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Sample records for basic metabolic elements

  1. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  2. A finite element primer for beginners the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Zohdi, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this primer is to provide the basics of the Finite Element Method, primarily illustrated through a classical model problem, linearized elasticity. The topics covered are:(1) Weighted residual methods and Galerkin approximations,(2) A model problem for one-dimensional?linear elastostatics,(3) Weak formulations in one dimension,(4) Minimum principles in one dimension,(5) Error estimation in one dimension,(5) Construction of Finite Element basis functions in one dimension,(6) Gaussian Quadrature,(7) Iterative solvers and element by element data structures,(8) A model problem for th

  3. Basic Principles of Betavoltaic Elements and Prospects of their Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Davydov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic technical principles and means of increase in betavoltaitic elements effectiveness have been analyzed by comparing with their closest analogue – photoelectric semiconductor converters. The geometric parameters of radiation sources for these elements and their capacities have been estimated. It is shown the radiation source 63Ni foil thickness should not exceed a few micrometers, and maximum energy conversion efficiency can achieve ~ 16 %.

  4. Complement-Mediated Regulation of Metabolism and Basic Cellular Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christoph; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-08-16

    Complement is well appreciated as a critical arm of innate immunity. It is required for the removal of invading pathogens and works by directly destroying them through the activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, complement activation and function is not confined to the extracellular space but also occurs within cells. Recent work indicates that complement activation regulates key metabolic pathways and thus can impact fundamental cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and autophagy. Newly identified functions of complement include a key role in shaping metabolic reprogramming, which underlies T cell effector differentiation, and a role as a nexus for interactions with other effector systems, in particular the inflammasome and Notch transcription-factor networks. This review focuses on the contributions of complement to basic processes of the cell, in particular the integration of complement with cellular metabolism and the potential implications in infection and other disease settings.

  5. Basic functions of telecommunication channel elements for successful information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in the field of multimedia telecommunications is an attempt to integrate texts, sound, images and videos coherently and consistently and to ensure simplicity and interactivity of operation. In order to make the proposed multimedia applications acceptable to end-users, the quality of transmission through the network and message presentation should have special attention. The main aims of this paper are the introduction to the communication channel with its basic elements, a detailed description of the information source and the presentation of possible approaches to the analysis of the telecommunication channel. Introduction In the age of mass application of various communication means, end-users of telecommunication channel elements rarely pay attention to the processes taking place in everyday communication and the elements presented in the channel. In order to discuss all the factors that influence the establishment and maintenance of the links, this paper will explain the basic elements of telecommunication channels. Source Every object that generates messages to be transferred to a recipient is called the source of the message. Directors, writers, speakers, books, newspapers, various instruments (thermometer, barometer, ammeter, etc., computers, a man himself - these are all sources of various messages. In relation to facilities that generate messages, there are different sources of messages. All the messages that they generate belong to discrete or continuous modes of messages. Discrete messages can be presented with element sets, where elements can be considered through different values of observed messages. Each text message of arbitrary length, for example, is made of a finite number of elements - symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation marks, from the set of symbols called the alphabet message source. Continuous messages can be presented with an infinite number of sets of elements where elements can have different values of

  6. Modularization of genetic elements promotes synthetic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Liu, Duo; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-11-15

    In the context of emerging synthetic biology, metabolic engineering is moving to the next stage powered by new technologies. Systematical modularization of genetic elements makes it more convenient to engineer biological systems for chemical production or other desired purposes. In the past few years, progresses were made in engineering metabolic pathway using synthetic biology tools. Here, we spotlighted the topic of implementation of modularized genetic elements in metabolic engineering. First, we overviewed the principle developed for modularizing genetic elements and then discussed how the genetic modules advanced metabolic engineering studies. Next, we picked up some milestones of engineered metabolic pathway achieved in the past few years. Last, we discussed the rapid raised synthetic biology field of "building a genome" and the potential in metabolic engineering.

  7. Elements of the Cellular Metabolic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Martínez De La Fuente

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have shown the existence of metabolic covalent modifications in different molecular structures, able to store biochemical information that is not encoded by the DNA. Some of these covalent mark patterns can be transmitted across generations (epigenetic changes. Recently, the emergence of Hopfield-like attractor dynamics has been observed in the self-organized enzymatic networks, which have the capacity to store functional catalytic patterns that can be correctly recovered by the specific input stimuli. The Hopfield-like metabolic dynamics are stable and can be maintained as a long-term biochemical memory. In addition, specific molecular information can be transferred from the functional dynamics of the metabolic networks to the enzymatic activity involved in the covalent post-translational modulation so that determined functional memory can be embedded in multiple stable molecular marks. Both the metabolic dynamics governed by Hopfield-type attractors (functional processes and the enzymatic covalent modifications of determined molecules (structural dynamic processes seem to represent the two stages of the dynamical memory of cellular metabolism (metabolic memory. Epigenetic processes appear to be the structural manifestation of this cellular metabolic memory. Here, a new framework for molecular information storage in the cell is presented, which is characterized by two functionally and molecularly interrelated systems: a dynamic, flexible and adaptive system (metabolic memory and an essentially conservative system (genetic memory. The molecular information of both systems seems to coordinate the physiological development of the whole cell.

  8. Basic concepts and principles of stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarleveld, T.R.; Khandelwal, R.A.; Olivier, B.E.; Teusink, B.; Bruggeman, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic networks supply the energy and building blocks for cell growth and maintenance. Cells continuously rewire their metabolic networks in response to changes in environmental conditions to sustain fitness. Studies of the systemic properties of metabolic networks give insight into metabolic pla

  9. 42 CFR 431.974 - Basic elements of Medicaid and CHIP eligibility reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic elements of Medicaid and CHIP eligibility... ADMINISTRATION Requirements for Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.974 Basic elements of Medicaid and CHIP eligibility reviews. (a) General requirements. (1) States selected in any given year...

  10. Derivation of an Efficient Non-Prismatic Thin Curved Beam Element Using Basic Displacement Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and accuracy of the elements proposed by the Finite Element Method (FEM considerably depend on the interpolating functions, namely shape functions, used to formulate the displacement field within an element. In this paper, a new insight is proposed for derivation of elements from a mechanical point of view. Special functions namely Basic Displacement Functions (BDFs are introduced which hold pure structural foundations. Following basic principles of structural mechanics, it is shown that exact shape functions for non-prismatic thin curved beams could be derived in terms of BDFs. Performing a limiting study, it is observed that the new curved beam element successfully becomes the straight Euler-Bernoulli beam element. Carrying out numerical examples, it is shown that the element provides exact static deformations. Finally efficiency of the method in free vibration analysis is verified through several examples. The results are in good agreement with those in the literature.

  11. Microcalorimetric Studies on Thermochemical Characteristics of Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 Aerobic Growth Metabolism in Basic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 高振霆; 王宏; 屈松生

    2001-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor, cycle-flow mode,the thermogenic curve of metabolism of Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 growth at 37°C in basic media was determined.The experimental results indicate that the relationship between cell concentration and power output can be characterized by the equations: C=k'P+a dC/dP0 = KCn, n=1 where P is the power output (μW), C is cell concentration (mg/mL), P0 is the power output produced by the metabolism of one unit of cell (P0=P/0.6C),the order of metabolism n is 1, and k′, a and K are constants which depend on the culture condition and phylogenic state of the cells.These equations are different from those of the non-growth metabolism of resting cells and endogenous mtabolism of cells. For different kinds of metabolism of cells, the order of metabolism, n, is different. For endogenous metabolism,n =0, for growth metabolism, n=1, and for non-growth metabolism of resting cells, n = 2.The equations are general thecal equations for the various different kinds of metabolism of cells.

  12. Experiments and simulation models of a basic computation element of an autonomous molecular computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takinoue, Masahiro; Kiga, Daisuke; Shohda, Koh-Ichiroh; Suyama, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Autonomous DNA computers have been attracting much attention because of their ability to integrate into living cells. Autonomous DNA computers can process information through DNA molecules and their molecular reactions. We have already proposed an idea of an autonomous molecular computer with high computational ability, which is now named Reverse-transcription-and-TRanscription-based Autonomous Computing System (RTRACS). In this study, we first report an experimental demonstration of a basic computation element of RTRACS and a mathematical modeling method for RTRACS. We focus on an AND gate, which produces an output RNA molecule only when two input RNA molecules exist, because it is one of the most basic computation elements in RTRACS. Experimental results demonstrated that the basic computation element worked as designed. In addition, its behaviors were analyzed using a mathematical model describing the molecular reactions of the RTRACS computation elements. A comparison between experiments and simulations confirmed the validity of the mathematical modeling method. This study will accelerate construction of various kinds of computation elements and computational circuits of RTRACS, and thus advance the research on autonomous DNA computers.

  13. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  14. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-12-12

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  15. A VISUAL BASIC program to pre-process MRI data for finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B A; Wang, H

    1996-11-01

    Investigators use non-invasive imaging to collect geometric data for finite element models. A preprocessor is described to facilitate model generation of anatomical regions from serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data stored in a bitmap format. The MRI Data Transfer System is a stand-alone Windows-based program developed in VISUAL BASIC 3.0 which generates a NASTRAN input file. The program can be modified to generate input files for other solvers. The software will executive on any IBM-compatible computer which runs Windows Version 3.1 or higher. To demonstrate the software, model generation of a portion of a tibia is described.

  16. Computer literacy of future teacher of physical culture, as one of basic elements of professional development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available he problem of computer literacy of future teacher of physical culture is examined in the article, as one of basic elements of professional development. The necessity of introduction of multimedia technologies opens up for practice of athletic education, which enables to combine the didactics functions of computer, as teaching facilities, with possibilities of traditional methods of teaching and to renew an educational process information technologies etc Specified, that professional development of future teacher of physical culture must create a new specialist in the field of knowledge „Physical education, sport and health of man" which will be competitive on the European and World labour-markets in the conditions of informatization and computerization of higher education.

  17. Unifying elemental stoichiometry and metabolic theory in predicting species abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, David; Digel, Christoph; Rall, Björn Christian; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Brose, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    While metabolic theory predicts variance in population density within communities depending on population average body masses, the ecological stoichiometry concept relates density variation across communities to varying resource stoichiometry. Using a data set including biomass densities of 4959 pop

  18. Unifying elemental stoichiometry and metabolic theory in predicting species abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, David; Digel, Christoph; Rall, Björn C; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Brose, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    While metabolic theory predicts variance in population density within communities depending on population average body masses, the ecological stoichiometry concept relates density variation across communities to varying resource stoichiometry. Using a data set including biomass densities of 4959 populations of soil invertebrates across 48 forest sites we combined these two frameworks. We analyzed how the scaling of biomass densities with population-averaged body masses systematically interacts with stoichiometric variables. Simplified analyses employing either only body masses or only resource stoichiometry are highly context sensitive and yield variable and often misleading results. Our findings provide strong evidence that analyses of ecological state variables should integrate allometric and stoichiometric variables to explain deviations from predicted allometric scaling and avoid erroneous conclusions. In consequence, our study provides an important step towards unifying two prominent ecological theories, metabolic theory and ecological stoichiometry.

  19. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters.

  20. Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

  1. Best Short Stories. Middle Level. 10 Stories for Young Adults--With Lessons for Teaching the Basic Elements of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raymond

    This workbook contains ten short stories by modern masters aimed at young adult readers, with each story followed by a concise lesson on a basic element of literature (such as plot, setting, or mood) clearly illustrated in the story. Some of the authors represented in the book are John Updike, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Carson McCullers, and Ray…

  2. Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about Science in Terms of the Basic Elements of the Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Ozge Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the pre-service teachers' opinions about science within the context of the basic elements of the education program, such as objectives, content, learning-teaching process and evaluation. The study was designed as a case study, one of the qualitative research methods. The participants of the study…

  3. Interaction of chemical species with biological regulation of the metabolism of essential trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, W. [Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Variations in the chemical speciation of dietary trace elements can result in the provision of different amounts of these micronutrients to the organism and might thus induce interactions with trace-element metabolism. The chemical species of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn can interact with other components of the diet even before reaching the site of absorption, e.g. by formation of poorly soluble complexes with phytic acid. This might considerably modify the amount of metabolically available trace elements; differences between absorptive capacity per se toward dietary species seems to be less important. Homeostasis usually limits the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn transported from the gut into the organism, and differences between dietary species are largely eliminated at this step. There is no homeostatic control of absorption of Se and I, and organisms seem to be passively exposed to influx of these micronutrients irrespective of dietary speciation. Inside the organism the trace elements are usually converted into a metabolically recognizable form, channeled into their biological functions, or submitted to homeostatically controlled excretion. Some dietary species can, however, be absorbed as intact compounds. As long as the respective quantities of trace elements are not released from their carriers, they are not recognized properly by trace element metabolism and might induce tissue accumulation, irrespective of homeostatic control. (orig.)

  4. 78 FR 47180 - Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., or employ temporary workers from private sector temporary or leasing agencies. For purposes of... Service (USPS) in the same manner as any other private sector employer. Therefore, language in the basic... been changed to follow private sector procedures. Records retention: A section of the basic...

  5. Cognitive-graphic method for constructing of hierarchical forms of basic functions of biquadratic finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astionenko, I. O.; Litvinenko, O. I.; Osipova, N. V.; Tuluchenko, G. Ya.; Khomchenko, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    Recently the interpolation bases of the hierarchical type have been used for the problem solving of the approximation of multiple arguments functions (such as in the finite-element method). In this work the cognitive graphical method of constructing of the hierarchical form bases on the serendipity finite elements is suggested, which allowed to get the alternative bases on a biquadratic finite element from the serendipity family without internal knots' inclusion. The cognitive-graphic method allowed to improve the known interpolation procedure of Taylor and to get the modified elements with irregular arrangement of knots. The proposed procedures are universal and are spread in the area of finite-elements.

  6. Sinks as integrative elements of the anthropogenic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Brunner, Paul H.

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic metabolism is an open system requiring exchange of materials and energy between the anthroposphere and the environment. Material and energy flows are taken from nature and become utilized by men. After utilization, the materials either remain in the anthroposphere as recycling products, or they leave the anthroposphere as waste and emission flows. To accommodate these materials without jeopardizing human and environmental health, limited natural sinks are available; thus, man-made sinks have to be provided where natural sinks are missing or overloaded. The oral presentation (1) suggests a coherent definition of the term "sink", encompassing natural and man-made processes, (2) presents a framework to analyse and evaluate anthropogenic material flows to sinks, based on the tool substance flow analysis and impact assessment methodology, and (3) applies the framework in a case study approach for selected substances such as Copper and Lead in Vienna and Perfluorooctane sulfonate in Switzerland. Finally, the numeric results are aggregated in terms of a new indicator that specifies on a regional scale which fractions of anthropogenic material flows to sinks are acceptable. The following results are obtained: In Vienna, 99% of Cu flows to natural and man-made sinks are in accordance with accepted standards. However, the 0.7% of Cu entering urban soils and the 0.3% entering receiving waters surpass the acceptable level. In the case of Pb, 92% of all flows into sinks prove to be acceptable, but 8% are disposed of in local landfills with limited capacity. For PFOS, 96% of all flows into sinks are acceptable. 4% cannot be evaluated due to a lack of normative criteria, despite posing a risk for human health and the environment. The case studies corroborate the need and constraints of sinks to accommodate inevitable anthropogenic material flows.

  7. Fluorescent sensors for the basic metabolic panel enable measurement with a smart phone device over the physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awqatty, Becker; Samaddar, Shayak; Cash, Kevin J; Clark, Heather A; Dubach, J Matthew

    2014-10-21

    The advanced functionality of portable devices such as smart phones provides the necessary hardware to potentially perform complex diagnostic measurements in any setting. Recent research and development have utilized cameras and data acquisition properties of smart phones to create diagnostic approaches for a variety of diseases or pollutants. However, in concentration measurements, such as blood glucose, the performance of handheld diagnostic devices depends largely on the sensing mechanism. To expand measurements to multiple components, often necessary in medical tests, with a single diagnostic device, robust platform based sensors are needed. Here, we developed a suite of dual wavelength fluorescent sensors with response characteristics necessary to measure each component of a basic metabolic panel, a common clinical measurement. Furthermore, the response of these sensors could be measured with a simple optical setup to convert a smart phone into a fluorescence measurement instrument. This approach could be used as a mobile basic metabolic panel measurement system for point of care diagnostics.

  8. Strength and independence of associations between ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin in stimulating basic functions to energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda A. Nour; Amel L. El Sawaf; Samia M. Elewa; Yosria El Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effect of diet composition on the fat regulating hormones and its possible interaction with insulin is necessary to fully understand the mechanisms by which the body controls feed intake. Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin with respect to diet composition. Fasting and refeeding represent a natural challenge for stimulating basic functions to energy metabolism. Methods: The present study ...

  9. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  10. Changes of basic metabolic elements in ossification and degeneration of the ligamentum flavum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhe; ZHANG Jun-hua; WANG Quan-ping; YUAN Zhi; GAO Shuang-bin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the ossification and degeneration of the ligamentum flavum, we compared the changes of Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Cuprum (Cu), Manganese (Mn),Molybdenum (Mo) and Fluoride(F) in the ligamentum flavum and sera between patients with OLF and those with lumbar stenosis. Methods: The contents of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo and fluoride in the ligamentum flavum and sera were detected by using atomic absorption, phosphomlybdic blue method and fluoride selected electrode. Results: There were similar changes of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Mo in the ligaments and sera between ossification and degeneration of the ligamentum flavum, and fluoride was obviously higher in the ligamentum flavum of OLF. Conclusion: It is suggested that there is a tendency from degeneration to ossification of the ligamentum flavum, and fluoride plays an important role in the early stage of the process of the OLF.

  11. Basic and applied uses of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Palsson, Bernhard; Feist, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The genome-scale model (GEM) of metabolism in the bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 has been in development for over a decade and is now in wide use. GEM-enabled studies of E. coli have been primarily focused on six applications: (1) metabolic engineering, (2) model-driven discovery, (3) prediction...... of cellular phenotypes, (4) analysis of biological network properties, (5) studies of evolutionary processes, and (6) models of interspecies interactions. In this review, we provide an overview of these applications along with a critical assessment of their successes and limitations, and a perspective...... on likely future developments in the field. Taken together, the studies performed over the past decade have established a genome-scale mechanistic understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships in E. coli metabolism that forms the basis for similar efforts for other microbial species. Future challenges...

  12. Radiative transfer with finite elements. Pt. 1. Basic method and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richling, S. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik; Meinkoehn, E. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik; Kryzhevoi, N. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik]|[Heidelberg Univ. (DE). Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (IWR); Kanschat, G. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik]|[Heidelberg Univ. (DE). Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (IWR)

    2001-10-01

    A finite element method for solving the monochromatic radiation transfer equation including scattering in three dimensions is presented. The algorithm employs unstructured grids which are adaptively refined. Adaptivity as well as ordinate parallelization reduce memory requirements and execution time and make it possible to calculate the radiation field across several length scales for objects with strong opacity gradients. An a posteriori error estimate for one particular quantity is obtained by solving the dual problem. The application to a sample of test problems reveals the properties of the implementation. (orig.)

  13. The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Iizuka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase, fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase, and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase. ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp−/− mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome.

  14. Design of amphoteric mixed oxides of zinc and Group 3 elements (Al, Ga, In): migration effects on basic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki-Berrada, Adrien; Grondin, Didier; Bennici, Simona; Auroux, Aline

    2012-03-28

    The design of new amphoteric catalysts is of great interest for several industrial processes, especially those covering dehydration and dehydrogenation phenomena. Adsorption microcalorimetry was used to monitor the design of mixed oxides of zinc with Group 3 elements (aluminium, gallium, indium) with amphoteric character and enhanced specific surface area. Acid-base features were found to evolve non-linearly with the relative amounts of metal, and the strengths of the created acidic or basic sites were measured by adsorption microcalorimetry. A panel of bifunctional catalysts of various acid-base (amounts, strengths) and redox character was obtained. Besides, special interest was given to In-Zn mixed oxides for their enhanced basicity: this series of catalysts displays important basic features of high strength (q(diff) (SO₂ ads.) > 200 kJ mol(SO₂)⁻¹ in substantial amounts (1 - 2 μmol m(catalyst)⁻²), whose impact on efficiency or selectivity in catalytic dehydration/dehydrogenation can be valuable.

  15. The Metabolic Core and Catalytic Switches Are Fundamental Elements in the Self-Regulation of the Systemic Metabolic Structure of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.; Perez-Pinilla, Martin B.; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Vicente; Veguillas, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a metabolic core formed by a set of enzymatic reactions which are always active under all environmental conditions, while the rest of catalytic processes are only intermittently active. The reactions of the metabolic core are essential for biomass formation and to assure optimal metabolic performance. The on-off catalytic reactions and the metabolic core are essential elements of a Systemic Metabolic Structure which seems to be a key feature common to all cellular organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to investigate the functional importance of the metabolic core we have studied different catalytic patterns of a dissipative metabolic network under different external conditions. The emerging biochemical data have been analysed using information-based dynamic tools, such as Pearson's correlation and Transfer Entropy (which measures effective functionality). Our results show that a functional structure of effective connectivity emerges which is dynamical and characterized by significant variations of bio-molecular information flows. Conclusions/Significance We have quantified essential aspects of the metabolic core functionality. The always active enzymatic reactions form a hub –with a high degree of effective connectivity- exhibiting a wide range of functional information values being able to act either as a source or as a sink of bio-molecular causal interactions. Likewise, we have found that the metabolic core is an essential part of an emergent functional structure characterized by catalytic modules and metabolic switches which allow critical transitions in enzymatic activity. Both, the metabolic core and the catalytic switches in which also intermittently-active enzymes are involved seem to be fundamental elements in the self-regulation of the Systemic

  16. Polyhydroxyalknoate synthesis in plants as a tool for biotechnology and basic studies of lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Yves

    2002-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyacids naturally synthesized in bacteria as a carbon reserve. PHAs have properties of biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers and their synthesis in crop plants is seen as an attractive system for the sustained production of large amounts of polymers at low cost. A variety of PHAs having different physical properties have now been synthesized in a number of transgenic plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, rape and corn. This has been accomplished through the creation of novel metabolic pathways either in the cytoplasm, plastid or peroxisome of plant cells. Beyond its impact in biotechnology, PHA production in plants can also be used to study some fundamental aspects of plant metabolism. Synthesis of PHA can be used both as an indicator and a modulator of the carbon flux to pathways competing for common substrates, such as acetyl-coenzyme A in fatty acid biosynthesis or 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A in fatty acid degradation. Synthesis of PHAs in plant peroxisome has been used to demonstrate changes in the flux of fatty acids to the beta-oxidation cycle in transgenic plants and mutants affected in lipid biosynthesis, as well as to study the pathway of degradation of unusual fatty acids.

  17. Organic Circuits and Their Basic Elements%有机电路及其基本元器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓舟; 江浪; 董焕丽; 李晶泽; 胡文平

    2012-01-01

    半导体电路及其元器件是实现现代信息传递的重要组成部分,随着无机电路特别是硅基电路的研究发展进入瓶颈,有机电路及其基本元器件的研究对于电路及系统的未来发展意义更加重大。近十年来,有机电路及其基本元器件取得了飞速的发展,多种基本元件器性能已经达到可应用程度,特别是在显示领域,基于有机半导体制备的OLED显示电路已经成为新一代显示器的选择。同时,有机电路也因其所具有的低成本、可弯折、高透光等特性而具有了更多的发展空间。本综述从构成有机电路的各基本部件出发,以各部分器件在电路系统中的应用为线索,从系统信息采集、信息处理、信息存储和信息输出4个方面简述了各部分基础元件的发展情况,并以基于有机场效应晶体管的器件为基础,对器件的结构、电性能的优化以及所面临的问题进行了讨论。%Semiconductor circuits and their components play very important roles in the modern information society. However, silicon-based inorganic circuit will face the development bottleneck. Organic circuit has been considered as the potential candidate for next generation circuit due to its low cost, high transmittance and wide applications on the flexible substrates. Significant progress has been made on the organic circuits and their basic elements in the past few years. Moreover, some basic elements have already been put into practical applications. For example, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has been shown as a new choice for the next generation display technique. In this review, we focus on the recent development of the system-level circuits, where the basic elements are classified into four types according to the functional properties, i. e., information collection, information processing, information storage and information output. We summarize the recent important advances in the

  18. Representation of the quantum Fourier transform on multilevel basic elements by a sequence of selective rotation operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, A. S.; Zobov, V. E.

    2007-12-01

    To experimentally realize quantum computations on d-level basic elements (qudits) at d > 2, it is necessary to develop schemes for the technical realization of elementary logical operators. We have found sequences of selective rotation operators that represent the operators of the quantum Fourier transform (Walsh-Hadamard matrices) for d = 3-10. For the prime numbers 3, 5, and 7, the well-known method of linear algebra is applied, whereas, for the factorable numbers 6, 9, and 10, the representation of virtual spins is used (which we previously applied for d = 4, 8). Selective rotations can be realized, for example, by means of pulses of an RF magnetic field for systems of quadrupole nuclei or laser pulses for atoms and ions in traps.

  19. Virtual cellular manufacturing system based on resource element approach and analyzing its performance over different basic layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Esmaeilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present how choosing a suitable layout can improve the performance of virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMSs, especially minimizing the material flow between machines required by each family group. To present the efficacy of basic layouts on performances of VCMSs, a multi-objective mathematical model with a goal programming (GP approach is developed to generate VCMSs based on resource-elements (REs. The formulated model is coded in Lingo software and is run over functional and distributed arrangements of the same machines. The performance and the validity of the developed model are checked by a numerical example taken from the literature. The objective function of the mathematical model is measured for that example over two mentioned layout to compare the performance of the generated systems. Moreover, because of the material handling costs importance, material flows are measured to find the best option as a basic layout for VCMSs. To compare the performance of the generated system with the classical cellular manufacturing system (CMS, cell capacity utilization (CCU is employed as an independent criterion to evaluate each system. The result illustrates the priority of distributed layouts for generating RE-based VCMSs because of its flexibility, minimizing the objective function for the mathematical model, and smaller material flow by the components. In addition, the generated VCMSs outperforms the classical CMS from the CCU point of view.

  20. Basic Finite Element Analysis of Para-periodontal Ligament in All-ceramic Zirconia Fixed Partial Denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Syuntaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Sato, Toru; Yotsuya, Mamoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of incorporating a para-periodontal ligament in the test mold used in a basic fracture test of a zirconia all-ceramic fixed partial denture (FPD). A simplified three-dimensional finite element analysis model was designed based on the three-unit FPD fracture test. Two types of model, one with and one without a para-periodontal ligament between the abutment and base mold, were fabricated. Microfocus CT of the missing first molar area in a dry human mandible was performed. A three-dimensional model was then fabricated based on the data obtained. A load of 600 N was applied to the center of the pontic and stress distribution observed. The model with the para-periodontal ligament showed stress dispersion to the dental root with rotation of the abutment mold. Stress distribution in the finite element analysis model with a para-periodontal ligament showed greater similarity with that in the mandibular model than with that in the other two models without a para-periodontal ligament.

  1. [Therapy for systemic metabolic disorders based on the detection of basic corneal landmarks in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, W; Pitz, S; Geerling, G

    2013-06-01

    Many systemic lysosomal storage disorders show basic corneal opacities already in childhood. The lysosome is a cell organelle, produced by Golgi's apparatus, that is surrounded by a membrane and contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down food molecules, especially proteins and other complex molecules. The ophthalmologist's precise diagnosis of corneal clouding at the slit-lamp may reveal the correct interpretation of the specific lysosomal storage disorder. It is very important to diagnose such diseases as soon as possible because today the development of systemic enzymatic therapies has broadened the therapeutic armamentarium for the current standard of care. The following corneal landmarks of systemic storage diseases and of the modern systemic therapy are presented: cornea verticillata in Fabry's disease, periodic infusion of alpha-galactosidase a; Kayser-Fleischer's ring in Wilson's disease, zinc, trienetin, low copper diet; multiple, punctiform crystals in cystinosis, cysteamine, Raptor RP 103(DR cysteamine) that reduces the cytotoxity in form of continous dissolving of cystine from lysosome, renal transplantation, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; peripheral ring, but not true lipid arc, and moderate stromal haze in LCAT-deficiency, injection of recombinant enzyme or of encapsulated LCAT-secreting cells; diffuse stromal haze in mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). Enzyme replacement therapy is currently indicated for MPS I, MPS II, and MPS VI, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; painful, bilateral pseudo-dendritic opacities in tyrosinemia type II (eponym: Richner-Hanhart syndrome), low phenylalanine and tyrosine diet result in complete disappearance of corneal alterations with a consecutive painfree period. Strict diet during the whole life is necessary to prevent corneal recurrences and the occurrence of palmo-plantar keratoses. Such therapies can enable the patient to lead an otherwise normal life for decades.

  2. 碳排放权交易体系的基本要素%Basic Elements of Emissions Trading Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段茂盛; 庞韬

    2013-01-01

    Based on the review of emissions trading theory and the practices, 15 basic elements are identified for an emissions trading scheme (ETS) , including legal basis, emissions cap, coverage and scope, allowance allocation, emissions monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), compliance mechanism, compliance period and trading phase, registry, market supervision, participation of financial institutions, trading platform, market intervention mechanism, taxes and fees, banking, linking, and offset mechanism. These elements are divided into 4 categories; legal basis, basic framework design, institutional arrangement as well as adjustment policies and measures. The meanings of these elements are explained, and relevant practices and underlying considerations in the major existing schemes are briefly analyzed. Some initial suggestions have been put forward on ETS in China, based on China' s special circumstances. Legal system should be developed in coordination and parallel with the design of ETS and they should be mutually supportive. Design of the basic framework should give full consideration of issues such as rapid development of China's economy, regional and sectoral imbalances, strict control on relevant sectors, etc. Regarding institutional arrangement, attention should be given to exiting administrative system, market demand and clear responsibility division. Adjustment policies and measures should be developed on the basis of policy needs, without over complicating the system.%通过对碳排放权交易的理论和各国实践的调研和分析,本文从法律基础、基本框架设计、相关机构安排和调控政策四个方面分析了建立碳排放权交易体系(Emissions Trading Scheme,ETS)的15个基本要素,分别是法律基础,体系的排放上限目标,体系的覆盖范围,配额的初始分配,覆盖对象的排放量监测、报告与核查,遵约机制,遵约期和交易期的确定,登记注册系统,市场监管,金融机构的参与,

  3. Effects of rare earth elements on growth and metabolism of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements (REEs are a set of 17 chemical elements. They include the lanthanide series from lanthanum (La to lutetium (Lu, scandium (Sc, and yttrium (Y in the periodic table. Although REEs are used widely in industry and agriculture in China for a long time, there has been increasing interest in application of REEs to medicinal plants in recent years. In this paper, we summarize researches in the past few decades regarding the effects of REEs on the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, total biomass, and the production of its secondary metabolites, as well as their effects on the absorption of minerals and metals by medicinal plants. By compilation and analysis of these data, we found that REEs have promoting effects at low concentrations and negative effects at comparatively high concentrations. However, most studies focused only on a few REEs, i.e., La, cerium (Ce, neodymium (Nd and europium (Eu, and they made main emphasis on their effects on regulation of secondary metabolism in tissue-cultured plants, rather than cultivated medicinal plants. Advanced research should be invested regarding on the effects of REEs on yields of cultivated plants, specifically medicinal plants.

  4. Effect of nocturnal exhaustion exercise on the metabolism of selected elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patlar Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine how exercise performed until fatigue at night affects element distribution in the serum. The study examined 10 healthy sedentary males who were not actively engaged in any particular sport and whose mean age was 23.00±0.25 years, mean height 177.79±2.25 cm, and mean weight 70.70±1.63 kg. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at midnight twice: during rest before exercise and after exercise. Serum phosphorus, sodium, potassium, sulfur (mmol/L, cobalt, boron, cadmium, chrome, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, copper, iron, zinc and calcium levels (mg/L were measured using atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Exhaustion exercise performed at night brought about a decrease in copper levels only (p<0.05, while elevating levels of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, manganese, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, chrome, cobalt, lead and cadmium (p<0.05. The results of the study demonstrate that nighttime exercise until exhaustion significantly alters element metabolism.

  5. Comparative analysis of RNA regulatory elements of amino acid metabolism genes in Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formation of alternative structures in mRNA in response to external stimuli, either direct or mediated by proteins or other RNAs, is a major mechanism of regulation of gene expression in bacteria. This mechanism has been studied in detail using experimental and computational approaches in proteobacteria and Firmicutes, but not in other groups of bacteria. Results Comparative analysis of amino acid biosynthesis operons in Actinobacteria resulted in identification of conserved regions upstream of several operons. Classical attenuators were predicted upstream of trp operons in Corynebacterium spp. and Streptomyces spp., and trpS and leuS genes in some Streptomyces spp. Candidate leader peptides with terminators were observed upstream of ilvB genes in Corynebacterium spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Streptomyces spp. Candidate leader peptides without obvious terminators were found upstream of cys operons in Mycobacterium spp. and several other species. A conserved pseudoknot (named LEU element was identified upstream of leuA operons in most Actinobacteria. Finally, T-boxes likely involved in the regulation of translation initiation were observed upstream of ileS genes from several Actinobacteria. Conclusion The metabolism of tryptophan, cysteine and leucine in Actinobacteria seems to be regulated on the RNA level. In some cases the mechanism is classical attenuation, but in many cases some components of attenuators are missing. The most interesting case seems to be the leuA operon preceded by the LEU element that may fold into a conserved pseudoknot or an alternative structure. A LEU element has been observed in a transposase gene from Bifidobacterium longum, but it is not conserved in genes encoding closely related transposases despite a very high level of protein similarity. One possibility is that the regulatory region of the leuA has been co-opted from some element involved in transposition. Analysis of phylogenetic patterns

  6. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential.

  7. The basic mechanisms the influence of metabolic syndrome on the risk and prognosis of breast cancer (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Schepotin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer and metabolic syndrome remains one of the most urgent problems of modern medicine worldwide. In this review, highlights the molecular pathways that underlie the negative impact of metabolic syndrome on the risk and prognosis of breast cancer. A better understanding of these pathways will help to optimize prevention and treatment of breast cancer in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Complementary use of molecular and element-specific mass spectrometry for identification of selenium compounds related to human selenium metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stuerup, Stefan; Hansen, Helle R. [University of Copenhagen, Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of analytical data on the identification of selenium compounds in biological samples with relevance for selenium metabolism. Only studies applying the combination of element-specific inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as well as molecular electrospray mass spectrometry detection have been included. Hence, selenium compounds are only considered identified if molecular mass spectra obtained by analysis of the authentic biological sample have been provided. Selenium compounds identified in selenium-accumulating plants and yeast are included, as extracts from such plants and yeast have been widely used for examination of the cancer-preventive effect of selenium in cell lines, animal models and human intervention trials. Hence, these selenium compounds are available for absorption and further metabolism. Identification of selenium metabolites in simulated gastric and intestinal juice, intestinal epithelial tissue, liver and urine is described. Hence, selenium metabolites identified in relation to absorption, metabolism and excretion are included. (orig.)

  9. The effect of trace elements on the metabolism of methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth and metabolism of anaerobic microorganisms, duo to their roles in key enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways. The requirement of trace metals has been recognized. But, proper dosing of these metals in anaerobic treatment system as nutrient still is a gre

  10. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  11. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... teaching first aid, and the recipients of first aid training. General Program Elements A. Teaching Methods..., breathing, and circulation assessments as well as the presence of any bleeding. 3. The techniques and... blood soaked material. 6. The appropriate management of blood spills. G. First Aid Supplies The...

  12. Elevated trace element concentrations and standard metabolic rate in banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) exposed to coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Rowe, C.L.; Congdon, J.D. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Trace element concentrations in banded water snakes, Nerodia fasciata, and representative prey items from a site polluted by coal combustion wastes were compared with concentrations in conspecifics from a nearby reference site. Water snakes accumulated high concentrations of trace elements, especially arsenic (As) and selenium (Se), in the polluted habitat. In addition to being exposed to contaminants in water and sediments, snakes in the polluted site are exposed to contaminants by ingesting prey items that have elevated whole-body concentrations of trace elements, including As, cadmium (Cd), and Se. Snakes from the polluted site exhibited mean standard metabolic rates (SMR) 32% higher than snakes from the reference site. As a result, snakes from the polluted site appear to have elevated allocation of energy to maintenance and theoretically should have less energy available for growth, reproduction, and storage. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to coal ash-derived trace elements and the resultant accumulation of some elements are responsible for observed increases in SMR.

  13. The Basic Elements of Interactive Mathematics Classroom Teaching%交互式数学课堂教学的基本要素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂东明

    2011-01-01

    The scientific analysis and argumentation for the basic elements of interactive mathematics classroom teaching is not only a basic task for the study on interactive mathematics classroom teaching, but also a prerequisite and basis for the effective implementation of interactive mathematics classroom teaching. The element of interactive mathematics classroom teaching re- fers to the factors which has decisive and substantive role to the existence and development of the interactive mathematics class- room teaching. There are two elements of the interactive mathematics classroom teaching: subject element and object element. The subject element includes teachers and students and the object element includes the contents of the mathematics teaching, the instant information in the process of the mathematics classroom teaching, the tacit knowledge and the material conditions of the mathematics classroom teaching.%对交互式数学课堂教学的基本要素进行科学的分析和论证,既是研究交互式数学课堂教学的一项基本任务,也是有效实施交互式数学课堂教学的前提和基础。交互式数学课堂教学的要素是指对交互式数学课堂教学的存在和发展起决定性、实质性作用的因素。交互式数学课堂教学的基本要素有两种:主体要素和客体要素。其中主体要素包括教师和学生,客体要素包括数学教学内容、数学课堂教学过程中的即时信息、数学课堂中的缄默知识和数学课堂教学的物质条件。

  14. Modelling of URM Walls Retrofitted with Cable:A Comparison Between a Basic Mechanical Model and Distinct Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUGE Yan; CHUANG Shihwei

    2006-01-01

    The Australian love of "heritage" buildings (most of them are unreinforced masonry (URM)) means that greater attention is required to secure their performance under seismic or impact loading in the future.A research project has been carried out to develop a new,economic and high strength retrofitting technique for masonry structures.A series of experimental testing on URM walls retrofitted with an innovative technique by cable system have been conducted.In this paper,an analytical model which is based on distinct element method(DEM) is developed to simulate the behaviour of retrofitted walls.In DEM,a solid is represented as an assembly of discrete blocks.Joints are modelled as interface between distinct bodies.It is a dynamic process and specially designed to model the behaviour of discontinuities.In order to assist the practising engineers to design this new retrofitted wall system,a simple mechanical model was also developed to predict the strength of the retrofitted walls.The results obtained from this simple mechanical model are compared with those from both experiments and distinct element model.

  15. Basic Program Elements for Federal employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and related matters; Subpart I for Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    OSHA is issuing a final rule amending the Basic Program Elements to require Federal agencies to submit their occupational injury and illness recordkeeping information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and OSHA on an annual basis. The information, which is already required to be created and maintained by Federal agencies, will be used by BLS to aggregate injury and illness information throughout the Federal government. OSHA will use the information to identify Federal establishments with high incidence rates for targeted inspection, and assist in determining the most effective safety and health training for Federal employees. The final rule also interprets several existing basic program elements in our regulations to clarify requirements applicable to Federal agencies, amends the date when Federal agencies must submit to the Secretary of Labor their annual report on occupational safety and health programs, amends the date when the Secretary of Labor must submit to the President the annual report on Federal agency safety and health, and clarifies that Federal agencies must include uncompensated volunteers when reporting and recording occupational injuries and illnesses.

  16. Two dimensional finite element method for metabolic effect in thermoregulation on human males and females skin layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SaraswatiAcharya; Dil Bahadur Gurung; Vinod Prakash Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To deal the implication of metabolic reaction relying on dermal thicknesses of males and females for temperature distribution on the layers of dermal part at various atmospheric temperatures. Methods: The mathematical model involving bioheat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. Initially, human dermal region under consideration is divided into six parts: stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, papillary region, reticular region, fatty layer and muscle part of subcutaneous tissue. Pennes bioheat equation is used considering the suitable physical and physiological parameters that affect the heat regulation in the layers. Computer simulation has been used for numerical results and graph of the temperatures profiles. Results: Lower percentage of muscle mass and higher percentage of adipose tissue in subcutaneous part of females result lower metabolic rate compared to males. Metabolism is considered as a heat source within the body tissue. The study delineates that when the metabolic heat generation S increases, body temperature rises and when S decreases, it goes down. In higher ambient temperature T∞ effect of S is lower as compared to lower T∞. Conclusions: Males and females would differ in their physiological responses in temperature distribution due to differences in metabolic heat production between genders. The thinner layers of males lead to higher values of skin temperature than thicker layer of females. Thickness plays a significant role in temperature distributions in human males and females body. Current understanding of human thermoregulation is based on male patterns; studies on women are still relatively rare and involve only small number of subjects. So it is still necessary for micro level study for temperature distribution model on the dermal layers of males and females.

  17. Two dimensional finite element method for metabolic effect in thermoregulation on human males and females skin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswati Acharya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal the implication of metabolic reaction relying on dermal thicknesses of males and females for temperature distribution on the layers of dermal part at various atmospheric temperatures. Methods: The mathematical model involving bioheat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. Initially, human dermal region under consideration is divided into six parts: stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, papillary region, reticular region, fatty layer and muscle part of subcutaneous tissue. Pennes bioheat equation is used considering the suitable physical and physiological parameters that affect the heat regulation in the layers. Computer simulation has been used for numerical results and graph of the temperatures profiles. Results: Lower percentage of muscle mass and higher percentage of adipose tissue in subcutaneous part of females result lower metabolic rate compared to males. Metabolism is considered as a heat source within the body tissue. The study delineates that when the metabolic heat generation S increases, body temperature rises and when S decreases, it goes down. In higher ambient temperature T∞ effect of S is lower as compared to lower T∞. Conclusions: Males and females would differ in their physiological responses in temperature distribution due to differences in metabolic heat production between genders. The thinner layers of males lead to higher values of skin temperature than thicker layer of females. Thickness plays a significant role in temperature distributions in human males and females body. Current understanding of human thermoregulation is based on male patterns; studies on women are still relatively rare and involve only small number of subjects. So it is still necessary for micro level study for temperature distribution model on the dermal layers of males and females.

  18. Discussion on Basic Elements of National Geographic Condition Survey%浅谈地理国情普查基本要素内容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冬; 龚伟

    2013-01-01

    Geographic condition is an important part of the basic national conditions.Through the development of the major geographic conditions,natural geographic information and national census survey,national geographic condition can be fully captured to grasp the basic elements of China geographic conditions,natural land cover,ecological,and human activities.The paper analyses the spatial distribution,basic features and their relationship,and lays the foundation for the normalization of the geographic condition monitoring.%地理国情是基本国情的重要组成部分,通过开展这项重大的地理国情普查、自然地理信息与国力调查,可以全面获取地理国情信息,掌握我国地理国情基本要素、自然地表覆盖、生态及人类活动基本情况,分析空间分布、基本特征及其相互关系,为开展常态化地理国情监测奠定基础.

  19. Evaluation of Serum Trace Element Levels and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Erfan; Qujeq, Durdi; Taheri, Hassan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-11-18

    The relationship of minerals and trace elements with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex. Alterations in their metabolism can be induced by the diseases and their complications. To study the role of trace elements in IBD patients' serum zinc and copper and their related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity were measured in patients with IBD patients as well as in healthy subjects. In addition, the correlation between serum trace element levels, albumin, total protein, urea level, copper/zinc ratio, and disease activity (DA) was determined in these subjects. Serum samples were obtained from 35 patients (19 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 16 Crohn's disease (CD)) in the active phase of the disease and 30 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of zinc, copper, SOD activity, albumin, total protein, and urea were measured. The results were compared between the two groups using independent Student's t test in statistical analysis. Serum levels of zinc, SOD activity, albumin, and total protein were significantly lower (P serum urea level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Copper concentrations did not differ between patients with IBD (mean ± SD, 58.8 ± 20.7 μg/d) and controls (55.57 ± 12.6 μg/d). Decreased levels of zinc and SOD activity are associated with increased inflammatory processes indicating inappropriate antioxidant system in patients with IBD. Additionally, lower levels of albumin and total protein with higher level of urea reflect metabolic problems in liver system.

  20. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... acid phenylalanine, needed for normal growth and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to ...

  1. Visual Functions and TraceElement Metabolism in Tobacco-toxic Optic Neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Visual functions and nutrition metabolic characteristics werestudied in 8 subjects(16 eyes)with tobacco-toxic optic neuropathy(TTON).Their visual functions tested by psychophysical and electrophysiologicmethods showed that:1.central vision diminished in 16 eyes,2.dyschromatopsias were found in 14 tested eyes,3.bilateral symmetricalcentral or cecocentral scotomas were the visual field characteristics in allcases,4.PVEP were severe abnormal in 3 spatial frequencies in all cases and56.3% of 15' checkboard ...

  2. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical diagrams for basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks based on log–ratio transformation of major-element data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surendra P Verma; Mirna Guevara; Salil Agrawal

    2006-10-01

    We present five new discriminant function diagrams based on an extensive database representative of basic and ultrabasic rocks from four tectonic settings of island arc, continental rift, ocean-island, and mid-ocean ridge. These diagrams were obtained after loge-transformation of concentration ratios of major-elements – a technique recommended for a correct statistical treatment of compositional data. Higher % success rates (overall values from ∼83 to 97%) were obtained for proposing these new diagrams as compared to those (∼82 to 94%) obtained from the discriminant analysis of the raw major-element concentration data (i.e., without the loge-transformation and without taking ratios of the compositional data, but using exactly the same database to provide an unbiased comparison), suggesting that such a data transformation constitutes a statistically correct and recommended technique. The new diagrams also resulted in less mis-classification of basic and ultrabasic rocks from known tectonic settings than the diagrams obtained from the raw data. The use of these highly successful new discriminant function diagrams is illustrated using Miocene to Recent basic and ultrabasic rocks from three areas of Mexico with complex or controversial tectonic settings (Mexican Volcanic Belt, Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, and Eastern Alkaline Province), as well as older rocks from three areas (Deccan, Malani, and Bastar) of India. Additionally, the major-element data from two ‘known’ continental arc settings are used to show that they are similar to those from the island arc setting. Continental rift setting is inferred for all Mexican cases and for one cratonic area of India (Malani) and an IAB setting for the Bastar craton. The Deccan flood basalt province of India is used to warn against an indiscriminate use of those discrimination diagrams that do not explicitly include the likely setting of the area under evaluation. An Excel template is also provided for an easy

  3. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The BMP checks your blood sugar, calcium, and ... as creatinine to check your kidney function. The CMP includes all of those tests, as well as ...

  4. Functional identification of gene cluster for the aniline metabolic pathway mediated by transposable element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Quanfeng; Takeo Masahiro; LIN Min; CHEN Ming; XU Yuquan; ZHANG Wei; PING Shuzhen; LU Wei; SONG Xianlong; WANG Weiwei; GENG Lizhao

    2005-01-01

    A convenient and widely applicable method has been developed to clone aniline metabolic gene cluster in this study. Three positive recombinant plasmids pDA1, pDB2 and pDB11 were cloned from genomic library of aniline degradation strain AD9. The result of aniline dioxygenase (AD) activity and catechol 2,3-oxygenase (C23O) activity assay showed that pDA1 and pDB11 contain aniline dioxygenase genes and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes, respectively. The sequence analysis of the total 24.7-kb region revealed that this region contains 25 ORFs, of which 17 genes involve metabolism of aniline. In the gene cluster, the first five genes (tadQTA1A2B) and the subsequent gene (tadR1) were predicted to encode a multi-component aniline dioxygenase and a LysR-type regulator, respectively, while the others (tadD1C1D2C2EFGIJKL) were expected to encode meta- cleavage pathway enzymes for catechol degradation. The gene cluster was surrounded by two IS1071 sequences.

  5. METABOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the allele frequencies of genetic variants 373 Ala→Pro and 451 Arg→Gln of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and to explore their potential impacts on serum lipid metabolism. Methods: The genotypes in CETP codon 373 and 451 in 91 German healthy students and 409 an-

  6. Investigation on the Use of the Weakly Basic Polyacrylate Anion-Exchanger Amberlite IRA-68 for Sorption and Separation of Iminodiacetate Complexes of Rare Earth Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the determined affinity series of rare earth element complexes with IMDA for the anion-exchangers, purification of macroquantities of Nd3+ from Y3+, Sm3+ from Ho3+, La3+ from Nd3+ and La3+ from Pr3+ on the weakly basic gel anion-exchanger Amberlite IRA-68 was studied. Using the presented method on 1 L of Amberlite IRA-68 in the acetate form, it is possible to obtain about 240 g Nd2O3 purified from Y2O3. Great difference in affinity of La3+ and Nd3+ as well as Pr3+ complexes for this anion-exchanger in the acetate form indicates the possibility of applying this process for purification of lanthanum on the increased scale. On 1 L of Amberilte IRA-68 in the acetate form it is possible to obtain about 1125 g La2O3 purified from Nd2O3. On the basis of these results it can be assumed that unique properties of polyacrylate anion-exchangers enable their application for separation of rare earth elements.

  7. Lanosterol metabolism and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) expression in male germ cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fon Tacer, Klementina; Kalanj-Bognar, Svjetlana; Waterman, Michael R; Rozman, Damjana

    2003-06-01

    Expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in male germ cells is insensitive to the negative cholesterol feedback regulation, in contrast to cholesterol level-sensitive/sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-dependent gene regulation in somatic cells. The role of sterol regulatory element binding proteins in spermatogenic cells was an enigma until recently, when a soluble, 55kDa cholesterol-insensitive form of SREBP2 (SREBP2gc) was discovered [Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 22 (2002) 8478], being translated from a germ cell-specific SREBP2 mRNA. Our RT-PCR results also show that SREBP2 as well as SREBP1c mRNAs are detectable in prepubertal and postpubertal male germ cells while SREBP1a is not detected. Surprisingly, three SREBP2 immunoreactive proteins (72, 63 and 55kDa), that are not present in mouse liver nuclei, reside in testis nuclei of prepubertal and adult mice. The 55kDa protein is likely SREBP2gc, the other two isoforms are novel. HPLC measurements in liver and testes of fasted prepubertal and postpubertal mice showed no significant difference in cholesterol level. However, FF-MAS and lanosterol/testis-meiosis activating sterol (T-MAS) intermediates that are detectable mainly in testes, increase in fasted postpubertal mice which coincides well with the elevated level of 68kDa SREBP2. Similar to SREBP2gc, the two novel SREBP2 immunoreactive proteins seem to be insensitive to the level of cholesterol.

  8. 谈摄影画面的基本元素与构图%Talk about the Basic Elements and Composition Methods of the Photographic Picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国岭

    2011-01-01

    Photography is the visual arts, photography is the art of creative mental labor. Photography, as an independent art form, has its own rules. The photographers show their pictures and aesthetic effect, they need understand and master the basic elements and the photographic picture composition methods, both for what kind of photography, or as a photography itself, it has very important significance.%摄影是视觉化的造型艺术,摄影艺术是创造性的精神劳动。摄影,作为一门独立的艺术肜式存在,有它自身的规律。摄影者要表现作品的主题思想和美感效果,需要了解和掌握摄影画面的基本元素与构刚方法,无论对于何类摄影,还是作为摄影学本身,都具有非常重要的意义。

  9. SEVERAL ELEMENTS OF THE MULTI-RESOLUTION WAVELET ANALYSIS. Part 1: BASICS OF THE WAVELETS AND THE MULTI-RESOLUTION WAVELET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel Alekseevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Part 1 of this paper represents an introduction into the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The wavelet-based analysis is an exciting new problem-solving tool used by mathematicians, scientists and engineers. In the paper, the authors try to present the fundamental elements of the multi-resolution wavelet analysis in a way that is accessible to an engineer, a scientist and an applied mathematician both as a theoretical approach and as a potential practical method of solving problems (particularly, boundary problems of structural mechanics and mathematical physics. The main goal of the contemporary wavelet research is to generate a set of basic functions (or general expansion functions and transformations that will provide an informative, efficient and useful description of a function or a signal. Another central idea is that of multi-resolution whereby decomposition of a signal represents the resolution of the detail. The multi-resolution decomposition seems to separate components of a signal in a way that is superior to most other methods of analysis, processing or compression. Due to the ability of the discrete wavelet transformation technique to decompose a signal at different independent scaling levels and to do it in a very flexible way, wavelets can be named "the microscopes of mathematics". Indeed, the use of the wavelet analysis and wavelet transformations requires a new point of view and a new method of interpreting representations.

  10. 活动理论视角下协作学习活动的基本要素%The Basic Elements of Collaborative Learning Activity in View of Activity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余亮; 黄荣怀

    2014-01-01

    协作学习活动设计的核心和关键即是对其基本要素的分析和配置。厘清协作学习活动的基本要素,是分析和设计协作学习活动的基础。以活动理论为视角,论述了协作学习活动的要素,并在此基础上建构了协作学习的结构模型,确立了资源、角色、任务和时序四个基本要素。最后,以此四要素为基本框架,比较和分析了四个协作脚本。%The crux of the design of collaborative learning activity is the analysis and allocation of its basic elements. Designing and analyzing the collaborative learning activity is on the basis of clarifying its basic elements. In the paper, the elements of collaborative learning activity in view of activity theory are discussed, on the basis of which the structure model of collaborative learning activity is built. With the ground on the structure model, task, sequence, role and resource as four basic elements of collaborative learning activity are decided on. In the end, four basic elements are taken as the framework to compare and analyze four collaboration scripts.

  11. Construction of QC-LDPC codes based on BIBD and basic blocks elements combination%基于BIBD与基区组元素组合的QC-LDPC码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜; 穆攀; 贾雪婷; 袁建国

    2016-01-01

    为了满足通信系统中对纠错码高纠错能力及低误码率的要求,基于平衡不完全区组设计(BIBD)构造了一种既适用于加性高斯白噪声(AWGNC)和二元删除信道(BEC)的基区组元素组合的准循环低密度奇偶校验(QC-LDPC)码,记为BIBDcom-QC-LDPC.该方法大幅减少了传统构造方法校验矩阵中6,8环的个数.仿真结果表明:在 AWGNC下,当误码率(BER)为1×10-6时,所构造的 BIBDcom-QC-LDPC(6572,6150)码的净编码增益(NCG)比传统方法和循环置换矩阵(CPM)行(列)分解法构造的 QC-LDPC码分别改善了约0.25和0.10 dB.并且在BEC下所构造的 BIBDcom-QC-LDPC(4044,3370)码的性能要优于传统方法和 CPM行(列)分解法构造的 QC-LDPC码.%In order to meet the requirements of the high error correcting capability and low bit error rate of the error-correction code in communication systems,a novel method was presented based on the basic block elements combination of the balanced incomplete block design (BIBD)for constructing quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC)code which is suitable for not only additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGNC)but also binary erasure channel (BEC).It can greatly reduce the number of girth 6 and girth 8 in the parity check matrix from traditional method.The simulation re-sults show that at the bit error rate of 1×10-6 ,the net coding gain (NCG)of constructed BIBDcom-QC-LDPC(6572,6150)code is 0.25 and 0.10 dB more than that of the traditional QC-LDPC codes and the circulant permutation matrices (CPM)row (colunm)decomposition QC-LDPC codes in AWGNC.The constructed BIBDcom-QC-LDPC(4044,3370)codes perform better compared with the traditional QC-LDPC codes and the CPM row(colunm)decomposition QC-LDPC codes over BEC.

  12. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 21: Basic Transistor Theory; Module 21T: Multi-Element Vacuum Tubes. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This set of individualized learning modules on transistor theory is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two modules are included in…

  13. The Influence of Element Diffusion at the Sediment—Water Interface on the Basic Chemical Composition of Overlying Water Mass in Lake Lugu,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丰昌; 万国江; 等

    1996-01-01

    Little work has been done on the influence of seiments on the basic chemical composition of overlying water mass.This paper deals with the vertical profile of the basic constituents such as Ca+,K+,Na+,and HCO3-,as well as of pH in the overlying water mass and sediment porewater of Lake Lugu-a semi-closed,deep lake in Yunnan Province.The reand sediment porewater of Lake Lugu- a semi-closed,deep lake in Yunnan Province.The results revealed that those basic constituents may diffuse and transport from bottom sediments to overlying water mass through porewater.In the paper are also quantitatively evaluated the diffusive fluxes and the extent of their influence on overlying water mass,indicating that the lake sediment-water interface diffusion plays an important role in controlling the basic chemical composition of water in the whole lake.

  14. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  15. Metabolism of /sup 90/Sr and other elements in man, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1977 (extended without additional funding to March 31, 1978) and renewal proposal, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, H.

    1977-01-01

    Trace element studies of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, and nickel were carried out under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males during different calcium intakes. Complete metabolic balances of the trace elements listed above were determined in each 6-day metabolic period for several weeks by analyzing the constant diet and the urinary and fecal excretions of these naturally occurring elements, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Strontium-90 metabolism studies in man were carried out in order to complete previously initiated investigations. Publications and presentations of papers derived from studies carried out during the current contract period are listed.

  16. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  17. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  18. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  19. Application of Optical Basicity in Glasses and Its Relationship with Element Properties%光学碱度在玻璃中的应用及其与元素性质的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐济; 王承遇; 宁桂玲

    2009-01-01

    光学碱度是玻璃酸碱性的尺度,是玻璃结构特性的反映,直接影响玻璃的化学和物理性质.本文介绍了玻璃光学碱度的概念、实验测定和理论计算方法,综合评述了玻璃光学碱度与元素电负性、O~(2-)极化率、O1s结合能之间的变化规律,讨论和分析了参数之间变化的定性趋势和定量方程,总结了玻璃光学碱度的本质及其相关性质,对进一步研究光学碱度在不同玻璃系统中的应用及其变化规律的必要性做出了展望.%Optical basicity is a scale for acidity and basicity, a reflection of structure and has significant effects on chemical and physical properties of glasses. In this paper, the conception, experimental determination and theoretical computations of optical basicity of glasses were introduced. The relationships between optical basicity and electronegativity of elements, polarizability of oxide ion, O1s binding energy in glasses were reviewed. The qualitative and quantitative relationships between optical basicity and other parameters were discussed and analyzed. The nature and dependence parameters of optical basicity were concluded. It was also prospected that the further researches possibly focus on application and the correlations of optical basicity in different glass systems.

  20. Introduction to discrete element methods : basic of contact force models and how to perform the micro-macro transition to continuum theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    One challenge of today's research is the realistic simulation of granular materials, like sand or powders, consisting of millions of particles. In this article, the discrete element method (DEM), as based on molecular dynamics methods, is introduced. Contact models are at the physical basis of DEM.

  1. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  2. 色彩语言基本要素在绘本画面中的应用研究%Study on application of basic elements of color language in picture books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马培培

    2013-01-01

    In all of the paintings, color is an important form of painting language, is a symbol to express emotion, and even can be said to be a carrier of spirit, it is one of the elements of the artistic language. Each color has lightness, hue, and purity of these three basic elements, the basic elements more effectively express the picture of emotion, affect people's appreciation of emotion.%  在所有的绘画作品中,色彩是绘画语言的重要表现形式,是一种表达情感的符号,甚至可以说是一种精神的载体,它是艺术语言的构成要素之一。我们视觉感知到的每一种颜色都具有明度、色相、和纯度这三个基本的要素,这些基本元素的结和更有力地表达了画面情感,影响着人们的欣赏情绪。

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  4. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of selenium following oral administration of elemental selenium nanoparticles or selenite in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Hansen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    A suspension of nanoparticles of BSA-stabilized red amorphous elemental selenium (Se) or an aqueous solution of sodium selenite was repeatedly administered by oral gavage for 28 days at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day (low dose) or at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day (high dose) as Se to female rats. Prior to administration...

  5. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and "normal" brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Spyrou, NM; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element concentrat

  6. Application of IBA to determine the effects of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola) on the elemental metabolism in the rat liver and kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Poor or no antioxidant activity has been implicated in the aetiology of various pathologies. Since antioxidants are mostly derived from natural resources, the search for medicinal plants, that can either cure or alleviate ailments, has been phenomenal over the past decades. One plant, Garcinia kola, the oil of which is termed kolaviron, has been identified to have possible antioxidant activity [1]. Trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se, form an integral part in antioxidant activity, especially in organ metabolism. In this study organ (Iiver and kidney) metabolism of major such as C, O, N, S, and trace elements is investigated. The kolaviron was dissolved in corn oil. Two groups (control and experimental) of Wistar rats were selected. The animals were housed in accordance with the WHO animal regulations. Both groups had ad libitum access to standard rat chow and potable tap water. The control group was fed, by gavage, with 200 microlitre of the solution of kolaviron in com oil once per day for a period of 4 weeks. After this period the animals were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone. The organs were excised and homogenised into smaller parts which were freeze-dried - 80 deg C. The freeze-dried organ was then pulverized and press into a palette. Concentrations of trace elements were determined with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). PIXE was selected since with this technique concentrations down to minimum detection limits (MDLs) of parts per million (ppm) can be determined. A beam of 3 MeV protons was used for bombardment and a Be filter of 125 micrometer thickness for absorption. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) was used to determine the matrix composition. PIXE and BS measurements were determined simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy was used both as complementary and supplementary to PIXE and BS. Statistical tests of p < 0.5 were considered significant. 1] Ogada and Braide (2009) Nig. J. Physio. Sci., vol. 24

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... DNA and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that ... and environmental cues both help to direct this growth. The Changing Brain—Effects of Genes and the ...

  8. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  9. Elements of metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes before and after introduction to insulin analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Baloš Ljiljana; Sajić Silvija; Zdravković Vera

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) in children is characterized by unstable course. A significant number of studies shows that introduction to insulin analogues treatment aims towards better control of the disease. Objective. The assessment of metabolic control in children with T1DM that were introduced to insulin analogue treatment after many years of treatment with classic (human) insulin. Methods. The study included 59 patients 2-19 years old (12.9±3.8) with T1DM, transfer...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  12. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  15. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  16. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  19. Effect of Resveratrol Administration on the Element Metabolism in the Blood and Brain Tissues of Rats Subjected to Acute Swimming Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Arslangil, Dilek; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Patlar, Suleyman

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine how resveratrol administration affects the element metabolism in the blood and brain cortex tissues of rats subjected to an acute swimming exercise. The study was carried out on Wistar-Albino-type adult male rats supplied by the Center. Group 1 is the control group. Group 2 is the swimming control group. Group 3 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) + swimming group. Group 4 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) group. Blood and brain cortex tissues were analyzed for some elements. The acute swimming exercise led to increases in the rats' serum iron, selenium, lead, cobalt, and boron levels, while the resveratrol-swimming group has increases in copper, phosphorus, and calcium values. The brain cortex tissue of the resveratrol-swimming group had significantly higher molybdenum levels than others. The results obtained in the study indicate that acute swimming exercise altered the distribution of elements in the serum to a considerable extent; however, resveratrol's affect is limited. Especially, resveratrol supplementation may have a regulatory affect on serum iron and magnesium levels.

  20. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  1. Phonemes, Graphemes, Dabs of Paint: Roman Jakobson, the Russian avant-garde and the search for the shared basic elements of painting and poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofstede, Bregje

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the supposed affinity between painting and poetry as theorised by the linguist Roman Jakobson who played a crucial role for the Russian avant-garde and its close association of painting and poetry. The paper focuses on Jakobson's relation to the two 1913 manifestos "The Word as Such" and "The Letter as Such", written by the poets Chlebnikov and Kruchenyck, and on Jakobson's own (lost reply. It calls into question the accuracy of Jakobson's claim of having influcenced the poets' manifestos, and describes what Jakobson considered to be the shared 'core elements' of the visual and literary arts. According to him, they share a visuality, not on the level of the written sign or grapheme, but on a deeper level, visible only to the mind's eye.

  2. Elements of metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes before and after introduction to insulin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baloš Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM in children is characterized by unstable course. A significant number of studies shows that introduction to insulin analogues treatment aims towards better control of the disease. Objective. The assessment of metabolic control in children with T1DM that were introduced to insulin analogue treatment after many years of treatment with classic (human insulin. Methods. The study included 59 patients 2-19 years old (12.9±3.8 with T1DM, transferred from treatment with human insulin to insulin analogues treatment. Data were obtained directly from patients and their parents, as well as from medical records. Results. The introduction to insulin analogues treatment, leads to a decrease in the value of glycolized haemoglobin (HbA1c after 6 months (9.27±1.68% vs 8.63±1:26%, p=0.06. Average daily dose of insulin expressed per IU/kg of classic and insulin analogue (1.04±0.38 vs 1.03±0.30; p>0.05, remained almost the same. In 39 examinees (66.1%, 6 months before the introduction to insulin analogue treatment, severe hypoglicemia was registered and 6 months after the introduction to insulin analogue treatment it appeared in only two examinees (3.4% (p<0.001. Ketoacidosis, 6 months before introduction to insulin analogues treatment, appeared in 16 examinees (27.1%, while 6 months after it was not registered (p<0.001. Conclusion. The use of insulin analogue treatment in childhood provides adequate metabolic control and substantially reduces the risk of acute complications (severe hypoglicemia, ketoacidosis.

  3. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  4. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  5. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  6. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  8. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  9. 预算法定原则的起源及其基本构成要素%On the Origin and Basic Elements of Budget Legal Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟继光

    2016-01-01

    Constructing the legal frame of public budget in China should follow the budget legal princi-ple.Modern budget system originated in England along with the establishment of tax legal principle.The United Kingdom constituted a series of acts and established the budget legal principle from the eigh-teenth century to the nineteenth century.The United States began to establish budget system in the twentieth century.The Congress constituted Budget and Accounting Act in 1 921 and the budget legal principle was established in USA.France,the Netherlands,Germany,Finland and other countries began to constitute budget legal principle in their Constitutions from the nineteen century and this is a sign of the establishment of budget principle worldwide.The budget legal principle comprises of three basic ele-ments:budget containing whole finance income and expenses,one year act restricted by Constitution and expense being not contained in budget but established by law.The restriction of Constitutions to budget comprises of adopting the form of law,the power of conducting budget belonging to govern-ment,budget which cannot be the warrant of tax,budget which cannot deprive of the people's legal rights,the term of budget being only one year,budget which should follow the principle of making both ends meet,budget which cannot be the warrant of expense of illegal warrant and budget which should follow technical requirements.The means of Constitutions solving the problem of budget inconsistent with the fact comprise of budget excess,expense in advance and extending the effect of budget.%构建中国公共预算法律框架必须遵循预算法定原则。现代预算制度起源于英国,与税收法定原则同步。从18世纪到19世纪,英国通过一系列法律实现了预算法定原则。美国在其宪法中规定了税收法定原则和财政支出法定原则。美国在20世纪初开始建立预算制度,通过1921年的《预算和会计法》,预算法定

  10. The Basic Elements of Teacher Training Programs Formulation and Implementation and their Relationship Research%教师培训方案制定与实施的基本要素及其关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建

    2016-01-01

    A series of elements are involved in the formulation and implementation of teacher training programs,and they are related to whether the teacher training programs are scientific and ap-propriate, whether the implementation is specific and effective.Two aspects to be taken into account in the basic elements of teacher training programs formulation and implementation.One is to avoid o-verlapping, the other is to point to the nature.Based on the connotation of the elements and the es-tablishing standard, the basic elements of teacher training programs formulation and implementation can be concluded into the following nine aspects of interaction and interrelation: Training needs, Training objects, Training objectives, Training courses, Training teachers, Training methods, Training evaluation, Training comprehensive security management, and Training tracking guidance services.Each factor connects with, influences each other mutually and works together in the teach-er training activities.%本文主要阐述了教师培训方案制定与实施过程中涉及到的要素及其关系。认为确立教师培训方案制定与实施的基本要素必须从两个方面进行考虑:一是必须直指本质;二是避免相互交叉。基于要素的内涵及确立标准,认为教师培训方案制定与实施的基本要素可以概括为九个方面,即培训需求、培训对象、培训目标、培训课程、培训师资、培训方法、培训评估、培训综合保障管理、培训跟踪指导服务。各要素之间是彼此联系,相互影响,共同作用于整个教师培训活动当中。

  11. Signaling elements involved in the metabolic regulation of mTOR by nutrients, incretins, and growth factors in islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Guim; Marshall, Connie A; Pappan, Kirk L; Remedi, Maria S; McDaniel, Michael L

    2004-12-01

    phosphorylation due to a reduction in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. Selective blockade of glucose-stimulated Ca2+ influx unmasked a protein kinase A (PKA)-sensitive component involved in the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores, as revealed with the PKA inhibitor H-89. Overall, these studies support our hypothesis that incretin-derived cAMP participates in the metabolic activation of mTOR by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores that upregulate mitochondrial dehydrogenases and result in enhanced ATP production. ATP can then modulate KATP channels, serve as a substrate for adenylyl cyclase, and possibly directly regulate mTOR activation.

  12. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  13. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  14. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  15. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.

  16. Conflicts in libraries: a basic element?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Inoue, Mary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article specifically detaches the main kinds and causes of conflicts in organizations and in libraries. It presents a conceptual vision of conflict, the types of conflicts, the sources and the techniques of conflict resolution.

    El artículo separa específicamente los clases y las causas principales de conflictos en organizaciones y en bibliotecas. Presenta una visión conceptual del conflicto, de los tipos de conflictos, de las fuentes y de las técnicas de la resolución del conflicto.

  17. Discussion on Basic Elements of the Practical Class"Telecom Power"in Vocational Education%试论高职优质“通信电源”实训课堂的基本要素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈雪红

    2015-01-01

    目前,我国高等职业教育正全面转向内涵建设。课堂作为学校教学组织的基本单元,其教学效果的高低对高职院校内涵建设有着决定性的影响,因此,课堂越来越受到教师的关注。高职“通信电源”课程是移动通信技术专业的一门核心课,其授课质量的高低对人才培养有重要作用。教学目标定位清晰、创设真实的职业环境、融合专业特色、多样化的评价手段、突出学生的主体地位是上好“通信电源”实训课堂的基本要素。%Now, higher vocational education in China is suffering inner construction. A classroom is the basic unit in school and the effi-ciency of classroom education will have a decisive influence on higher vocational colleges' construction. Therefore, more and more teach-ers concentrate on the classroom. "telecom power" in higher vocational education is an important course in the mobile communication technology major and its teaching quality has an important effect on cultivating talents. A good practical class of "telecom power" has many basic elements, such as clear position of teaching goal, real vocational environment, various evaluation methods with professional characteristics, students' outstanding position in class.

  18. 政策议程设置中网民触发模式的基本要素分析%Basic Elements of Netizens’Burst Model in Policy Agenda-Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费久浩

    2015-01-01

    Agenda-setting is the primary step of public policy.The rising of cyber society cre-ates a new model in public policy agenda-setting which is called netizens’burst model.Its basic elements include the igniting of focus event,the activation of common experience,the mobiliza-tion of opinion leaders,the following-up of traditional media and the ratification of decision-mak-ing authorities.The constitutive combination of these elements demonstrates that netizens’burst model possesses inherent attributions which are substantially different with traditional elites-dominant agenda-setting models,and represents a new trend of China’s public policy.%议程设置是公共政策的首要环节,网络社会的异军突起造就了政策议程设置的一种全新模式,即网民触发模式。网民触发模式的基本要素包括焦点事件的引爆、共同体验的激活、意见领袖的动员、传统媒体的跟进和决策当局的认同。这些基本要素的结构性组合表明网民触发模式具有自身的内在规定性,与传统的精英主义议程设置模式表现出本质上的不同,代表了中国公共政策发展的一种新趋势。

  19. Energy-Constrained Recharge, Assimilation, and Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAχFC): A Visual Basic computer code for calculating trace element and isotope variations of open-system magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrson, Wendy A.; Spera, Frank J.

    2007-11-01

    Volcanic and plutonic rocks provide abundant evidence for complex processes that occur in magma storage and transport systems. The fingerprint of these processes, which include fractional crystallization, assimilation, and magma recharge, is captured in petrologic and geochemical characteristics of suites of cogenetic rocks. Quantitatively evaluating the relative contributions of each process requires integration of mass, species, and energy constraints, applied in a self-consistent way. The energy-constrained model Energy-Constrained Recharge, Assimilation, and Fractional Crystallization (EC-RaχFC) tracks the trace element and isotopic evolution of a magmatic system (melt + solids) undergoing simultaneous fractional crystallization, recharge, and assimilation. Mass, thermal, and compositional (trace element and isotope) output is provided for melt in the magma body, cumulates, enclaves, and anatectic (i.e., country rock) melt. Theory of the EC computational method has been presented by Spera and Bohrson (2001, 2002, 2004), and applications to natural systems have been elucidated by Bohrson and Spera (2001, 2003) and Fowler et al. (2004). The purpose of this contribution is to make the final version of the EC-RAχFC computer code available and to provide instructions for code implementation, description of input and output parameters, and estimates of typical values for some input parameters. A brief discussion highlights measures by which the user may evaluate the quality of the output and also provides some guidelines for implementing nonlinear productivity functions. The EC-RAχFC computer code is written in Visual Basic, the programming language of Excel. The code therefore launches in Excel and is compatible with both PC and MAC platforms. The code is available on the authors' Web sites http://magma.geol.ucsb.edu/and http://www.geology.cwu.edu/ecrafc) as well as in the auxiliary material.

  20. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  1. Autophagy research: Lessons from metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Meijer

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy research continues to expand exponentially. Clearly autophagy and metabolism are intimately connected; however, the rapid expansion of research into this topic inevitably brings the risk that important basic knowledge of metabolism will be overlooked when considering experimental data. Unf

  2. Microscope basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides information on how microscopes work and discusses some of the microscope issues to be considered in using a video camera on the microscope. There are two types of microscopes in use today for research in cell biology-the older finite tube-length (typically 160mm mechanical tube length) microscopes and the infinity optics microscopes that are now produced. The objective lens forms a magnified, real image of the specimen at a specific distance from the objective known as the intermediate image plane. All objectives are designed to be used with the specimen at a defined distance from the front lens element of the objective (the working distance) so that the image formed is located at a specific location in the microscope. Infinity optics microscopes differ from the finite tube-length microscopes in that the objectives are designed to project the image of the specimen to infinity and do not, on their own, form a real image of the specimen. Three types of objectives are in common use today-plan achromats, plan apochromats, and plan fluorite lenses. The concept of mounting video cameras on the microscope is also presented in the chapter.

  3. The Hepatitis C Virus-induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activates the Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP) and Regulates Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Steven; Iqbal, Jawed; Sarkar-Dutta, Mehuli; Lane, Samantha; Nagaraj, Abhiram; Ali, Naushad; Waris, Gulam

    2016-02-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) relies on host lipids and lipid droplets for replication and morphogenesis. The accumulation of lipid droplets in infected hepatocytes manifests as hepatosteatosis, a common pathology observed in chronic hepatitis C patients. One way by which HCV promotes the accumulation of intracellular lipids is through enhancing de novo lipogenesis by activating the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). In general, activation of SREBPs occurs during cholesterol depletion. Interestingly, during HCV infection, the activation of SREBPs occurs under normal cholesterol levels, but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Our previous study has demonstrated the activation of the inflammasome complex in HCV-infected human hepatoma cells. In this study, we elucidate the potential link between chronic hepatitis C-associated inflammation and alteration of lipid homeostasis in infected cells. Our results reveal that the HCV-activated NLRP3 inflammasome is required for the up-regulation of lipogenic genes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA against the inflammasome components (NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, and caspase-1), we further show that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role in lipid droplet formation. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HCV-infected cells enables caspase-1-mediated degradation of insulin-induced gene proteins. This subsequently leads to the transport of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein·SREBP complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, followed by proteolytic activation of SREBPs by S1P and S2P in the Golgi. Typically, inflammasome activation leads to viral clearance. Paradoxically, here we demonstrate how HCV exploits the NLRP3 inflammasome to activate SREBPs and host lipid metabolism, leading to liver disease pathogenesis associated with

  4. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 expression in brain is affected by age but not by hormones or metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenjirou; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2006-04-07

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in cellular fatty acid synthesis in the peripheral tissues, including liver. Although SREBP-1 is expressed in brain, little is known about its function. The aim of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat brain under various nutritional and hormonal conditions. In genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, expression of SREBP-1 mRNA was greater in liver than in hypothalamus or cerebrum compared to the lean littermates of these rats. Fasting for 45 h and refeeding for 3 h did not affect expression in brains of Wistar rats of SREBP-1 mRNA or the mRNAs of lipogenic enzymes that are targets of SREBP-1, i.e., fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Infusion of 2.0 mIU insulin or 3.0 microg leptin into the third cerebroventricle did not affect SREBP-1 mRNA expression in either hypothalamus or cerebrum. SREBP-1 mRNA expression in brains of transgenic mice that overexpressed leptin did not differ from that of wild-type mice. However, we observed a unique age-related alteration in SREBP-1 mRNA expression in brains of Sprague-Dawley rats. Specifically, SREBP-1 mRNA expression increased between 1 and 20 months of age, while there was no such change in the expression of FAS or ACC. This raises the possibility that increased SREBP-1 expression secondary to aging-related decline of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) might compensate for the reduction of FAS expression in brain. These findings suggest that the expression of SREBP-1 and downstream lipogenic enzymes in brain is probably not regulated by peripheral nutritional conditions or humoral factors. Aging-related changes in SREBP-1 mRNA expression may be involved in developmental changes in brain lipid metabolism.

  5. The Storage Model of Big Data Basic-elements in HBase Database and Its Realization%大数据基元的HBase数据库存储模型与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桥兴; 强保华; 杨春燕

    2014-01-01

    Big data will have a profound impact on economics , society and life in the near future , and the research on integration and storage of big data may play an important theoretical and practical role in pro-moting and deepening the application scope of big data .It utilized the data storage structure of the dis-tributed file system named as HBase and the basic-element of Extenics to integrate the heterogeneous data sets , and then stored the processed data set in HBase database .The new data set , which was obtained by extracting the typical characteristics as well as their value of data , especially the semi-structured and un-structured data , provides not only a new way for the analysis and interpretation of data but also the re-search ideas and strategy generation for the professional issues from the perspective of big data .%大数据将在未来经济、社会和生活等领域产生深远影响,而大数据的整合存储研究为促进和深化其应用范围有重要的理论和实践意义。本文利用分布式文件系统HBase的数据存储结构特征,采用可拓学基元对异构数据集进行整合处理并存储在HBase数据库。通过提取数据特别是半结构化和非结构化数据的典型特征和属性取值并转换为基元后生成一个新的数据集,不但为数据分析和数据解释提供一种新的实现方式,而且为领域问题的策略生成提供大数据的研究思路和解决方案。

  6. Research on Basic Elements and Theoretical Model of Enterprise Management Innovation%企业管理创新的基本要素与理论模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆园园

    2009-01-01

    Its meaning and value for the enterprise reflect the significant role in the development of enterprise,which is also the meaning and value of the paper.With the reviewing of the literatures on the problem of enterprise management innovation at home and abroad,traditional categorical definition is used to bring forward the definition of management innovation and the analytical framework of concept.With practice of management on twelve "Most Admired Enterprises in China" as an example,the paper uses integrated case studies and KJ method to carry out comparative studies on twelve cases.According to the four key dimensions of the framework,the paper analyses management innovation activities of the twelve enterprises and concludes basic elements of enterprise management innovation.Moreover,it puts forward the theoretical model of enterprise management innovation combining with the theoretical research and cross case-study.The paper concludes by introducing the further research direction of enterprise management innovation.%在分析总结国内外有关企业管理创新问题研究现状的基础上,运用属加种差的方法给出管理创新的定义和概念的分析框架.以12家"中国最受尊敬企业"为例,运用整体性多案例研究方法和KJ法,通过对理论研究和案例研究所得的影响要素进行综合归并,归纳出企业管理创新的基本要素,并结合文献与理论研究和跨案例研究分析提出企业管理创新理论模型.在此基础上,指出了企业管理创新方面进一步研究的方向.

  7. A comparative study in Alzheimer's and normal brains of trace element distribution using PIXE and INA analyses and glucose metabolism by positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Stedman, JD; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    1999-01-01

    The onset of Alzheimer's disease has been shown to affect trace element concentrations in the brain when compared to "normal" subjects in ex vivo samples. The techniques used to determine trace element concentrations were proton-induced X-ray emission and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Wi

  8. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  10. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  11. A positron emission tomography analysis of glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease brain using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose : A parallel study with elemental concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Spyrou, NM; Maguire, RP; Stedman, JD; Leenders, KL

    2000-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) isa debilitating form of dementia which leads to impaired memory, thinking and behavior. This work examines elemental concentrations between "normal" and AD subjects as well as the hemispherical differences within the brain. Tissue samples from both hemispheres of the fronta

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 mediates a mechanism of metabolic cardioprotection consisting of negative regulation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase pathway in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Berry, Evan; Hernandez-Anzaldo, Samuel; Takawale, Abhijit; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Previously, we reported that cardiac matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 is upregulated in hypertensive mice. How MMP-2 affects the development of cardiac disease is unclear. Here, we report that MMP-2 protects from hypertensive cardiac disease. In mice infused with angiotensin II, the lack of MMP-2 (Mmp2(-/-)) did not affect the severity of the hypertension but caused cardiac hypertrophy to develop earlier and to a greater extent versus wild-type (Mmp2(+/+)) mice, as measured by heart weight:body weight ratio and upregulation of hypertrophy and fibrosis markers. We further found numerous metabolic and inflammatory gene expression abnormalities in the left ventricle of Mmp2(-/-) mice. Interestingly, Mmp2(-/-) mice expressed greater amounts of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (a target of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2-mediated transcription and rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol and isoprenoids biosynthesis) in addition to markers of inflammation including chemokines of the C-C motif ligand family. We focused on the functionally related genes for sterol regulatory binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, attenuated angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in Mmp2(-/-) and wild-type (Mmp2(+/+)) mice, with Mmp2(-/-) mice showing resistance to cardioprotection by lovastatin. MMP-2 deficiency predisposes to cardiac dysfunction as well as metabolic and inflammatory gene expression dysregulation. This complex phenotype is, at least in part, because of the cardiac sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase pathway being upregulated in MMP-2 deficiency.

  13. GEOWAY平台下中小比例尺地形图基础要素缩编方法%GEOWAY the Workbench Medium and Small Scale Topographic Map Basic Elements Downsizing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江华; 边志华

    2012-01-01

    through the practical experiences,this paper introduces the workbench GEOWAY 1:10 000 topographic map elements downsizing to 1:50 000 topographic map elements of the methods,especially the treatment,water system,and roads,residents,processing methods such as the traffic elements.%通过生产实践经验,介绍GEOWAY平台下1:10000地形图要素缩编到1:50000地形图要素的方法,特别是前期处理、水系、道路、居民地、交通要素等的处理方法。

  14. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  15. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  16. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  17. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  18. Object-oriented Approach to the Finite Element Programming:Basic Data Classes%面向对象有限元程序设计——基本数据类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泳涛; 于建华; 陈君楷

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduced the object-oriented approach into FEA programming. Via building four data classes, all basic data of FEA were packed. These will provide a good base for the design of architecture of FEM application.%将面向对象的程序设计方法引入有限单元法程序设计,通过构建四个数据类,完整地封装了有限元基本数据,并为有限元程序构架的设计奠定了良好的基础。

  19. Basic Skills and Small Business Competitiveness: Some Conceptual Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discusses basic skills as an element of competitiveness. Applies market and system failure models to the level of basic skills training offered by small businesses. Examines recent British policy documents and recommendations for more small business investment in basic skills. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  20. Linking Metabolism, Elemental Cycles, and Environmental Conditions in the Deep Biosphere: Growth of a Model Extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Under High-Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, G. C. M.; Cario, A.; Rogers, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems. Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. A. fulgidus cycles carbon and sulfur via heterotrophic and autotrophic sulfate reduction in various high temperature and high-pressure niches including shallow marine vents, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and deep oil reservoirs. Here we report the results of A. fulgidus growth experiments at optimum temperature, 83°C, and pressures up to 600 bars. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at 500 and 600 bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls. At pressures up to 400 bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding 400 bars. These results suggest that A. fulgidus continues carbon, sulfur and energy cycling unaffected by elevated pressures up to 400 bars, representing a variety of subsurface environments. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global

  1. Study on Basic Issues of Fighting Units Integrated Training and Fighting Elements Integrated Training%作战单元集成训练和作战要素集成训练基本问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博宁; 马强

    2011-01-01

    为推动基于信息系统的体系作战能力训练有效开展,从作战单元集成训练、作战要素集成训练的基本概念和本质特征入手,分析了作战单元集成训练、作战要素集成训练的主体对象、主要内容、目标任务;指出作战单元集成训练和作战要素集成训练是基于信息系统的体系作战能力训练不可或缺的2个环节,在生成和提高基于信息系统的体系作战能力中发挥着重要作用.%To promote the systems operational capability training based on information systems development, on the basis of the concepts and characteristics of fighting units integrated training and fighting elements integrated training, the objects, contents and tasks are analyzed. Then the paper points out that fighting units integrated training and fighting elements integrated training are two necessary courses of the systems operational capability training based on information systems, and it is important to increase the systems operational capability based on information systems.

  2. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  3. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  4. The basic elements of economic infrastructure of rural areas in counties of the wielkopolskie voivodship Wyposażenie obszarów wiejskich powiatów województwa wielkopolskiego w podstawowe elementy infrastruktury gospodarczej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dolata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of studies presented in the paper allows to conclude that rural areas of Wielkopolskie voivodship are considerably differentiated as far as the distribution of economic infrastructure is concerned. Very high and high levels of infrastructure can be found in the counties in the central part of the voivodship around Poznań, its capital and two counties in the northern part of the voivodship. These counties have attained higher level of individually studied elements of infrastructure, as compared with the values calculated for rural areas in Poland in general. Counties of low and very low level of infrastructure occupy south-eastern part of the voivodship and vast areas located in its north-western part. In these areas not all inhabitants have access to gas-line system, sewage network and sewage treatment plants.

  5. Finite element mesh generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Daniel SH

    2014-01-01

    Highlights the Progression of Meshing Technologies and Their ApplicationsFinite Element Mesh Generation provides a concise and comprehensive guide to the application of finite element mesh generation over 2D domains, curved surfaces, and 3D space. Organised according to the geometry and dimension of the problem domains, it develops from the basic meshing algorithms to the most advanced schemes to deal with problems with specific requirements such as boundary conformity, adaptive and anisotropic elements, shape qualities, and mesh optimization. It sets out the fundamentals of popular techniques

  6. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  7. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  8. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  9. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  10. On basic attributes, constructing elements and ways of Tang poetry classics%论唐诗经典的基本属性、建构要素及途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏林

    2012-01-01

    Typicality and uncertainty are the basic attributes of Tang poetry classics. Typicality means it represents the maturation of some paradigm, and can be set as an example for the latter creations. Uncertainty means aesthetic trend and value standard can change constantly with time and personnels and it can produce direct effect on the construction of classics. The formation of Tang poetry classics depends on the special founder, by whom it can be accepted by readers. The Tang poetry classics are advocated by the founder by means of anthology, poetry talks, notes and other poetry works, among which anthology is the most important way to construct the classic system.%唐诗经典的基本属性是典范性和不确定性:典范性表现为能够代表某种范式的成熟,为后世创作提供借鉴;不确定性是由于审美思潮与价值标准会随着时代和个人而不断变化,并直接影响经典的建构。唐诗经典的形成主要取决于特殊的发现人,通过发现人而被广大读者所接受的。发现人对唐诗经典的标举是通过诗选、诗话、笔记和其他一些论诗杂著而实现的,其中诗选所建构的经典体系最为系统。

  11. BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  12. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not ... the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ...

  13. Elementos básicos para a análise de textos argumentativos em língua portuguesa Basic elements for the analysis of argumentative texts in portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris de Almeida Soares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomando por base a análise semiolinguística de Patrick Charaudeau, este artigo apresenta alguns conceitos-chave referentes à produção e à recepção do texto argumentativo numa perspectiva da análise do discurso, linha francesa. Para situar o leitor com relação às bases teóricas dessa área, o artigo discorre sobre a teoria da enunciação e o ato comunicativo, os participantes do discurso, a noção de gênero e script, e a argumentação. A seguir, ele ilustra estes e outros elementos cruciais para argumentação, tais como a polifonia, a adjetivação subjetiva, os operadores argumentativos, as marcas de pressuposição e o jogo dos implícitos em um texto escrito por um aluno de Letras (Português/Literaturas em uma universidade federal no Rio de Janeiro. Por fim, ele conclui demonstrando a importância de familiarizar os alunos de Letras com os conceitos aqui trabalhados, visando à produção de textos argumentativos melhores.Based on Patrick Charaudeau's semiolinguistics analysis, this article presents some key concept related to the production and reception of written discourse in the light of French discourse analysis. To situate the reader as regards the theoretical bases of this field, this article talks about the enunciation theory and the communicative act, the discourse participants, the notions of genre and script, and argumentation. Next, it illustrates these and other crucial elements to the construction of argumentation such as polyphony, subjective adjectivation, discourse markers, presupposition and implicitness in a text produced by a Portuguese/Literature undergraduate student. Finally, it establishes the importance of familiarizing Language undergraduate students with the concepts hereof described to enhance their written production.

  14. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  15. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  16. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  17. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  18. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  19. Health Literacy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. 1 Health literacy is dependent on individual and systemic factors: Communication skills of lay persons and professionals Lay and professional ...

  20. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  1. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  2. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other organic compounds, elemental (metallic) mercury, and inorganic mercury compounds. Methylmercury and other organic mercury compounds are formed when mercury combines with carbon. Microscopic ...

  3. Artificial intelligence techniques for colorectal cancer drug metabolism: ontology and complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Marcos; Vázquez-Naya, José M; Rabuñal, Juan R; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Macenlle, Ramiro; Castro-Alvariño, Javier; López-Roses, Leopoldo; Ulla, José L; Martínez-Calvo, Antonio V; Vázquez, Santiago; Pereira, Javier; Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Dorado, Julián; Pazos, Alejandro; Munteanu, Cristian R

    2010-05-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer in the world and generates important social impact. The understanding of the specific metabolism of this disease and the transformations of the specific drugs will allow finding effective prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the colorectal cancer. All the terms that describe the drug metabolism contribute to the construction of ontology in order to help scientists to link the correlated information and to find the most useful data about this topic. The molecular components involved in this metabolism are included in complex network such as metabolic pathways in order to describe all the molecular interactions in the colorectal cancer. The graphical method of processing biological information such as graphs and complex networks leads to the numerical characterization of the colorectal cancer drug metabolic network by using invariant values named topological indices. Thus, this method can help scientists to study the most important elements in the metabolic pathways and the dynamics of the networks during mutations, denaturation or evolution for any type of disease. This review presents the last studies regarding ontology and complex networks of the colorectal cancer drug metabolism and a basic topology characterization of the drug metabolic process sub-ontology from the Gene Ontology.

  4. Representation and Mechanism:An Interpretation of the Culture Structure Theory of the Contemporary Chinese National Cohesion Basic Elements Development%表征与机理:当代中华民族凝聚力基本要素发展的文化结构论解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田旭明

    2016-01-01

    民族凝聚力在根本上从属于文化结构论的研究范畴。从文化哲学的文化结构论角度来看,当代中华民族凝聚力的升华集中体现在其基本构成要素的自我发展上。这种自我发展是通过文化内在精神的自觉更新和多元文化相互潜移的文化整合来实现的。在这两种逻辑机制的交错中,当代中华民族凝聚力基本要素的自我发展不仅体现出了民族性与时代性的统一,还折射出了这种自我发展是一种理性的文化批判与文化重建。%The national cohesion in the root belongs to the category of cultural structure theory research .From the angle of cultural structure of cultural philosophy theory ,the sublimation of contemporary Chinese national cohesion embodied in the self-development of the basic elements .This spirit of self-development is realized by cultural inner self-conscious updating and multicultural latent integration each other .In these two logic mech-anism of crisscross ,the basic key elements of contemporary Chinese national cohesion of self -development not only reflects the unity of nationality and times ,but also reflects that the self-development is a kind of rational criticism and cultural reconstruction .

  5. Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Feinman, Richard D; Phinney, Stephen D

    2008-09-01

    Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and dyslipidemia play an intimate role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The availability of glucose and insulin predominate as upstream regulatory elements that operate through a collection of transcription factors to partition lipids toward anabolic pathways. The unraveling of the details of these cellular events has proceeded rapidly, but their physiologic relevance to lifestyle modification has been largely ignored. Here we highlight the role of dietary input, specifically carbohydrate intake, in the mechanism of metabolic regulation germane to metabolic syndrome. The key principle is that carbohydrate, directly or indirectly through the effect of insulin, controls the disposition of excess dietary nutrients. Dietary carbohydrate modulates lipolysis, lipoprotein assembly and processing and affects the relation between dietary intake of saturated fat intake and circulating levels. Several of these processes are the subject of intense investigation at the cellular level. We see the need to integrate these cellular mechanisms with results from low-carbohydrate diet trials that have shown reduced cardiovascular risk through improvement in hepatic, intravascular, and peripheral processing of lipoproteins, alterations in fatty acid composition, and reductions in other cardiovascular risk factors, notably inflammation. From the current state of the literature, however, low-carbohydrate diets are grounded in basic metabolic principles and the data suggest that some form of carbohydrate restriction is a candidate to be the preferred dietary strategy for cardiovascular health beyond weight regulation.

  6. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  7. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  8. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  9. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  10. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  11. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  12. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  13. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  14. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P

    2011-01-01

    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  15. An element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.

    1983-03-30

    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  16. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  17. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  18. Korean Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  19. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  20. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  1. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  2. Basic Library List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, William L., Jr.

    Reported is an initial attempt to define a minimal college mathematics library. Included is a list of some 300 books, from which approximately 170 are to be chosen to form a basic library in undergraduate mathematics. The areas provided for in this list include Algebra, Analysis, Applied Mathematics, Geometry, Topology, Logic, Foundations and Set…

  3. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  4. Basic Drafting: Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The second of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 12 topics in the following units: sketching techniques, geometric constructions, orthographic views, dimensioning procedures, basic tolerancing, auxiliary views, sectional views, inking tools and techniques, axonometrics, oblique, perspective, and computer-aided drafting.…

  5. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members at a lower cost. The four basic types of managed care plans are: HMO (Health Maintenance Organization). When you join an HMO, you choose a ... may have to pay more. EPO (Exclusive Provider Organization). An EPO is like a PPO, only ... Health Plan (CDHP) This type of plan is fairly new. It lets you ...

  6. Basic bioreactor design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't K.; Tramper, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a graduate course in biochemical engineering, provides the basic knowledge needed for the efficient design of bioreactors and the relevant principles and data for practical process engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. Includes exercises.

  7. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  8. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  9. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...

  10. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  11. A sealing element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, F.; Takada, K.

    1983-09-22

    A sealing lining made of a mixture of polyethylene or polypropylene with an additive which prevents destruction of the lining is used in the element. The content of the additive in the mixture is 10 to 30 percent by mass. The additive basically consists of polyethylene. Carboxyl groups are introduced into the polymer as an anion and sodium, potassium and molybdenum are introduced as the cation.

  12. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity: Tools and Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-sponsored, multi-year initiative designed to further improve the quality of, effectiveness of, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. This catalog is one element of the BEPS information dissemination process. The…

  13. New Develoopment of the Basic Theory of Extenics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiWen; YangChunyan; ZhaoYan; HeBin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,the new development of three basic theories of Extenics,incluing basic-element theory,extension set theory and extension logic theory ,has been introduced.And the new theoretical frame of Extenics has also been set forth.

  14. Basic components of construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system

    OpenAIRE

    Seleznova Olha Olexandrivna

    2015-01-01

    This article investigated the basic components of construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. It is developed the model of the construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. The article explores the essence of the stages of forming the construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. The article reveals the basic elements of marketing management – mission, goals, strategy. It describes the basic functions of marketing management system...

  15. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  16. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  17. [Hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... risk associated with increased blood pressure. As the definition of the metabolic syndrome is based on dichotomization of cardiovascular risk factors with a continuously increasing risk, it cannot match risk stratification tools like the HeartScore for calculation of prognosis. However, the metabolic...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  18. Elements of slow-neutron scattering basics, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M

    2015-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory and applications of slow-neutron scattering, this detailed book equips readers with the fundamental principles of neutron studies, including the background and evolving development of neutron sources, facility design, neutron scattering instrumentation and techniques, and applications in materials phenomena. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience in this field, this text explores the implications of slow-neutron research in greater depth and breadth than ever before in an accessible yet rigorous manner suitable for both students and researchers in the fields of physics, biology, and materials engineering. Through pedagogical examples and in-depth discussion, readers will be able to grasp the full scope of the field of neutron scattering, from theoretical background through to practical, scientific applications.

  19. Essential and Beneficial Trace Elements in Plants, and Their Transport in Roots: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Filiz, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    The essentiality of 14 mineral elements so far have been reported in plant nutrition. Eight of these elements were known as micronutrients due to their lower concentrations in plants (usually ≤100 mg/kg/dw). However, it is still challenging to mention an exact number of plant micronutrients since some elements have not been strictly proposed yet either as essential or beneficial. Micronutrients participate in very diverse metabolic processes, including from the primary and secondary metabolism to the cell defense, and from the signal transduction to the gene regulation, energy metabolism, and hormone perception. Thus, the attempt to understand the molecular mechanism(s) behind their transport has great importance in terms of basic and applied plant sciences. Moreover, their deficiency or toxicity also caused serious disease symptoms in plants, even plant destruction if not treated, and many people around the world suffer from the plant-based dietary deficiencies or metal toxicities. In this sense, shedding some light on this issue, the 13 mineral elements (Fe, B, Cu, Mn, Mo, Si, Zn, Ni, Cl, Se, Na, Al, and Co), required by plants at trace amounts, has been reviewed with the primary focus on the transport proteins (transporters/channels) in plant roots. So, providing the compiled but extensive information about the structural and functional roles of micronutrient transport genes/proteins in plant roots.

  20. A New Geochemical Classification of Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Changmou; L. Lynn Chyi

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical classification proposed by Goldschmidt was based on meteoritic analysis and elemental partition in blast furnace. There are many surprises when applied to the discussion of natural occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences in nature is, therefore, proposed for students learning geochemistry and geologists working in the field. Elements are classified into six groups including lithophile, oxyphile, siderophile, chalcophile, biophile, and atmophile elements. Five terms are taken from Goldshcmidt's original classification. Oxyphile is a new term.

  1. [Metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which is consisted of hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, is one of the most significant lifestyle-related disorders that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Among many upstream factors that are related to metabolic syndrome, obesity, especially visceral obesity, plays an essential role in its pathogenesis. In recent studies, possible mechanisms which connect obesity to metabolic syndrome have been elucidated, such as inflammation, abnormal secretion of adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome; and illustrate how visceral obesity contributes to, and how the treatments for obesity act on metabolic syndrome.

  2. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  3. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  4. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  5. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  6. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  7. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  8. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  9. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  10. Visual Basic educational programme

    OpenAIRE

    Pranaitis, Arūnas

    2005-01-01

    Visual basic educational programme Informational Technologies has become such a popular subject that they are applied in all works of life. However, Informational Technologies are still rarely used in the lessons at school. There are such reasons of the mentioned issue: · Insufficient base of computers, · The old software and its disadvantages, · The lack of computerized educational programmes. The aim of the work was to prove that it is actual to create computerized educat...

  11. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  12. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  13. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  14. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  15. Commercialization basics for the photonics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David A

    2013-01-01

    Most entrepreneurs have expertise in one or more of the critical areas of commercialization, but may lack key elements necessary for success. Commercialization Basics for the Photonics Industry serves as a roadmap for the commercialization process, helping identify and address roadblocks on the path to commercialization. Evaluation techniques will help determine the strength of a business opportunity and guide its development toward the best chance of success.

  16. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  17. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  18. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  19. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  20. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  1. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  2. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  3. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  4. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutations (galactosemia) also contribute to perturbations of the menstrual cycle. Although not perfect, mouse model have helped to identify and confirm additional components and pathways in menstrual cycle function and dysfunction in humans. PMID:18574203

  5. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  6. The influence of salsolinol on basic rat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnik, Magdalena; Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, Andrzej; Bujak-Gizycka, Beata; Madej, Jozef; Thor, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a broad spectrum of non-motor symptoms, which are poorly understood and foremost, may precede motor impairment. These symptoms include weight changes and gastrointestinal dysregulation. In our experiment, we applied salsolinol given peripherally and continuously in rats to induce changes in the enteric nervous system, which might be similar to those observed in PD patients. Surprisingly, we noted decrease in body weight and alteration in body fat contents of the animals during salsolinol exposure. The blood glucose levels, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes levels were assessed as well. While lipid profile, postprandial blood glucose and hepatic enzymes levels remained indifferent, postprandial triglyceridemia was significantly lower in all salsolinol-treated rats in comparison with the control, which might be related to disturbed absorption. We also suggest that diminished body weight gain and lower adipose tissue accumulation in salsolinol-treated animals were due to delayed gastric emptying together with disturbed gut function resulting in absorptive dysfunction.

  7. Track A Basic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeant, D; Deverasetty, S.; Luo, Y.; Villahoz-Baleta, A.; Zobrist, S.; Rathnayake, V.; Russo, J.; Muesing, M.; Schiller, M.; Andrabi, R; Kumar, R.; Bala, M; Nair, A; Biswas, A; N Wig

    2012-01-01

    Background Many HIV databases and applications focus on a limited domain of HIV knowledge. Since even a “simple” organism like HIV represents a very complex system with many interacting elements, the fractured structure of existing databases and applications likely limits our ability to investigate and understand HIV. To facilitate research, therefore, we have built HIVToolbox, which integrates much of the knowledge about HIV proteins and presents the data in an interactive web application. H...

  8. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism....... The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation to facilitate interpretation of data arising from genetics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in connection with biotechnological processes and beyond....

  9. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  10. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  11. Transcription factors, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes interact to regulate potato phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payyavula, Raja S; Singh, Rajesh K; Navarre, Duroy A

    2013-11-01

    Much remains unknown about how transcription factors and sugars regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism in tuber crops like potato (Solanum tuberosum). Based on phylogeny and protein similarity to known regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism, 15 transcription factors were selected and their expression was compared in white, yellow, red, and purple genotypes with contrasting phenolic and anthocyanin profiles. Red and purple genotypes had increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, markedly higher levels of phenylpropanoids, and elevated expression of most phenylpropanoid structural genes, including a novel anthocyanin O-methyltransferase. The transcription factors Anthocyanin1 (StAN1), basic Helix Loop Helix1 (StbHLH1), and StWD40 were more strongly expressed in red and purple potatoes. Expression of 12 other transcription factors was not associated with phenylpropanoid content, except for StMYB12B, which showed a negative relationship. Increased expression of AN1, bHLH1, and WD40 was also associated with environmentally mediated increases in tuber phenylpropanoids. Treatment of potato plantlets with sucrose induced hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, structural genes, AN1, bHLH1, WD40, and genes encoding the sucrose-hydrolysing enzymes SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV2. Transient expression of StAN1 in tobacco leaves induced bHLH1, structural genes, SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV1, and increased phenylpropanoid amounts. StAN1 infiltration into tobacco leaves decreased sucrose and glucose concentrations. In silico promoter analysis revealed the presence of MYB and bHLH regulatory elements on sucrolytic gene promoters and sucrose-responsive elements on the AN1 promoter. These findings reveal an interesting dynamic between AN1, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes in modulating potato phenylpropanoids.

  12. Metabolic P systems for biochemical dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo Manca

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic P systems are a special class of P systems which seem to be adequate for expressing biological phenomena, especially, metabolism and signaling transduction. Basic motivations for their introduction are given and their main aspects are explained by means of an example of biological modeling. A new kind of regulation mechanism is outlined, which could be the basis for a more efficient construction of computational models from experimental data of specific metabolic processes.

  13. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  14. Basics of plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuderi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to contemporary plasma physics that discusses the most relevant recent advances in the field and covers a careful choice of applications to various branches of astrophysics and space science. The purpose of the book is to allow the student to master the basic concepts of plasma physics and to bring him or her up to date in a number of relevant areas of current research. Topics covered include orbit theory, kinetic theory, fluid models, magnetohydrodynamics, MHD turbulence, instabilities, discontinuities, and magnetic reconnection. Some prior knowledge of classical physics is required, in particular fluid mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. The mathematical developments are self-contained and explicitly detailed in the text. A number of exercises are provided at the end of each chapter, together with suggestions and solutions.

  15. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  16. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  17. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  18. Metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Salim

    2007-01-01

    Acute metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in critically ill patients. Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids that consumes bicarbonate (high anion gap metabolic acidosis) or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic or normal anion gap metabolic acidosis). The cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis includes lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, renal failure and intoxication with ethylene glycol, methanol, salicylate and less commonly with pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline), propylene glycole or djenkol bean (gjenkolism). The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure and administration of acids. The appropriate treatment of acute metabolic acidosis, in particular organic form of acidosis such as lactic acidosis, has been very controversial. The only effective treatment for organic acidosis is cessation of acid production via improvement of tissue oxygenation. Treatment of acute organic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate failed to reduce the morbidity and mortality despite improvement in acid-base parameters. Further studies are required to determine the optimal treatment strategies for acute metabolic acidosis.

  19. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  20. Do the interactions between glucocorticoids and sex hormones regulate the development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marià eAlemany

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response don't seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release. These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e. levels of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment. Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies.

  1. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M

    1976-01-01

    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  2. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  3. DOE-2 basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  4. DOE-2 basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  5. Basics of aerothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    This successful book gives an introduction to the basics of aerothermodynamics, as applied in particular to winged re-entry vehicles and airbreathing hypersonic cruise and acceleration vehicles. The book gives a review of the issues of transport of momentum, energy and mass, real-gas effects as well as inviscid and viscous flow phenomena. In this second, revised edition the chapters with the classical topics of aerothermodynamics more or less were left untouched. The access to some single topics of practical interest was improved. Auxiliary chapters were put into an appendix. The recent successful flights of the X-43A and the X-51A indicate that the dawn of sustained airbreathing hypersonic flight now has arrived. This proves that the original approach of the book to put emphasis on viscous effects and the aerothermodynamics of radiation-cooled vehicle surfaces was timely. This second, revised edition even more accentuates these topics. A new, additional chapter treats examples of viscous thermal surface eff...

  6. [Basic research in pulmonology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the articles dealing with basic science published in recent issues of Archivos de Bronconeumología. Of particular interest with regard to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were an article on extrapulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress and another on bronchial remodeling. The articles relating to asthma included a review on the use of drugs that block free immunoglobulin-E and an article about the contribution of experimental models to our knowledge of this disease. Two of the most interesting articles on the topic of lung cancer dealt with gene therapy and resistance to chemotherapy. Also notable were 2 studies that investigated ischemia-reperfusion injury. One evaluated tissue resistance to injury while the other analyzed the role played by interleukin-8 in this process. On the topic of pulmonary fibrosis, an article focused on potential biomarkers of progression and prognosis; others dealt with the contribution of experimental models to our understanding of this disorder and the fibrogenic role of transforming growth factor b. In the context of both sleep apnea syndrome and pulmonary infection, studies investigating the role of oxidative stress were published. Finally, 2 studies analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and other pulmonary infections.

  7. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  8. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  9. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  10. Basic Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of grounded theory is to generate a theory that accounts for a pattern of behavior that is relevant and problematic for those involved. The goal is not voluminous description, nor clever verification. As with all grounded theory, the generation of a basic social process (BSP theory occurs around a core category. While a core category is always present in a grounded research study, a BSP may not be.BSPs are ideally suited to generation by grounded theory from qualitative research because qualitative research can pick up process through fieldwork that continues over a period of time. BSPs are a delight to discover and formulate since they give so much movement and scope to the analyst’s perception of the data. BSPs such as cultivating, defaulting, centering, highlighting or becoming, give the feeling of process, change and movement over time. They also have clear, amazing general implications; so much so, that it is hard to contain them within the confines of a single substantive study. The tendency is to refer to them as a formal theory without the necessary comparative development of formal theory. They are labeled by a “gerund”(“ing” which both stimulates their generation and the tendency to over-generalize them.

  11. Basic science of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali; de Girolamo, Laura; Filardo, Giuseppe; Oliveira, J Miguel; Orth, Patrick; Pape, Dietrich; Reboul, Pascal

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent, disabling disorder of the joints that affects a large population worldwide and for which there is no definitive cure. This review provides critical insights into the basic knowledge on OA that may lead to innovative end efficient new therapeutic regimens. While degradation of the articular cartilage is the hallmark of OA, with altered interactions between chondrocytes and compounds of the extracellular matrix, the subchondral bone has been also described as a key component of the disease, involving specific pathomechanisms controlling its initiation and progression. The identification of such events (and thus of possible targets for therapy) has been made possible by the availability of a number of animal models that aim at reproducing the human pathology, in particular large models of high tibial osteotomy (HTO). From a therapeutic point of view, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising option for the treatment of OA and may be used concomitantly with functional substitutes integrating scaffolds and drugs/growth factors in tissue engineering setups. Altogether, these advances in the fundamental and experimental knowledge on OA may allow for the generation of improved, adapted therapeutic regimens to treat human OA.

  12. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  13. Concepções do profissional farmacêutico sobre a assistência farmacêutica na unidade básica de saúde: dificuldades e elementos para a mudança Conceptions of the pharmaceutical professional about the pharmaceutical assistance in basic health care units: difficulties and elements for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aílson da Luz André de Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi feita avaliação da Assistência Farmacêutica em farmácias de Unidades de Saúde do município de Ribeirão Preto, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Partindo-se do referencial de avaliação tecnológica em saúde e suas interfaces, foram realizadas entrevistas com os profissionais farmacêuticos, procurando-se conhecer as concepções desses atores sobre a assistência farmacêutica. Os resultados obtidos mostram um trabalho baseado na gestão burocrática dos medicamentos com objeto no controle de estoque do medicamento. Alguns elementos emergentes que poderão contribuir para a alteração deste quadro foram detectados: voluntarismo, busca pela valorização profissional, iniciativa de integração com a equipe de saúde, percepção do paciente como objeto de trabalho e formação profissional complementar.In the present study we evaluated the Pharmaceutical Assistance in pharmacies of Basic Health Care Units in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Considering the technological evaluation reference in health and its interfaces, pharmaceutical professionals were interviewed in a way to find out their conceptions about pharmaceutical assistance. The results showed a work based on the bureaucratic management of medicines specially the control of medicine supplies. Some emergent elements were thought to contribute to change this system: voluntarism, professional valorization, integration of the health team, perception of the patient as object of the work and complementary professional formation.

  14. Metabolic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Michael J; Young, G Bryan

    2011-11-01

    Kinnier Wilson coined the term metabolic encephalopathy to describe a clinical state of global cerebral dysfunction induced by systemic stress that can vary in clinical presentation from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma with decerebrate posturing; the causes are numerous. Some mechanisms by which cerebral dysfunction occurs in metabolic encephalopathies include focal or global cerebral edema, alterations in transmitter function, the accumulation of uncleared toxic metabolites, postcapillary venule vasogenic edema, and energy failure. This article focuses on common causes of metabolic encephalopathy, and reviews common causes, clinical presentations and, where relevant, management.

  15. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  16. Egalitarianism, basic structure and rawlsian contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Fatauros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses whether it is appropriate to judge individual actions with the same principles of justice applicable to institutions. In order to achieve its aim the paper reviews Rawls` theory of justice and some objections against it. Critics of Rawlsian theory of justice deny that its principles only evaluate basic institutions. Furthermore, they claim that justice does not only require just institutions but just individual actions as well. The background hypothesis of this paper is that some principles suitable for some social contexts are not useful to judge other kind of social interactions. The argument relies on a normative interpretation of the notion of basic structure, which is considered a key element to defend the institutional character of the rawlsian account of justice.

  17. Metabolic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as porphyria Severe infection throughout the body ( sepsis ) Thyroid disease Vitamin deficiencies (including vitamins B12 , B6 , E , and B1 ) Some metabolic disorders are passed down through families (inherited), while others ...

  18. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance syndrome, low HDL cholesterol, Metabolic Syndrome, overweight, syndrome x, type 2 diabetes Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women January 2005 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  19. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  20. Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008393 Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker on triglyceride metabolism in the liver: experiment with Zucker fatty rats. RAN Jianmin(冉建民), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, 4th Hosp Med Coll, Jinan Univ, Guangzhou 510220. Natl Med J China 2008;88(22):1557-1561. Objective To investigate the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism and mechanism thereof.

  1. Element Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  2. Moving from basic toward systems pharmacodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, William J

    2013-09-01

    Building upon many classical foundations of pharmacology, a diverse array of mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models have emerged based on mechanisms of drug action and primary rate-limiting or turnover processes in physiology. An array of basic models can be extended to handle various complexities including tolerance and can readily be employed as building blocks in assembling enhanced PK/PD or small systems models. Our corticosteroid models demonstrate these concepts as well as elements of horizontal and vertical integration of molecular to whole-body processes. The potential advantages and challenges in moving PK/PD toward systems models are described.

  3. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  4. A new multiresolution finite element method based on a multiresolution quadrilateral plate element

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, YiMing

    2014-01-01

    A new multiresolution quadrilateral plate element is proposed and a multiresolution finite element method is hence presented. The multiresolution analysis (MRA) framework is formulated out of a mutually nesting displacement subspace sequence, whose basis functions are constructed of scaling and shifting on the element domain of basic node shape function. The basic node shape function is constructed by extending shape function around a specific node. The MRA endows the proposed element with the resolution level (RL) to adjust the element node number, thus modulating structural analysis accuracy accordingly. As a result, the traditional 4-node quadrilateral plate element and method is a monoresolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The accuracy of a structural analysis is fully determined by the RL, not by th...

  5. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  6. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome Print A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  7. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  8. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  9. Basic Learning Processes in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hayne W.

    This book is an introduction to the psychological study of basic learning processes in children. Written for students who are not majors in psychology and who do not have much familiarity with the technical vocabulary of psychology, it has two themes: even the most basic kinds of learning are included by cognitive processes or mental activities;…

  10. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) Basics for Safe Food Handling dishes in bowls of ice or use ... 9 months Do not freeze 2 Basics for Safe Food Handling Product Refrigerator Freezer (40 °F) (0 °F) ...

  11. Japanese Basic Course: Exercise Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This exercise book, prepared for use after Lesson 121 of the Defense Language Institute Basic Course in Japanese, provides for instruction in the use of Kanji dictionaries, familiarizes students with useful phrases and expressions that are not included in the Basic Course, and allows for greater variety in the classroom. The ten lessons, in the…

  12. Four basic laws in design science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Youbai

    2014-01-01

    A point on the distinction between design and science is given and the connotations of design science are discussed in the paper. Design should be understood as the first step of all human’s purposeful activity, which is a daily behavior for everyone. Four laws are summarized,which describe the basic patterns of design and are the constituents of design science. They are the law of design based on existed knowledge,law of in-completeness of design knowledge,law of design centered on new knowledge acquirement and law of competi-tiveness of design knowledge. The four basic laws show the knowledge essence of design. To enrich the existed knowledge,to make it convenient to be used,to teach designers with high intuition and inspiration in picking useful elements of existed knowledge and shaping competitive ideas and to have strong new knowledge acquire-ment facility are the basic conditions of good designs. Study of design science will promote the structure of tra-ditional engineering education. An important conclusion is derived that there will be no successful innovation without good design.

  13. Finite element differential forms on cubical meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Douglas N

    2012-01-01

    We develop a family of finite element spaces of differential forms defined on cubical meshes in any number of dimensions. The family contains elements of all polynomial degrees and all form degrees. In two dimensions, these include the serendipity finite elements and the rectangular BDM elements. In three dimensions they include a recent generalization of the serendipity spaces, and new H(curl) and H(div) finite element spaces. Spaces in the family can be combined to give finite element subcomplexes of the de Rham complex which satisfy the basic hypotheses of the finite element exterior calculus, and hence can be used for stable discretization of a variety of problems. The construction and properties of the spaces are established in a uniform manner using finite element exterior calculus.

  14. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  15. Lipid metabolism in Drosophila: development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghua Liu; Xun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Proteins,nucleic acids,and lipids are three major components of the cell.Despite a few basic metabolic pathways,we know very little about lipids,compared with the explosion of knowledge about proteins and nucleic acids.How many different forms of lipids are there? What are the in vivo functions of individual lipid? How does lipid metabolism contribute to normal development and human health? Many of these questions remain unanswered.For over a century,the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model organism to study basic biological questions.In recent years,increasing evidences proved that Drosophila models are highly valuable for lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis researches.Some recent progresses of lipid metabolic regulation during Drosophila development and in Drosophila models of human diseases will be discussed in this review.

  16. Dynamic Metabolism in Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hommrani, Mazen; Chakraborty, Paramita; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Mehrotra, Shikhar

    2016-01-01

    Cell, the basic unit of life depends for its survival on nutrients and thereby energy to perform its physiological function. Cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin are key in evoking an immune response against “self” or “non-self” antigens. The thymus derived lymphoid cells called T cells are a heterogenous group with distinct phenotypic and molecular signatures that have been shown to respond against an infection (bacterial, viral, protozoan) or cancer. Recent studies have unearthed the key differences in energy metabolism between the various T cell subsets, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells. While a number of groups are dwelling into the nuances of the metabolism and its role in immune response at various strata, this review focuses on dynamic state of metabolism that is operational within various cellular compartments that interact to mount an effective immune response to alleviate disease state.

  17. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  18. Basic properties of Fedosov supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B

    2004-01-01

    Basic properties of even (odd) supermanifolds endowed with a connection respecting a given symplectic structure are studied. Such supermanifolds can be considered as generalization of Fedosov manifolds to the supersymmetric case.

  19. Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    大津, 和子

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current development in the Complementary Basic Education program (COBET), which aims to contribute to the provision of alternative learning opportunities for out-of-school children, particularly girls in a non-formal setting. The Ministry of Education and Culture started the program as part of the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) in 1999. Unlike traditional primary schools, the COBET centers have no school fees, no uniforms, no corporal punishment and no child labou...

  20. The trace elements selenium, copper and zinc in pediatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Caillie-Bertrand (Micheline)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to investigate some pediatric aspects of trace element metabolism .The effects are described of 1) inadequate trace element intake , 2) trace element malabsorption mine and 4) sulphate.Within ,3) urinary losses during therapy with D-Pen

  1. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  2. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...

  3. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  4. Imaging techniques for elements and element species in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Becker, J Sabine

    2012-05-01

    Revealing the uptake, transport, localization and speciation of both essential and toxic elements in plants is important for understanding plant homeostasis and metabolism, subsequently, providing information for food and nutrient studies, agriculture activities, as well as environmental research. In the last decade, emerging techniques for elemental imaging and speciation analysis allowed us to obtain increasing knowledge of elemental distribution and availabilities in plants. Chemical imaging techniques include mass spectrometric methods such as secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron-based techniques such as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF), and so forth. On the other hand, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) based on synchrotron radiation is capable of in situ investigation of local atomic structure around the central element of interest. This technique can also be operated in tandem with SRXRF to image each element species of interest within plant tissue. In this review, the principles and state-of-the-art of these techniques regarding sample preparation, advantages and limitations, and improvement of sensitivity and spatial resolution are discussed. New results with respect to elemental distribution and speciation in plants revealed by these techniques are presented.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  6. Gestalt factors modulate basic spatial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, B; Westheimer, G; Herzog, M H

    2010-05-01

    Human perception of a stimulus varies depending on the context in which the stimulus is presented. Such contextual modulation has often been explained by two basic neural mechanisms: lateral inhibition and spatial pooling. In the present study, we presented observers with a vernier stimulus flanked by single lines; observers' ability to discriminate the offset direction of the vernier stimulus deteriorated in accordance with both explanations. However, when the flanking lines were part of a geometric shape (i.e., a good Gestalt), this deterioration strongly diminished. These findings cannot be explained by lateral inhibition or spatial pooling. It seems that Gestalt factors play an important role in contextual modulation. We propose that contextual modulation can be used as a quantitative measure to investigate the rules governing the grouping of elements into meaningful wholes.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  8. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  9. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  10. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. 微量元素调节糖尿病大鼠糖脂代谢的研究%Study on regulating effect of trace elements on metabolism of glucose and lipid in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠; 吴蕴棠; 车素萍; 常红; 王永明

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察微量元素锌铬硒对糖尿病大鼠降糖降脂的作用。方法:对四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠经灌胃分别补充锌铬硒及三者混合物。实验分为6组:0组为正常对照组;1组为阳性对照组;2组为补锌组;3组为补铬组;4组为补硒组;5组为混合组,6组均自由进食。灌胃4周时取血测血糖、血脂等指标。结果:(1)锌对糖尿病大鼠的生长发育有一定的促进作用(2)硒可使糖尿病大鼠的高血糖状况得到一定改善(3)补充锌对血清胆固醇上升、补充硒对血清甘油三酯上升有一定的抑制作用。结论:给糖尿病大鼠补充适量的锌、铬、硒,对其糖脂代谢有一定的改善作用。%Objective: To observe the effects of zinc, chromium, selenium on metabolism of glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. Methods: The diabetic rat's model was established with the alloxane. Zinc, chromium, selenium, and their mixture were supplemented by means of gavage to the diabetic rats . 62 rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, diabetic control, zinc group, chromium group, selenium group and mixed group. After the diabetic rats were feed for four weeks, blood glucose and serum lipids were detected. Results: Zinc can promote the growth and development of diabetic rats . The status of high blood glucose in diabetic rats was improved by supplement of selenium. Supplement of zinc and selenium can inhibit the rise in serum cholesterol and triglyceride, respectively. Conclusion: The adequate supplement of Zinc, chromium, and selenium to diabetic rats can improve their metabolism of glucose and lipids.

  12. FXR: a metabolic regulator and cell protector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Dong Wang; Wei-Dong Chen; David D Moore; Wendong Huang

    2008-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription fac-tors. As a metabolic regulator, FXR plays key roles in bile acid, cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, FXR is a potential drug target for a number of metabolic disorders, especially those related to the metabolic syn-drome. More recently, our group and others have extended the functions of FXR to more than metabolic regulation, which include anti-bacterial growth in intestine, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis. These new findings suggest that FXR has much broader roles than previously thought, and also higl light FXR as a drug target for mul-tiple diseases. This review summarizes the basic information of FXR but focuses on its new functions.

  13. On the Basic Equations of the Magnetostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the physical relationship between the main objects of the magnetic field in a continuous medium with magnetization effects. Consistently considers the following hypotheses: a hypothesis of the primacy and the physical reality of the magnetization vector field environment, a similar hypothesis about the real existence of Ampere currents (molecular currents, magnetization currents, a hypothesis of a magnetic dipole moment of the medium volume element in view of bulk density of electric currents in this volume. A more rigorous derivation of the basic differential equations of magnetostatics from the Biot-Savart-Laplace equation is proposed.The well-known works justifying basic equations of magnetostatics use a procedure wherein when proving the local differential ratio is used a transformation of some volume integral to the surface integral bounding this volume. Thus, there is a specific way to select a closed surface that is either a surface in a vacuum (beyond the medium volume under consideration, or a surface of the conductor (a normal component of currents to the surface, here, becomes zero. In the paper the control surface is arbitrarily carried out within the volume of the medium under consideration, thereby leading to the mathematically sound result.The paper analyzes the hypotheses listed above. The main feature of analysis is a succesively using concept of bilateralism surface bounding the medium volume of the arbitrary finite dimensions. The analysis allowed us to reveal the physical adequacy of the considered hypotheses, derive the appropriate differential equations for the basic vector fields of magnetostatics and obtain a new condition. The resulting condition for the closedness of magnetization currents is recorded in entire compliance with the well-known Gauss electrostatic law, which avoids the need for additional, but not always reasonable assumptions.

  14. Electronic imaging fundamentals: basic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, K N

    1983-01-01

    Introduction of the computer into the field of medical imaging, as typified by the extensive use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), created an important need for a basic understanding of the principles of digital imaging. This paper reviews these fundamental principles, starting with the definition of images and the interaction of these images with television display systems, then continuing with a detailed description of the way in which imaging systems are specified. This work defines the basic terms and concepts that will be used throughout the contents of this issue.

  15. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  16. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  17. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  18. Finite elements for analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Akin, J E; Davenport, J H

    1994-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee

  19. Chemical basis of metabolic network organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the metabolic networks of the three domains of life consist of different constituents and metabolic pathways, they exhibit the same scale-free organization. This phenomenon has been hypothetically explained by preferential attachment principle that the new-recruited metabolites attach preferentially to those that are already well connected. However, since metabolites are usually small molecules and metabolic processes are basically chemical reactions, we speculate that the metabolic network organization may have a chemical basis. In this paper, chemoinformatic analyses on metabolic networks of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. It was found that there exist qualitative and quantitative correlations between network topology and chemical properties of metabolites. The metabolites with larger degrees of connectivity (hubs are of relatively stronger polarity. This suggests that metabolic networks are chemically organized to a certain extent, which was further elucidated in terms of high concentrations required by metabolic hubs to drive a variety of reactions. This finding not only provides a chemical explanation to the preferential attachment principle for metabolic network expansion, but also has important implications for metabolic network design and metabolite concentration prediction.

  20. Analysis of Data on Xanthan Fermentation in Stationary Phase Using Black Box and Metabolic Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红武; 赵学明; 唐寅杰

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan fermentation data in the stationary phase was analyzed using the black box and the metabolic network models. The data consistency ls checked through the elemental balance in the black box model. In the metabolic network model, the metabolic flux distribution in the cell is calculated using the metabolic flux analysis method, then the maintenance coefficients is calculated.

  1. Glucose and fatty acid metabolism in a 3 tissue in-vitro model challenged with normo- and hyperglycaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Iori

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance in the human body is maintained through systemic signaling between different cells and tissues. Breaking down this circuitry to its most basic elements and reconstructing the metabolic network in-vitro provides a systematic method to gain a better understanding of how cross-talk between the organs contributes to the whole body metabolic profile and of the specific role of each different cell type. To this end, a 3-way connected culture of hepatocytes, adipose tissue and endothelial cells representing a simplified model of energetic substrate metabolism in the visceral region was developed. The 3-way culture was shown to maintain glucose and fatty acid homeostasis in-vitro. Subsequently it was challenged with insulin and high glucose concentrations to simulate hyperglycaemia. The aim was to study the capacity of the 3-way culture to maintain or restore normal circulating glucose concentrations in response to insulin and to investigate the effects these conditions on other metabolites involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The results show that the system's metabolic profile changes dramatically in the presence of high concentrations of glucose, and that these changes are modulated by the presence of insulin. Furthermore, we observed an increase in E-selectin levels in hyperglycaemic conditions and increased IL-6 concentrations in insulin-free-hyperglycaemic conditions, indicating, respectively, endothelial injury and proinflammatory stress in the challenged 3-way system.

  2. Finite element methods a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whiteley, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical applications of the finite element method to general differential equations. The underlying strategy of deriving the finite element solution is introduced using linear ordinary differential equations, thus allowing the basic concepts of the finite element solution to be introduced without being obscured by the additional mathematical detail required when applying this technique to partial differential equations. The author generalizes the presented approach to partial differential equations which include nonlinearities. The book also includes variations of the finite element method such as different classes of meshes and basic functions. Practical application of the theory is emphasised, with development of all concepts leading ultimately to a description of their computational implementation illustrated using Matlab functions. The target audience primarily comprises applied researchers and practitioners in engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  3. Predicting Grades in Basic Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elise

    1994-01-01

    Data from (n=470) students at Owens Technical College in Fall 1991 showed that high school GPA was the best predictor of grades in Basic Algebra, followed by high school rank, college GPA, ACT natural sciences, ASSET numerical skills, and ASSET elementary algebra scores. (11 references) (SW)

  4. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to manage. The basic fact is healthy teeth and gums are essential for: n Preventing infections which may cause MS symptoms to increase n ... person clenches his or her jaws or “grinds” teeth, usually during the night n ... and periodontitis are infections, each of which can be made worse by ...

  5. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring...

  6. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  7. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Statistics Center . How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2015, ...

  8. Guarani Basic Course, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This volume of the basic course in Guarani (the indigenous language of Paraguay) contains the core stage, or class-instructional phase, of the ten units presented in Volume One. These units contain explanations, exercises, dialogues, various types of pattern drills, suggestions for games and communication activities, and various types of…

  9. Guarani Basic Course, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…

  10. The Measurement of Basic Stuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, James G., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven articles contain information about measurement and evaluation in physical education and sport and complement the "Basic Stuff" series. They focus on (1) student self-assessment for exercise physiology; (2) monitoring motor development; (3) biomechanical analysis; and (4) measurements of aesthetic qualities, psychosocial…

  11. Emergency medicine: beyond the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1997-07-01

    Medical emergencies can arise in the dental office. Preparedness for these emergencies is predicated on an ability to rapidly recognize a problem and to effectively institute prompt and proper management. In all emergency situations, management is based on implementation of basic life support, as needed. The author describes the appropriate management of two common emergency situations: allergy and chest pain.

  12. Basic research in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, E.; Rathmell, W.K.; Junker, K.; Brannon, A.R.; Pouliot, F.; Finley, D.S.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kirkali, Z.; Uemura, H.; Belldegrun, A.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

  13. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  14. Women in Adult Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)

  15. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  16. Basic Income on the Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Loek; Veen, van der Robert-Jan

    2000-01-01

    Persisting unemployment, poverty and social exclusion, labour market flexibility, job insecurity and higher wage inequality, changing patterns of work and family life are among the factors that exert pressure on welfare states in Europe. This book explores the potential of an unconditional basic inc

  17. Basic types of plant layout

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, Julio; Docente FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Basic formats plant layout shown, considering the criteria to be taken into account in each of the formats.  Se muestra los formatos básicos de la distribución de planta, considerando los criterios que se deben tomar en cuenta en cada uno de los formatos.

  18. Predictions of synthesizing element 119 and 120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The evaporation residue cross sections of synthesizing superheavy nuclei Z=119, 120 are calculated by different sets of master equations with different dynamical variables. Two methods basically predicted similar results that the Ca induced hot fusion can 48 produce element 119 easier than produce 120, and the evaporation residue cross sections for 119 are detectable by current advanced techniques, while the evaporation residue cross sections are below 0.1 pb for producing element 120.

  19. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  20. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  2. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  3. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  4. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  5. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  6. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  7. Generalized Stieltjes transforms: basic aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    The paper surveys the basic properties of generalized Stieltjes functions including some new ones. We introduce the notion of exact Stieltjes order and give a criterion of exactness, simple sufficient conditions and some prototypical examples. The paper includes an appendix, where we define the left sided Riemann-Liouville and the right sided Kober-Erdelyi fractional integrals of measures supported on half axis and give inversion formulas for them.

  8. Basic emotions - self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    We start from basic emotions using Paul Ekman’s model (1999): joy, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust, fear and contempt, to study the concepts of Self- Awareness - Knowing our own emotions - (Goleman, 1995), and Emotional Awareness - Ability to become aware of one's own emotions - (Bisquerra, 2001). Objectives: To understand the levels of Emotional Self-awareness/ Emotional awareness of a group of preschool, primary and lower secondary school teachers through the identifi...

  9. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  10. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  11. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  12. Basic Studies in Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    close to a Maxwellian parametrized by a temperature T and mean velocity u which satisfy certain non -linear equations, which are the macroscopic equations...Simulations with Particle-to-Grid Methods 17 E. Microscopic-Shock Profiles: Exact Solution of a Non -Equilibrium System 18 IV. List of Publications...Investigator ABSTRACT An improved understanding of equilibrium and non -equilibrium properties of plasmas is central to many areas of basic science as

  13. RF Basics I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's equations are introduced in their general form, together with a basic set of mathematical operations needed to work with them. After simplifying and adapting the equations for application to radio frequency problems, we derive the most important formulae and characteristic quantities for cavities and waveguides. Several practical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the derived equations and to explain the importance of the most common figures of merit.

  14. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  15. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  16. Alcohol abuse and glycoconjugate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycoconjugate metabolism is complex and multidimensional. This review summarizes the advances in basic and clinical research on the molecular and cellular events involved in the metabolic effects of alcohol on glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. We summarize the action of ethanol, acetaldehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS, nonoxidative metabolite of alcohol — fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and the ethanol-water competition mechanism, on glycoconjugate biosynthesis, modification, transport and secretion, as well as on elimination and catabolism processes. As the majority of changes in the cellular metabolism of glycoconjugates are generally ascribed to alterations in synthesis, transport, glycosylation and secretion, the degradation and elimination processes, of which the former occurs also in extracellular matrix, seem to be underappreciated. The pathomechanisms are additionally complicated by the fact that the effect of alcohol intoxication on the glycoconjugate metabolism depends not only on the duration of ethanol exposure, but also demonstrates dose- and regional-sensitivity. Further research is needed to bridge the gap in transdisciplinary research and enhance our understanding of alcohol- and glycoconjugate-related diseases.

  17. On Three Elements in Productive Skills Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2015-01-01

    Teaching productive skills are challenging components in English teaching.To explore proper methods to teach them,this essay will discuss a basic teaching model from the perspectives of three elements,tying to propose some advice for English teachers.

  18. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  19. Photoshop Elements 10 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Elements 10 offers much of Photoshop's power without the huge price tag. It's a great tool for most image-editing buffs-whether you're a photographer, scrapbooker, or aspiring graphic artist. But Elements still doesn't come with a useful manual. This bestselling book helps you get the most out of the program, from the basics to advanced tips for both Windows and Mac users. The important stuff you need to know: Quickly learn your way around. Customize Elements to suit your working style.Get to work right away. Import, organize, and make quick image fixes with ease.Retouch any image. Learn how

  20. Studying Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guannan, Liu

    facilitated the characterization of viruses, plasmids and membrane vesicles. Studying the interactions between Sulfolobus and extrachromosomal genetic elements has provided many new insights into basic molecular processes. Secreted membrane vesicle seems to be a common characteristic for Sulfolobus. In order...... of random chromosomal fragments, including IS elements. The results suggest that membrane vesicles could serve as vehicles for the inter-cellular transport of genetic material. A variant of ATV, ATV2, was isolated that infected a newly isolated Sulfolobus solfataricus P3 strain. Comparative genomics......, whereas the deactivation of pKEF9 in S. solfataricus was caused by mobile elements after it had integrated into the host genome....

  1. Electrical machine analysis using finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I

  2. Photoshop Elements 9 the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Elements 9 offers much of Photoshop's power without the huge price tag. It's an ideal tool for most image-editing buffs -- including scrapbookers, photographers, and aspiring graphic artists. But Elements still doesn't come with a decent manual. This bestselling book will help you get the most out of the program, from the basics to advanced tips for both Windows and Mac. Quickly learn your way around. Customize Elements to suit your working style.Get to work right away. Import, organize, and make quick image fixes with ease.Retouch any image. Learn how to repair and restore your old and damag

  3. CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS FOR A NONCONFORMING MEMBRANE ELEMENT ON ANISOTROPIC MESHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-yang Shi; Shao-chun Chen; Ichiro Hagiwara

    2005-01-01

    Regular assumption of finite element meshes is a basic condition of most analysis of finite element approximations both for conventional conforming elements and nonconforming elements. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach of dealing with the approximation of a four-degree nonconforming finite element for the second order elliptic problems on the anisotropic meshes. The optimal error estimates of energy norm and L2-norm without the regular assumption or quasi-uniform assumption are obtained based on some new special features of this element discovered herein. Numerical results are given to demonstrate validity of our theoretical analysis.

  4. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  5. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  6. The Basics of Basic Education: Reflections on the Review and Updating of Basic Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Coll

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This lecture presents a reflection on the fundamental content of the basic education curriculum. The arguments set forth within the Spanish educational context may be divided into three main categories. The first refers to the contradictions in the decision making processes regarding what should be taught and what should be learned in basic education, and in which the requirement to attend to the needs of new social, economic and technological scenarios call for the incorporation of new content in the curriculum, but the accumulation of curricular contents makes it practically impossible for them to be taught and learned. Secondly, the author ponders some aspects or dimensions that acquire a special relevance in the new perspective of the basic education curriculum and in which concepts of content such as “indispensable basic” and “desirable basic” are discussed as criteria for decision making. Finally, in the third category, a succinct diagram is presented as an example based on the concepts of literacy, competency and knowledge associated with the acquisition and development of the capacities that illustrate this new perspective.

  7. Trace elements: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, J

    1980-01-01

    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  8. Profiling metabolic networks to study cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Karsten; Metallo, Christian M

    2013-02-01

    Cancer is a disease of unregulated cell growth and survival, and tumors reprogram biochemical pathways to aid these processes. New capabilities in the computational and bioanalytical characterization of metabolism have now emerged, facilitating the identification of unique metabolic dependencies that arise in specific cancers. By understanding the metabolic phenotype of cancers as a function of their oncogenic profiles, metabolic engineering may be applied to design synthetically lethal therapies for some tumors. This process begins with accurate measurement of metabolic fluxes. Here we review advanced methods of quantifying pathway activity and highlight specific examples where these approaches have uncovered potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  9. [Basic science and applied science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  10. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox & Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmorduc, Vinca; Benveniste, Jerome; Breebaart, Leo; Bronner, Emilie; Dinardo, Salvatore; Earith, Didier; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Niejmeier, Sander; Picot, Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data, including the last mission launched, CryoSat. It has been available from April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. Nearly 1200 people downloaded it (as of end of June 2010), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them. Users' feedbacks, developments in altimetry, and practice, showed that new interesting features could be added. Some have been added and/or improved in version 2. Others are ongoing, some are in discussion. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason- 1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat and also the future Saral and Sentinel 3 missions, - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool both, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data, additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. BRAT is developed under contract with ESA and CNES. It is available at http://www.altimetry.info and http://earth.esa.int/brat/

  11. 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis: An Accurate Approach to Demystify Microbial Metabolism for Biochemical Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic engineering of various industrial microorganisms to produce chemicals, fuels, and drugs has raised interest since it is environmentally friendly, sustainable, and independent of nonrenewable resources. However, microbial metabolism is so complex that only a few metabolic engineering efforts have been able to achieve a satisfactory yield, titer or productivity of the target chemicals for industrial commercialization. In order to overcome this challenge, 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA has been continuously developed and widely applied to rigorously investigate cell metabolism and quantify the carbon flux distribution in central metabolic pathways. In the past decade, many 13C-MFA studies have been performed in academic labs and biotechnology industries to pinpoint key issues related to microbe-based chemical production. Insightful information about the metabolic rewiring has been provided to guide the development of the appropriate metabolic engineering strategies for improving the biochemical production. In this review, we will introduce the basics of 13C-MFA and illustrate how 13C-MFA has been applied via integration with metabolic engineering to identify and tackle the rate-limiting steps in biochemical production for various host microorganisms

  12. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    This article describes and defines a number of basic concepts that are commonly used in archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, sometimes in particular ways, and attempts to clarify some of the issues of confusion that frequently arise. It is aimed primarily at archaeologists and ethnographers entering or exploring the field and emphasizes the broad principles that are generally of importance to them, while trying to avoid unnecessary complications as well as technical details. It is not aimed at those studying historical sources from antiquity onward, who need a more sophisticated knowledge of positional astronomy, mathematically formulated. Further detail can be found in a variety of sources, including a number aimed specifically at archaeoastronomers.

  13. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  14. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  15. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  16. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo

  17. Writing analytic element programs in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A

    2009-01-01

    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems.

  18. Metabolism disrupting chemicals and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Blumberg, Bruce; Cave, Mathew; Machtinger, Ronit; Mantovani, Alberto; Mendez, Michelle A; Nadal, Angel; Palanza, Paola; Panzica, Giancarlo; Sargis, Robert; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick

    2017-03-01

    The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes(T2D), liver lipid disorders and metabolic syndrome have largely been attributed to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. However, there is now considerable evidence that other environmental factors may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of these metabolic diseases. This review will examine changes to the incidence of obesity, T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the contribution of genetics to these disorders and describe the role of the endocrine system in these metabolic disorders. It will then specifically focus on the role of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the etiology of obesity, T2D and NAFLD while finally integrating the information on EDCs on multiple metabolic disorders that could lead to metabolic syndrome. We will specifically examine evidence linking EDC exposures during critical periods of development with metabolic diseases that manifest later in life and across generations.

  19. The application of 10CFR830. 120 in a basic research environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1991-04-01

    In this paper, I describe the process of applying the 10 basic criteria of the proposed 10CFR830.120 to a basic research environment like Fermilab and discuss some of the issues associated with the implementation of such a program. I will also discuss some of the differences and similarities between the 18 basic elements of NQA-1 and the 10 criteria of 10CFR830.120 along with the more philosophical'' issues associated with performance versus process- based approach to quality in basic research.

  20. Basic entwinements: unassuming analogue inserts in basic digital modeling (courses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    to diverse inter-active discussions and a more conscious re-plays of material transcending the dichotomies of digital/analogue. Keywords Simple didactics, analogue sketching, cognitive space awareness, digital modelling, bachelor first year, morphology of body and space, pataphysics...... between the various intentions and the student’s actual grasp of the many basic architectural element’s interplays of form and space can become apparent. To alleviate, calibrate and cognitively fine-tune the potential for more acute and lasting cognitive understandings of (scaled) body and space...... of options for speedily produced material for various attuned and conscious, supplementary oblique architectural assessments. The simple procedure(s) advance a certain amount of beneficial cognitive complementarities: Beneficial interplay-changes between right and left brain concentrations; Change...

  1. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  2. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  3. 78 FR 59121 - Basic Health Program: State Administration of Basic Health Programs; Eligibility and Enrollment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... 42 CFR Part 600 Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Part 144 Basic Health Program: State Administration of... Standard Health Plans; Performance Standards for Basic Health Programs; Premium and Cost Sharing for Basic... CFR Part 144 RIN 0938-AR93 Basic Health Program: State Administration of Basic Health...

  4. Mitochondrial Sirtuins and Their Relationships with Metabolic Disease and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Maintenance of metabolic homeostasis is critical for cellular and organismal health. Proper regulation of mitochondrial functions represents a crucial element of overall metabolic homeostasis. Mitochondrial sirtuins (SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5) play pivotal roles in promoting this homeostasis by regulating numerous aspects of mitochondrial metabolism in response to environmental stressors. Recent Advances: New work has illuminated multiple links between mitochondrial sirtuins and c...

  5. A Family of Uniform Strain Tetrahedral Elements and a Method for Connecting Dissimilar Finite Element Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a collection of papers on a family of uniform strain tetrahedral finite elements and their connection to different element types. Also included in the report are two papers which address the general problem of connecting dissimilar meshes in two and three dimensions. Much of the work presented here was motivated by the development of the tetrahedral element described in the report "A Suitable Low-Order, Eight-Node Tetrahedral Finite Element For Solids," by S. W. Key {ital et al.}, SAND98-0756, March 1998. Two basic issues addressed by the papers are: (1) the performance of alternative tetrahedral elements with uniform strain and enhanced uniform strain formulations, and (2) the proper connection of tetrahedral and other element types when two meshes are "tied" together to represent a single continuous domain.

  6. [Copper metabolism and genetic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Norikazu

    2016-07-01

    Copper is one of essential trace elements. Copper deficiency lead to growth and developmental failure and/or neurological dysfunction. However, excess copper is also problems for human life. There are two disorders of inborn error of copper metabolism, Menkes disease and Wilson disease. Menkes disease is an X linked recessive disorder with copper deficiency and Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with copper accumulation. These both disorders result from the defective functioning of copper transport P-type ATPase, ATP7A of Menkes disease and ATP7B of Wilson disease. In this paper, the author describes about copper metabolism of human, and clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment of Menkes disease and Wilson disease.

  7. Probe into the Elements of Leisure Sports Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaixian; Gao, Qun

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the basic elements of leisure sports practice by referencing literature materials and logic analyses. Studies show that leisure sports practice consists of six elements, including leisure sports ideas, leisure sports environment, leisure sports time, leisure sports activity, leisure sports skill, and leisure sports state.…

  8. Basic Information about BCI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noshadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain Computer Interface (BCI systems establish a one way communication link between man and computer. The main goal of this technology is to provide a link between the brain and the physical world without any physical contact. Indeed these systems interlink thought to action. As the result, the user would be able to control the environment via brain signals. Electro-Encephalogram Signals (EEG is input signals for these systems that include two main stages for processing of those signals, feature extraction and classification. Almost researches in this field are done to find what feature extracting methods and classifier are suitable. As regard spread of the existing information in this field, in this study, we first introduce a BCI system and then try to collect and organize the most needed information for processing EEG signals in BCIs. This study with having sufficient references presents the basic information for researchers who want to start their studying in this field.

  9. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, and find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.

  10. Economic analysis: A basic primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical knowledge is advancing at an incredible rate. This rapid increase in the fundamental understanding of disease states has led to some important breakthroughs in care over the past ten years and will undoubtedly lead to untold more. At the same time that we are being presented with more options for diagnosis and treatment, governments around the world are fighting to reduce deficit spending and inflation. As a direct result of this combination of reduced spending and increased options for care, medical professionals are being asked to provide more effective care more efficiently. The randomized control trial may be the best way to determine the effectiveness of different options, however, only a full economic analysis can help decide which option is more efficient. This paper is intended to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the methods used to perform a full economic analysis.

  11. Basic sciences of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Magdy M. (ed.) [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Biological Imaging Centre

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has become an ever-changing and expanding diagnostic and therapeutic medical profession. The day-to-day innovations seen in the field are, in great part, due to the integration of many scientific bases with complex technologic advances. The aim of this reference book, Basic Sciences of Nuclear Medicine, is to provide the reader with a comprehensive and detailed discussion of the scientific bases of nuclear medicine, covering the different topics and concepts that underlie many of the investigations and procedures performed in the field. Topics include radiation and nuclear physics, Tc-99m chemistry, single-photon radiopharmaceuticals and PET chemistry, radiobiology and radiation dosimetry, image processing, image reconstruction, quantitative SPECT imaging, quantitative cardiac SPECT, small animal imaging (including multimodality hybrid imaging, e.g., PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and PET/MRI), compartmental modeling, and tracer kinetics. (orig.)

  12. Basic Concepts of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  13. Basic algebraic geometry, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    1994-01-01

    Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...

  14. Basic concepts of string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold-Sommerfeld Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik; Theisen, Stefan [Albert-Einstein-Institut (Max-Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik), Golm (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  15. Basic results on braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2010-01-01

    These are Lecture Notes of a course given by the author at the French-Spanish School "Tresses in Pau", held in Pau (France) in October 2009. It is basically an introduction to distinct approaches and techniques that can be used to show results in braid groups. Using these techniques we provide several proofs of well known results in braid groups, namely the correctness of Artin's presentation, that the braid group is torsion free, or that its center is generated by the full twist. We also recall some solutions of the word and conjugacy problems, and that roots of a braid are always conjugate. We also describe the centralizer of a given braid. Most proofs are classical ones, using modern terminology. I have chosen those which I find simpler or more beautiful.

  16. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  17. Digital storytelling teaching robotics basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Scandola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital Storytelling (DST is a powerful tool for teaching complex concepts. DSTs are typically used in the humanities but several papers have shown that they are also a wonderful tool for the sciences because they are more involving, contextualized and can easily lead to deeper understanding. In the classical use of DST the story is thecontent, while the digital medium is the way of telling it. Our approach is slightly different: the story is not the content but a glue for the main contents, while the digital medium remains the way to tell the story. We propose the use of DST as a means to teach surgeons the basics of robotic surgery, by using a story that should be involving forthem, i.e. a surgical operation, within which we will illustrate specific concepts onrobotics in surgery.

  18. [Basic concepts about paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Mellado, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profile of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.

  19. Study on the basic nitrogen compounds from coal-derived oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hui GU; Xue-feng MAO; Yuan ZHAO; Wen-bo LI; Xiao-jing ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The distillation range analysis and elemental analysis of fractioned direct liquefied oil were conducted.Each fraction of liquefied oil contains some nitrogen compounds.Using the acid extraction method and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS),the basic nitrogen compounds have been separated and identified.Compared with the nitrogen content of the liquefied oil before and after separation,the basic nitrogen compounds account for more than half of all nitrogen compounds.The basic nitrogen compounds in the light liquefied oil are easily separated,and contain more types of basic nitrogen compounds.The results also show that there are many basic nitrogen compounds in liquefied oil,such as pyrrole,aniline,pyridine,quinoline and so on.However,there are fewer other types of basic nitrogen compounds.

  20. The elements of life and medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-03-13

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

  1. Technology insight: metabonomics in gastroenterology-basic principles and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Nielsen, Ole H; Wang, Yulan L;

    2008-01-01

    Metabonomics-the study of metabolic changes in an integrated biologic system-is an emerging field. This discipline joins the other 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics) to give rise to a comprehensive, systems-biology approach to the evaluation of holistic in vivo function. Metabonom...... of metabonomics in basic and clinical research, with emphasis on applications in the field of gastroenterology....

  2. Basic symptoms in schizophrenic and affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, H; Gross, G; Klosterkötter, J; Huber, G

    1989-01-01

    The study compares schizophrenic and affective psychoses with regard to basic symptoms. 30 patients in schizophrenic pre-, intra-, and postpsychotic basic stages and 30 patients in endogenous-depressive phases were examined according to the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. The most important result is that certain cognitive basic symptoms and cenesthesias which are decisive for the development of florid productive-psychotic phenomena are found more frequently in the group of schizophrenias.

  3. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to soci

  4. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  5. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need fu

  6. Composite structure of auxin response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmasov, T; Liu, Z B; Hagen, G; Guilfoyle, T J

    1995-10-01

    The auxin-responsive soybean GH3 gene promoter is composed of multiple auxin response elements (AuxREs), and each AuxRE contributes incrementally to the strong auxin inducibility to the promoter. Two independent AuxREs of 25 bp (D1) and 32 bp (D4) contain the sequence TGTCTC. Results presented here show that the TGTCTC element in D1 and D4 is required but not sufficient for auxin inducibility in carrot protoplast transient expression assays. Additional nucleotides upstream of TGTCTC are also required for auxin inducibility. These upstream sequences showed constitutive activity and no auxin inducibility when part or all of the TGTCTC element was mutated or deleted. In D1, the constitutive element overlaps the 5' portion of TGTCTC; in D4, the constitutive element is separated from TGTCTC. An 11-bp element in D1, CCTCGTGTCTC, conferred auxin inducibility to a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco seedlings as well as in carrot protoplasts (i.e., transient expression assays). Both constitutive elements bound specifically to plant nuclear proteins, and the constitutive element in D1 bound to a recombinant soybean basic leucine zipper transcription factor with G-box specificity. To demonstrate further the composite nature of AuxREs and the ability of the TGTCTC element to confer auxin inducibility, we created a novel AuxRE by placing a yeast GAL4 DNA binding site adjacent to the TGTCTC element. Expression of a GAL4-c-Rel transactivator in the presence of this novel AuxRE resulted in auxin-inducible expression. Our results indicate that at least some AuxREs have a composite structure consisting of a constitutive element adjacent to a conserved TGTCTC element that confers auxin inducibility.

  7. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  8. A hybrid transfinite element approach for nonlinear transient thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    A new computational approach for transient nonlinear thermal analysis of structures is proposed. It is a hybrid approach which combines the modeling versatility of contemporary finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. The present study is limited to nonlinearities due to temperature-dependent thermophysical properties. Numerical test cases attest to the basic capabilities and therein validate the transfinite element approach by means of comparisons with conventional finite element schemes and/or available solutions.

  9. Neurobiology of the circadian system: meeting metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of physiology postulated the necessity of the constancy of the internal environment to maintain a physiological equilibrium and do not front serious consequences in health. Now we know that physiology is rhythmic and that a break of this rhythmicity can generate serious consequences in health which even could be lethal. Circadian clocks, headed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the central nervous system, are the responsible for the generation of circadian rhythms. These clocks are affected by external signals as light (day-night cycles and feeding. This review examines the basic principles of the circadian system and the current knowledge in the neurobiology of biological clocks, making emphasis in the relationship between the circadian system, feeding behaviour, nutrition and metabolism, and the consequences that occur when these systems are not coordinated each other, as the development of metabolic and circadian pathologies.

  10. 元素硫对黄铜矿生物浸出行为及群落结构的影响%Relationships among bioleaching performance, additional elemental sulfur,microbial population dynamics and its energy metabolism in bioleaching of chalcopyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏乐先; 汤露; 夏金兰; 尹礎; 柴立元; 赵小娟; 聂珍媛; 柳建设; 邱冠周

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the relationships among bioleaching performance,additional elemental sulfur (S0),microbial population dynamics and its energy metabolism,bioleaching of chalcopyrite by three typical sulfur- and/or iron-oxidizing bacteria,Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans with different levels of sulfur were studied in batch shake flask cultures incubated at 30 ℃.Copper dissolution capability (71%) was increased with the addition of 3.193 g/L S0,compared to that (67%) without S0.However,lower copper extraction was obtained in bioleaching with excessive sulfur.Microbial population dynamics during chalcopyrite bioleaching process was monitored by using PCR-restrietion fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).Additional S0 accelerated the growth of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria,inhibited the iron-oxidizing metabolism and led to the decrease of iron-oxidizing microorganisms,finally affected iron concentration,redox potential and bioleaching performance.It is suggested that mixed iron and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with further optimized additional S0 concentration could improve copper recovery from chalcopyrite.%研究3种典型铁/硫代谢菌-Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,Leptospirillum ferriphilum及Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans混合浸出黄铜矿过程中铁/硫氧化活性、群落结构(PCR-RFLP)的变化,以及不同浓度的元素硫对其影响.结果发现,加入3.193 g/L元素硫能促进细菌的表观硫氧化活性,改变浸矿体系的群落结构,并进一步影响钝化层的形成、金属离子的溶出,其浸出率(71%)较未添加硫的(67%)有一定程度的提高.而过量的元素硫会抑制铜的浸出(浸出率44%).

  11. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S; Winham, Stacey J; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Milic, Natasa M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students' fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists.

  12. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis:Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutz W. Weber; Meinrad Boll; Andreas Stampfl

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at least 30 genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids. SREBPs are synthesized as precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they form a complex with another protein, SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP).The SCAP molecule contains a sterol sensory domain. In the presence of high cellular sterol concentrations SCAP confines SREBP to the ER. With low cellular concentrations, SCAP escorts SREBP to activation in the Golgi. There, SREBP undergoes two proteolytic cleavage steps to release the mature, biologically active transcription factor, nuclear SREBP (nSREBP). nSREBP translocates to the nucleus and binds to sterol response elements (SRE) in the promoter/enhancer regions of target genes. Additional transcription factors are required to activate transcription of these genes. Three different SREBPs are known, SREBPs-1a, -1c and -2. SREBP-1a and -1c are isoforms produced from a single gene by alternate splicing. SREBP-2is encoded by a different gene and does not display any isoforms. It appears that SREBPs alone, in the sequence described above, can exert complete control over cholesterol synthesis, whereas many additional factors (hormones,cytokines, etc.) are required for complete control of lipid metabolism. Medicinal manipulation of the SREBP/SCAP system is expected to prove highly beneficial in the management of cholesterol-related disease.

  13. Basic Energy Sciences Program Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels to provide the foundations for new energy technologies and to support DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research disciplines covered by BES—condensed matter and materials physics, chemistry, geosciences, and aspects of physical biosciences— are those that discover new materials and design new chemical processes. These disciplines touch virtually every aspect of energy resources, production, conversion, transmission, storage, efficiency, and waste mitigation. BES also plans, constructs, and operates world-class scientific user facilities that provide outstanding capabilities for imaging and spectroscopy, characterizing materials of all kinds ranging from hard metals to fragile biological samples, and studying the chemical transformation of matter. These facilities are used to correlate the microscopic structure of materials with their macroscopic properties and to study chemical processes. Such experiments provide critical insights to electronic, atomic, and molecular configurations, often at ultrasmall length and ultrafast time scales.

  14. Diagnostic validity of basic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterkötter, J; Ebel, H; Schultze-Lutter, F; Steinmeyer, E M

    1996-01-01

    Although the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) [13] has come into use in several European countries, its diagnostic validity has not yet been sufficiently examined. That is why we have assessed BSABS items on a sample of 243 consecutive admissions to the Department of Psychiatry at the RWTH University, Aachen, and 79 psychologically healthy persons. Then, a cluster analysis was calculated to identify the empirical item-grouping. Five well-interpretable BSABS subsyndromes were found. In addition, uni- and multivariate analyses were computed to evaluate the diagnostic validity of these subsyndromes. We were able to show that every BSABS subsyndrome separates at least schizophrenic, organic mental and affective disorders from personality, neurotic and substance-induced disorders, as well as from psychological health. Furthermore, the subsyndrome "information processing disturbances" differentiates between schizophrenic and organic mental disorders, on the one hand, and affective disorders, on the other, and additionally, the subsyndrome "interpersonal irritation" between schizophrenics and all other persons examined.

  15. R Basics with Tabular Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Dewar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As more and more historical records are digitized, having a way to quickly analyze large volumes of tabular data makes research faster and more effective. R is a programming language with strengths in statistical analyses. As such, it can be used to complete quantitative analysis on historical sources, including but not limited to statistical tests. Because you can repeatedly re-run the same code on the same sources, R lets you analyze data quickly and produces repeatable results. Because you can save your code, R lets you re-purpose or revise functions for future projects, making it a flexible part of your toolkit. This tutorial presumes no prior knowledge of R. It will go through some of the basic functions of R and serves as an introduction to the language. It will take you through the installation process, explain some of the tools that you can use in R, as well as explain how to work with data sets while doing research. The tutorial will do so by going through a series of mini-lessons that will show the kinds of sources R works well with and examples of how to do calculations to find information that could be relevant to historical research. The lesson will also cover different input methods for R such as matrices and using CSV files.

  16. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig Hansen, M.; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-15

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring smooth switching between the two modes of operation. The partial and full load controllers are both based on classical proportional-integral control theory as well as additional filters such as an optional drive train damper and a notch filter mitigating the influence of rotor speed dependent variations in the feedback. The controller relies on generator speed as the primary feedback sensor. Additionally, the reference generator power is used as a feedback term to smoothen the switching between partial and full load operation. Optionally, a low-pass filtered wind speed measurement can be used for wind speed dependent minimum blade pitch in partial load operation. The controller uses the collective blade pitch angle and electromagnetic generator torque to control the wind turbine. In full load operation a feedback term from the collective blade pitch angle is used to schedule the gains of the proportional-integral controller to counter the effects of changing dynamics of the wind turbine for different wind speeds. Blade pitch servo and generator models are not included in this controller and should be modeled separately, if they are to be included in the simulations. (Author)

  17. Mangiferin modulation of metabolism and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling

    2016-09-10

    The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):492-503, 2016.

  18. Evaluating Metabolic Syndrome in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Rekliti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MS is consisted by a group of interrelated disorders increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes causing diseases and deaths in modern world.Purpose of the current study is to relate the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome parameters in clinical practice.Data sources and methods: The methodology which was used in this study included Greek and international bibliography review with the help of key-words.Results: Bibliography review showed that the criteria for Metabolic Syndrome are not well-defined and vary according to age, gender and race, while new risk factors are identified every day. Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are the basic features of obesity in childhood and adolescence. As a result, the frequency of metabolic disorders constantly increases in overweight or obese children and adolescents and therefore it is necessary for the diagnosis of the syndrome.Conclusions: Metabolic Syndrome management should be based upon an individualized risk assessment and not upon a simple summation and effort in getting treatment separately for each metabolic disorder. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with multiple risk factors will contribute substantially to prevention by adopting a healthy lifestyle and reducing future syndrome complications.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.

  20. Basic earthquake engineering from seismology to analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sucuoğlu, Halûk

    2014-01-01

    This book provides senior undergraduate students, master students and structural engineers who do not have a background in the field with core knowledge of structural earthquake engineering that will be invaluable in their professional lives. The basics of seismotectonics, including the causes, magnitude, and intensity of earthquakes, are first explained. Then the book introduces basic elements of seismic hazard analysis and presents the concept of a seismic hazard map for use in seismic design. Subsequent chapters cover key aspects of the response analysis of simple systems and building struc­tures to earthquake ground motions, design spectrum, the adoption of seismic analysis procedures in seismic design codes, seismic design principles and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. Helpful worked examples on seismic analysis of linear, nonlinear and base isolated buildings, earthquake-resistant design of frame and frame-shear wall systems are included, most of which can be solved using a hand calcu...

  1. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  2. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  3. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesi

  4. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolism. A few of them are: Fructose intolerance Galactosemia Maple sugar urine disease (MSUD) Phenylketonuria (PKU) Newborn ... disorder. Alternative Names Metabolism - inborn errors of Images Galactosemia References Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of ...

  5. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-10-01

    Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

  6. Mineral metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Martos, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    The present Doctoral Thesis wa metabolism in the feline species. Through a series of studies, the relationship between calcium metabolism and the main hormones involved in it has been determined metabolism during the juvenile stage of growing cats effects linked to feeding calculolytic diets on feline mineral metabolism. The first part of the work was aimed the quantification of intact (I-PTH) and whole PTH) and to characterize the dynamics of PTH secretion, including ...

  7. Organizational Learning: Some Basic Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Mihelčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization and not vice versa; second, a good comprehension of basic categories related to the organizational side of (formal social units’ functioning is an imperative part of organizational learning process. In writing this paper, the author started from his experiences acquired in his role as a lecturer on the subject “Theory of Organization”, in which the goal of lecturing was explained to students as gaining knowledge about cooperation and competition of people in the entities of rational production of goods. To generalize the presented questions and answers regarding the use of term “organization” in the field of management, certain similarities and comparisons were sought and found in other fields of science and, more generally, in life itself. After more detailed explanations of other relevant categories for the organizational learning process, the process itself is defined by its goals and steps where the overlapping of the learning process with the organizational change process and the process of increasing organizational capital is shown. Finally, it is also emphasized that the idea of improving internal relationships – as the substance of organization – between employees in a formal social unit through organizational learning could and should be exploited in external relationships between formal social units.

  8. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  9. On Element SDD Approximability

    CERN Document Server

    Avron, Haim; Toledo, Sivan

    2009-01-01

    This short communication shows that in some cases scalar elliptic finite element matrices cannot be approximated well by an SDD matrix. We also give a theoretical analysis of a simple heuristic method for approximating an element by an SDD matrix.

  10. Element-ary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  11. ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL GEOCHEMISTRY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN Betula ermanii FOREST IN CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on catalogue of biology and geochemistry of chemical elements, content characteristics and variation law of the large nutrient elements, the needful trace elements, the uncertain needful elements, the non-needful elements and the toxic elements in Betula ermanii trees are analyzed. The result shows that the content of the large nutrient elements in Betula ermanii trees is higher than that of other kinds of element; the contents of all kinds of elements in foliage with vigorous metabolism are higher than those in other parts; the content variations of the large nutrient elements and the needful trace elements with similar chemical property, geochemical property and biological function in different parts of Betula ermanii trees show the similar laws; but the other three kinds of elements variations are without laws. It is indicated that the variation of the needful elements in the plant follows a certain law, they are in relative equilibrium under undisturbed condition.

  12. Ghrelin in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Pulkkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of related risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and liver disease. Obesity, which has become a global public health problem, is one of the major risk factors for development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a complex disease, caused by the interplay between environmental and genetic factors. Ghrelin is one of the circulating peptides, which stimulates appetite and regulates energy balance, and thus is one of the candidate genes for obesity and T2DM. During the last years both basic research and genetic association studies have revealed association between the ghrelin gene and obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes

  13. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  14. Analysis of basic research in endocrine and metabolic projects granted by National Natural Science Foundation of China%近25年国家自然科学基金资助内分泌代谢领域基础研究的回顾分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝红; 徐岩英

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析自国家自然科学基金委员会(NSFC)成立以来,资助内分泌代谢领域基础研究对该学科发展的作用.方法 收集1987年至2010年NSFC对内分泌代谢领域的资助项目数量、经费、单位分布、连续资助及获得多次资助情况,对近两年已结题项目的完成情况及资助的研究方向进行分析.结果 1987至2010年共资助内分泌代谢领域研究项目731项,资助总金额为1.78亿元,其中面上项目462项,青年科学基金项目187项,地区基金28项,重点项目9项,国家杰出青年基金项目5项,海外学者合作研究基金2项,创新研究群体项目1项,国际合作项目11项,其他项目26项.对2009年至2010年内分泌代谢领域结题的102项资助项目进行的初步分析表明,结题时在SCI收录杂志上发表论文279篇(平均每项2.74篇),在国内核心期刊发表论文236篇(平均每项2.3篇),培养博士后8名,博士研究生169名,硕士研究生227名.结论近25年来,NSFC对内分泌代谢领域的资助呈持续、稳定增长的态势,尤其是研究类、人才类项目增加较多,获得资助的单位数量逐年增多,取得了较好的研究成果,促进了内分泌代谢领域的基础研究、人才培养和学科发展.%Objective To investigate the effect of National Natural Science Foundation ( NSFC ) on the progress of the discipline of endocrine and metabolic research from 1987 to 2010.Methods The data regarding the NSFC allocated to endocrine and metabolic research from 1987 to 2010 were collected.Total expenses and numbers of the majority of programs,unit distribution,times of funding and the situation of completed program finished in recent two years were provided.Results From 1987 to 2010,a total of 731 projects and 178 398 thousands Yuan expenses of NSFC were allocated to endocrine and metabolic research.The detailed allocations are as follows:general program ( n =462 ),Young Scientists Fund ( n =187 ),regional fund ( n =28 ),Key

  15. PRONET: Basic concepts of a system of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work are expounded the principles and basic elements of a system of artificial intelligence. Knowledge representation develops according to the method settled for processing. A thing, a phenomenon can be determined or established by more modules subject to their state as well as the links and relations between them. The system creates a set of blocks (modules for which the concurrent work is pre- established. The volume of knowledge can be also increased without increasing the number of blocks.

  16. Characterization of proton production and consumption associated with microbial metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production or consumption of protons in growth medium during microbial metabolism plays an important role in determining the pH of the environment. Such pH changes resulting from microbial metabolism may influence the geochemical speciation of many elements in subsurface environments. Protons produced or consumed during microbial growth were measured by determining the amount of acid or base added in a 5 L batch bioreactor equipped with pH control for different species including Escherichia coli, Geobacter sulfurreducens, and Geobacter metallireducens. Results An in silico model was used to predict the proton secretion or consumption rates and the results were compared with the data. The data was found to confirm predictions of proton consumption during aerobic growth of E. coli with acetate as the carbon source. However, in contrast to proton consumption observed during aerobic growth of E. coli with acetate, proton secretion was observed during growth of Geobacter species with acetate as the donor and Fe(III as the extracellular electron acceptor. Conclusions In this study, we have also shown that the final pH of the medium can be either acidic or basic depending on the choice of the electron acceptor for the same electron donor. In all cases, the in silico model could predict qualitatively the proton production/consumption rates obtained from the experimental data. Therefore, measurements of pH equivalents generated or consumed during growth can help characterize the microbial physiology further and can be valuable for optimizing practical applications such as microbial fuel cells, where growth associated pH changes can limit current generation rates.

  17. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized. Research topics include: Molar enthalpies of formation of BaCmO{sub 3} and BaCfO{sub 3}; luminescence of europium oxychloride at various pressures; and anti-stokes luminescence of selected actinide (III) compounds. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The elements of grammar in 90 minutes

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Robert

    2011-01-01

    An eminent scholar explains the essentials of English grammar to those who never studied the basics as well as those who need a refresher course. Inspired by Strunk & White's classic The Elements of Style, this user-friendly guide focuses exclusively on grammar, explaining the individual parts of speech and their proper arrangement in sentence form. A modest investment of 90 minutes can provide readers of all ages with simple but important tools that will improve their communication skills. Dover (2011) original publication.

  19. Basic research in solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    heated at a 'basal' rate that is also found in the centers of solar supergranules, and using the Doppler-imaging technique to measure the position, size, and brightness of stellar active regions. We are computing multi-component models for solar and stellar atmospheres, and models for coronal loops and for the transition-region down flows. The study of solar and stellar flares permits us to assess the role of turbulent energy transport, to pinpoint the mechanism behind Type I radio bursts, to determine whether plasma radiation or cyclotron maser is responsible for microwave flares on M dwarfs, and to extend our knowledge of the basic physics pertinent to cyclotron-maser processes operating on the Sun.

  20. Basic needs: a survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afxentiou, P C

    1990-01-01

    Poverty is widespread and significant in developing countries. As world poverty expands and the gap between rich and poor widens, advocates increasingly support development policies designed to help the poor meet basic needs. Policies generally followed since the second World War have contributed to GNP growth but fail to reduce income inequalities and noticeably improve life for the poor. This paper discusses the evolution of basic needs as a concept and policy goal, the conflict between basic needs and growth, the impact of basic needs on population and popular participation, and results of empirical studies. Basic needs policies may be humanitarian, but evidence supports neither their ability to promote growth, control population, nor encourage popular participation. Basic needs policies are nonetheless noble and challenge us to face poverty as a universal problem.

  1. The Gastrointestinal Tract: an Initial Organ of Metabolic Hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important global public-health challenge because of its high prevalence and concomitant risks for cardiovascular and kidney diseases. More than 60% of the risk factors for hypertension are associated with metabolic disorders. Furthermore, many metabolic risk factors can directly cause the vascular dysfunction and the elevated blood pressure. Metabolic disorders not only increase the risk for hypertension but also participate in the development of hypertension. Thus, some types of hypertension induced by metabolic disturbances can be defined as metabolic hypertension. However, the pathogenesis of metabolic hypertension remains largely unknown. The gastrointestinal tract is a unique gate through which external food, metabolites, and microbes enter the human body. Thus, metabolism-related risk factors may affect blood pressure through the gastrointestinal tract and alter processes such as taste perception, mucosal absorption, gut hormone homeostasis, GI nerve activity, and gut microbiota. Meanwhile, gastrointestinal intervention through dietary approaches, gut microbiota modification, and metabolic surgery could profoundly improve or remit the vascular dysfunction and metabolic hypertension. It suggests that the GI tract could be an initial organ of metabolic hypertension. However, more clinical and basic studies are necessary to further validate this novel concept.

  2. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  3. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  4. Musikalske elementer i musikaler

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linnea Reitan

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven undersøker hvordan musikalske elementer kan bli brukt i musikaler for å påvirke den dramaturgiske helheten. Gjennom både musikalsk og dramaturgisk analyse viser jeg hvordan elementer i musikk kan ha innvirkning på forestillingens dramaturgi. In this master thesis I am aiming to examine the musical elements used in the songs in musicals. Music is an important element in the musical, and therefore I want to look at how some musical elements can contribute to the musical'...

  5. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to social atoms. The concepts that play a role in n-networks form the majority of the concepts added in this paper.

  6. Sustained metabolic scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C C; Nagy, K A; Diamond, J

    1990-03-01

    Sustained metabolic rates (SusMR) are time-averaged metabolic rates that are measured in free-ranging animals maintaining constant body mass over periods long enough that metabolism is fueled by food intake rather than by transient depletion of energy reserves. Many authors have suggested that SusMR of various wild animal species are only a few times resting (basal or standard) metabolic rates (RMR). We test this conclusion by analyzing all 37 species (humans, 31 other endothermic vertebrates, and 5 ectothermic vertebrates) for which SusMR and RMR had both been measured. For all species, the ratio of SusMR to RMR, which we term sustained metabolic scope, is less than 7; most values fall between 1.5 and 5. Some of these values, such as those for Tour de France cyclists and breeding birds, are surely close to sustainable metabolic ceilings for the species studied. That is, metabolic rates higher than 7 times RMR apparently cannot be sustained indefinitely. These observations pose several questions: whether the proximate physiological causes of metabolic ceilings reside in the digestive tract's ability to process food or in each tissue's metabolic capacity; whether ceiling values are independent of the mode of energy expenditure; whether ceilings are set by single limiting physiological capacities or by coadjusted clusters of capacities (symmorphosis); what the ultimate evolutionary causes of metabolic ceilings are; and how metabolic ceilings may limit animals' reproductive effort, foraging behavior, and geographic distribution.

  7. Expanding the metabolic engineering toolbox with directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatemarco, Joseph; Hill, Andrew; Alper, Hal S

    2013-12-01

    Cellular systems can be engineered into factories that produce high-value chemicals from renewable feedstock. Such an approach requires an expanded toolbox for metabolic engineering. Recently, protein engineering and directed evolution strategies have started to play a growing and critical role within metabolic engineering. This review focuses on the various ways in which directed evolution can be applied in conjunction with metabolic engineering to improve product yields. Specifically, we discuss the application of directed evolution on both catalytic and non-catalytic traits of enzymes, on regulatory elements, and on whole genomes in a metabolic engineering context. We demonstrate how the goals of metabolic pathway engineering can be achieved in part through evolving cellular parts as opposed to traditional approaches that rely on gene overexpression and deletion. Finally, we discuss the current limitations in screening technology that hinder the full implementation of a metabolic pathway-directed evolution approach.

  8. METABOLIC WAR: A VARIATION FOR METABOLIC BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING OF A WORLDLY KNOWN BOARD GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Anjos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical careers are highly wished by young students in Brazil. Although future jobs,  academic knowledge and higher earnings  are tempting reasons for this life choice, few of them are aware  of  the difficult path through the  basic classes. Advanced and specific disciplines  are easier to associate with the professional career itself, but few students can identify the importance  of the basic knowledge for their future work. Biochemistry is one of the most difficult  disciplines  for Brazilian students, probably due to the level of abstraction needed to fully learn and understand the topics. Some recent experimental tools, such as bioinformatics, are now helping students with the learning process, providing visual data for understanding biomolecule structure.  In addition to this, biochemical reactions  could be even tougher because of the many variables involved.  To facilitate the learning process for metabolic biochemistry, we created a game based on the board game WAR®,  using Photoshop software. Named Metabolic War, it keeps the same basic rules of WAR®, but with some minor changes. The continents are metabolic pathways (citric acid cycle, glycolysis, beta-oxidation, etc and the countries are metabolic intermediates. Similarly to the original game, players must conquer an objective (one or more metabolic pathways by dominating intermediates. But the desired intermediate must be a possible product from an intermediate the player already owns. This  and other  games were produced by Biomedicine  undergraduate  students  in Metabolic Biochemistry classes. It was presented to other students, who tested and acknowledged it as a great help in understanding metabolic biochemistry,  giving a great understanding of integrative metabolism. Keywords: game; Biochemistry; Metabolic Biochemistry learning; science learning; playful learning.

  9. Electronics Technology. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Guy

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 20 terminal objectives for a basic electronics technology course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily) designed to include instruction in basic electricity and electronic fundamentals, and to develop skills and…

  10. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  11. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37.1240 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts... practical application of that knowledge and understanding. It typically is funded within...

  12. Teaching Basic Writers: The Personality Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Reviews research on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator's (MBTI's) use in personalizing the basic writing curriculum. Describes an MBTI-based study of personality and writing performance in a basic writing class. Identifies ways MBTI results can inform teacher feedback and the use of prewriting, small groups, computers, and essay tests. (DMM)

  13. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the social atom, stood central. In this second paper social structures and processes are focused upon.

  14. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the soci

  15. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.2 Basic guidelines. This part implements the Privacy Act of...

  16. Essentials of Basic Writing Pedagogy for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Reabeka

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing paradigm shift in librarianship that prompts the application of pedagogy throughout our professional practice. In light of the special attention to basic writing development in community college curricula, this article provides an overview of basic writing pedagogy. It discusses the overall college-level writing and research…

  17. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  18. Visual Basic Applications to Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitu, Catalin; Inpuscatu, Razvan Constantin; Viziru, Marilena

    2011-01-01

    Derived from basic language, VB (Visual Basic) is a programming language focused on the video interface component. With graphics and functional components implemented, the programmer is able to bring and use their components to achieve the desired application in a relatively short time. Language VB is a useful tool in physics teaching by creating…

  19. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  20. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All...

  1. Metabolic aspects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bonsignore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS and could contribute to cardiovascular risk in OSAS. Sleep loss and intermittent hypoxia could contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic alterations associated with obesity, a common feature of OSAS. The biology of the adipocyte is being increasingly studied, and it has been found that hypoxia negatively affects adipocyte function. In November 2007, the European Respiratory Society and two EU COST Actions (Cardiovascular risk in OSAS (B26 and Adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome (BM0602, held a Research Seminar in Düsseldorf, Germany, to discuss the following: 1 the effects of hypoxia on glucose metabolism and adipocyte function; 2 the role of inflammatory activation in OSAS and obesity; 3 the alarming rates of obesity and OSAS in children; 4 the harmful effects of the metabolic syndrome in OSAS; 5 the effects of OSAS treatment on metabolic variables; and 6 the relationship between daytime sleepiness and hormonal and inflammatory responses. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, the role of the endocannabinoid system and novel pharmacological approaches to treat insulin resistance were also discussed. As obesity and hypoxia could be the basic links between OSAS and adipocyte dysfunction, further research is needed to translate these new data into clinical practice.

  2. Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J; Barros, L Felipe

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+) gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na(+) -dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na(+) load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na(+) extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na(+) following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na(+) as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na(+) and the metabolic machinery. GLIA 2016;64:1667-1676.

  3. Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-31

    The Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na+-dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na+ load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na+ extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na+ following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na+ as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na+ and the metabolic machinery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of composite structural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The themes of the study are composite structural components. For this purpose have been designed and built several research positions.Design/methodology/approach: Using different structural materials to build new device components requires multiple tests of the components. Research posts were designed in the advanced graphical program CAx Siemens NX 7.5. Analysed samples were made from the glass fibre, aramid and carbon of various weights. Due to the specific use of composite materials it focuses on the elements in the form of plates and flat bars. For the examination of experimental strain gauge technique was used bead, the force sensor and displacement sensor. The experimental methods were compared with computer simulation using the FEM.Findings: The aim of this study was to determine the basic material constants and a comparison of the experimental method and the method of computer simulation.Research limitations/implications: Change the number of layers and how to connect the laminate with the steel plate changes mechanical properties of the structural component.Practical implications: The ultimate result will be knowledge on the different forms of laminates, such as material properties, the stresses in all layers, strain and comparing the results obtained by two methods.Originality/value: The expected outcome of the study will be the composition and method of joining composite laminate with a steel plate to the possible application in the repair and construction of structural elements of freight wagons.

  5. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  6. The compositional and evolutionary logic of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Metabolism is built on a foundation of organic chemistry, and employs structures and interactions at many scales. Despite these sources of complexity, metabolism also displays striking and robust regularities in the forms of modularity and hierarchy, which may be described compactly in terms of relatively few principles of composition. These regularities render metabolic architecture comprehensible as a system, and also suggests the order in which layers of that system came into existence. In addition metabolism also serves as a foundational layer in other hierarchies, up to at least the levels of cellular integration including bioenergetics and molecular replication, and trophic ecology. The recapitulation of patterns first seen in metabolism, in these higher levels, motivates us to interpret metabolism as a source of causation or constraint on many forms of organization in the biosphere. Many of the forms of modularity and hierarchy exhibited by metabolism are readily interpreted as stages in the emergence of catalytic control by living systems over organic chemistry, sometimes recapitulating or incorporating geochemical mechanisms. We identify as modules, either subsets of chemicals and reactions, or subsets of functions, that are re-used in many contexts with a conserved internal structure. At the small molecule substrate level, module boundaries are often associated with the most complex reaction mechanisms, catalyzed by highly conserved enzymes. Cofactors form a biosynthetically and functionally distinctive control layer over the small-molecule substrate. The most complex members among the cofactors are often associated with the reactions at module boundaries in the substrate networks, while simpler cofactors participate in widely generalized reactions. The highly tuned chemical structures of cofactors (sometimes exploiting distinctive properties of the elements of the periodic table) thereby act as ‘keys’ that incorporate classes of organic reactions

  7. Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jiang; Jing Li; Lan Ma

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy metabolism is a fundamental biological process that is vital for the survival of all species. Disorders in the metabolic system result in deficiency or redundancy of certain nutrients, including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, etc. Abnormality of the energy metabolism system leads to a number of metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. Broadly speaking, the term "metabolic diseases" now tends to be widened to the category that refers to all diseases with metabolism disorder.

  8. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  9. Basic sciences curriculum in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA REZAEE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional methods are generally used for teaching basic science courses at Shiraz Medical School. Such courses are taught during the first and second years of a seven-year medical program. The goal of this study was to analyze teachers and students’ perceptions of basic science teaching in medical education. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the college of medicine of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results: Regarding the students’ viewpoints, 71.4% reported that curriculum content in basic sciences was enough and had good relevance. 59.2% of students believed the objectives of basic sciences curriculum were clear. Conclusion: The burden of teaching basic sciences ranges from sustaining interest to clinical relevance. It is expected that medical schools will continuously monitor what works and what does not work with their curricula and make the necessary adaptations as required.

  10. [The integrated approach to diagnostics of metabolic syndrome in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roĭtberg, G E; Ushakova, T I; Sharkhun, O O; Dorosh, Zh V

    2012-01-01

    Basic criteria of diagnostics and definitions of metabolic syndrome recommended by various international associations and expert groups are discussed. Permanent changes of criteria and usage of various approaches to diagnostics influence prevalence of metabolic syndrome among populations and estimation of its association with unfavorable outcomes. Some definitions of metabolic syndrome are more sensitive in detection of risk groups for cardiovascular diseases, and others in - detection of persons with high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. New integrated definition of metabolic syndrome which unites pathophysiological and clinical epidemiological approaches for assessment of metabolic disorders and detection of high risk groups of patients applicable for use in everyday clinical practice is presented.

  11. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eSachdev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevaleirnt and costly conditions.The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogensis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise.

  13. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-10

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.

  14. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  15. Analysis of the basic science section of the orthopaedic in-training examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Arnoczky, Steven Paul; Walter, Norman E

    2012-08-01

    Since 1963, the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE) has been administered to orthopedic residents to assess residents' knowledge and measure the quality of teaching within individual programs. The OITE currently consists of 275 questions divided among 12 domains. This study analyzed all OITE basic science questions between 2006 and 2010. The following data were recorded: number of questions, question taxonomy, category of question, type of imaging modality, and recommended journal and book references. Between 2006 and 2010, the basic science section constituted 12.2% of the OITE. The assessment of taxonomy classification showed that recall-type questions were the most common, at 81.4%. Imaging modalities typically involved questions on radiographs and constituted 6.2% of the OITE basic science section. The majority of questions were basic science questions (eg, genetics, cell replication, and bone metabolism), with an average of 26.4 questions per year. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (American Volume) and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' Orthopaedic Basic Science were the most commonly and consistently cited journal and review book, respectively. This study provides the first review of the question content and recommended references of the OITE basic science section. This information will provide orthopedic trainees, orthopedic residency programs, and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Evaluation Committee valuable information related to improving residents' knowledge and performance and optimizing basic science educational curricula.

  16. Genetic and metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Yea-Tyng; Bennett, George N.; San, Ka-yiu

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology techniques, analytical methods and mathematical tools have led to a growing interest in using metabolic engineering to redirect metabolic fluxes for industrial and medical purposes. Metabolic engineering is referred to as the directed improvement of cellular properties through the modification of specific biochemical reactions or the introduction of new ones, with the use of recombinant DNA technology (Stephanopoulos, 1999). This multidisciplinary field dr...

  17. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Stachowiak; Tomasz Pertyński; Magdalena Pertyńska-Marczewska

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopaus...

  18. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since th...

  19. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2004-08-17

    A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M) will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  20. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology....... available. Both stoichiometric and kinetic models have been used to investigate the metabolism, which has resulted in defining the optimal fermentation conditions, as well as in directing the genetic changes to be introduced in order to obtain a good producer strain or cell line. With the increasing...

  1. Biomechanical aspects of techniques of basic figures specializing in the performance of standard dance program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portanenko S.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical analysishasallowed us to study the static stability of the closed position of the dance couple, especially of a partner and partner. Was shown a major differences in the temporal characteristics of each dance in the standard program, a features trajectory and a performance of the basic elements.

  2. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  3. Single-Subject Research: Basic Designs for Research in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Alan C.; Brusca, Rita M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses five basic single subject research designs used to study special education students: the ABAB (reversal), multiple baseline, multiple probe, changing criterion, and multi-element designs. Examples are provided of each along with information on data evaluation and limitations. (CL)

  4. Fluoroacetylcarnitine: metabolism and metabolic effects in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, J.; Davis, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    The metabolism and metabolic effects of fluoroacetylcarnitine have been investigated. Carnitineacetyltransferase transfers the fluoro-acetyl group of fluoroacetylcarnitine nearly as rapidly to CoA as the acetyl group of acetylcarnitine. Fluorocitrate is then formed by citrate synthase, but this second reaction is relatively slow. The fluorocitrate formed intramitochondrially inhibits the metabolism of citrate. In heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria the accumulated citrate inhibits citrate synthesis and the ..beta..-oxidation of fatty acids. Free acetate is formed, presumably because accumulated acetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed. In liver mitochondria the accumulation of citrate leads to a relatively increased rate of ketogenesis. Increased ketogenesis is obtained also upon the addition of citrate to the reaction mixture.

  5. Tariff Basic Calculation. A program for the calculation of the National Basic Tariff. Tarief Basis Calculatie. Een programma voor de berekening van het LBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-12-01

    Within the framework of the project 'Tariff systems and price forming of electric power', a spread-sheet program has been developed to calculate the costs of the electric power supply. The name of this program, written in Symphony 2.0 (English), is Tariff Basic Calculation (TBC). Based on the production data of the public power supply this program calculates the costs of the supply and derivative National Basic Tariffs elements. The program fits in with the Chronological Simulation Model (CSM) of the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. All necessary data can be calculated with CSM. 8 figs.

  6. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  7. Main: -300ELEMENT [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -300ELEMENT S000122 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Present upstream of the promot...er from the B-hordein gene of barley and the alpha-gliadin, gamma-gliadin, and low molecular weight glutenin... genes of wheat; See S000001 -300CORE; See S000002 -300MOTIF; -300 element; hordein; gliadin; glutenin; seed; wheat (Triticum aestivum) TGHAAARK ...

  8. A dry element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.; Ota, A.

    1983-08-11

    The agglomerate for the element is made from activated charcoal powder, an electrically conducting additive and a neutral electrolyte. The activated charcoal makes up 30 to 50 percent of the weight of the agglomerate. It is a mixture of hydrophobized and unhydrophobized powder in a ratio of 85 to 70 to 15 to 30. The element has high discharge characteristics.

  9. A battery element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, M.; Koboyasi, S.; Oisi, K.; Okadzaki, R.; Ota, A.

    1983-07-29

    An anode made of an alkaline or an alkaline earth metal and an electrolyte based on an organic solvent are used in the element. A mixture of Mn203 and Mn304 in a 9 to 1 to 3 to 7 ratio serves as the cathode. The element has a stable discharge curve at a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts.

  10. Basic design in architectural education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaklı Elif Süyük

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative activity is one of the most significant parts of architectural education. In the architectural curriculum organisation ‘design studio’ is the unique and preeminent subject. Freshman students encounter ‘design’ first in basic design course, before they know what designing incorporates. The Basic Design is the starting point of initiating creativity in architecture education. It helps each student to understand architecture as a creative and innovative practice in the first year of education. This study analyzes the characteristics of basic design course, the topics of the course contents and its significance in the architectural curriculum in Turkey as well.

  11. Symposium introduction: metabolic syndrome and the onset of cancer1, 2, 3, 4

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jin-Rong; Blackburn, George L.; Walker, W. Allan

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and related metabolic disorders are among the most pressing of today’s health care concerns. Recent evidence from epidemiologic and basic research studies, as well as translational, clinical, and intervention studies, supports the emerging hypothesis that metabolic syndrome may be an important etiologic factor for the onset of cancer. On March 15–16, 2006, The Harvard Medical School Division of Nutrition hosted the symposium “Metabolic Syndrome and the Onset of Cancer” as a...

  12. From prebiotic chemistry to cellular metabolism--the chemical evolution of metabolism before Darwinian natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Hevia, Enrique; Montero-Gómez, Nancy; Montero, Francisco

    2008-06-07

    It is generally assumed that the complex map of metabolism is a result of natural selection working at the molecular level. However, natural selection can only work on entities that have three basic features: information, metabolism and membrane. Metabolism must include the capability of producing all cellular structures, as well as energy (ATP), from external sources; information must be established on a material that allows its perpetuity, in order to safeguard the goals achieved; and membranes must be able to preserve the internal material, determining a selective exchange with external material in order to ensure that both metabolism and information can be individualized. It is not difficult to understand that protocellular entities that boast these three qualities can evolve through natural selection. The problem is rather to explain the origin of such features under conditions where natural selection could not work. In the present work we propose that these protocells could be built by chemical evolution, starting from the prebiotic primordial soup, by means of chemical selection. This consists of selective increases of the rates of certain specific reactions because of the kinetic or thermodynamic features of the process, such as stoichiometric catalysis or autocatalysis, cooperativity and others, thereby promoting their prevalence among the whole set of chemical possibilities. Our results show that all chemical processes necessary for yielding the basic materials that natural selection needs to work may be achieved through chemical selection, thus suggesting a way for life to begin.

  13. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    Apart from hydrogen, helium is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and yet it was only discovered on the Earth in 1895. Its early history is unique because it encompasses astronomy as well as chemistry, two sciences which the spectroscope brought into contact during the second half...... of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  14. Attractor metabolic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso M De la Fuente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a Systemic Metabolic Structure in the cell, characterized by a set of different enzymatic reactions always locked into active states (metabolic core while the rest of the catalytic processes are only intermittently active. This global metabolic structure was verified for Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it seems to be a common key feature to all cellular organisms. In concordance with these observations, the cell can be considered a complex metabolic network which mainly integrates a large ensemble of self-organized multienzymatic complexes interconnected by substrate fluxes and regulatory signals, where multiple autonomous oscillatory and quasi-stationary catalytic patterns simultaneously emerge. The network adjusts the internal metabolic activities to the external change by means of flux plasticity and structural plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to research the systemic mechanisms involved in the regulation of the cellular enzymatic activity we have studied different catalytic activities of a dissipative metabolic network under different external stimuli. The emergent biochemical data have been analysed using statistical mechanic tools, studying some macroscopic properties such as the global information and the energy of the system. We have also obtained an equivalent Hopfield network using a Boltzmann machine. Our main result shows that the dissipative metabolic network can behave as an attractor metabolic network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have found that the systemic enzymatic activities are governed by attractors with capacity to store functional metabolic patterns which can be correctly recovered from specific input stimuli. The network attractors regulate the catalytic patterns

  15. Global self-regulation of the cellular metabolic structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso M De la Fuente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown that cellular enzymatic activities are able to self-organize spontaneously, forming a metabolic core of reactive processes that remain active under different growth conditions while the rest of the molecular catalytic reactions exhibit structural plasticity. This global cellular metabolic structure appears to be an intrinsic characteristic common to all cellular organisms. Recent work performed with dissipative metabolic networks has shown that the fundamental element for the spontaneous emergence of this global self-organized enzymatic structure could be the number of catalytic elements in the metabolic networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate the factors that may affect the catalytic dynamics under a global metabolic structure characterized by the presence of metabolic cores we have studied different transitions in catalytic patterns belonging to a dissipative metabolic network. The data were analyzed using non-linear dynamics tools: power spectra, reconstructed attractors, long-term correlations, maximum Lyapunov exponent and Approximate Entropy; and we have found the emergence of self-regulation phenomena during the transitions in the metabolic activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis has also shown that the chaotic numerical series analyzed correspond to the fractional Brownian motion and they exhibit long-term correlations and low Approximate Entropy indicating a high level of predictability and information during the self-regulation of the metabolic transitions. The results illustrate some aspects of the mechanisms behind the emergence of the metabolic self-regulation processes, which may constitute an important property of the global structure of the cellular metabolism.

  16. Elemental imaging at the nanoscale: NanoSIMS and complementary techniques for element localisation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katie L; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Grovenor, Chris R M

    2012-04-01

    The ability to locate and quantify elemental distributions in plants is crucial to understanding plant metabolisms, the mechanisms of uptake and transport of minerals and how plants cope with toxic elements or elemental deficiencies. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is emerging as an important technique for the analysis of biological material at the subcellular scale. This article reviews recent work using the CAMECA NanoSIMS to determine elemental distributions in plants. The NanoSIMS is able to map elemental distributions at high resolution, down to 50 nm, and can detect very low concentrations (milligrams per kilogram) for some elements. It is also capable of mapping almost all elements in the periodic table (from hydrogen to uranium) and can distinguish between stable isotopes, which allows the design of tracer experiments. In this review, particular focus is placed upon studying the same or similar specimens with both the NanoSIMS and a wide range of complementary techniques, showing how the advantages of each technique can be combined to provide a fuller data set to address complex scientific questions. Techniques covered include optical microscopy, synchrotron techniques, including X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Some of the challenges associated with sample preparation of plant material for SIMS analysis, the artefacts and limitations of the technique and future trends are also discussed.

  17. Id transcriptional regulators in adipogenesis and adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Mallikarjun; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-06-01

    Id proteins (Id1-Id4) are helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional regulators that lack a basic DNA binding domain. They act as negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors by forming heterodimers and inhibit their DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Id proteins are implicated in the regulation of various cellular mechanisms such as cell proliferation, cellular differentiation, cell fate determination, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. A handful of recent studies also disclosed that Id proteins have critical functions in adipocyte differentiation and adipose tissue metabolism. Here, we reviewed the progress made thus far in understanding the specific functions of Id proteins in adipose tissue differentiation and metabolism. In addition to reviewing the known mechanisms of action, we also discuss possible additional mechanisms in which Id proteins might participate in regulating adipogenic and metabolic pathways.

  18. Quantitative analysis of cellular metabolic dissipative, self-organized structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ildefonso Martínez de la Fuente

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important goals of the postgenomic era is understanding the metabolic dynamic processes and the functional structures generated by them. Extensive studies during the last three decades have shown that the dissipative self-organization of the functional enzymatic associations, the catalytic reactions produced during the metabolite channeling, the microcompartmentalization of these metabolic processes and the emergence of dissipative networks are the fundamental elements of the ...

  19. Regulation of Ketone Body Metabolism and the Role of PPARα

    OpenAIRE

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Dean, Matthew; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), ...

  20. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  1. Elliptic Polylogarithms and Basic Hypergeometric Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Passarino, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Multiple elliptic polylogarithms can be written as (multiple) integrals of products of basic hypergeometric functions. The latter are computable, to arbitrary precision, using a q-difference equation and q-contiguous relations.

  2. Basic Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Philip

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

  3. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Hospice Beneficiary PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Hospice Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare hospice claims. The CMS BSA Hospice...

  4. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  5. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Outpatient Procedures PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Outpatient Procedures Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare outpatient claims. The CMS BSA...

  6. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  7. Circadian Systems and Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    1999-01-01

    Circadian systems direct many metabolic parameters and, at the same time, they appear to be exquisitely shielded from metabolic variations. Although the recent decade of circadian research has brought insights into how circadian periodicity may be generated at the molecular level, little is known ab

  8. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  9. Trace elements in glucometabolic disorders: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many trace elements, among which metals, are indispensable for proper functioning of a myriad of biochemical reactions, more particularly as enzyme cofactors. This is particularly true for the vast set of processes involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis, being it in glucose metabolism itself or in hormonal control, especially insulin. The role and importance of trace elements such as chromium, zinc, selenium, lithium and vanadium are much less evident and subjected to chronic debate. This review updates our actual knowledge concerning these five trace elements. A careful survey of the literature shows that while theoretical postulates from some key roles of these elements had led to real hopes for therapy of insulin resistance and diabetes, the limited experience based on available data indicates that beneficial effects and use of most of them are subjected to caution, given the narrow window between safe and unsafe doses. Clear therapeutic benefit in these pathologies is presently doubtful but some data indicate that these metals may have a clinical interest in patients presenting deficiencies in individual metal levels. The same holds true for an association of some trace elements such as chromium or zinc with oral antidiabetics. However, this area is essentially unexplored in adequate clinical trials, which are worth being performed.

  10. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  11. Benchmarking polish basic metal manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pomykalski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic metal manufacturing companies are undergoing substantial strategic changes resulting from global changes in demand. During such periods managers should closely monitor and benchmark the financial results of companies operating in their section. Proper and timely identification of the consequences of changes in these areas may be crucial as managers seek to exploit opportunities and avoid threats. The paper examines changes in financial ratios of basic metal manufacturing companies operating in Poland in the period 2006-2011.

  12. Basic characteristics of array of pulsatile jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestfálová Magda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the results of measurement of basic characteristics of array of pulsatile jets which are used to enhance the efficiency of ejectors. Four pulsatile jets forms cross like structure where perpendicular couples are operating in two basic modes (a in phase and (b in antiphase. Paper presents phase averaged velocity profiles and velocity fields. All of the presented experiments are realized using hot wire anemometry method.

  13. Universal Basic Income versus Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with a universal basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks. While the unemployment insurance program should do a better job at protecting the unemployed, it suffers from moral hazard and substantial monitoring costs, which may threaten its usefulness. The universal basic income, which is simpler to manage and ...

  14. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Š. Vilamová; P. Besta; R. Kozel; K. Janovská; M. Piecha; Levit, A; Straka, M.; Šanda, M.

    2016-01-01

    Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly differ...

  15. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring.

  16. On Quantizing Nilpotent and Solvable Basic Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We prove an algebraic ``no-go theorem'' to the effect that a nontrivial Poisson algebra cannot be realized as an associative algebra with the commutator bracket. Using this, we show that there is an obstruction to quantizing the Poisson algebra of polynomials generated by a nilpotent basic algebra on a symplectic manifold. Finally, we explicitly construct a polynomial quantization of a symplectic manifold with a solvable basic algebra, thereby showing that the obstruction in the nilpotent cas...

  17. Evaluation of selected trace elements in male type 2 diabetic patients in Nnewi, south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ejike Onah

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Consequently, the decrease in levels of trace elements may play a role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus considering their roles in glucose metabolism. Therefore, proper dietary control and mineral supplementation is advised.

  18. Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, Stan Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the

  19. 3D finite elements method (FEM Analysis of basic process parameters in rotary piercing mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pater

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 3D FEM analysis of process parameters and its infl uence in rotary piercing mill is presented. The FEM analyze of the rotary piercing process was made under the conditions of 3D state of strain with taking into consideration the thermal phenomena. The calculations were made with application of different rolls’ skew angles and different plug designs. In the result, progression of shapes, temperature and distributions of stress and strain were characterized. The numerical results of calculations were compared with results of stand test with use of 100Cr6 steel. The comparisons of numerical and experimental tests confirm good agreement between obtained results.

  20. Disorders of fructose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froesch, E R

    1976-11-01

    There are fundamental differences between the metabolic fate of fructose and of glucose. Whereas the metabolism of glucose is controlled by hormones such as insulin, fructose uptake and phosphorylation in the liver occurs independently of hormones and its ultimate metabolic fate is unpredictable. Essential fructosuria, a harmless inherited anomaly of fructose metabolism, is the least harmful of the disorders of fructose metabolism. Hereditary fructose intolerance and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency are discussed in greater detail with regard to biochemical abnormalities and clinical aspects. HFI is most serious in bottle-fed infants who cannot reject their sucrose-containing diet. Patients with HFI will have no clinical symptoms if kept on a fructose-free diet. In contrast, patients with fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency can tolerate frucose. However, severe infections precipitate attacks of hypoglycaemia and lactic acidosis.