a form of computed tomography, in which a limited set of projection images are acquired over a small angular range and reconstructed into tomographic data. The angular range varies from 15° to 50° and the number of projections varies between 9 and 25 projections, as determined by the equipment manufacturer. It is equally valid to treat DBT as the digital analog of classical tomography – that is, linear tomography. In fact, the name “tomosynthesis” stands for “synthetic tomography.” DBT shares many common features with classical tomography, including the radiographic appearance, dose, and image quality considerations. As such, both the science and practical physics of DBT systems is a hybrid between computed tomography and classical tomographic methods. In this lecture, we will explore the continuum from radiography to computed tomography to illustrate the characteristics of DBT. This lecture will consist of four presentations that will provide a complete overview of DBT, including a review of the fundamentals of DBT acquisition, a discussion of DBT reconstruction methods, an overview of dosimetry for DBT systems, and summary of the underlying image theory of DBT thereby relating image quality and dose. Learning Objectives: To understand the fundamental principles behind tomosynthesis image acquisition. To understand the fundamentals of tomosynthesis image reconstruction. To learn the determinants of image quality and dose in DBT, including measurement techniques. To learn the image theory underlying tomosynthesis, and the relationship between dose and image quality. ADM is a consultant to, and holds stock in, Real Time Tomography, LLC. ADM receives research support from Hologic Inc., Analogic Inc., and Barco NV.; ADM is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for Gamma Medica Inc.; A. Maidment, Research Support

  14. MO-DE-209-00: DBT Physics Basic to Advanced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is rapidly replacing mammography as the standard of care in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. DBT is a form of computed tomography, in which a limited set of projection images are acquired over a small angular range and reconstructed into tomographic data. The angular range varies from 15° to 50° and the number of projections varies between 9 and 25 projections, as determined by the equipment manufacturer. It is equally valid to treat DBT as the digital analog of classical tomography – that is, linear tomography. In fact, the name “tomosynthesis” stands for “synthetic tomography.” DBT shares many common features with classical tomography, including the radiographic appearance, dose, and image quality considerations. As such, both the science and practical physics of DBT systems is a hybrid between computed tomography and classical tomographic methods. In this lecture, we will explore the continuum from radiography to computed tomography to illustrate the characteristics of DBT. This lecture will consist of four presentations that will provide a complete overview of DBT, including a review of the fundamentals of DBT acquisition, a discussion of DBT reconstruction methods, an overview of dosimetry for DBT systems, and summary of the underlying image theory of DBT thereby relating image quality and dose. Learning Objectives: To understand the fundamental principles behind tomosynthesis image acquisition. To understand the fundamentals of tomosynthesis image reconstruction. To learn the determinants of image quality and dose in DBT, including measurement techniques. To learn the image theory underlying tomosynthesis, and the relationship between dose and image quality. ADM is a consultant to, and holds stock in, Real Time Tomography, LLC. ADM receives research support from Hologic Inc., Analogic Inc., and Barco NV.; ADM is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for Gamma Medica Inc.; A. Maidment, Research Support

  15. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  16. Basic Physical – Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sičáková Alena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The binding potential of fly ash (FA as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  17. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the U.S. Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [ed.] [comp.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. It`s main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the Us and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  18. Basic Physical - Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sičáková, Alena; Števulová, Nadežda

    2017-06-01

    The binding potential of fly ash (FA) as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm) FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm) one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden) can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  19. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  20. Impact of a didactic sequence on basic Astronomy concepts for graduates in physics of online and classroom modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Barbosa, J. I. L.

    2017-07-01

    In the transition from elementary school to high school, the topics related to astronomy are studied within the curriculae component of physics. In this context, at some point of time a Physic's teacher at this level of education will be faced with the need to work with the contents related to this science. In this way, it is important to broaden the discussion about teacher education, as well as to apply in practice the means for it. Therefore, this work has the objective to present the results, obtained by application of a questionnaire at the beginning (a pre-test), and at the final stage by a course for physics graduates of online and classroom modalities (completed with a post-test), which was organized through the Potentially Significant Teaching Units - PSTUs; and this work also presents the level of satisfaction of them in relation to the course. It is an applied and descriptive research, and the adopted technical procedures consisted of the survey and a participatory research. The data were organized in spreadsheets and the statistical analyzes were made in the sequence, with the objective of establishing comparisons between the studied groups, of their evolution of acquired knowledge and their level of satisfaction, resulting from the development in the course. The results indicate that there has been an evolution of the student's s basic knowledge with relation to the proposed topics of Astronomy in the didactic sequences, i.e., the activities developed in the administered course created a favorable atmosphere for the learning, which is therefore contributing to the initial formation of these physics teachers.

  1. Redesign of students’ worksheet on basic physics experiment based on students’ scientific process skills analysis in Melde’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, M. G.; Utari, S.; Saepuzaman, D.; Nugraha, F.

    2018-05-01

    Scientific process skills (SPS) are an intellectual skill to build knowledge, solve problems scientifically, train thinking skills as well as a very important part of the inquiry process and contribute to scientific literacy. Therefore, SPS is very important to be developed. This study aims to develop Student Worksheets (SW) that can trace SPS through basic physics experiments (BPE) on Melde’s law. This research uses R&D method involving 18 physics education department students who take the BPE course as a sample. The research instrument uses an SW designed with a SPS approach that have been reviewed and judged by expert, which includes observing, communicating, classifying, measuring, inferring, predicting, identifying variable, constructing hypothesis, defining variable operationally, designing experiment, acquiring and processing data to conclusions. The result of the research shows that the student’s SPS has not been trained optimally, the students’ answers are not derived from the observations and experiments conducted but derived from the initial knowledge of the students, as well as in the determination of experimental variables, inferring and hypothesis. This result is also supported by a low increase of conceptual content on Melde’s law with n-gain of 0.40. The research findings are used as the basis for the redesign of SW.

  2. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic extension in southwestern Fujian Province, South China: Geochemical, geochronological and Hf isotopic constraints from basic-intermediate dykes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic evolution of SE China block since late Paleozoic remains debated. Here we present a new set of zircon U-Pb geochronological, Lu-Hf isotopic data and whole-rock geochemistry for two stages of basic-intermediate dykes from the southwestern Fujian. The samples were collected from the NE-trending (mainly diabases and NW-trending (mainly diabasic diorites dykes and yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 315 and 141 Ma, with εHf (t values of −8.90 to 7.49 and −23.39 to −7.15 (corresponding to TDM2 values of 850 to 1890 Ma and 737 to 2670 Ma, respectively. Geochemically these rocks are characterized by low TiO2 (0.91–1.73 wt.% and MgO (3.04–7.96 wt.%, and high Al2O3 (12.5–16.60 wt.% and K2O (0.60–3.63 wt.%. Further they are enriched in LREEs and LILEs (Rb, Ba, Th and K, but depleted in HFSEs (Nb, Ta and Zr. The tectonic discrimination analysis revealed that the dykes were formed in an intraplate extensional environment. However, the NW trending dykes show crust-mantle mixed composition, which indicate an extensional tectonic setting with evidence for crustal contamination. The SE China block experienced two main stages of extensional tectonics from late Carboniferous to early Cretaceous. The tectonic evolution of the SE China block from late Devonian to Cretaceous is also evaluated.

  3. Dynamics and causality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  4. Measurement and basic physics committee of the U.S. cross-section evaluation working group, annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; McLane, V.

    1998-01-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing

  5. MEASUREMENT AND BASIC PHYSICS COMMITTEE OF THE U.S. CROSS-SECTION EVALUATION WORKING GROUP, ANNUAL REPORT 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,D.L.; MCLANE,V.

    1998-10-20

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  6. Autonomy supportive environments and mastery as basic factors to motivate physical activity in children: a controlled laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Lambiase Ms, Maya J; McCarthy, Thomas F; Feda, Denise M; Kozlowski, Karl F

    2012-02-21

    Choice promotes the experience of autonomy, which enhances intrinsic motivation. Providing a greater choice of traditional active toys may increase children's activity time. Mastery also increases intrinsic motivation and is designed into exergames, which may increase play time of a single exergame, reducing the need for choice to motivate activity compared to traditional active toys. Providing both choice and mastery could be most efficacious at increasing activity time. The energy expenditure (EE) of an active play session is dependent on the duration of play and the rate of EE during play. The rate of EE of exergames and the same game played in traditional fashion is not known. The purpose was to test the basic parameters of choice and mastery on children's physical activity time, activity intensity, and energy expenditure. 44 children were assigned to low (1 toy) or high (3 toys) choice groups. Children completed 60 min sessions with access to traditional active toys on one visit and exergame versions of the same active toys on another visit. Choice had a greater effect on increasing girls' (146%) than boys' (23%) activity time and on girls' (230%) than boys' (minus 24%) activity intensity. When provided choice, girls' activity time and intensity were no longer lower than boys' activity time and intensity. The combination of choice and mastery by providing access to 3 exergames produced greater increases in physical activity time (1 toy 22.5 min, 3 toys 41.4 min) than choice alone via access to 3 traditional games (1 toy 13.6 min, 3 toys 19.5 min). Energy expenditure was 83% greater when engaging in traditional games than exergames. Boys and girls differ in their behavioral responses to autonomy supportive environments. By providing girls with greater autonomy they can be motivated to engage in physical activity equal to boys. An environment that provides both autonomy and mastery is most efficacious at increasing physical activity time. Though children play

  7. Extending the trans-contextual model in physical education and leisure-time contexts: examining the role of basic psychological need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Hagger, Martin S; Lambropoulos, George; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2010-12-01

    The trans-contextual model (TCM) is an integrated model of motivation that aims to explain the processes by which agentic support for autonomous motivation in physical education promotes autonomous motivation and physical activity in a leisure-time context. It is proposed that perceived support for autonomous motivation in physical education is related to autonomous motivation in physical education and leisure-time contexts. Furthermore, relations between autonomous motivation and the immediate antecedents of intentions to engage in physical activity behaviour and actual behaviour are hypothesized. The purpose of the present study was to incorporate the constructs of basic psychological need satisfaction in the TCM to provide a more comprehensive explanation of motivation and demonstrate the robustness of the findings of previous tests of the model that have not incorporated these constructs. Students (N=274) from Greek secondary schools. Participants completed self-report measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, and basic psychological need satisfaction in physical education. Follow-up measures of these variables were taken in a leisure-time context along with measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intentions from the theory of planned behaviour 1 week later. Self-reported physical activity behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. Results supported TCM hypotheses. Basic psychological need satisfaction variables uniquely predicted autonomous motivation in physical education and leisure time as well as the antecedents of intention, namely, attitudes, and PBC. The basic psychological need satisfaction variables also mediated the effects of perceived autonomy support on autonomous motivation in physical education. Findings support the TCM and provide further information of the mechanisms in the model and integrated theories of motivation in physical education and leisure time.

  8. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

  9. Virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of mechanical engineering students on basic physics concept of material measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, E. D.; Setiawan, A.; Siahaan, P.; Rochman, C.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine the description of virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of Mechanical Engineering students on the concept of basic Physics. Quasi experimental method was employed in this research. The participants of this research were first semester students of mechanical engineering in Majalengka University. The research instrument was readability test of instructional media. The results of virtual laboratory learning media readability test show that the average score is 78.5%. It indicates that virtual laboratory learning media development are feasible to be used in improving science literacy skill of Mechanical Engineering students in Majalengka University, specifically on basic Physics concepts of material measurement.

  10. Development of student performance assessment based on scientific approach for a basic physics practicum in simple harmonic motion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serevina, V.; Muliyati, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to develop students’ performance assessment instrument based on scientific approach is valid and reliable in assessing the performance of students on basic physics lab of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). This study uses the ADDIE consisting of stages: Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The student performance assessment developed can be used to measure students’ skills in observing, asking, conducting experiments, associating and communicate experimental results that are the ‘5M’ stages in a scientific approach. Each grain of assessment in the instrument is validated by the instrument expert and the evaluation with the result of all points of assessment shall be eligible to be used with a 100% eligibility percentage. The instrument is then tested for the quality of construction, material, and language by panel (lecturer) with the result: 85% or very good instrument construction aspect, material aspect 87.5% or very good, and language aspect 83% or very good. For small group trial obtained instrument reliability level of 0.878 or is in the high category, where r-table is 0.707. For large group trial obtained instrument reliability level of 0.889 or is in the high category, where r-table is 0.320. Instruments declared valid and reliable for 5% significance level. Based on the result of this research, it can be concluded that the student performance appraisal instrument based on the developed scientific approach is declared valid and reliable to be used in assessing student skill in SHM experimental activity.

  11. Langmuir probe-based observables for plasma-turbulence code validation and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to the number of model assumptions and to the combinations of measurements needed to form each of them. The lowest levels of the primacy hierarchy correspond to observables that require the lowest number of model assumptions and measurement combinations, such as the statistical and spectral properties of the ion saturation current time trace, while at the highest levels, quantities such as particle transport are considered. The comparison of the observables at the lowest levels in the hierarchy is more stringent than at the highest levels. Examples of the use of the proposed observables are applied to a specific TORPEX plasma configuration characterized by interchange-driven turbulence.

  12. PROJECTING PRINCIPLES OF «MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL BASICS IN INFORMATICS» MODULE AS PART OF A UNIVERSAL BACCALAUREATE PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Samerkhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of “Mathematical and Physical Basics in Informatics” Module projected as part of universal baccalaureate model realized in Minin State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, within the educational program for an extended group of qualifications “Informatics and Calculating Machines”. Module authors defined a strategy for baccalaureates preparation in the field of informational technology, which is realized due to a bunch of principles: education fundamentalization, learning systematization, activity, integration and student-centration. The principle of education fundamentalization requires consolidation of scientific and methodological preparation of students. The principle of learning systematization guarantees formation of students’ holistic ideology. The principle of integration is directed onto qualitative interdisciplinary conversion based on mutual enrichment of knowledge and skills. The principle of activity considers student personality, its formation and growth with respect to practical activity as a special form of psychical activity. The principle of student-centration is displayed as social-humanistic purpose of the educational process.

  13. Fermion pair production in $e^+e^-$ collisions at 189-209 GeV and constraints on physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schael, S.; Bruneliere, R.; De Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocme, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Barklow, T.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J.M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Kraan, A.C.; Nilsson, B.S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A.S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Rutherford, S.A.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thompson, J.C.; White, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C.K.; Clarke, D.P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Pearson, M.R.; Robertson, N.A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Holldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Muller, A.-S.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Villegas, M.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, T.; Foa, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G.A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J.A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Tomalin, I.R.; Ward, J.J.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Litke, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P.N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Bohrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S.R.; Berkelman, K.; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y.B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; USA; Dissertori, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cross sections, angular distributions and forward-backward asymmetries are presented, of two-fermion events produced in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies from 189 to 209 GeV at LEP, measured with the ALEPH detector. Results for e+e-, mu+mu-, tau+tau-, qq, bb and cc production are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. Constraints are set on scenarios of new physics such as four-fermion contact interactions, leptoquarks, Z' bosons, TeV-scale quantum gravity and R-parity violating squarks and sneutrinos.

  14. Combined constraints on the structure and physical properties of the East Antarctic lithosphere from geology and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, A. M.; Staal, T.; Halpin, J.; Whittaker, J. M.; Morse, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The lithosphere of East Antarctica is one of the least explored regions of the planet, yet it is gaining in importance in global scientific research. Continental heat flux density and 3D glacial isostatic adjustment studies, for example, rely on a good knowledge of the deep structure in constraining model inputs.In this contribution, we use a multidisciplinary approach to constrain lithospheric domains. To seismic tomography models, we add constraints from magnetic studies and also new geological constraints. Geological knowledge exists around the periphery of East Antarctica and is reinforced in the knowledge of plate tectonic reconstructions. The subglacial geology of the Antarctic hinterland is largely unknown but the plate reconstructions allow the well-posed extrapolation of major terranes into the interior of the continent, guided by the seismic tomography and magnetic images. We find that the northern boundary of the lithospheric domain centred on the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains has a possible trend that runs south of the Lambert Glacier region, turning coastward through Wilkes Land. Other periphery-to-interior connections are less well constrained and the possibility of lithospheric domains that are entirely sub-glacial is high. We develop this framework to include a probabilistic method of handling alternate models and quantifiable uncertainties. We also show first results in using a Bayesian approach to predicting lithospheric boundaries from multivariate data.Within the newly constrained domains, we constrain heat flux (density) as the sum of basal heat flux and upper crustal heat flux. The basal heat flux is constrained by geophysical methods while the upper crustal heat flux is constrained by geology or predicted geology. In addition to heat flux constraints, we also consider the variations in friction experienced by moving ice sheets due to varying geology.

  15. Topics in black-hole physics: geometric constraints on noncollapsing, gravitating systems, and tidal distortions of a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmount, I.H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two studies on the general-relativistic theory of black holes. The first work concerns the fundamental issue of black-hole formation: in it geometric constraints are sought on gravitating matter systems, in the special case of axial symmetry, which determine whether or not those systems undergo gravitational collapse to form black holes. The second project deals with mechanical behavior of a black hole: specifically, the tidal deformation of a static black hole is studied by the gravitational fields of external bodies

  16. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kae; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Shuster, Jonathan J; Philip, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS), including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points ( p  < 0.001). When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45-60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  17. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  18. LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF PHYSICAL EVALUATION FOR THE PROFESSIONALS IN THE ACADEMICS OF THE CITY OF JOÃO PESSOA - PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Benevides Ceriani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to verify the level of knowledge of the basic concepts of physical evaluation for the responsible professionals for this practice in the academies. He/she/you elapses of a traverse study, of field, with professionals that act in the area of Physical Evaluation, registered by CREF 10 - PB/RN. questionnaire of open and closed questions was Applied in 39 individuals. The statistics was applied of percentile of frequency through spreadsheet Excel. The results found that: 61,54% collect for the physical activity, being in 41,66% of the cases, 15 real; 69,23% don't include in the registration; 84,61% have knowledge of the one that is test; 61,54% of the one that it is to measure and 53,45% of the one that it is to evaluate. Three people were found without graduation in physical education, or in another course of superior level, acting in the area Conclusions: They still act inside of the academies, directly with the physical evaluation, professionals not graduated in physical education or in another course of superior level. Many appraisers don't possess the basic theoretical knowledge regarding the concepts that involve to test, to measure and to evaluate. In general it is collected by the physical evaluation, being most included in the customer's registration

  19. Selection of new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2003-01-01

    The selected new constraints should be consistent with the scale of concern i.e. be expressed roughly as fractions or multiples of the average annual background. They should take into account risk considerations and include the values of the currents limits, constraints and other action levels. The recommendation is to select four leading values for the new constraints: 500 mSv ( single event or in a decade) as a maximum value, 0.01 mSv/year as a minimum value; and two intermediate values: 20 mSv/year and 0.3 mSv/year. This new set of dose constraints, representing basic minimum standards of protection for the individuals taking into account the specificity of the exposure situations are thus coherent with the current values which can be found in ICRP Publications. A few warning need however to be noticed: There is no more multi sources limit set by ICRP. The coherence between the proposed value of dose constraint (20 mSv/year) and the current occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/year is valid only if the workers are exposed to one single source. When there is more than one source, it will be necessary to apportion. The value of 1000 mSv lifetimes used for relocation can be expressed into annual dose, which gives approximately 10 mSv/year and is coherent with the proposed dose constraint. (N.C.)

  20. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  1. Bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark - competition between food, bioenergy and fossil fuels under physical and environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callesen, I.; OEstergaard, H. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Biosystems Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Grohnheit, P.E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    Globally, bioenergy is emphasized as an important contributor to reach strategic goals of energy security. The commodity markets for energy, bioenergy and food are interdependent and interacting through the energy dependency of agriculture, an increasing demand for both food and energy, and the option to replace fossil energy resources with bioenergy resources. A model for supply of biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry, and minimizes production costs of an energy mix consisting of bioenergy and fossil diesel oil. Here, we analyze the possibilities of substituting domestic bioenergy for fossil energy under the constraint of a given food supply and environmental constraints on land use. Crop area distributions of a total area of 3200 kha were simulated in two sets of scenarios, each examining a range of fossil oil prices. Both scenarios were based on cost and production data of the year 2005. Scenario (a) required a total food and feed energy yield similar to that produced in the year 2005; scenario (b) addressed high prioritization of dedicated bioenergy crops. This was secured by relaxing the food and feed supply to 50% of the 2005 production level. Further, a maximum limit of 25% cultivation area with willow in short rotation was set, and the area reserved for permanent grassland was set to 275 kha (+100 kha compared to 2005). The trade-based animal husbandry sector was excluded from the analysis and the forest area was fixed to 600 kha. The crop area distributions were affected by fossil oil prices varying from oil index 25 to 200. Oil index 100approx9.4 Euro GJ-1 corresponded with a crude oil price of 55$ per barrel in 2005. The woody biofuels, especially high-yielding willow in short rotation, were competitive with fossil oil from around oil index 40 and occupied the maximum allowed area in all crop

  2. RELATION BETWEEN BASIC PHYSICAL CAPABILITIES AND THE THEORETIC KNOWLEDGE LAWS OF THE GAME WITH THE SUCCESS OF REFREEING OF FOOTBALL REFEREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmir Mrković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to establish a relation in-between the basic physical capabilities and the theoretic knowledge laws of the game with the success in refereeing of football referees of the Sarajevo Canton. The population from which samples were taken are football referees of the Sarajevo Canton, 90 of them, age span from 18- 45 years of age and who have met the criteria for getting a license to be referees in football matches in the next season at all levels of competition in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The sample of variables in this research covers areas of basic motorics (18, theoretic knowledge laws of the games (17 and the estimate of success in refereeing in football games (7 variables. The results of the final analysis show that the whole system of variables which in this research represent basic physical capabilities and the knowledge Laws of the game by the football referees of the Sarajevo Canton has a statistical connection with the system of variables which in this research makes the success of refereeing of football referees. Since football is an activity that has almost the most complexity (referees are a part of football, we can say that the selected system of variables has a relatively good connection for success and that these variables are very important in order for one referee to perform his task as good as possible at one match.. Of course during the training process attention should be given on the development of all basic physical capabilities, and not only one dimension of the physical area because in general we have to be physically and cognitively be present in order to finish the game at a high rhythm but making mistakes the least as possible

  3. Underlying role of mechanical rigidity and topological constraints in physical sputtering and reactive ion etching of amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Gyanendra; Dhungana, Shailesh; Nordell, Bradley J.; Caruso, Anthony N.; Paquette, Michelle M.; Lanford, William A.; King, Sean W.

    2018-05-01

    Analytical expressions describing ion-induced sputter or etch processes generally relate the sputter yield to the surface atomic binding energy (Usb) for the target material. While straightforward to measure for the crystalline elemental solids, Usb is more complicated to establish for amorphous and multielement materials due to composition-driven variations and incongruent sublimation. In this regard, we show that for amorphous multielement materials, the ion-driven yield can instead be better understood via a consideration of mechanical rigidity and network topology. We first demonstrate a direct relationship between Usb, bulk modulus, and ion sputter yield for the elements, and then subsequently prove our hypothesis for amorphous multielement compounds by demonstrating that the same relationships exist between the reactive ion etch (RIE) rate and nanoindentation Young's modulus for a series of a -Si Nx :H and a -Si OxCy :H thin films. The impact of network topology is further revealed via application of the Phillips-Thorpe theory of topological constraints, which directly relates the Young's modulus to the mean atomic coordination () for an amorphous solid. The combined analysis allows the trends and plateaus in the RIE rate to be ultimately reinterpreted in terms of the atomic structure of the target material through a consideration of . These findings establish the important underlying role of mechanical rigidity and network topology in ion-solid interactions and provide additional considerations for the design and optimization of radiation-hard materials in nuclear and outer space environments.

  4. Search for supersymmetry in {tau} final states at ATLAS and constraints on new physics using electroweak precision data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Doerthe

    2012-08-15

    In this thesis, various models beyond the Standard Model (SM) offering different solutions to some of the shortcomings of the SM are studied: Supersymmetry, the two Higgs doublet model, and models with warped extra dimensions. A search for events with large missing transverse momentum, jets, and at least two {tau} leptons using 2 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collision data recorded at {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is performed. No excess above the SM background expectation is observed and a 95% CL upper limit on the visible cross section for new phenomena is set. A 95% CL lower limit of 32 TeV is set on the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking scale {Lambda} independent of the ratio of tan{beta}. These limits provide the most stringent tests to date in a large part of the considered parameter space. By using the results of the oblique vacuum polarization parameters from a fit to the electroweak precision data indirect constraints on model parameters are set. While in the two Higgs doublet model as well as in models with warped extra dimensions a heavy Higgs boson is compatible with the electroweak precision data, models with warped extra dimensions featuring custodial symmetry cannot accommodate a heavy Higgs.

  5. Search for supersymmetry in τ final states at ATLAS and constraints on new physics using electroweak precision data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Doerthe

    2012-08-01

    In this thesis, various models beyond the Standard Model (SM) offering different solutions to some of the shortcomings of the SM are studied: Supersymmetry, the two Higgs doublet model, and models with warped extra dimensions. A search for events with large missing transverse momentum, jets, and at least two τ leptons using 2 fb -1 of proton-proton collision data recorded at √(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is performed. No excess above the SM background expectation is observed and a 95% CL upper limit on the visible cross section for new phenomena is set. A 95% CL lower limit of 32 TeV is set on the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking scale Λ independent of the ratio of tanβ. These limits provide the most stringent tests to date in a large part of the considered parameter space. By using the results of the oblique vacuum polarization parameters from a fit to the electroweak precision data indirect constraints on model parameters are set. While in the two Higgs doublet model as well as in models with warped extra dimensions a heavy Higgs boson is compatible with the electroweak precision data, models with warped extra dimensions featuring custodial symmetry cannot accommodate a heavy Higgs.

  6. Formalizing Implementable Constraints in the INTERLIS Language for Modelling Legal 3D RRR Spaces and 3D Physical Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogianni, Eftychia; Dimopoulou, Efi; Quak, C.W.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Dimopoulou, Efi; Fendel, Elfriede M.

    2016-01-01

    Building Information Models (e.g. BIM, IFC) and virtual 3D city models (e.g. CityGML) are revolutionising the way we manage information about cities. The main focus of such models is on the physical and functional characteristics of urban structures (Aien et al, 2015). On the other hand cadastral

  7. An orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model maintaining brain parenchymal physical constraints and suitable for intravital two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Clément; Stanchi, Fabio; Rougon, Geneviève; Debarbieux, Franck

    2014-04-21

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain tumors with no curative treatments available to date. Murine models of this pathology rely on the injection of a suspension of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma following incision of the dura-mater. Whereas the cells have to be injected superficially to be accessible to intravital two-photon microscopy, superficial injections fail to recapitulate the physiopathological conditions. Indeed, escaping through the injection tract most tumor cells reach the extra-dural space where they expand abnormally fast in absence of mechanical constraints from the parenchyma. Our improvements consist not only in focally implanting a glioma spheroid rather than injecting a suspension of glioma cells in the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex but also in clogging the injection site by a cross-linked dextran gel hemi-bead that is glued to the surrounding parenchyma and sealed to dura-mater with cyanoacrylate. Altogether these measures enforce the physiological expansion and infiltration of the tumor cells inside the brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was finally closed with a glass window cemented to the skull to allow chronic imaging over weeks in absence of scar tissue development. Taking advantage of fluorescent transgenic animals grafted with fluorescent tumor cells we have shown that the dynamics of interactions occurring between glioma cells, neurons (e.g. Thy1-CFP mice) and vasculature (highlighted by an intravenous injection of a fluorescent dye) can be visualized by intravital two-photon microscopy during the progression of the disease. The possibility to image a tumor at microscopic resolution in a minimally compromised cerebral environment represents an improvement of current GBM animal models which should benefit the field of neuro-oncology and drug testing.

  8. The Correlation Study of Interest at Physics and Knowledge of Mathematics Basic Concepts towards the Ability to Solve Physics Problems of 7th Grade Students at Junior High School in Ambon Maluku Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaak Hendrik Wenno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1 and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2, while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y. Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems.

  9. Basic and energy physics: the multiple faces of energy; Physique fondamentale et energetique: les multiples visages de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balian, R. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    After an historical presentation of the elaboration of the energy concept, this document recalls, first, the basic physical principles linked with this concept: first and second principle of thermodynamics, dynamics of irreversible processes, hierarchy of elementary interactions. Then, their consequences on energy problems are examined by comparing the different common types of energy from different points of view: concentration, degradation, transport, storage, reserves and harmful effects. These comparisons rely on the characteristic values of the data involved. (J.S.)

  10. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part I : Physics and Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusminarto; Sri Juari Santoso; Agus Taftazani; Sudjatmoko; Darsono; Samin; Syarip; Prajitno; Muhadi Ayub Wasitho; Sukarsono; Tjipto Sujitno; Elisabeth Supriyatni

    2009-07-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The proceedings contains papers presented on scientific meeting about Physics and Nuclear Reactor. The proceedings is the first part of the three parts which published in series. There are 28 papers. (PPIN)

  11. Structure of "Ventilation and Warming" in Notes on Nursing Written by Florence Nightingale in 19th Century: Introduction of Basic Physics to Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoh, Kazutoshi

    "Basic Natural Science" for freshmen at Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University has a component including physics. Here students learn three principles of thermal transfer; conduction, radiation, and convection through a series of experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to understand the structure of a method for the caring of breathing and temperature of patients as written in "Ventilation and Warming", the first chapter of F. Nightingale's Notes on Nursing. Students can then apply this structure to retain fresh air in today's hospital rooms, and can then appreciate studying real physics incorporated into fundamental knowledge for nursing practice.

  12. The effects of senior brain health exercise program on basic physical fitness, cognitive function and BDNF of elderly women - a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jung-Eun; Kang, Eun-Bum

    2016-06-01

    This study was to investigate the impacts of senior brain heath exercise (SBHE) program for 12 weeks to basic active physical fitness, cognitive function and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in elderly women. Subject of this study is total of 24 women in the age of 65-79 who can conduct normal daily activity and communication but have not participated in regular exercise in recent 6 months. The study groups were divided into an exercise group (EG, n=13) and a control group (CG, n=11). The exercise program was consisted of SBHE, and training frequency was 4 times weekly, of which training time was a total of 50 minutes each time in level of intensity of 9-14 by rating of perceived exertion (RPE). First, 12-week SBHE program has shown statistical increase in basic physical fitness in the EG comparing with the CG, such as lower body strength, upper body strength and aerobic endurance, but not in flexibility, agility and dynamic balance. Second, in the case of Mini-mental state examination Korean version (MMSE-K) and BDNF, it showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the EG comparing with the CG. In this study, 12-week SBHE program has resulted in positive effect on change of basic physical fitness (strength and aerobic endurance), cognitive function and BDNF. If above program adds movements that can enhance flexibility, dynamic balance and agility, this can be practical exercise program to help seniors maintain overall healthy lifestyle.

  13. Students' Confidence in the Ability to Transfer Basic Math Skills in Introductory Physics and Chemistry Courses at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month…

  14. Measuring Gas-Phase Basicities of Amino Acids Using an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderlin, Lee S.; Ryzhov, Victor; Keller, Lanea M. M.; Gaillard, Elizabeth R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is performed to measure the relative gas-phase basicities of a series of five amino acids to compare the results to literature values. The experiments use the kinetic method for deriving ion thermochemistry and allow students to perform accurate measurements of thermodynamics in a relatively short time.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  16. Constraints on Dbar uplifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwis, S.P. de

    2016-01-01

    We discuss constraints on KKLT/KKLMMT and LVS scenarios that use anti-branes to get an uplift to a deSitter vacuum, coming from requiring the validity of an effective field theory description of the physics. We find these are not always satisfied or are hard to satisfy.

  17. Changes of indicators of special physical fitness of young female tennis-players at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shevchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve performance of special physical qualities of young tennis players at the stage of initial training. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature, test of physical fitness, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 11 women aged 7–8 years in the group of initial training. In the training sessions of physical training of young tennis players the game has been used teaching method. Results: to investigate the changes in the indices of physical fitness of young tennis players 7–8 years. Analyzed the impact of the development on the physical qualities of assimilation techniques. Pointed out that for the qualitative development of physical qualities necessary to use outdoor games and relay races. Revealed that the results of the physical fitness of young tennis players after the pedagogical experiment and had risen significantly different to those in the beginning of the study (P<0,05, except for indicators exercises "run on 18 meters". Conclusions: it was found that the use of training sessions on physical preparation of mobile games and relays increase the interest and motivation for tennis lessons for children in the group of initial training.

  18. Back to basics: informing the public of co-morbid physical health problems in those with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Mrinalini; Sheridan, Judith; Regbetz, Shane; Stacey, Phillip; Scott, James G

    2013-02-01

    Those with mental illness are at increased risk of physical health problems. The current study aimed to examine the information available online to the Australian public about the increased risk and consequences of physical illness in those with mental health problems and the services available to address these co-morbidities. A structured online search was conducted with the search engine Google Australia (www.google.com.au) using generic search terms 'mental health information Australia', 'mental illness information Australia', 'depression', 'anxiety', and 'psychosis'. The direct content of websites was examined for information on the physical co-morbidities of mental illness. All external links on high-profile websites [the first five websites retrieved under each search term (n = 25)] were examined for information pertaining to physical health. Only 4.2% of websites informing the public about mental health contained direct content information about the increased risk of physical co-morbidities. The Australian Government's Department of Health and Ageing site did not contain any information. Of the high-profile websites, 62% had external links to resources about physical health and 55% had recommendations or resources for physical health. Most recommendations were generic. Relative to the seriousness of this problem, there is a paucity of information available to the public about the increased physical health risks associated with mental illness. Improved public awareness is the starting point of addressing this health inequity.

  19. Scholar-activating teaching materials for quantum physics. Pt. 2. Basic facts of quantum physics and heuristic methods; Schueleraktivierende Unterrichtsmaterialien zur Quantenphysik. T. 2. Grundfakten der Quantenphysik und heuristische Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebel, Horst

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally in the center of interest on quantum physics referring to schools the question lies, whether electrons and photons are now particles or waves, a question, which is often characterized by the phrase ''wave-particle dualism'', which notoriously not exists in its original meaning. Against that by the author - basing on important preparatory works of Kueblbeck and Mueller - a new concept for the treatment of quantum physics for the school was proposed, which puts ''basic facts'' in the foreground, comparable with the Kueblbeck-Mueller ''characteristic features''. The ''basic facts'' are similar to axioms of quantum physics, by means of which a large number of experiments and phenomena can be ''explained'' at least qualitatively - in a heuristic way -. Instead of the so-called ''wave-particle dualism'' here uncertainty and complementarity are put in the foreground. The new concept is in the Internet under http://www.forphys.de extensively presented with many further materials. In the partial volumes of this publication manifold and carefully elaborated teaching materials are presented, by means of which scholars can get themselves the partial set of quantum physics referring to schools by different methods like learn at stations, short referates, Internet research, group puzzle, the query-sheet or the card-index method etc. In the present 2. part materials for the ''basic facts'' of quantum physics are prepared, by which also modern experiments can be interpreted. Here deals it with the getting of knowledge and application of the ''basic Facts''. This pursues also by real scholar experiments, simulations and analogy tests. The scholars obtain so more simply than generally a deeper insight in quantum physics.

  20. Solar constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  1. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  2. Inflation Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dan

    2014-01-01

    waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a ''smoking gun'' for inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  3. Specification of physical preparation of football players of 15-16 years old as a basic for complex control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisenchuk G.A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the results of physical fitness of football-players of 15-16 years old in the structure of annual training cycle. There is a try to define the informative indices while estimating the athletes preparation. Selection of adequate procedures and tests is necessary for definition of frame of physical fitness of sportsmen. Analysis of experimental data has allowed to establish the information importance of components of frame of physical fitness at different stages of a year cycle of training, to eliminate for each stage of training the indicators which are not possessing reliability and a validity, and the received indicators to use as tests for carrying out the control.

  4. Final theory spiral-field-model. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, U.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This script contains theses for an universal 'Spiral-Field-Theory' that are capable to dissolve problems in parallel from different areas which are far from each other. Starting point is the stuck principle discussion about the relationships between the Classic Physics and the Quantum Physics. Aim is the clarification of questions which remained open. In 1925 Max Planck had formulated as follows: 'The research of physics can not rest, so long not has been together-welded: on the one hand the mechanics and the electrodynamics with on the other hand the lesson of the stationary one and the radiating heat to a sole unitary theory'. The Spiral-Field-Model develops a supporting structure from General Field into which they will class the secure knowledge from experiments and well-proved theories. The most important thing of this new Final Theory is the detailed generating of all nature courses of phenomena exclusively from radiation and that in the direct meaning of the word. In the final effect the two great disciplines of the physics which are drifted from each other, become bonded together to a super ordinate theoretical building of the nature sciences. (orig.)

  5. Determining Physical Fitness Criteria for Entry into Army Basic Combat Training: Can these Criteria Be Based on Injury Risk?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canham-Chervak, M

    2000-01-01

    In October 1998, The U.S. Army Physical Fitness School Coordinated with the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine Epidemiology Program to evaluate the current standards for entry into the Fitness Training Unit at Ft...

  6. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part I : Physics and Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamsul Abraha; Yateman Arryanto; Sri Jauhari S; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Sukarsono, R.; Samin; Syarip; Suryadi, MS; Sardjono, Y.; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Tjipto Sujitno, BA.

    2007-08-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Meeting was held in Yogyakarta on July 10, 2007. The proceedings contains papers presented on the meeting about Physics and Nuclear Reactor and there are 52 papers. The proceedings is the first part of the three parts which published in series. (PPIN)

  7. RELATION BETWEEN BASIC PHYSICAL CAPABILITIES AND THE THEORETIC KNOWLEDGE LAWS OF THE GAME WITH THE SUCCESS OF REFREEING OF FOOTBALL REFEREES

    OpenAIRE

    Rusmir Mrković; Munir Talović; Midhat Mekić; Eldin Jelešković; Haris Alić

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to establish a relation in-between the basic physical capabilities and the theoretic knowledge laws of the game with the success in refereeing of football referees of the Sarajevo Canton. The population from which samples were taken are football referees of the Sarajevo Canton, 90 of them, age span from 18- 45 years of age and who have met the criteria for getting a license to be referees in football matches in the next season at all levels of competition in Bosnia...

  8. The constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    There are considerable incentives for the use of nuclear in preference to other sources for base load electricity generation in most of the developed world. These are economic, strategic, environmental and climatic. However, there are two potential constraints which could hinder the development of nuclear power to its full economic potential. These are public opinion and financial regulations which distort the nuclear economic advantage. The concerns of the anti-nuclear lobby are over safety, (especially following the Chernobyl accident), the management of radioactive waste, the potential effects of large scale exposure of the population to radiation and weapons proliferation. These are discussed. The financial constraint is over two factors, the availability of funds and the perception of cost, both of which are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. ANGARA-5-1 program development on superfast liner implosion for ICF physics study and basic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskij, A V; Grabovskij, E V; Fedulov, M V [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Thermonuclear Investigation, Troitsk (Russian Federation); and others

    1997-12-31

    A double liner concept is proposed of utilizing pulsed power in investigations of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics. In this project, an external cylindrical plasma shell (liner) magnetically imploded in the generator diode collides with the internal one. Thermal X-ray radiation brought about by a high-velocity shock wave penetrates into the internal liner cavity and irradiates a spherical target. Investigations at the ANGARA-5 generator were concentrated on a comprehensive study of physical processes and the possibility of short radiation pulse generation. Soft X-ray radiation intensities of up to 3 TW/cm{sup 2} with a 3 ns rise time were obtained. It follows from the theoretical model that for the generator current higher than 15 MA the radiation intensity should be close to the ignition threshold and magnetized plasma instabilities should be suppressed. The paper reports on the concept and the theoretical and experimental results. (author). 8 refs.

  10. Strategic responses to fiscal constraints: a health policy analysis of hospital-based ambulatory physical therapy services in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Verrier, Molly C; Williams, A Paul; Zakus, David; Deber, Raisa B

    2009-01-01

    Ambulatory physical therapy (PT) services in Canada are required to be insured under the Canada Health Act, but only if delivered within hospitals. The present study analyzed strategic responses used by hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) to deliver PT services in an environment of fiscal constraint. Key informant interviews (n = 47) were conducted with participants from all hospitals located within the GTA. Two primary strategic responses were identified: (1) "load shedding" through the elimination or reduction of services, and (2) "privatization" through contracting out or creating internal for-profit subsidiary clinics. All hospitals reported reductions in service delivery between 1996 and 2003, and 15.0% (7/47 hospitals) fully eliminated ambulatory services. Although only one of 47 hospitals contracted out services, another 15.0% (7/47) reported that for-profit subsidiary clinics were created within the hospital in order to access other more profitable forms of quasi-public and private funding. Strategic restructuring of services, aimed primarily at cost containment, may have yielded short-term financial savings but has also created a ripple effect across the continuum of care. Moreover, the rise of for-profit subsidiary clinics operating within not-for-profit hospitals has emerged without much public debate and with little research to evaluate its impact.

  11. Stone crayfish in the Czech Republic: how does its population density depend on basic chemical and physical properties of water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlach P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank is one of the two native crayfish species in the Czech Republic. The populations as well as physical and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, undissolved particles, NH3, NH4+, NO2−, NO3−, phosphorus, Ca2+ and SO42 −  of 33 streams were examined to find the ecological plasticity of this crayfish and some relations between these parameters and population densities. The mentioned parameters often significantly varied at the sites. Two approaches were applied to find relations between these parameters and observed abundance. At first, the observed streams were compared using RDA (streams  ×  physical-chemical parameters. No significance was found while testing relationship between the streams grouped along the 1st axis of model and the observed abundances of stone crayfish. However, some correlations between abundance and conductivity, calcium, nitrates and sulphates were found using polynomial regression. These relationships are explicable in terms of mutual correlations, underlying geology and other factors which affect abundances. In conclusion, A. torrentium is able to inhabit waters with a large range of physical and chemical parameters of the water without any fundamental influence on population densities. Water properties play an indisputable role as limiting ecological factors at uncommon concentrations, but population densities are probably influenced much more by the types of habitats, habitat features, predation and other ecological factors.

  12. Prediction of Basic Math Course Failure Rate in the Physics, Meteorology, Mathematics, Actuarial Sciences and Pharmacy Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rojas-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2013 with the purpose of predicting the failure rate of math courses taken by Pharmacy, Mathematics, Actuarial Science, Physics and Meteorology students at Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR. Using the Logistics Regression statistical techniques applied to the 2010 cohort, failure rates were predicted of students in the aforementioned programs in one of their Math introductory courses (Calculus 101 for Physics and Meteorology, Math Principles for Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Applied Differential Equations for Pharmacy. For these models, the UCR admission average, the student’s genre, and the average correct answers in the Quantitative Skills Test were used as predictor variables. The most important variable for all models was the Quantitative Skills Test, and the model with the highest correct classification rate was the Logistics Regression. For the estimated Physics-Meteorology, Pharmacy and Mathematics-Actuarial Science models, correct classifications were 89.8%, 73.6%, and 93.9%, respectively.

  13. Magnetic resonance, a phenomenon with a great potential in medicine, but with a complex physical background – Part 2: The basics of magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Božič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is a very complex diagnostic technique. Therefore, both practical experiences and theoretical understanding is needed for effective diagnostics. It is therefore important that physicians are sufficiently familiar with the basic physical principles of magnetic resonance. In the interpretation of physical concepts, we will rely both on the classical as well as on the quantum-mechanical view of the signal formation in magnetic resonance, which are to some extent complementary. The signal appearance in magnetic resonance imaging will be discussed. A special emphasis will be put on the role of the resonance frequency and the pulse sequences. Furthermore, the spin echo as one of the most used classical signal sequences in diagnostic investigations will be described.

  14. The Use of Classroom Assessment to Explore Problem Solving Skills Based on Pre-Service Teachers’ Cognitive Style Dimension in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Hamidah, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of assessment strategy which can measure problem solving skills of pre-service teachers based on their cognitive style in basic physics course. The sample consisted of 95 persons (male = 15, female = 75). This study used an exploratory research with observation techniques by interview, questionnaire, and test. The results indicated that the lecturer only used paper-pencil test assessment strategy to measure pre-service teachers’ achievement and also used conventional learning strategy. It means that the lecturer did not measure pre-services’ thinking process in learning, like problem solving skills. One of the factors which can influence student problem solving skills is cognitive style as an internal factor. Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) are two cognitive styles which were measured with using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) test. The result showed that 82% of pre-service teachers were FD cognitive style and only 18% of pre-service teachers had FI cognitive style. Furthermore, these findings became the fundamental design to develop a problem solving assessment model to measure pre-service teachers’ problem solving skills and process in basic physics course.

  15. Basic research in the East and West: a comparison of the scientific performance of high-energy physics accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, J.; Martin, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study comparing the past scientific performance of high-energy physics accelerators in the Eastern bloc with that of their main Western counterparts. Output-evaluation indicators are used. After carefully examining the extent to which the output indicators used may be biased against science in the Eastern bloc, various conclusions are drawn about the relative contributions to science made by these accelerators. Where significant differences in performance are apparent, an attempt is made to identify the main factors responsible. (author)

  16. NF-6 program complex for BESM-6 computation of the basic neutron-physical characteristics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizin, M.N.; Savochkina, O.A.; Chukhlova, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    A structure of standard designations is described and semantics of a number of standard values used in a NF-6 program complex is given. Main source data and results of neutron-physical reactor calculation are standard values, the peculiarities of FORTRAN and ALGOL-GDR algorithm languages in the DUBNA monitoring system were taken account of. As a base of standard values list the FIHAR system list, supplemented with new standard designations for integral reactor characteristics, is used. Developed is also a list of standard values to organize the exchange with external memory in the process of task solution and long-range storage

  17. A prospective randomized study to test the transfer of basic psychomotor skills from virtual reality to physical reality in a comparable training setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Kai S; Ritz, Joerg P; Maass, Heiko; Cakmak, Hueseyin K; Kuehnapfel, Uwe G; Germer, Christoph T; Bretthauer, Georg; Buhr, Heinz J

    2005-03-01

    To test whether basic skills acquired on a virtual endoscopic surgery simulator are transferable from virtual reality to physical reality in a comparable training setting. For surgical training in laparoscopic surgery, new training methods have to be developed that allow surgeons to first practice in a simulated setting before operating on real patients. A virtual endoscopic surgery trainer (VEST) has been developed within the framework of a joint project. Because of principal limitations of simulation techniques, it is essential to know whether training with this simulator is comparable to conventional training. Devices used were the VEST system and a conventional video trainer (CVT). Two basic training tasks were constructed identically (a) as virtual tasks and (b) as mechanical models for the CVT. Test persons were divided into 2 groups each consisting of 12 novices and 4 experts. Each group carried out a defined training program over the course of 4 consecutive days on the VEST or the CVT, respectively. To test the transfer of skills, the groups switched devices on the 5th day. The main parameter was task completion time. The novices in both groups showed similar learning curves. The mean task completion times decreased significantly over the 4 training days of the study. The task completion times for the control task on Day 5 were significantly lower than on Days 1 and 2. The experts' task completion times were much lower than those of the novices. This study showed that training with a computer simulator, just as with the CVT, resulted in a reproducible training effect. The control task showed that skills learned in virtual reality are transferable to the physical reality of a CVT. The fact that the experts showed little improvement demonstrates that the simulation trains surgeons in basic laparoscopic skills learned in years of practice.

  18. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  19. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the US cross-section evaluation working group. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; McLane, V.

    1996-11-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with the responsibility for organizing and overseeing the U.S. cross-section evaluation effort. It's main product is the official U.S. evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the U.S. nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the U.S. were declining at an alarming rate and needed all possible encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain a network of experimentalists in the U.S. that would provide needed encouragement to the national nuclear data measurement effort through improved communication and facilitation of collaborative activities. In 1994, an additional charge was added to the responsibilities of this Committee, namely, to serve as an interface between the more applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. This annual report is the second such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from eleven laboratories in the U.S. which have been prepared by members of the Committee and submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing. It is hoped that the information provided here on the work that is going on at the reporting laboratories will prove interesting and stimulating to the readers

  20. Physical activity of adult population in the Czech republic: overview of basic indicators for the period 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mitáš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central European countries belonging to the former "communist bloc" show specificities and even unique things which should not be ignored in research and preventive measures. In addressing health issues it is desirable to observe the developmental patterns in economically developed countries to avoid easily predictable negative aspects in the development of population health. Therefore it is necessary to specify associations between gender, age, occupational classification, education, etc., and lifestyles in different conditions and environments. Simultaneously it is necessary maintain specific features of environment that are consistent with active lifestyles and encourage people to maintain high walkability. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity of the Czech population with regard to the size of the community and observe regional differences in physical activity (PA in men and women. METHODS: To determine the weekly level of PA we used randomized data set of 8256 inhabitants of the Czech Republic (3678 men and 4578 women. All respondents were reached personally by trained distributors (college students to participate in a research study using the Czech version of the IPAQ questionnaire (also as a part of ANEWS. Data collection was carried out regularly in Spring (March-May and Autumn (September- November periods from 2005 to 2009. Region of the Capital City of Prague has been excluded from the regional analysis. RESULTS: Regional comparisons of total weekly PA shows the minimum differences within the Czech Republic [H(15, 8256 = 103,55; p < 0,001; η2 = 0,01]. The lowest level of PA show both men and women in Ustecky and Moravskoslezsky region, highest level of PA represent population of the region consisted from regions Pardubicky, Kralovehradecky and Vysocina. Size of the community has a significant impact on the overall weekly PA in adult population of the Czech Republic. The results confirm the trend that

  1. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry.   It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.

  2. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednychenko M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  3. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cherednychenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  4. The decays anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} at low recoil and their constraints on new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, Danny van

    2012-07-15

    In this thesis we test the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics by studying the exclusive rare decays anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}. We calculate the angular distribution of the decay anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} in the most general basis of effective operators. We obtain results for the angular distribution in the kinematic region of low hadronic recoil. Based on our results for the angular distribution, we propose observables which exhibit no or only very weak dependence on hadronic matrix elements. Beyond CP-averaged observables, we also investigate direct and mixing induced CP asymmetries at low hadronic recoil. We conclude our investigation of exclusive decays by studying the decay anti B → anti Kl{sup +}l{sup -}, where we find a relation between the CP asymmetry of the rates of anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}. Standard model results for a majority of our analytic results are given. Beyond that, we perform a model-independent analysis based on available experimental data and obtain constraints on the Wilson coefficients C{sub 9} and C{sub 10}, as well as lower bounds on the zero-crossing in the anti B → anti K*l{sup +}l{sup -} forward-backward asymmetry. Based on recent LHC data we find two disjoint solutions for the Wilson coefficients. One of the solutions is in good agreement with the Standard Model, but sizable deviations are still allowed.

  5. A novel optimized hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent PID controller for an interconnected multi-area power system with physical constraints and boiler dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa Haroun, A H; Li, Yin-Ya

    2017-11-01

    In the fast developing world nowadays, load frequency control (LFC) is considered to be a most significant role for providing the power supply with good quality in the power system. To deliver a reliable power, LFC system requires highly competent and intelligent control technique. Hence, in this article, a novel hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (FLiPID) controller has been proposed for LFC of interconnected multi-area power systems. A four-area interconnected thermal power system incorporated with physical constraints and boiler dynamics is considered and the adjustable parameters of the FLiPID controller are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) scheme employing an integral square error (ISE) criterion. The proposed method has been established to enhance the power system performances as well as to reduce the oscillations of uncertainties due to variations in the system parameters and load perturbations. The supremacy of the suggested method is demonstrated by comparing the simulation results with some recently reported heuristic methods such as fuzzy logic proportional-integral (FLPI) and intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers for the same electrical power system. the investigations showed that the FLiPID controller provides a better dynamic performance and outperform compared to the other approaches in terms of the settling time, and minimum undershoots of the frequency as well as tie-line power flow deviations following a perturbation, in addition to perform appropriate settlement of integral absolute error (IAE). Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the plant is inspected by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the suggested controller based optimization algorithm is robust and perform satisfactorily with the variations in operating load condition, system parameters and load pattern. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  7. LEARNING MODEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION LOCOMOTOR BASIC LEARNING IN GRADE III PRIMARY SCHOOL "MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PENJASORKES GERAK DASAR LOKOMOTOR PADA SISWA KELAS III SEKOLAH DASAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Nandasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to produce games letter word in the learning of basic locomotor movements physical education at Elementary School third-grade students in District Gunungpati 2016. This research is the development, product development procedure includes needs analysis, literature review and observation, the initial product manufacturing, design validation by the experts, the trials I, product revision, the second large-scale trials, expert review and the final product. Data is collected using questionnaires obtained from the expert evaluation, field observations and the student questionnaire. A descriptive data analysis techniques percentage. The results of the analysis of the initial product of 91% then declared eligible. The observation and the student questionnaire on a small scale trial gained (81.6%. The test results of large-scale expert (95% to be eligible and could be used. The observation and questionnaire on large-scale test was (86.6% are feasible and can be used. On a small scale trials and large-scale increase in the observation and questionnaires to students of (5%. It can be concluded that the game is a good letter word that is feasible and can be used as an alternative to the basic motion locomotor learning materials in elementary school third-grade students in District Gunungpati.

  8. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  9. Universe of quantum whirls in the final theory spiral field model. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, Udo A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Internationally stressed physics is looking for the solution of the basic problems of physics at higher and higher energies in impressive plants which outbid themselves in their expenditure for technology reciprocally. If with this manner shall be to seek the ''atomos'' and the ''unit of the physics'' then this is an error way. Sought-after Higgs particles are certainly not a simply thing; but a most complex object which would contain an enormous number of effect quanta in its structure. Since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, De Broglie and others well-known physicists we know that this ''atomos'' have only a tiny energy quantity which single is not measurable. The search with gigantic machines is at all besides more nonsensical than such processes there will pump even energy into it. The elementary contains only fractions from the energy what is in known smallest particles or weakest beams too. This work follows another approach to grasp the nature in a Final Theory (Grand Unification) on a deductive way. It starts from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts. This shored up it on the principle of general physical field. The dynamic processes of the field are vivid illustrated by graphic means in systems of coordinates with space-time. Through it arises a everywhere consistent view for most simple existences and simple structures up to most complicate existences for all fields of physics and philosophy. That remained shut off till now obstinately for the cognition. A important result is the solution of the puzzle of ''Dualism of Wave and Particle''. Matter-structures consist not from 'a priori' existing 'little verdicts' which secondary swing. But they consist from beams; which remain in the inside of the particles radiation-like: and they rotate there in themselves. This creates locality without changing the radiation itself into 'electrons' which rotate on paths. The Classical Physics and the

  10. Universe of quantum whirls in the final theory spiral field model. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, Udo A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Internationally stressed physics is looking for the solution of the basic problems of physics at higher and higher energies in impressive plants which outbid themselves in their expenditure for technology reciprocally. If with this manner shall be to seek the ''atomos'' and the ''unit of the physics'' then this is an error way. Sought-after Higgs particles are certainly not a simply thing; but a most complex object which would contain an enormous number of effect quanta in its structure. Since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, De Broglie and others well-known physicists we know that this ''atomos'' have only a tiny energy quantity which single is not measurable. The search with gigantic machines is at all besides more nonsensical than such processes there will pump even energy into it. The elementary contains only fractions from the energy what is in known smallest particles or weakest beams too. This work follows another approach to grasp the nature in a Final Theory (Grand Unification) on a deductive way. It starts from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts. This shored up it on the principle of general physical field. The dynamic processes of the field are vivid illustrated by graphic means in systems of coordinates with space-time. Through it arises a everywhere consistent view for most simple existences and simple structures up to most complicate existences for all fields of physics and philosophy. That remained shut off till now obstinately for the cognition. A important result is the solution of the puzzle of ''Dualism of Wave and Particle''. Matter-structures consist not from 'a priori' existing 'little verdicts' which secondary swing. But they consist from beams; which remain in the inside of the particles radiation-like: and they rotate there in themselves. This creates locality without changing the radiation itself into 'electrons' which rotate on paths. The Classical Physics and the

  11. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  12. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  13. Treatment of traumatised refugees with basic body awareness therapy versus mixed physical activity as add-on treatment: Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbrandt, Maja Sticker; Carlsson, Jessica; Lindberg, Laura Glahder; Sandahl, Hinuga; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-10-22

    Treatment of traumatised refugees is one of the fields within psychiatry, which has received little scientific attention. Evidence based treatment and knowledge on the efficiency of the treatment for this complex patient group is therefore scarce. This leads to uncertainty as to which treatment should be offered and potentially lowers the quality of life for the patients. Chronic pain is very common among traumatised refugees and it is believed to maintain the mental symptoms of trauma. Hence, treating chronic pain is believed to be of high clinical value for this patient group. In clinical studies, physical activity has shown a positive effect on psychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety and for patients with chronic pain. However, scientific knowledge about physical activity as part of the treatment for traumatised refugees is very limited and no guidelines exist on this topic. This study will include approximately 310 patients, randomised into three groups. All three groups receive psychiatric treatment as usual for the duration of 6-7 months, consisting of consultations with a medical doctor including pharmacological treatment and manual-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The first group only receives treatment as usual while the second and the third groups receive either Basic-Body Awareness Therapy or mixed physical activity as add-on treatments. Each physical activity is provided for an individual 1-hour consultation per week, for the duration of 20 weeks. The study is being conducted at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry, Mental Health Centre Ballerup in the Capital Region of Denmark. The primary endpoint of the study is symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; the secondary endpoints are depression and anxiety as well as quality of life, functional capacity, coping with pain, body awareness and physical fitness. This study will examine the effect of physical activity for traumatised refugees. This has not yet been done in a

  14. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  15. Noncommutative geometry and basic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author describes spectral triples as generalized Dirac operators, the electroweak inner spectral triple, the application of the quantum Yang-Mills algorithm to the electroweak standard model sector, real spectral triples, the asymptotic heat-kernel expansion of the spectral action, tree approximation, the fermionic action, and the regular representation of the finite U q (sl2)

  16. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  17. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  18. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  19. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  20. Continuum of quanta in the final theory. Model of spiral fields. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science. 4. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, Udo Albert Juergen

    2009-01-01

    The internationally favored direction of the physics sciences looks for the solution of the basic problems in higher and higher energies at impressive research constructions - mockingly mentioned as 'cognition machines' - which surpass itself with its financial efforts each the other. If in this wise shall be found: 'The elementariest bit of all elements'' and 'the unity of the whole physics as well as the whole nature sciences at all', then this is a thought aberration. The prognosticated HIGGS-particles may have an exceptional quality; however, they would be very complex objects which integrate an enormous number of effect-quanta h (Planck constants) in their structure: They are with safety not simplicity. They will also not bring a better understanding about the simplicity of the last elements for us. We know since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, DeBrogue and other well-known physicists that the 'atomos' can have only a diminutiveness discrete not measurable energy. The search with gigantic machines is at all especially nonsensical than it pumps still energy into the processes. However, the elementary consists of fractions from that energy what have well-known smallest particles or weakest radiation in itself puts. The work in hand follows another approach. It grasps nature on a deductive way. I start out from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts; and I combine that with a principle of 'general physical field' which after Einstein must exist. The dynamic space-time processes of the fields are depicted by graphic means in mathematical spatial coordinate-systems. Through it arises a consistent view over all areas of the knowledge from the most simply over simple structures until to the most complicated phenomena and things: that one are the cognition remained secretive till now obstinately. In the foreground will be originate as important the solution of the puzzle around the ''Dualism of

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  2. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  3. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  4. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  5. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  6. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  7. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  8. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  9. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  10. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  11. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  12. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  13. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system......'s qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While...

  14. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  15. Basic relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, Richard A

    1994-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook develops in a logical and coherent way both the formalism and the physical ideas of special and general relativity. Part one focuses on the special theory and begins with the study of relativistic kinematics from three points of view. Part two begins with a chapter introducing differential geometry. Subsequent chapters cover: rotation, the electromagnetic field, and material media. A second chapter on differential geometry provides the background for Einstein's gravitational-field equation and Schwarzschild's solution. The book is aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics or astrophysics.

  16. Basic hypergeometry of supersymmetric dualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar, E-mail: ilmar.gahramanov@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, D14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Grossen Windkanal 6, D12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Radiation Problems ANAS, B.Vahabzade 9, AZ1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Department of Mathematics, Khazar University, Mehseti St. 41, AZ1096, Baku (Azerbaijan); Rosengren, Hjalmar, E-mail: hjalmar@chalmers.se [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    We introduce several new identities combining basic hypergeometric sums and integrals. Such identities appear in the context of superconformal index computations for three-dimensional supersymmetric dual theories. We give both analytic proofs and physical interpretations of the presented identities.

  17. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  18. Basic radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzadeoglu, M. M.; Ebruli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Radiation Oncology is an all-in-one book. It is an up-to-date bedside oriented book integrating the radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical radiation oncology. It includes the essentials of all aspects of radiation oncology with more than 300 practical illustrations, black and white and color figures. The layout and presentation is very practical and enriched with many pearl boxes. Key studies particularly randomized ones are also included at the end of each clinical chapter. Basic knowledge of all high-tech radiation teletherapy units such as tomotherapy, cyberknife, and proton therapy are also given. The first 2 sections review concepts that are crucial in radiation physics and radiobiology. The remaining 11 chapters describe treatment regimens for main cancer sites and tumor types. Basic Radiation Oncology will greatly help meeting the needs for a practical and bedside oriented oncology book for residents, fellows, and clinicians of Radiation, Medical and Surgical Oncology as well as medical students, physicians and medical physicists interested in Clinical Oncology. English Edition of the book Temel Radyasyon Onkolojisi is being published by Springer Heidelberg this year with updated 2009 AJCC Staging as Basic Radiation Oncology

  19. Bus basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The aims of this course are: 1. To introduce the general concepts of buses used to interconnect processors, perpherals, and instrumentation. 2. To classify, albeit crudely, different types of bus systems. 3. To give some examples of past, present, and future buses as applied to the field of high-energy physics, including some details of software. 4. To provide references for further study. (orig.)

  20. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  1. Basic research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined

  2. Constraints on the thermal and compositional nature of the Earth's mantle inferred from joint inversion of compressional and shear seismic waves and mineral physics data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesoniero, Andrea

    and by uncertainties in the sensitivity of seismic velocities to these parameters. The combination of seismic observations and information from mineral physics can help overcoming the limited resolution of the seismic data and obtaining an insight into the physical state of the Earth. This Ph.D. project summarizes......- and shear-velocity model has been delivered. The interpretation of the new model gives an insight into lateral compositional variations within the continental lithosphere and upper mantle, as well as a new interpretation of the thermo-chemical state of the lower mantle. Two manuscripts have been prepared...

  3. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy L., E-mail: rmredd@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining Ω {sub m} and σ{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  4. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Tinker, Jeremy L.

    2014-01-01

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining Ω m and σ 8 from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  5. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  6. General definition of the concept of "sport" as one of the basic constructs of the general theory of physical culture and sports theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Sutula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal modern ideas about the essence of the concept of "sport" and determine its role in the development of the general theory of physical culture and sports theory. Material & Methods: analysis of specialized literature, which highlights various aspects of the development of the field of people's activities related to the use of physical exercises. Results: in today's society there is an objective sphere of human activity related to the use of physical exercises, for which the name in domestic and foreign scientific and social practice is most often used the term "physical culture". Conclusion: the constitutive conditions of the process of developing a general theory of physical culture are singled out, it is shown that sport, as a special socio-cultural phenomenon, is a historically conditioned activity of people associated with the use of physical exercises, aimed at preparing and participating in competitions, as well as individual and socially significant results of such activity.

  7. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  9. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  10. Triple vacuum glazing: Heat transfer and basic mechanical design constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, H.; Brunner, S.; Wullschleger, L. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Laboratory for Applied Physics in Building, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2006-12-15

    Given the major role played by windows with regard to energy losses from buildings in cold climates, low thermal transmittance is an indispensable property of glazing in low-energy buildings. Evacuation offers the only means of achieving negligible gaseous conduction in glazing cavities. Application of low-emittance coatings to glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity reduces the radiative heat transfer. The feasibility of double vacuum glazing using arrays of support pillars between the glass sheets has been shown by other authors. This type of glazing is commercially manufactured today. Based on these achievements, our study set out to investigate heat transfer in triple vacuum glazing by means of (i) an analytical thermal network model and (ii) a numerical finite difference model. The study focused on the impact of the following parameters on thermal transmittance: emittances of glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity, support pillar radius, support pillar separation and thermal conductivity of support pillar material. The design procedure for triple vacuum glazing taking into account not only thermal but also mechanical stresses due to atmospheric pressure, i.e., to enable identification of favourable parameter sets, is presented. Our findings suggest that use of the triple vacuum glazing concept can significantly reduce the thermal transmittances achieved by the best insulation glazing units currently on the market. E.g., a centre-of-glazing thermal transmittance of less than 0.2Wm{sup -2}K{sup -1} is achievable using stainless steel support pillars, 6mm/4mm/6mm sheets of untempered soda-lime glass and four low-emittance coatings ({epsilon}=0.03). (author)

  11. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .

  12. Validity of Basic Electronic 1 Module Integrated Character Value Based on Conceptual Change Teaching Model to Increase Students Physics Competency in STKIP PGRI West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, A.; Rahmi, A.; Yohandri; Ratnawulan

    2018-04-01

    The importance of teaching materials in accordance with the characteristics of students became the main reason for the development of basic electronics I module integrated character values based on conceptual change teaching model. The module development in this research follows the development procedure of Plomp which includes preliminary research, prototyping phase and assessment phase. In the first year of this research, the module is validated. Content validity is seen from the conformity of the module with the development theory in accordance with the demands of learning model characteristics. The validity of the construct is seen from the linkage and consistency of each module component developed with the characteristic of the integrated learning model of character values obtained through validator assessment. The average validation value assessed by the validator belongs to a very valid category. Based on the validator assessment then revised the basic electronics I module integrated character values based on conceptual change teaching model.

  13. Constraints on the CP-Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Godbole, R M; Mahmoudi, F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for observing CP violation in the MSSM with six CP-violating phases, using a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We consider constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics, the dark matter relic density and spin-independent scattering cross section with matter.

  14. Hamiltonian constraint in polymer parametrized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a generally covariant reformulation of two-dimensional flat spacetime free scalar field theory known as parametrized field theory was quantized using loop quantum gravity (LQG) type ''polymer'' representations. Physical states were constructed, without intermediate regularization structures, by averaging over the group of gauge transformations generated by the constraints, the constraint algebra being a Lie algebra. We consider classically equivalent combinations of these constraints corresponding to a diffeomorphism and a Hamiltonian constraint, which, as in gravity, define a Dirac algebra. Our treatment of the quantum constraints parallels that of LQG and obtains the following results, expected to be of use in the construction of the quantum dynamics of LQG: (i) the (triangulated) Hamiltonian constraint acts only on vertices, its construction involves some of the same ambiguities as in LQG and its action on diffeomorphism invariant states admits a continuum limit, (ii) if the regulating holonomies are in representations tailored to the edge labels of the state, all previously obtained physical states lie in the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint, (iii) the commutator of two (density weight 1) Hamiltonian constraints as well as the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket converge to zero in the continuum limit defined by diffeomorphism invariant states, and vanish on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat, (iv) the rescaled density 2 Hamiltonian constraints and their commutator are ill-defined on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat despite the well-definedness of the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket there, (v) there is a new habitat which supports a nontrivial representation of the Poisson-Lie algebra of density 2 constraints.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  16. Tests of the Standard Model and Constraints on New Physics from Measurements of Fermion-pair Production at 189 GeV at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sections and angular distributions for hadronic and lepton pair final states in e+e- collisions at a centre-of-mass energy near 189 GeV, measured with the OPAL detector at LEP, are presented and compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. The results are used to measure the energy dependence of the electromagnetic coupling constant alpha_em, and to place limits on new physics as described by four-fermion contact interactions or by the exchange of a new heavy particle such as a sneutrino in supersymmetric theories with R-parity violation. A search for the indirect effects of the gravitational interaction in extra dimensions on the mu+mu- and tau+tau- final states is also presented.

  17. Tests of the Standard Model and constraints on new physics from measurements of fermion-pair production at 183 GeV at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sections for hadronic, b-bbar and lepton pair final states in e+e- collisions at sqrt(s) = 183 GeV, measured with the OPAL detector at LEP, are presented and compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. Forward-backward asymmetries for the leptonic final states have also been measured. Cross-sections and asymmetries are also presented for data recorded in 1997 at sqrt(s) = 130 and 136 GeV. The results are used to measure the energy dependence of the electromagnetic coupling constant alpha_em, and to place limits on new physics as described by four-fermion contact interactions or by the exchange of a new heavy particle such as a leptoquark, or of a squark or sneutrino in supersymmetric theories with R-parity violation.

  18. Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda

    2009-01-01

    Financing constraints are one of the biggest concerns impacting potential entrepreneurs around the world. Given the important role that entrepreneurship is believed to play in the process of economic growth, alleviating financing constraints for would-be entrepreneurs is also an important goal for policymakers worldwide. We review two major streams of research examining the relevance of financing constraints for entrepreneurship. We then introduce a framework that provides a unified perspecti...

  19. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  20. The structure of physical fitness and its correlation analysis at young players aged 16-17 years at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. POPOV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The questions about the importance of physical fitness of young players to improve the management and correction of the training process. Material : In the research participated 40 players aged 16-17 years of specialized youth football school of FC "Obolon-Brewery". Data for the study of physical fitness were teacher observations and teacher testing carried out under the direct training of young players. Results : It is shown that the structure of physical fitness among all the studied parameters there is a close correlation relationship, except for a parameter that characterizes the start speed. It was found that the above regularities indicate the advisability of excluding the studied parameters in the structure of physical fitness of young players to improve the efficiency of the training process at the base of specialized training. Conclusions : It is recommended to improve the starting speed to use non-gaming and technical and tactical exercises.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  3. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  4. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  5. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  6. Basic needs in rural areas: a report on a seminar held in Cape Town on 19 February 1985

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foundation for Research Development, (Ecosystems section)

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available to unemployment; health as a basic need; rural blacks' perceptions of basic need fulfilment; and difficulties and constraints in formulating policy and implementing programmes to answer basic needs questions....

  7. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9-12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades

  8. Final theory spiral-field-model. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science; Finaltheorie Spiralfeldmodell. Grundgedanken fuer eine kompatible Physik und eine konsistente Naturwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartje, U.A.J.

    2005-07-01

    This script contains theses for an universal 'Spiral-Field-Theory' that are capable to dissolve problems in parallel from different areas which are far from each other. Starting point is the stuck principle discussion about the relationships between the Classic Physics and the Quantum Physics. Aim is the clarification of questions which remained open. In 1925 Max Planck had formulated as follows: 'The research of physics can not rest, so long not has been together-welded: on the one hand the mechanics and the electrodynamics with on the other hand the lesson of the stationary one and the radiating heat to a sole unitary theory'. The Spiral-Field-Model develops a supporting structure from General Field into which they will class the secure knowledge from experiments and well-proved theories. The most important thing of this new Final Theory is the detailed generating of all nature courses of phenomena exclusively from radiation and that in the direct meaning of the word. In the final effect the two great disciplines of the physics which are drifted from each other, become bonded together to a super ordinate theoretical building of the nature sciences. (orig.)

  9. Software "Socrative" and Smartphones as Tools for Implementation of Basic Processes of Active Physics Learning in Classroom: An Initial Feasibility Study with Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Coca, David; Slisko, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Many physics professors have difficulties to know and assess in real time the learning of the students in their courses. Nevertheless, today, with Internet and the new technology devices that the students use every day, like smartphones, such tasks can be carried out relatively easy. The professor pose a few questions in "Socrative," the…

  10. The movable polarized target as a basic equipment for high energy spin physics experiments at the JINR-Dubna accelerator complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehar, F.; Adiasevich, B.; Androsov, V.P.; Angelov, N.; Anischenko, N.; Antonenko, V.; Ball, J.; Baryshevsky, V.G.; Bazhanov, N.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Benda, B.; Bodyagin, V.; Borisov, N.; Borzunov, Yu.; Bradamante, F.; Bunyatova, E.; Burinov, V.; Chernykh, E.; Combet, M.; Datskov, A.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A.P.; Fontaine, J.M.; Get`man, V.A.; Giorgi, M.; Golovanov, L.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grosnick, D.; Gurevich, G.; Hasegawa, T.; Hill, D.; Horikawa, N.; Igo, G.; Janout, Z.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kasprzyk, T.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Kirillov, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kousmine, E.S.; Kovalenko, A.; Kovaljov, A.I.; Ladygin, V.P.; Lazarev, A.; Leconte, P.; Lesquen, A. de; Lukhanin, A.A.; Mango, S.; Martin, A.; Matafonov, V.N.; Matyushevsky, E.; Mironov, S.; Neganov, A.B.; Neganov, B.S.; Nomofilov, A.; Perelygin, V.; Plis, Yu.; Pilipenko, Yu.; Pisarev, I.L.; Piskunov, N.; Polunin, Yu.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Propov, A.A.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Rekalo, M.P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Sans, J.L.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sharov, V.; Shilov, S.; Shishov, Yu.; Sitnik, I.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Spinka, H.; Sporov, E.A.; Strunov, L.N.; Svetov, A.; De Swart, J.J.; Telegin, Yu.P.; Tolmashov, I.; Trentalange, S.; Tsvinev, A.; Usov, Yu.A.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Whitten, C.A.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarubin, A.; Zhdanov, A.A.; Zolin, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[I.V. Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)]|[Lab. of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Lab. of High Energy Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Lab. National SATURNE, CNRS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Inst. of Physics, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)]|[Dept. of Physics, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    A movable polarized proton target is planned to be installed in polarized beams of the Synchrophasotron-Nuclotron complex in order to carry out a spin physics experimental program at Dubna. The project is described and the first proposed experiments are discussed. ((orig.))

  11. The movable polarized target as a basic equipment for high energy spin physics experiments at the JINR-Dubna accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehar, F.; Adiasevich, B.; Androsov, V.P.; Angelov, N.; Anischenko, N.; Antonenko, V.; Ball, J.; Baryshevsky, V.G.; Bazhanov, N.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Benda, B.; Bodyagin, V.; Borisov, N.; Borzunov, Yu.; Bradamante, F.; Bunyatova, E.; Burinov, V.; Chernykh, E.; Combet, M.; Datskov, A.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A.P.; Fontaine, J.M.; Get'man, V.A.; Giorgi, M.; Golovanov, L.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grosnick, D.; Gurevich, G.; Hasegawa, T.; Hill, D.; Horikawa, N.; Igo, G.; Janout, Z.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kasprzyk, T.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Kirillov, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kousmine, E.S.; Kovalenko, A.; Kovaljov, A.I.; Ladygin, V.P.; Lazarev, A.; Leconte, P.; Lesquen, A. de; Lukhanin, A.A.; Mango, S.; Martin, A.; Matafonov, V.N.; Matyushevsky, E.; Mironov, S.; Neganov, A.B.; Neganov, B.S.; Nomofilov, A.; Perelygin, V.; Plis, Yu.; Pilipenko, Yu.; Pisarev, I.L.; Piskunov, N.; Polunin, Yu.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Propov, A.A.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Rekalo, M.P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Sans, J.L.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sharov, V.; Shilov, S.; Shishov, Yu.; Sitnik, I.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Spinka, H.; Sporov, E.A.; Strunov, L.N.; Svetov, A.; De Swart, J.J.; Telegin, Yu.P.; Tolmashov, I.; Trentalange, S.; Tsvinev, A.; Usov, Yu.A.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Whitten, C.A.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarubin, A.; Zhdanov, A.A.; Zolin, L.

    1995-01-01

    A movable polarized proton target is planned to be installed in polarized beams of the Synchrophasotron-Nuclotron complex in order to carry out a spin physics experimental program at Dubna. The project is described and the first proposed experiments are discussed. ((orig.))

  12. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9–12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, Ingrid; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Mombarg, Remo; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    : Many children aged 9–12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of

  13. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  16. Origins of atmospheric aerosols. Basic concepts on aerosol main physical properties; L`aerosol atmospherique: ses origines quelques notions sur les principales proprietes physiques des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). Laboratoire de Physique des aerosols et de transferts des contaminations

    1996-12-31

    Natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric aerosols are reviewed and indications of their concentrations and granulometry are given. Calculation of the lifetime of an atmospheric aerosol of a certain size is presented and the various modes of aerosol granulometry and their relations with photochemical and physico-chemical processes in the atmosphere are discussed. The main physical, electrical and optical properties of aerosols are also presented: diffusion coefficient, dynamic mobility and relaxation time, Stokes number, limit rate of fall, electrical mobility, optical diffraction

  17. Software Socrative and smartphones as tools for implementation of basic processes of active physics learning in classroom: An initial feasibility study with prospective teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, David; Slisko, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Many physics professors have difficulties to know andassess in real time the learning of the students in their courses.Nevertheless, today, with Internet and the new technology devices that thestudents use every day, like smartphones, such tasks can be carried outrelatively easy. The professor pose a few questions in Socrative, the students answer them by means of the Smartphone. Inthis way, the professor knows what students learned and can promote thecooperative learning joining students who...

  18. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  1. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  2. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  3. Search for new physics in dijet angular distributions using proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV and constraints on dark matter and other models

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Medina Jaime, Miguel; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Khalil, Shaaban; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Tholen, Heiner; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; García Alonso, Andrea; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Casal, Bruno; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Topakli, Huseyin; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Dolen, James; Parashar, Neeti; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Rekovic, Vladimir; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    A search is presented for physics beyond the standard model, based on measurements of dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV. The data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. The observed distributions are found to be in agreement with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics that include electroweak corrections, and constraints are placed on models containing quark contact interactions, extra spatial dimensions, quantum black holes, or dark matter. In a benchmark model where only left-handed quarks participate, contact interactions are excluded at the 95% confidence level up to a scale of 12.8 or 17.5 TeV, for destructive or constructive interference, respectively. The most stringent lower limits to date are set on the ultraviolet cutoff in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model of extra dimensions. In the Giudice-Rattazzi-Wells convention, the cutoff scale is excluded up to 10.1 TeV. The produc...

  4. Route constraints model based on polychromatic sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianjun; Cai, Chao; Wang, Houjun; Li, Dongwu

    2018-03-01

    With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology, the fields of its application are constantly expanding. The mission planning of UAV is especially important, and the planning result directly influences whether the UAV can accomplish the task. In order to make the results of mission planning for unmanned aerial vehicle more realistic, it is necessary to consider not only the physical properties of the aircraft, but also the constraints among the various equipment on the UAV. However, constraints among the equipment of UAV are complex, and the equipment has strong diversity and variability, which makes these constraints difficult to be described. In order to solve the above problem, this paper, referring to the polychromatic sets theory used in the advanced manufacturing field to describe complex systems, presents a mission constraint model of UAV based on polychromatic sets.

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  8. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  9. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    . The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application

  10. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  11. The relationship between sarcopenia,undernutrition, physical mobility and basic activities of daily living in a group of elderly women of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Alva, María del Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Delgadillo Velázquez, Jaime; Lazarevich, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome, which affects the functional status and mobility of individuals. To identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and undernutrition, and to assess the association between sarcopenia and mobility, and sarcopenia and basic activities of daily living (ADL) in a group of elderly women. A cross-sectional study was performed in patients attending a geriatric service at a government hospital in Mexico City. Sarcopenia was identified applying Baumgartner's equation by obtaining skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and undernutrition was diagnosed using mini-nutritional assessment instrument (MNA). The SENECA questionnaire and Katz index were used to evaluate mobility and ADL, respectively. lineal regression models were constructed fitting SMI as a dependent variable and SENECA, and ADL scores as independent variables, adjusted for age. 90 women with a mean age of 78.2 (± 6.8) were studied. Undernutrition was identified in 15.5% of the patients. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 41.1%. Patients with sarcopenia presented a high prevalence of undernutrition (p Sarcopenia was associated with difficulty in climbing stairs (OR = 2.63, p = 0.03), adjusted for age. The mobility score was associated with sarcopenia, in the group without sarcopenia the mean score was 16.3, and with sarcopenia it was 18.3, (p = 0.04). Regarding ADL, 64.9% of the patients with intermediate independence and dependence had sarcopenia, while 35.1% with total independence presented sarcopenia (p elder women with sarcopenia had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. Sarcopenia was associated with difficulties in mobility, particularly difficulties in climbing stairs. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoparticle movement: Plasmonic forces and physical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batson, P.E.; Reyes-Coronado, A.; Barrera, R.G.; Rivacoba, A.; Echenique, P.M.; Aizpurua, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle structures observed in aberration-corrected electron microscopes exhibit many types of behavior, some of which are dominated by intrinsic conditions, unrelated to the microscope environment. Some behaviors are clearly driven by the electron beam, however, and the question arises as to whether these are similar to intrinsic mechanisms, useful for understanding nanoscale behavior, or whether they should be regarded as unwanted modification of as-built specimens. We have studied a particular kind of beam–specimen interaction – plasmon dielectric forces caused by the electric fields imposed by a passing swift electron – identifying four types of forced motion, including both attractive and repulsive forces on single nanoparticles, and coalescent and non-coalescent forces in groups of two or more nanoparticles. We suggest that these forces might be useful for deliberate electron beam guided movement of nanoparticles. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the interaction of metal nanoparticles with a high energy electron beam. ► We find forces ranging from 0.1 to 50 pN forces between the metal particles and the beam. ► At moderate distances, dielectric forces are usually small and attractive. ► At sub-Nm distances the forces become repulsive, pushing nanoparticles away from the electron beam. ► While the repulsive behavior is predicted by electromagnetic theory, the detailed origin of the behavior is not yet understood.

  13. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter, E-mail: jingluan@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10{sup 3} pc cm{sup –3}. Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ∼5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period.

  14. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10 3 pc cm –3 . Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ∼5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period

  15. Conhecimento de fisioterapeutas sobre a atuação em suporte básico de vida Physical therapists' knowledge on basic life support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Tomazi Neves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou avaliar o conhecimento de fisioterapeutas e graduandos em Fisioterapia sobre diagnóstico e atendimento de urgência à parada cardiorrespiratória. A amostra foi composta de 72 estudantes e 108 fisioterapeutas, dos quais 64 atuam no ambiente extra-hospitalar e 44 no ambiente hospitalar. Foi aplicado aos participantes um questionário sobre ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP baseado nas diretrizes da American Heart Association de 2005. As respostas foram analisadas estatisticamente. Quanto ao diagnóstico da parada cardíaca, os grupos comportaram-se de maneira semelhante, optando pela avaliação da"presença de pulso e respiração". Quanto à seqüência de atendimento da RCP, a seqüência preconizada foi corretamente indicada por 52,8% do grupo estudante, 65,9% do subgrupo hospitalar e 40,6% do subgrupo extra-hospitalar. Quanto à relação compressão/ventilação, apenas 4,1% do grupo estudante, ninguém do extra-hospitalar e 25% do subgrupo hospitalar indicaram a relação preconizada atualmente. Quase todos (94% os participantes reconheceram a importância do conhecimento em RCP para o fisioterapeuta. Assim, a maioria dos atuais e futuros fisioterapeutas reconhecem a importância da RCP para sua atuação profissional, mas têm conhecimento insuficiente sobre o tema e apenas uma pequena parcela busca atualizar-se.This study aimed at assessing undergraduates' and physical therapists' knowledge on diagnosing and emergency treating cardiopulmonary arrest. Subjects were 72 students and 108 physical therapists - of which 64 were active in non-hospital environment and 44 in hospitals - who answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR based on the American Heart Association 2005 guidelines. Answers were statistically analysed. As to diagnosing cardiopulmonary arrest, groups behaved similarly, having chosen the option"absence of consciousness, pulse and breath". Concerning the pattern of CPR assistance, the

  16. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  17. From Mateev's baryogenesis ideas to contemporary cosmological constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.

    2011-01-01

    Mateev's ideas on baryogenesis and the possibility to constrain new physics on the basis of cosmological observations present the first impulse for the development of the physical cosmology and astroparticle physics in Bulgaria. Contemporary cosmological models of baryogenesis, leptogenesis, primordial nucleosynthesis and cosmological constraints on new physics are discussed

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  4. Notes on basic materials (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, R.

    1976-01-01

    This lecture was a revision of basic material, intended for students who were mainly postgraduate at the end of their first year in experimental high energy physics. The subject headings include the following: notation and generalities; classification of particles; symmetry arguments; higher symmetries; SU 3 isoscalar factors; predictions from SU 3; charm; relativistic wave equations; Feynman graphical techniques. (U.K.)

  5. Misconceptions and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, M.; Mahon, R.

    2005-01-01

    In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to the persistence of some common misconceptions, but it is mainly due to one constraint, or a combination of constraints, that are biological, financial, social or political in nature. This chapter's goal is to dispel some major misconceptions, and view the constraints as challenges to overcome, seeing them as opportunities to exploit. Some of the common misconceptions include: (1) released insects retain residual radiation, (2) females must be monogamous, (3) released males must be fully sterile, (4) eradication is the only goal, (5) the SIT is too sophisticated for developing countries, and (6) the SIT is not a component of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy. The more obvious constraints are the perceived high costs of the SIT, and the low competitiveness of released sterile males. The perceived high up-front costs of the SIT, their visibility, and the lack of private investment (compared with alternative suppression measures) emerge as serious constraints. Failure to appreciate the true nature of genetic approaches, such as the SIT, may pose a significant constraint to the wider adoption of the SIT and other genetically-based tactics, e.g. transgenic genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Lack of support for the necessary underpinning strategic research also appears to be an important constraint. Hence the case for extensive strategic research in ecology, population dynamics, genetics, and insect behaviour and nutrition is a compelling one. Raising the competitiveness of released sterile males remains the major research objective of the SIT. (author)

  6. Institutional and resource constraints that inhibit contractor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that contractors face institutional constraints (work allocation limitations, lack of performance incentives and high transaction costs, such as negotiation costs, the risk of a loss in work and contract default risk), cash flow problems, poor physical infrastructure and a lack of labour. It is expected that the promotion ...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  10. Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan; Lopes, Alexandre; Whitfield, James D.; Christandl, Matthias; Gross, David; Reiher, Markus

    2018-05-01

    The natural occupation numbers of fermionic systems are subject to nontrivial constraints, which include and extend the original Pauli principle. A recent mathematical breakthrough has clarified their mathematical structure and has opened up the possibility of a systematic analysis. Early investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system's qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While the results seem incompatible with the statement that the generalized Pauli constraints drive the behavior of these systems, they suggest that the qualitatively correct wave-function expansions can in some systems already be obtained on the basis of a limited number of Slater determinants, which is in line with numerical evidence from quantum chemistry.

  11. REPRODUCING THE OBSERVED ABUNDANCES IN RCB AND HdC STARS WITH POST-DOUBLE-DEGENERATE MERGER MODELS-CONSTRAINTS ON MERGER AND POST-MERGER SIMULATIONS AND PHYSICS PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Denissenkov, Pavel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P5C2 (Canada); Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Staff, Jan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Paxton, Bill [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are hydrogen-deficient, variable stars that are most likely the result of He-CO WD mergers. They display extremely low oxygen isotopic ratios, {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O {approx_equal} 1-10, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C {>=} 100, and enhancements up to 2.6 dex in F and in s-process elements from Zn to La, compared to solar. These abundances provide stringent constraints on the physical processes during and after the double-degenerate merger. As shown previously, O-isotopic ratios observed in RCB stars cannot result from the dynamic double-degenerate merger phase, and we now investigate the role of the long-term one-dimensional spherical post-merger evolution and nucleosynthesis based on realistic hydrodynamic merger progenitor models. We adopt a model for extra envelope mixing to represent processes driven by rotation originating in the dynamical merger. Comprehensive nucleosynthesis post-processing simulations for these stellar evolution models reproduce, for the first time, the full range of the observed abundances for almost all the elements measured in RCB stars: {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios between 9 and 15, C-isotopic ratios above 100, and {approx}1.4-2.35 dex F enhancements, along with enrichments in s-process elements. The nucleosynthesis processes in our models constrain the length and temperature in the dynamic merger shell-of-fire feature as well as the envelope mixing in the post-merger phase. s-process elements originate either in the shell-of-fire merger feature or during the post-merger evolution, but the contribution from the asymptotic giant branch progenitors is negligible. The post-merger envelope mixing must eventually cease {approx}10{sup 6} yr after the dynamic merger phase before the star enters the RCB phase.

  12. REPRODUCING THE OBSERVED ABUNDANCES IN RCB AND HdC STARS WITH POST-DOUBLE-DEGENERATE MERGER MODELS—CONSTRAINTS ON MERGER AND POST-MERGER SIMULATIONS AND PHYSICS PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Denissenkov, Pavel A.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Staff, Jan; Pignatari, Marco; Paxton, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are hydrogen-deficient, variable stars that are most likely the result of He-CO WD mergers. They display extremely low oxygen isotopic ratios, 16 O/ 18 O ≅ 1-10, 12 C/ 13 C ≥ 100, and enhancements up to 2.6 dex in F and in s-process elements from Zn to La, compared to solar. These abundances provide stringent constraints on the physical processes during and after the double-degenerate merger. As shown previously, O-isotopic ratios observed in RCB stars cannot result from the dynamic double-degenerate merger phase, and we now investigate the role of the long-term one-dimensional spherical post-merger evolution and nucleosynthesis based on realistic hydrodynamic merger progenitor models. We adopt a model for extra envelope mixing to represent processes driven by rotation originating in the dynamical merger. Comprehensive nucleosynthesis post-processing simulations for these stellar evolution models reproduce, for the first time, the full range of the observed abundances for almost all the elements measured in RCB stars: 16 O/ 18 O ratios between 9 and 15, C-isotopic ratios above 100, and ∼1.4-2.35 dex F enhancements, along with enrichments in s-process elements. The nucleosynthesis processes in our models constrain the length and temperature in the dynamic merger shell-of-fire feature as well as the envelope mixing in the post-merger phase. s-process elements originate either in the shell-of-fire merger feature or during the post-merger evolution, but the contribution from the asymptotic giant branch progenitors is negligible. The post-merger envelope mixing must eventually cease ∼10 6 yr after the dynamic merger phase before the star enters the RCB phase

  13. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  14. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  15. On quantization of time-dependent systems with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjiev, S A; Jafarov, R G

    2007-01-01

    The Dirac method of canonical quantization of theories with second-class constraints has to be modified if the constraints depend on time explicitly. A solution of the problem was given by Gitman and Tyutin. In the present work we propose an independent way to derive the rules of quantization for these systems, starting from the physical equivalent theory with trivial non-stationarity

  16. On quantization of time-dependent systems with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjialieva, F.G.; Jafarov, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Dirac method of canonical quantization of theories with second class constraints has to be modified if the constraints depend on time explicitly. A solution of the problem was given by Gitman and Tyutin. In the present work we propose an independent way to derive the rules of quantization for these systems, starting from physical equivalent theory with trivial nonstationarity. (author). 4 refs

  17. On quantization of time-dependent systems with constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadjiev, S A; Jafarov, R G [Institute for Physical Problems, Baku State University, AZ11 48 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2007-03-30

    The Dirac method of canonical quantization of theories with second-class constraints has to be modified if the constraints depend on time explicitly. A solution of the problem was given by Gitman and Tyutin. In the present work we propose an independent way to derive the rules of quantization for these systems, starting from the physical equivalent theory with trivial non-stationarity.

  18. On covariant quantization of massive superparticle with first class constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M.

    1990-02-01

    We use the technique of Batalin and Fradkin to convert the second class fermionic constraints of the massive superparticle into first class constraints. Then the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism has been used to quantize covariantly the resulting theory. Appropriate gauge fixing conditions lead to a completely quadratic action. Some interesting properties of the physical space wave functions are discussed. (author). 16 refs

  19. The Global Challenge in Basic Education: Why Continued Investment in Basic Education Is Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertaugh, Michael T.; Jimenez, Emmanuel Y.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the importance of continued investment in basic education and argues that investments need to be carefully targeted to address the constraints that limit the coverage and quality of education if they are to provide expected benefits. Part I begins with a discussion of the returns to investment in education. Part II then…

  20. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  1. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  2. L∞ Variational Problems with Running Costs and Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, G.; Barron, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Various approaches are used to derive the Aronsson–Euler equations for L ∞ calculus of variations problems with constraints. The problems considered involve holonomic, nonholonomic, isoperimetric, and isosupremic constraints on the minimizer. In addition, we derive the Aronsson–Euler equation for the basic L ∞ problem with a running cost and then consider properties of an absolute minimizer. Many open problems are introduced for further study.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  4. Ecosystems emerging. 5: Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patten, B. C.; Straškraba, Milan; Jorgensen, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 16 (2011), s. 2945-2972 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : constraint * epistemic * ontic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380011002274

  5. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie

    2017-01-01

    groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...

  6. Constraints on grand unified superstring theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Lopez, J.L.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Houston Advanced Research Center

    1990-01-01

    We evaluate some constraints on the construction of grand unified superstring theories (GUSTs) using higher level Kac-Moody algebras on the world-sheet. In the most general formulation of the heterotic string in four dimensions, an analysis of the basic GUST model-building constraints, including a realistic hidden gauge group, reveals that there are no E 6 models and any SO(10) models can only exist at level-5. Also, any such SU(5) models can exist only for levels 4≤k≤19. These SO(10) and SU(5) models risk having many large, massless, phenomenologically troublesome representations. We also show that with a suitable hidden sector gauge group, it is possible to avoid free light fractionally charged particles, which are endemic to string derived models. We list all such groups and their representations for the flipped SU(5)xU(1) model. We conclude that a sufficiently binding hidden sector gauge group becomes a basic model-building constraint. (orig.)

  7. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  8. Basic Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Philip

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

  9. Basics of Postural Drainage and Percussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  10. Latin hypercube sampling with inequality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, B.; Petelet, M.; Asserin, O.; Loredo, A.

    2010-01-01

    In some studies requiring predictive and CPU-time consuming numerical models, the sampling design of the model input variables has to be chosen with caution. For this purpose, Latin hypercube sampling has a long history and has shown its robustness capabilities. In this paper we propose and discuss a new algorithm to build a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) taking into account inequality constraints between the sampled variables. This technique, called constrained Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS), consists in doing permutations on an initial LHS to honor the desired monotonic constraints. The relevance of this approach is shown on a real example concerning the numerical welding simulation, where the inequality constraints are caused by the physical decreasing of some material properties in function of the temperature. (authors)

  11. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper addresses this gap. The and six case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper sheds light on the types of constraints generated by the relevant constraint generators. The paper shows that in the cases studied......Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...... and landlords need to be considered as well as the interest of the client and brand owner. Furthermore the users need to be taken into account in order to develop an interesting and functional shopping and working environments. Finally, suppliers and competitors may influence the design with regard...

  12. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  13. Physics and basic technology of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa

    2017-01-01

    Computed Tomography is one of the prime imaging modalities in any hospital around the globe. From its inception in 1973, CT technology have advanced leaps and bounds in medical diagnosis. Advances in X-ray tubes, detection technologies and image reconstruction methods led to the development of multiple-row detector CT (MDCT) technologies in early 2000, that has been the impetus for new fields such as Cardiovascular CT, Hybrid CT (PET-CT and SPECT-CT), CT Perfusion, Cone Beam CT, etc. It is now possible to image the entire organ (such as heart) in less than 0.3 seconds providing isotropic resolution images with high temporal resolution. With all X-ray imaging modalities, including CT, the concern is the radiation dose. Since CT procedures are one of the major imaging procedures performed in any hospital, it is important to optimize CT protocols in order to provide quality images at optimal radiation dose

  14. Basic principles of chemistry and physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    A course designed to provide communications between the designer of a system such as a mechanical engineer or a physicist and the material scientist such as a chemist or chemical engineer is presented. The topics discussed are stoichiometric principles, behavior of ideal gases, vapor pressure, humidity and saturation, solubility of gases in liquids, diffusion of gases, chemical reaction kinetics, and application of concepts to compatibility problems. The appendix provides problems to be used in conjunction with TV lectures

  15. Graphical constraints: a graphical user interface for constraint problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Nelson Manuel Marques

    2015-01-01

    A constraint satisfaction problem is a classical artificial intelligence paradigm characterized by a set of variables (each variable with an associated domain of possible values), and a set of constraints that specify relations among subsets of these variables. Solutions are assignments of values to all variables that satisfy all the constraints. Many real world problems may be modelled by means of constraints. The range of problems that can use this representation is very diverse and embrace...

  16. Distance Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Manuel; Dalmau, Victor; Martin, Barnaby; Pinsker, Michael

    We study the complexity of constraint satisfaction problems for templates Γ that are first-order definable in ({ Z}; {suc}), the integers with the successor relation. Assuming a widely believed conjecture from finite domain constraint satisfaction (we require the tractability conjecture by Bulatov, Jeavons and Krokhin in the special case of transitive finite templates), we provide a full classification for the case that Γ is locally finite (i.e., the Gaifman graph of Γ has finite degree). We show that one of the following is true: The structure Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a structure with a certain majority polymorphism (which we call modular median) and CSP(Γ) can be solved in polynomial time, or Γ is homomorphically equivalent to a finite transitive structure, or CSP(Γ) is NP-complete.

  17. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  18. Constraint-based scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  19. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr...

  20. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...

  1. Applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Physics Division research program that is dedicated primarily to applied research goals involves the interaction of energetic particles with solids. This applied research is carried out in conjunction with the basic research studies from which it evolved

  2. Continuum of quanta in the final theory. Model of spiral fields. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science. 4. rev. ed.; Quantenkontinuum in der Finaltheorie. Spiralfeldmodell. Grundgedanken fuer eine Kompatible Physik und eine Konsistente Naturwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartje, Udo Albert Juergen

    2009-07-01

    The internationally favored direction of the physics sciences looks for the solution of the basic problems in higher and higher energies at impressive research constructions - mockingly mentioned as 'cognition machines' - which surpass itself with its financial efforts each the other. If in this wise shall be found: 'The elementariest bit of all elements' and 'the unity of the whole physics as well as the whole nature sciences at all', then this is a thought aberration. The prognosticated HIGGS-particles may have an exceptional quality; however, they would be very complex objects which integrate an enormous number of effect-quanta h (Planck constants) in their structure: They are with safety not simplicity. They will also not bring a better understanding about the simplicity of the last elements for us. We know since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, DeBrogue and other well-known physicists that the 'atomos' can have only a diminutiveness discrete not measurable energy. The search with gigantic machines is at all especially nonsensical than it pumps still energy into the processes. However, the elementary consists of fractions from that energy what have well-known smallest particles or weakest radiation in itself puts. The work in hand follows another approach. It grasps nature on a deductive way. I start out from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts; and I combine that with a principle of 'general physical field' which after Einstein must exist. The dynamic space-time processes of the fields are depicted by graphic means in mathematical spatial coordinate-systems. Through it arises a consistent view over all areas of the knowledge from the most simply over simple structures until to the most complicated phenomena and things: that one are the cognition remained secretive till now obstinately. In the foreground will be originate as important the

  3. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  4. Input-to-State Stabilizing MPC for Neutrally Stable Linear Systems subject to Input Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Yoon, Tae-Woong; Jadbabaie, Ali; Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    MPC(Model Predictive Control) is representative of control methods which are able to handle physical constraints. Closed-loop stability can therefore be ensured only locally in the presence of constraints of this type. However, if the system is neutrally stable, and if the constraints are imposed

  5. OPERATOR-RELATED FORMULATION OF THE EIGENVALUE PROBLEM FOR THE BOUNDARY PROBLEM OF ANALYSIS OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE WITH PIECEWISE-CONSTANT PHYSICAL AND GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ALONGSIDE THE BASIC DIRECTION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE DISCRETE-CON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel Alekseevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper covers the operator-related formulation of the eigenvalue problem of analysis of a three-dimensional structure that has piecewise-constant physical and geometrical parameters alongside the so-called basic direction within the framework of a discrete-continual approach (a discrete-continual finite element method, a discrete-continual variation method. Generally, discrete-continual formulations represent contemporary mathematical models that become available for computer implementation. They make it possible for a researcher to consider the boundary effects whenever particular components of the solution represent rapidly varying functions. Another feature of discrete-continual methods is the absence of any limitations imposed on lengths of structures. The three-dimensional problem of elasticity is used as the design model of a structure. In accordance with the so-called method of extended domain, the domain in question is embordered by an extended one of an arbitrary shape. At the stage of numerical implementation, relative key features of discrete-continual methods include convenient mathematical formulas, effective computational patterns and algorithms, simple data processing, etc. The authors present their formulation of the problem in question for an isotropic medium with allowance for supports restrained by elastic elements while standard boundary conditions are also taken into consideration.

  6. Mapping the Developmental Constraints on Working Memory Span Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Gunn, Deborah M.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related…

  7. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  8. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Torino (Italy); Ragazzi, E. [CERIS, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, CNR, National Research Council, Moncalieri, TO (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions needs to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers. (authors)

  9. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  10. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  11. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  12. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  13. Searching for genomic constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lio` , P [Cambridge, Univ. (United Kingdom). Genetics Dept.; Ruffo, S [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. di Energetica ` S. Stecco`

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call `genomic constraints` from the rules that depend on the `external natural selection` acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour.

  14. Searching for genomic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lio', P.; Ruffo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call 'genomic constraints' from the rules that depend on the 'external natural selection' acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  17. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  18. Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  20. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  1. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  2. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  3. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  4. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  5. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  6. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  7. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  8. Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. In this review we discuss only the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of our sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. Unfortunately, the present state of knowledge about the exact compositions; mass loss and its dependence on the mass, radius, luminosity, and composition; ;and internal mixing processes, as well as sometimes the more basic parameters such as luminosities and surface effective temperatures prevent us from applying strong constraints for every case where currently the possibility exists

  9. Evaluation of uranium resources. Problems and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Growing awareness that the era of cheap energy is over has led to current efforts by governments and international organizations to examine the question of the adequacy of energy resources on a global scale. Despite the relative success of the NEA and the IAEA efforts in the study of world uranium supply, there is a need for such studies to become still more comprehensive and broader in scope. A basic problem exists with respect to the lack of a universally accepted set of resource terms by which to classify resource estimates once they are made. Often voids exist in international assessments because of insufficient data with respect to known resources and occasionally because of a lack of expertise to make the required estimates. With respect to the assessment of undiscovered uranium resources, major constraints are the relatively embryonic state of methodology for assessment of undiscovered resources and the fact that the inventory of basic geology, geochemical, and geophysical data is either incomplete or non-existent in many parts of the world. Finally, once resource estimates are made, there is often an unclear understanding about when and at what rate the resources can be made available. Hopefully, current efforts will lead to a solution to some of the principal problems and constraints which may be impeding progress toward an expansion and improvement of world uranium resource assessments. (author)

  10. Supergravity constraints on monojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the standard model, supplemented by N = 1 minimal supergravity, all the supersymmetric particle masses can be expressed in terms of a few unknown parameters. The resulting mass relations, and the laboratory and the cosmological bounds on these superpartner masses are used to put constraints on the supersymmetric origin of the CERN monojets. The latest MAC data at PEP excludes the scalar quarks, of masses up to 45 GeV, as the origin of these monojets. The cosmological bounds, for a stable photino, excludes the mass range necessary for the light gluino-heavy squark production interpretation. These difficulties can be avoided by going beyond the minimal supergravity theory. Irrespective of the monojets, the importance of the stable γ as the source of the cosmological dark matter is emphasized

  11. On the constraints violation in forward dynamics of multibody systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Filipe [University of Minho, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Souto, António P. [University of Minho, Department of Textile Engineering (Portugal); Flores, Paulo, E-mail: pflores@dem.uminho.pt [University of Minho, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    It is known that the dynamic equations of motion for constrained mechanical multibody systems are frequently formulated using the Newton–Euler’s approach, which is augmented with the acceleration constraint equations. This formulation results in the establishment of a mixed set of partial differential and algebraic equations, which are solved in order to predict the dynamic behavior of general multibody systems. The classical solution of the equations of motion is highly prone to constraints violation because the position and velocity constraint equations are not fulfilled. In this work, a general and comprehensive methodology to eliminate the constraints violation at the position and velocity levels is offered. The basic idea of the described approach is to add corrective terms to the position and velocity vectors with the intent to satisfy the corresponding kinematic constraint equations. These corrective terms are evaluated as a function of the Moore–Penrose generalized inverse of the Jacobian matrix and of the kinematic constraint equations. The described methodology is embedded in the standard method to solve the equations of motion based on the technique of Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the effectiveness of the described methodology is demonstrated through the dynamic modeling and simulation of different planar and spatial multibody systems. The outcomes in terms of constraints violation at the position and velocity levels, conservation of the total energy and computational efficiency are analyzed and compared with those obtained with the standard Lagrange multipliers method, the Baumgarte stabilization method, the augmented Lagrangian formulation, the index-1 augmented Lagrangian, and the coordinate partitioning method.

  12. Data Reduction Algorithm Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization with Nonlinear Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Pasukat

    2017-12-01

    Processing ofdata with very large dimensions has been a hot topic in recent decades. Various techniques have been proposed in order to execute the desired information or structure. Non- Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) based on non-negatives data has become one of the popular methods for shrinking dimensions. The main strength of this method is non-negative object, the object model by a combination of some basic non-negative parts, so as to provide a physical interpretation of the object construction. The NMF is a dimension reduction method thathasbeen used widely for numerous applications including computer vision,text mining, pattern recognitions,and bioinformatics. Mathematical formulation for NMF did not appear as a convex optimization problem and various types of algorithms have been proposed to solve the problem. The Framework of Alternative Nonnegative Least Square(ANLS) are the coordinates of the block formulation approaches that have been proven reliable theoretically and empirically efficient. This paper proposes a new algorithm to solve NMF problem based on the framework of ANLS.This algorithm inherits the convergenceproperty of the ANLS framework to nonlinear constraints NMF formulations.

  13. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  15. Social Constraints on Animate Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  16. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  17. Algorithms and ordering heuristics for distributed constraint satisfaction problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahbi , Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    DisCSP (Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problem) is a general framework for solving distributed problems arising in Distributed Artificial Intelligence.A wide variety of problems in artificial intelligence are solved using the constraint satisfaction problem paradigm. However, there are several applications in multi-agent coordination that are of a distributed nature. In this type of application, the knowledge about the problem, that is, variables and constraints, may be logically or geographically distributed among physical distributed agents. This distribution is mainly due to p

  18. Constraints on relaxation rates for N-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    We study the constraints imposed on the population and phase relaxation rates by the physical requirement of completely positive evolution for open N-level systems. The Lindblad operators that govern the evolution of the system are expressed in terms of observable relaxation rates, explicit formulas for the decoherence rates due to population relaxation are derived, and it is shown that there are additional, nontrivial constraints on the pure dephasing rates for N>2. Explicit, experimentally testable inequality constraints for the decoherence rates are derived for three- and four-level systems, and the implications of the results are discussed for generic ladder, Λ, and V systems and transitions between degenerate energy levels

  19. New Constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate new observational constraints on the two-parameter scale-dependent spectral index predicted by the running-mass inflation model by combining the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy measurements with the recent 2dFGRS data on the matter power spectrum, with Lyman $\\alpha $ forest data and finally with theoretical constraints on the reionization redshift. We find that present data still allow significant scale-dependence of $n$, which occurs in a physically reasonabl...

  20. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  1. Electrometry - constraints and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1980-01-01

    The main parameters are defined and described of an electrometer, including input resistance, input quiescent current, current noise equivalent, voltage and current stability, minimum input capacity, response time, time constant, range, accuracy, linearity, a-c component suppression, and zero drift. The limiting factors in measurement mainly include temperature noise, insulator quality, radioactivity background, electrostatic and electromagnetic interference, contact potential difference, and resistor stability. Electrometers are classified into three basic groups, viz., electrostatic electrometers, d-c amplifier-based electrometers (electron tube electrometers and FET electrometers), electrometers with modulation of measured signal (electrometers using vibration capacitors, electrometers with varactors). Diagrams and specifications are presented for selected electrometers. (J.B.)

  2. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  3. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: hdzeng@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  4. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  5. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  6. Locality constraints and 2D quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolar, J.E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The plausible assumption that long-range interactions between atoms are negligible in a quasicrystal leaks to the study of tilings that obey constraints on the local configurations of tiles. The theory of such constraints (called matching rules) for 2D quasicrystal tilings is reviewed here. Different types of matching rules are defined and examples of tilings obeying them are given where known. The role of tile decoration is discussed and is shown to be significant in at least two cases (octagonal and dodecagonal duals of periodic 4-grids and 6-grids). A new result is introduced: a constructive procedure is described for generating weak matching rules for tilings with N-fold symmetry, for any N that is either a prime number or twice a prime number. The physics associated with weak matching rules, results on local growth rules, and the case of icosahedral symmetry are all briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs

  7. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  8. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  10. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  11. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  12. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  14. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD Kristine Cichowski, MS Read Bio Founding ...

  15. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  16. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  17. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  18. Basic science of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.P.; Taylor, D.M.; Smith, P.H.S.

    1978-01-01

    A book has been written presenting those aspects of physics, chemistry and related sciences which are essential to a clear understanding of the scientific basis of nuclear medicine. Part I covers the basic physics of radiation and radioactivity. Part II deals with radiation dosimetry, the biological effects of radiation and the principles of tracer techniques. The measurement of radioactivity and the principal aspects of modern instrumentation are presented in Part III. Those aspects of chemistry relevant to the preparation and use of radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in Part IV. The final section is concerned with the production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals and with the practical aspects of laboratory practice, facilities and safety. The book serves as a general introductory text for physicians, scientists, radiographers and technicians who are entering nuclear medicine. (U.K.)

  19. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  20. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  1. Observational constraints on interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnewisser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The author points out presently existing observational constraints in the detection of interstellar molecular species and the limits they may cast on our knowledge of interstellar chemistry. The constraints which arise from the molecular side are summarised and some technical difficulties encountered in detecting new species are discussed. Some implications for our understanding of molecular formation processes are considered. (Auth.)

  2. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  3. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  4. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...

  5. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  6. Quantum physics for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The textbook introduces students to the main ideas of quantum physics and the basic mathematical methods and techniques used in the fields of advanced quantum physics, atomic physics, laser physics, nanotechnology, quantum chemistry, and theoretical mathematics. The textbook explains how microscopic objects (particles) behave in unusual ways, giving rise to what's called quantum effects. It contains a wide range of tutorial problems from simple confidence-builders to fairly challenging exercises that provide adequate understanding of the basic concepts of quantum physics.

  7. Legislation and Equality in Basic Education for All in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan

    2009-01-01

    In China, legislation exists which requires compulsory schooling for all students of school age. This article examines the functions of and the constraints on using law to institutionalize equality in basic education. It argues that, in China, law is a last resort, holding governments of various levels accountable. Law can be a device of social…

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  9. Measurement of perfusion using the first-pass dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI in neurooncology. Physical basics and clinical applications; Perfusionsmessung mit der T2*-Kontrastmitteldynamik in der Neuroonkologie. Physikalische Grundlagen und klinische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.-A.; Giesel, F.L.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Radiologie; Risse, F.; Schad, L.R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Perfusion imaging in the central nervous system (CNS) is mostly performed using the first-pass dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI. The first-pass of a contrast bolus in brain tissue is monitored by a series of T2*-weighted MR images. The susceptibility effect of the paramagnetic contrast agent leads to a signal loss that can be converted, using the principles of the indicator dilution theory, into an increase of the contrast agent concentration. From these data, parameter maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) can be derived. Regional CBF and CBV values can be obtained by region-of-interest analysis. This review article describes physical basics of DSC MRI and summarizes the literature of DSC MRI in neurooncological issues. Studies, all with relatively limited patient numbers, report that DSC MRI is useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gliomas, CNS-lymphomas, and solitary metastases, as well as in the differentiation of these neoplastic lesions from infections and tumor-like manifestations of demyelinating disease. Additionally, DSC MRI is suitable for determining glioma grade and regions of active tumor growth which should be the target of stereotactic biopsy. After therapy, DSC MRI helps better assessing the tumor response to therapy, residual tumor after therapy, and possible treatment failure and therapy-related complications, such as radiation necrosis. The preliminary results show that DSC MRI is a diagnostic tool depicting regional variations in microvasculature of normal and diseased brains. (orig.) [German] Die MRT-Perfusionsmessungen im Zentralnervensystem (ZNS) werden derzeit hauptsaechlich mit der kontrastmittelverstaerkten T2*-Dynamik durchgefuehrt, die die Passage eines schnellen Kontrastmittelbolus mit einer Serie von T2*-gewichteten MRT-Aufnahmen verfolgt und charakterisiert. Dabei wird der Signalabfall, bedingt durch den Suszeptibilitaetseffekt des paramagnetischen Kontrastmittels, mittels geeigneter

  10. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  11. New constraints for canonical general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenberger, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, E a i , is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of E flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new 'causality condition' forbidding the birth of flux loops might justify the non-invariance of the theory).A fully 4-diffeo invariant canonical theory in Ashtekar's variables, derived from Plebanski's action, is found to have constraints that are stronger than Ashtekar's for rank E< 2. The corresponding Hamiltonian generates births and deaths of E flux loops.It is argued that this implies a finite amplitude for births and deaths of loops in the physical states of quantum GR in the loop representation, thus modifying this (partly defined) theory substantially.Some of the new constraints are second class, leading to difficulties in quantization in the connection representation. This problem might be overcome in a very nice way by transforming to the classical loop variables, or the 'Faraday line' variables of Newman and Rovelli, and then solving the offending constraints.Note that, though motivated by quantum considerations, the present paper is classical in substance. (orig.)

  12. Constraint theory, singular lagrangians and multitemporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1988-01-01

    Singular Lagrangians and constraint theory permeate theoretical physics, as shown by the relevance of gauge theories, string models and general relativity. Their study used finite---dimensional models as a guide to develop the theory, but their main use was in classical field theory, due to the necessity of understanding their quantization. The covariant quantization of singular Lagrangians led to the BRST approach and to the theory of the effective action. On the other hand their phase---space formulation, culminated with the BFV approach for first class, second class and reducible constraints. It, in turn, gave new insights in the theory of singular Lagrangians and constraints and in their cohomological aspects. However the Hamiltonian approach to field theory is highly nontrivial, is open to criticism due to its problems with locality, geometry and manifest covariance and its canonical quantization has still to be developed, because there is no proof of the renormalizability of the Schroedinger representation of field theory. This paper discusses how, notwithstanding these developments, there is still a big amount of ambiguity at every level of the theory

  13. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  14. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  15. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  16. Spin glasses and nonlinear constraints in portfolio optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrecut, M., E-mail: mircea.andrecut@gmail.com

    2014-01-17

    We discuss the portfolio optimization problem with the obligatory deposits constraint. Recently it has been shown that as a consequence of this nonlinear constraint, the solution consists of an exponentially large number of optimal portfolios, completely different from each other, and extremely sensitive to any changes in the input parameters of the problem, making the concept of rational decision making questionable. Here we reformulate the problem using a quadratic obligatory deposits constraint, and we show that from the physics point of view, finding an optimal portfolio amounts to calculating the mean-field magnetizations of a random Ising model with the constraint of a constant magnetization norm. We show that the model reduces to an eigenproblem, with 2N solutions, where N is the number of assets defining the portfolio. Also, in order to illustrate our results, we present a detailed numerical example of a portfolio of several risky common stocks traded on the Nasdaq Market.

  17. Spin glasses and nonlinear constraints in portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrecut, M.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the portfolio optimization problem with the obligatory deposits constraint. Recently it has been shown that as a consequence of this nonlinear constraint, the solution consists of an exponentially large number of optimal portfolios, completely different from each other, and extremely sensitive to any changes in the input parameters of the problem, making the concept of rational decision making questionable. Here we reformulate the problem using a quadratic obligatory deposits constraint, and we show that from the physics point of view, finding an optimal portfolio amounts to calculating the mean-field magnetizations of a random Ising model with the constraint of a constant magnetization norm. We show that the model reduces to an eigenproblem, with 2N solutions, where N is the number of assets defining the portfolio. Also, in order to illustrate our results, we present a detailed numerical example of a portfolio of several risky common stocks traded on the Nasdaq Market.

  18. Machine tongues. X. Constraint languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, D.

    Constraint languages and programming environments will help the designer produce a lucid description of a problem domain, and then of particular situations and problems in it. Early versions of these languages were given descriptions of real world domain constraints, like the operation of electrical and mechanical parts. More recently, the author has automated a vocabulary for describing musical jazz phrases, using constraint language as a jazz improviser. General constraint languages will handle all of these domains. Once the model is in place, the system will connect built-in code fragments and algorithms to answer questions about situations; that is, to help solve problems. Bugs will surface not in code, but in designs themselves. 15 references.

  19. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described

  20. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.