WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic metabolic elements

  1. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  2. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-01-01

    The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom), knowledge sources (internal, external), and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social). Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization). At the end of the article there is mentioned the know...

  3. Creating conditions for cooperative learning: Basic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the way in which students work together, in the structure of learning tasks as well as in the degree to which cooperative efforts of students are coupled with competition among groups, some elements should be present in the structure of conditions irrespective of the type of group work in question. Potential effects of cooperation are not likely to emerge unless teachers apply five basic elements of cooperative structure: 1. structuring of the learning task and students’ positive interdependence, 2. individual responsibility, 3. upgrading of "face to face" interaction, 4. training of students’ social skills, and 5. evaluation of group processes. The paper discusses various strategies for establishing the mentioned elements and concrete examples for teaching practice are provided, which should be of assistance to teachers for as much successful cooperative learning application as possible in work with children.

  4. A basic evaluated neutronic data file for elemental scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents an evaluated neutronic data file for elemental scandium, presented in the ENDF/B-VI format. This file should provide basic nuclear data essential for neutronic calculations involving elemental scandium. No equivalent file was previously available

  5. Some Basic Elements in Clustering and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, G.

    2016-05-01

    This chapter deals with basic tools useful in clustering and classification and present some commonly used approaches for these two problems. Since several chapters in these proceedings are devoted to approaches to deal with classification, we give more attention in this chapter to clustering issues. We are first concerned with notions of distances or dissimilarities between objects we are to group in clusters. Then based on these inter-objects distances we define distances between sets of objects, such as single linkage, complete linkage or Ward distance. Three clustering algorithms are presented with some details and compared: Kmeans, Ascendant Hierarchical and DBSCAN algorithms. The comparison between partitions and the issue of choosing the correct number of clusters are investigated and the proposed procedures are tested on two data sets. We emphasize the fact that the results provided by the numerous indices available in the literature for selecting the number of clusters is largely depending upon the shape and the dispersion we are assuming for these clusters. Finally the last section is devoted to classification. Some basic notions such as training sets, test sets and cross-validation are discussed. Two particular approaches are detailed, the K-nearest neighbors method and the logistic regression, and comparisons with LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) and QDA (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) are analyzed.

  6. A finite element primer for beginners the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Zohdi, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this primer is to provide the basics of the Finite Element Method, primarily illustrated through a classical model problem, linearized elasticity. The topics covered are:(1) Weighted residual methods and Galerkin approximations,(2) A model problem for one-dimensional?linear elastostatics,(3) Weak formulations in one dimension,(4) Minimum principles in one dimension,(5) Error estimation in one dimension,(5) Construction of Finite Element basis functions in one dimension,(6) Gaussian Quadrature,(7) Iterative solvers and element by element data structures,(8) A model problem for th

  7. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelators for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  8. Basic functions of telecommunication channel elements for successful information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in the field of multimedia telecommunications is an attempt to integrate texts, sound, images and videos coherently and consistently and to ensure simplicity and interactivity of operation. In order to make the proposed multimedia applications acceptable to end-users, the quality of transmission through the network and message presentation should have special attention. The main aims of this paper are the introduction to the communication channel with its basic elements, a detailed description of the information source and the presentation of possible approaches to the analysis of the telecommunication channel. Introduction In the age of mass application of various communication means, end-users of telecommunication channel elements rarely pay attention to the processes taking place in everyday communication and the elements presented in the channel. In order to discuss all the factors that influence the establishment and maintenance of the links, this paper will explain the basic elements of telecommunication channels. Source Every object that generates messages to be transferred to a recipient is called the source of the message. Directors, writers, speakers, books, newspapers, various instruments (thermometer, barometer, ammeter, etc., computers, a man himself - these are all sources of various messages. In relation to facilities that generate messages, there are different sources of messages. All the messages that they generate belong to discrete or continuous modes of messages. Discrete messages can be presented with element sets, where elements can be considered through different values of observed messages. Each text message of arbitrary length, for example, is made of a finite number of elements - symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation marks, from the set of symbols called the alphabet message source. Continuous messages can be presented with an infinite number of sets of elements where elements can have different values of

  9. Trace element metabolism in man and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake, distribution, storage, excretion of different trace elements and resulting disturbances are investigated in blood and organs in animal experiments and in human diagnostics with the aid of radioisotopes. Apart from this, untritional disturbances are mentioned. Finally, future aspects of physiological trace element examinations are listed. (AJ) 891 AJ

  10. Seismic rotation waves: basic elements of theory and recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Returning to the old problem of observed rotation effects, we present the recording system and basic elements of the theory related to the rotation fi eld and its association with seismic waves. There can be many different causes leading to observed/recorded rotation effects; we can group them as follows: generation of micro-displacement motion due to asymmetry of source processes and/or due to interaction between seismic body/surface waves and medium structure; interaction between incident seismic waves and objects situated on the ground surface. New recording techniques and advanced theory of deformation in media with defects and internal (e.g., granular structure make it possible to focus our attention on the fi rst group, related to microdisplacement motion recording, which includes both rotation and twist motions. Surface rotations and twists caused directly by the action of emerging seismic waves on some objects situated on the ground surface are considered here only in the historical aspects of the problem. We present some examples of experimental results related to recording of rotation and twist components at the Ojcow Observatory, Poland, and L'Aquila Observatory, Italy, and we discuss some prospects for further research.

  11. Transcriptional Regulatory Elements in Fungal Secondary Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wenbing; Keller, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites of diverse beneficial and detrimental activities to humankind. The genes encoding the enzymatic machinery required to make these metabolites are typically clustered in fungal genomes. There is considerable evidence that secondary metabolite gene regulation is, in part, by transcriptional control through hierarchical levels of transcriptional regulatory elements involved in secondary metabolite cluster regulation. Identification of s...

  12. L -Tryptophan: Basic Metabolic Functions, Behavioral Research and Therapeutic Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Mathias, Charles W.; Ashley Acheson; Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    An essential component of the human diet, L-tryptophan is critical in a number of metabolic functions and has been widely used in numerous research and clinical trials. This review provides a brief overview of the role of L-tryptophan in protein synthesis and a number of other metabolic functions. With emphasis on L-tryptophan’s role in synthesis of brain serotonin, details are provided on the research uses of L-tryptophan, particularly L-tryptophan depletion, and on clinical trials that have...

  13. 42 CFR 431.974 - Basic elements of Medicaid and CHIP eligibility reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic elements of Medicaid and CHIP eligibility... ADMINISTRATION Requirements for Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.974 Basic elements of Medicaid and CHIP eligibility reviews. (a) General requirements. (1) States selected in any given year...

  14. F-ELEMENT ION CHELATION IN HIGHLY BASIC MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the formidable task of developing techniques for the safe and cost effective remediation of 1.5 x 10 x 7ft 3 of high level waste (HLW) stored in the DOE complex. Only a small fraction of the waste contains radioactive elements, bu...

  15. Grouping and analysis of chair quality and their basic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skakić Dušan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the scientific experience and the engineering practice indicate that the decision making processes in the course of solving complex designing problems require an analysis of a great number of different construction variants. These types of decision-making processes are time consuming and do not always result in the selection of an optimal solution. That is why the methods of numerical optimization are applied in a wide range of technical sciences to assist in the selection of the best solution. The first step in solving the problem by using the Finite element method is to determine the type of chair earmarked for modeling, and to determine the dimensions of the chair elements.

  16. Microcalorimetric Studies on Thermochemical Characteristics of Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 Aerobic Growth Metabolism in Basic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 高振霆; 王宏; 屈松生

    2001-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor, cycle-flow mode,the thermogenic curve of metabolism of Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 growth at 37°C in basic media was determined.The experimental results indicate that the relationship between cell concentration and power output can be characterized by the equations: C=k'P+a dC/dP0 = KCn, n=1 where P is the power output (μW), C is cell concentration (mg/mL), P0 is the power output produced by the metabolism of one unit of cell (P0=P/0.6C),the order of metabolism n is 1, and k′, a and K are constants which depend on the culture condition and phylogenic state of the cells.These equations are different from those of the non-growth metabolism of resting cells and endogenous mtabolism of cells. For different kinds of metabolism of cells, the order of metabolism, n, is different. For endogenous metabolism,n =0, for growth metabolism, n=1, and for non-growth metabolism of resting cells, n = 2.The equations are general thecal equations for the various different kinds of metabolism of cells.

  17. Developing the basic elements for breast diagnostic programs In Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Women are at an increase risk of developing both physical and psychological morbidity after diagnosis. Findings show that women who were diagnosed with breast cancer are at risk of developing several psychological morbidities such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, negative thoughts, suicidal thoughts, fear of dying, sense of aloneness, sexual and body image problems, as well as an overall decrease in the quality of life. The objective of this project is to review the available literature on breast cancer diagnostic programs in the developed world and the developing countries and develop one for Ghana. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure and data on breast cancer cases, make it difficult to have access to breast cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. In all the studies reviewed, a trial population of about ten thousand women aging between 50-70 years were used for three years period. Mammography, Clinical Breast-Examination (CBE) and Breast Self-Examination (BSE) methods were used to screen the women. Assessment, biopsies and treatment of palpable screen-detected abnormalities were performed using Fine Needle aspiration (FNA) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). High-quality single medio-lateral oblique view mammography has been shown to be an effective method in reducing mortality from breast cancer and we conclude that initially this preferred option for the development of breast diagnostic program. There is no evidence that clinical breast-examination or breast self-examination is effective when used alone. These methods have some value when used in combination with mammography, but their contribution requires further assessment. From available data, and the cost involved in some trials conducted in some of the developed countries, the Ghanaian programme should be based on creation of public awareness about breast cancer disease. (author)

  18. Derivation of an Efficient Non-Prismatic Thin Curved Beam Element Using Basic Displacement Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and accuracy of the elements proposed by the Finite Element Method (FEM considerably depend on the interpolating functions, namely shape functions, used to formulate the displacement field within an element. In this paper, a new insight is proposed for derivation of elements from a mechanical point of view. Special functions namely Basic Displacement Functions (BDFs are introduced which hold pure structural foundations. Following basic principles of structural mechanics, it is shown that exact shape functions for non-prismatic thin curved beams could be derived in terms of BDFs. Performing a limiting study, it is observed that the new curved beam element successfully becomes the straight Euler-Bernoulli beam element. Carrying out numerical examples, it is shown that the element provides exact static deformations. Finally efficiency of the method in free vibration analysis is verified through several examples. The results are in good agreement with those in the literature.

  19. FINAL REPORT. F-ELEMENT ION CHELATION IN HIGHLY BASIC MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behaviorof f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueoussolutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of thefundament...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non.... 1918, App. V Appendix V to Part 1918—Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory... teaching first aid, and the recipients of first aid training. General Program Elements A. Teaching...

  1. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  2. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-12-12

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  3. F-Element ion chelation in highly basic media. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'A large percentage of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) produced in the DOE complex over the last thirty years temporarily resides in storage tanks maintained at highly basic pH. The final permanent waste remediation plan will probably require that liquid and solid fractions be chemically treated in order to partition and concentrate the dominate hazardous emitters from the bulk of the waste. This is no small task. Indeed, there does not exist a well developed molecular chemistry knowledge base to guide the development of suitable separations for actinide and fission products present in the strongly basic media. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element ions and their species formed in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO3-, CO32-, organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study.'

  4. Computer literacy of future teacher of physical culture, as one of basic elements of professional development.

    OpenAIRE

    Dragnev Y. V.

    2011-01-01

    he problem of computer literacy of future teacher of physical culture is examined in the article, as one of basic elements of professional development. The necessity of introduction of multimedia technologies opens up for practice of athletic education, which enables to combine the didactics functions of computer, as teaching facilities, with possibilities of traditional methods of teaching and to renew an educational process information technologies etc Specified, that professional developme...

  5. Metabolism of 90Sr and of other elements in man, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element studies have been carried out under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males during different calcium intakes. Complete metabolic balances of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, and nickel were determined in each 6-day metabolic period by analyzing the constant diet and the urinary and fecal excretions of these naturally occurring elements. In addition to the trace element studies, 85Sr studies were carried out in man in order to complete previously initiated investigations

  6. BASIC ELEMENTS FOR MEDIA REPORTING ON TERRORISM AS A FORM OF CRISIS SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Barović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Media reporting on terrorism has been intensified in the last decade due to a sharp increase in the activities of different terrorist organizations and groups. In order for journalists to understand the problem of terrorism, it is needed to define this phenomenon from the media aspect and explain the division of terrorist organizations as well as the basic causes of their existence and expansion. This paper has set forth the first attacks that can be regarded as terrorist ones reported by the media. Then, there have been determined the basic elements for the preparation of a journalist who is due to report on the given type of crisis situation. The basic elements include fundamental background knowledge and information that can affect the safety of the reporter and their media team, which suggests that professional knowledge and skills need to be theoretically formulated before visiting the scene of the crisis situation. There have been listed methodological advantages that a journalist of a local or a national broadcasting company has in a hypothetical situation when reporting on a terrorist attack. It has been proved that a journalist of local media is not necessarily inferior to larger media in their reporting. What is more, there are a number of advantages that should be skillfully used by journalists of local media in their reporting. An important element is psychological stability that is a key factor for timely, objective and ethically acceptable reporting on terrorist attacks as a form of highly risky crisis situations. According to experts’ predictions, reporting on terrorist attacks can be intensified in the near future. For the given reasons, it is of key importance to have trained and prepared reporters who will be able to do a journalist’s job in a safe and professionally acceptable manner.

  7. Using a general model of personality to identify the basic elements of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    In the present paper, we outline why we believe that factor analyses of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (Hare, 2003) are unlikely to yield the basic elements of psychopathy. As an alternative approach, we suggest embedding psychopathy within a broad model of general personality functioning, namely the five factor model (McCrae & Costa, 1990). Drawing on our previous work in the area using expert ratings, correlational approaches, and a "translation" of the PCL-R, we provide a consensus description of the core elements of psychopathy: extremely high interpersonal antagonism, pan-impulsivity, the absence of negative self-directed affect, the presence of angry hostility, and interpersonal assertiveness. We end with a discussion of the implications of this analysis for understanding, researching, and measuring psychopathy. PMID:17492919

  8. Computer literacy of future teacher of physical culture, as one of basic elements of professional development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available he problem of computer literacy of future teacher of physical culture is examined in the article, as one of basic elements of professional development. The necessity of introduction of multimedia technologies opens up for practice of athletic education, which enables to combine the didactics functions of computer, as teaching facilities, with possibilities of traditional methods of teaching and to renew an educational process information technologies etc Specified, that professional development of future teacher of physical culture must create a new specialist in the field of knowledge „Physical education, sport and health of man" which will be competitive on the European and World labour-markets in the conditions of informatization and computerization of higher education.

  9. Basic elements of confidence in each stage of a new near surface repository safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2004, at Budapest, the IAEA hosted the first workshop dedicated to safety case development for near surface waste disposal facilities: 'Regional Workshop on Structure and Content of Safety Cases and Development of Confidence in the Safety of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities'. This paper deals with the safety case key components for a new near surface repository, particularly for the early stage of repository development, following the basic information presented in the frame of this workshop. In this stage of the repository life cycle the main purpose of the safety case (preliminary safety case) is to demonstrate that the plant is capable to be constructed and operated safely. The paper will analyse the basic elements of confidence in safety assessment: confidence in the safety assessment methodology, confidence in the safety assessment approach, and confidence in each stage of the safety assessment. We shall discuss the confidence building process through all stages of the safety assessment of a new near surface disposal facility. Each of these steps will be examined using the steps recommended by the ISAM methodology: assessment context, description of the system, development and justification of scenarios, formulation and implementation of models, analysis of the results, etc. To enhance the confidence in the safety assessment results, we considered important to demonstrate a good understanding of the phenomena, mathematical models and numerical methods involved in the safety assessment. Also, the confidence in the safety assessment results can be enhanced by demonstrating compliance with the regulatory requirements. (author)

  10. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters. PMID:26062529

  11. Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the δ13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the

  12. Interaction of chemical species with biological regulation of the metabolism of essential trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, W. [Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Variations in the chemical speciation of dietary trace elements can result in the provision of different amounts of these micronutrients to the organism and might thus induce interactions with trace-element metabolism. The chemical species of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn can interact with other components of the diet even before reaching the site of absorption, e.g. by formation of poorly soluble complexes with phytic acid. This might considerably modify the amount of metabolically available trace elements; differences between absorptive capacity per se toward dietary species seems to be less important. Homeostasis usually limits the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn transported from the gut into the organism, and differences between dietary species are largely eliminated at this step. There is no homeostatic control of absorption of Se and I, and organisms seem to be passively exposed to influx of these micronutrients irrespective of dietary speciation. Inside the organism the trace elements are usually converted into a metabolically recognizable form, channeled into their biological functions, or submitted to homeostatically controlled excretion. Some dietary species can, however, be absorbed as intact compounds. As long as the respective quantities of trace elements are not released from their carriers, they are not recognized properly by trace element metabolism and might induce tissue accumulation, irrespective of homeostatic control. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about Science in Terms of the Basic Elements of the Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Ozge Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the pre-service teachers' opinions about science within the context of the basic elements of the education program, such as objectives, content, learning-teaching process and evaluation. The study was designed as a case study, one of the qualitative research methods. The participants of the study…

  14. Translating the basic knowledge of mitochondrial functions to metabolic therapy: role of L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovina, Santica M; Sirtori, Cesare; Peracino, Andrea; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Borum, Peggy; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ardehali, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in human physiological processes, and therefore, their dysfunction can lead to a constellation of metabolic and nonmetabolic abnormalities such as a defect in mitochondrial gene expression, imbalance in fuel and energy homeostasis, impairment in oxidative phosphorylation, enhancement of insulin resistance, and abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, vascular disease, and chronic heart failure. The increased knowledge on mitochondria and their role in cellular metabolism is providing new evidence that these disorders may benefit from mitochondrial-targeted therapies. We review the current knowledge of the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to chronic diseases, the outcomes of experimental studies on mitochondrial-targeted therapies, and explore the potential of metabolic modulators in the treatment of selected chronic conditions. As an example of such modulators, we evaluate the efficacy of the administration of L-carnitine and its analogues acetyl and propionyl L-carnitine in several chronic diseases. L-carnitine is intrinsically involved in mitochondrial metabolism and function as it plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism. In addition to the transportation of free fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane, L-carnitine modulates their oxidation rate and is involved in the regulation of vital cellular functions such as apoptosis. Thus, L-carnitine and its derivatives show promise in the treatment of chronic conditions and diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction but further translational studies are needed to fully explore their potential. PMID:23138103

  15. L-Tryptophan: Basic Metabolic Functions, Behavioral Research and Therapeutic Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    An essential component of the human diet, L-tryptophan is critical in a number of metabolic functions and has been widely used in numerous research and clinical trials. This review provides a brief overview of the role of L-tryptophan in protein synthesis and a number of other metabolic functions. With emphasis on L-tryptophan’s role in synthesis of brain serotonin, details are provided on the research uses of L-tryptophan, particularly L-tryptophan depletion, and on clinical trials that have...

  16. Influence of diet, vitamin, tea, trace elements and exogenous antioxidants on arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Su; Li, Mei; Wu, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Health risk of arsenic (As) has received increasing attention. Acute and chronic exposure to As could cause several detrimental effects on human health. As toxicity is closely related to its bioaccessibility and metabolism. In real environment, many factors, such as diet and nutrition, can influence As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity. This paper mainly reviews the influences of diets and elements on As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity and their underlying mechanisms to provide suggestions for future investigations. Vitamins, jaggery, fruit, tea, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine and zinc could reduce the As-induced toxicity by increasing antioxidative enzymes to antagonize oxidative stress caused by As and/or increasing As methylation. However, bean and betel nut could increase risk of skin lesions caused by As. Interestingly, high-fat diet, selenium and iron have incompatible effects on As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity in different experimental conditions. Based on current literatures, the As methylation and As-induced oxidative damage might be two main ways that the diets and elements influence As toxicity. Combined application of in vitro human cell lines and gastrointestinal models might be useful tools to simultaneously characterize the changes in As bioaccessibility and toxicity in the future research. PMID:26169729

  17. Basic design of the beam diagnostic device and proposal of a new electrostatic optical element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanashima, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The basic design completed of a beam diagnostic device, which indicates, among others, the phase space regions acceptable by the beams, and density distributions in the phase space as well. The measurement is made using two deflectors and two apertures. (M. Tanaka)

  18. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  19. Controlled trial of the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoe, S; Toba, Y; Yamamura, J; Kawakami, H; Yahiro, M; Kumegawa, M; Itabashi, A; Takada, Y

    2001-04-01

    Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health compared to other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies showed that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction, contains several components capable of both promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. However, the effects of milk basic protein (MBP) on bone metabolism of humans are not known. The object of this study was to examine the effects of MBP on bone metabolism of healthy adult women. Thirty-three normal healthy women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for six months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the left calcaneus of each subject was measured at the beginning of the study and after six months of treatment, by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urine indices of bone metabolism were measured at the base line, three-month intervals, and the end of the study. Daily intake of nutrients was monitored by a three-day food record made at three and six months. The mean (+/- SD) rate of left calcaneus BMD gain of women in the MBP group (3.42 +/- 2.05%) was significantly higher than that of women in the placebo group (2.01 +/- 1.75%, P = 0.042). As compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-teleopeptides of type-I collagen/creatinine and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were significantly decreased in the MBP group (p supplementation of 40 mg in healthy adult women can significantly increase their BMD independent of dietary intake of minerals and vitamins. This increase in BMD might be primarily mediated through inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption by the MBP supplementation. PMID:11388472

  20. The Metabolic Core and Catalytic Switches Are Fundamental Elements in the Self-Regulation of the Systemic Metabolic Structure of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.; Perez-Pinilla, Martin B.; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Vicente; Veguillas, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a metabolic core formed by a set of enzymatic reactions which are always active under all environmental conditions, while the rest of catalytic processes are only intermittently active. The reactions of the metabolic core are essential for biomass formation and to assure optimal metabolic performance. The on-off catalytic reactions and the metabolic core are essential elements of a Systemic Metabolic Structure which seems to be a key feature common to all cellular organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to investigate the functional importance of the metabolic core we have studied different catalytic patterns of a dissipative metabolic network under different external conditions. The emerging biochemical data have been analysed using information-based dynamic tools, such as Pearson's correlation and Transfer Entropy (which measures effective functionality). Our results show that a functional structure of effective connectivity emerges which is dynamical and characterized by significant variations of bio-molecular information flows. Conclusions/Significance We have quantified essential aspects of the metabolic core functionality. The always active enzymatic reactions form a hub –with a high degree of effective connectivity- exhibiting a wide range of functional information values being able to act either as a source or as a sink of bio-molecular causal interactions. Likewise, we have found that the metabolic core is an essential part of an emergent functional structure characterized by catalytic modules and metabolic switches which allow critical transitions in enzymatic activity. Both, the metabolic core and the catalytic switches in which also intermittently-active enzymes are involved seem to be fundamental elements in the self-regulation of the Systemic

  1. Study of trace-element metabolism during the formation of rat's cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cataract in the lenses of Wistar rats was induced by injecting Na2SeO3; they exibited various kinds of cataract between 8 and 28 days. The trace element analyses of samples of different kinds of lenses were carried out by PIXE method. The ratio of their concentrations relative to the control values concerning the formation time of cataract was studied. It was found that the metabolites of most trace elements in the control lenses are stable, but in various kinds of cataractous lenses they display certain changes. S, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn appeared to accumulate relative to the controls, while P, K and Rb showed deficiency. The functions of trace element metabolism during the formation of cataract are also discussed. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Analysis of the proximal transcriptional element of the myelin basic protein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Devine-Beach, K; Haas, S.; Khalili, K

    1992-01-01

    The gene encoding myelin basic protein (MBP) contains multiple activator sequences spanning upstream of its transcriptional initiation site which differentially promote transcription in glial cells. The proximal activator sequence, designated MB1, activates transcription in a glial cell type specific manner. This sequence resides between -14 to -50 with respect to the RNA initiation site of the MBP gene. We have identified within the MB1 sequence a 10-nucleotide domain, 5'-ACCTTCAAAG-3', that...

  3. Overview of regulatory strategies and molecular elements in metabolic engineering of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianwen; Ma, Xingyuan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-11-01

    From a viewpoint of biotechnology, metabolic engineering mainly aims to change the natural status of a pathway in a microorganism towards the overproduction of certain bioproducts. The biochemical nature of a pathway implies us that changed pathway is often the collective results of altered behavior of the metabolic enzymes encoded by corresponding genes. By finely modulating the expression of these genes or the properties of the enzyme, we can gain efficient control on the pathway. In this article, we reviewed the typical methods that have been applied to regulate the expression of genes in metabolic engineering. These methods are grouped according to the operation targets in a typical gene. The transcription of a gene is controlled by an indispensable promoter. By utilizing promoters with different strengths, expected levels of expression can be easily achieved, and screening a promoter library may find suitable mutant promoters that can provide tunable expression of a gene. Auto-responsive promoter (quorum sensing (QS)-based or oxygen-inducible) simplifies the induction process by driving the expression of a gene in an automated manner. Light responsive promoter enables reversible and noninvasive control on gene activity, providing a promising method in controlling gene expression with time and space resolution in metabolic engineering involving complicated genetic circuits. Through directed evolution and/or rational design, the encoding sequences of a gene can be altered, leading to the possibly most profound changes in properties of a metabolic enzyme. Introducing an engineered riboswitch in mRNA can make it a regulatory molecule at the same time; ribosomal binding site is commonly engineered to be more attractive for a ribosome through design. Terminator of a gene will affect the stability of an mRNA, and intergenic region will influence the expression of many related genes. Improving the performance of these elements are generally the main activities in

  4. Deimination of the myelin basic protein decelerates its proteasome-mediated metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzina, E S; Kudriaeva, A A; Glagoleva, I S; Knorre, V D; Gabibov, A G; Belogurov, A A

    2016-07-01

    Deimination of myelin basic protein (MBP) by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) prevents its binding to the proteasome and decelerates its degradation by the proteasome in mammalian cells. Potential anticancer drug tetrazole analogue of chloramidine 2, at concentrations greater than 1 µM inhibits the enzymatic activity of PAD in vitro. The observed acceleration of proteasome hydrolysis of MBP to antigenic peptides in the presence of PAD inhibitor may increase the efficiency of lesion of the central nervous system by cytotoxic lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis. We therefore suggest that clinical trials and the introduction of PAD inhibitors in clinical practice for the treatment of malignant neoplasms should be performed only after a careful analysis of their potential effect on the induction of autoimmune neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27599511

  5. Induced Expression of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes by Preventive Agents: Role of the Antioxidant Response Element

    OpenAIRE

    Lubet, Ronald A; Yao, Ruisheng; Grubbs, Clinton J; You, Ming; Wang, Yian

    2009-01-01

    Identifying agents that block tumor initiation is a goal of cancer prevention. The ability of a chemically varied group of agents to induce various drug metabolizing genes in livers of rats was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for seven days with various agents in the diet or by gavage. The agents examined, which might be expected to respond via specific nuclear receptors (CAR, AhR) as well as antioxidant response elements (AREs), included Phase I/II inducers [5,6 benzoflavone (BF, ...

  6. URBAN GREEN SPACES – BASIC ELEMENTS IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: THE CITY OF CLUJ NAPOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA COZEA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces- basic elements in sustainable tourism and urban development. Due to their multiple functions within the cities: landscape function, aesthetical, sanitary, utilitary, economic, protection, educational, scientific and social function, green spaces need to be extended, arranged and valorized in the most efficient ways. An average value of the green space surface per invididual has been established. Sustainable urban development involves the execution of works on lands, premises and buildings, as well as the adoption of social measures for the psychical and psychological confort of the population and for a rational development and arrangement of urban areas. The tourism potential of urban green space derives from the valorization of its biological and aesthetical function, the harmonisation and beautification of urban architectural complexes as well as from its specific urbanism elements.

  7. Radiative transfer with finite elements. Pt. 1. Basic method and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richling, S. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik; Meinkoehn, E. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik; Kryzhevoi, N. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Astrophysik]|[Heidelberg Univ. (DE). Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (IWR); Kanschat, G. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik]|[Heidelberg Univ. (DE). Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (IWR)

    2001-10-01

    A finite element method for solving the monochromatic radiation transfer equation including scattering in three dimensions is presented. The algorithm employs unstructured grids which are adaptively refined. Adaptivity as well as ordinate parallelization reduce memory requirements and execution time and make it possible to calculate the radiation field across several length scales for objects with strong opacity gradients. An a posteriori error estimate for one particular quantity is obtained by solving the dual problem. The application to a sample of test problems reveals the properties of the implementation. (orig.)

  8. The Basics of Fast-scanning XRF Element Mapping for Iron-gall Ink Palimpsests

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Leif; Deckers, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (srXRF) mappingof elements is a good tool for digitising iron-gall ink handwriting,even if the ink has been covered or erased, as wasoften the case in the Middle Ages in order to re-use pieces ofparchment. In this paper, the influence of the excitation energyon the measuring process and resolution will be discussed,showing that 17 keV of excitation energy and a resolution ofmore than 100 dpi give the best results. Two typical systemsof re-used parchmen...

  9. Organization of Basic Materials Auditing in a Fuel-Element Fabrication Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the organization of auditing at the Annecy plant of the Société industrielle des combustibles nucléaires which produces, principally from natural uranium provided by the CEA, fuel elements for reactors of the graphite-gas type (in particular, G1, G2, G3, EDF1, EDF2, EDF3). The plant may be schematically divided into five large sections: the melting shop and its annexes; machine shop; cladding shop; turnings recovery shop; warehouse. The auditing records used at Annecy may be classified in three categories: The ''follow-through'' slips, the stock slips and the despatch notes. The balance sheet established each month for uranium consists of two parts: one part showing stocks existing at the beginning and end of the month and internal and external movements during the month, and a recapitulation balance, which is so to say an account of the use of uranium, showing in parallel the amounts of uranium used and the production. The debit balance of this account corresponds to real or apparent losses. (author)

  10. Virtual cellular manufacturing system based on resource element approach and analyzing its performance over different basic layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Esmaeilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present how choosing a suitable layout can improve the performance of virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMSs, especially minimizing the material flow between machines required by each family group. To present the efficacy of basic layouts on performances of VCMSs, a multi-objective mathematical model with a goal programming (GP approach is developed to generate VCMSs based on resource-elements (REs. The formulated model is coded in Lingo software and is run over functional and distributed arrangements of the same machines. The performance and the validity of the developed model are checked by a numerical example taken from the literature. The objective function of the mathematical model is measured for that example over two mentioned layout to compare the performance of the generated systems. Moreover, because of the material handling costs importance, material flows are measured to find the best option as a basic layout for VCMSs. To compare the performance of the generated system with the classical cellular manufacturing system (CMS, cell capacity utilization (CCU is employed as an independent criterion to evaluate each system. The result illustrates the priority of distributed layouts for generating RE-based VCMSs because of its flexibility, minimizing the objective function for the mathematical model, and smaller material flow by the components. In addition, the generated VCMSs outperforms the classical CMS from the CCU point of view.

  11. Effect of Blood Glucose Fluctuation on Some Trace Elements and Aldosterone Hormone among Type II Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is accumulating evidence determine that the metabolism of some trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus (DM) type II. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of serum blood glucose fluctuation during (Random, Fasting and Postprandial 2 hours state) on some trace elements such as Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Aldosterone hormone in type II Diabetic patients associated with metabolic syndrome in comparison with healthy volunteers. The International Diabetes Federation (IFD) consensus the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to central obesity, lipid profile, blood glucose level and blood pressure. A significant change was observed in trace elements level (Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, and K) and Aldosterone hormone as a result of glucose fluctuation among type II diabetic patients.

  12. Effect of nocturnal exhaustion exercise on the metabolism of selected elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patlar Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine how exercise performed until fatigue at night affects element distribution in the serum. The study examined 10 healthy sedentary males who were not actively engaged in any particular sport and whose mean age was 23.00±0.25 years, mean height 177.79±2.25 cm, and mean weight 70.70±1.63 kg. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at midnight twice: during rest before exercise and after exercise. Serum phosphorus, sodium, potassium, sulfur (mmol/L, cobalt, boron, cadmium, chrome, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, copper, iron, zinc and calcium levels (mg/L were measured using atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Exhaustion exercise performed at night brought about a decrease in copper levels only (p<0.05, while elevating levels of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, manganese, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, chrome, cobalt, lead and cadmium (p<0.05. The results of the study demonstrate that nighttime exercise until exhaustion significantly alters element metabolism.

  13. Effects of rare earth elements on growth and metabolism of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements (REEs are a set of 17 chemical elements. They include the lanthanide series from lanthanum (La to lutetium (Lu, scandium (Sc, and yttrium (Y in the periodic table. Although REEs are used widely in industry and agriculture in China for a long time, there has been increasing interest in application of REEs to medicinal plants in recent years. In this paper, we summarize researches in the past few decades regarding the effects of REEs on the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, total biomass, and the production of its secondary metabolites, as well as their effects on the absorption of minerals and metals by medicinal plants. By compilation and analysis of these data, we found that REEs have promoting effects at low concentrations and negative effects at comparatively high concentrations. However, most studies focused only on a few REEs, i.e., La, cerium (Ce, neodymium (Nd and europium (Eu, and they made main emphasis on their effects on regulation of secondary metabolism in tissue-cultured plants, rather than cultivated medicinal plants. Advanced research should be invested regarding on the effects of REEs on yields of cultivated plants, specifically medicinal plants.

  14. Comparative analysis of RNA regulatory elements of amino acid metabolism genes in Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formation of alternative structures in mRNA in response to external stimuli, either direct or mediated by proteins or other RNAs, is a major mechanism of regulation of gene expression in bacteria. This mechanism has been studied in detail using experimental and computational approaches in proteobacteria and Firmicutes, but not in other groups of bacteria. Results Comparative analysis of amino acid biosynthesis operons in Actinobacteria resulted in identification of conserved regions upstream of several operons. Classical attenuators were predicted upstream of trp operons in Corynebacterium spp. and Streptomyces spp., and trpS and leuS genes in some Streptomyces spp. Candidate leader peptides with terminators were observed upstream of ilvB genes in Corynebacterium spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Streptomyces spp. Candidate leader peptides without obvious terminators were found upstream of cys operons in Mycobacterium spp. and several other species. A conserved pseudoknot (named LEU element was identified upstream of leuA operons in most Actinobacteria. Finally, T-boxes likely involved in the regulation of translation initiation were observed upstream of ileS genes from several Actinobacteria. Conclusion The metabolism of tryptophan, cysteine and leucine in Actinobacteria seems to be regulated on the RNA level. In some cases the mechanism is classical attenuation, but in many cases some components of attenuators are missing. The most interesting case seems to be the leuA operon preceded by the LEU element that may fold into a conserved pseudoknot or an alternative structure. A LEU element has been observed in a transposase gene from Bifidobacterium longum, but it is not conserved in genes encoding closely related transposases despite a very high level of protein similarity. One possibility is that the regulatory region of the leuA has been co-opted from some element involved in transposition. Analysis of phylogenetic patterns

  15. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  16. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  17. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential. PMID:26444147

  18. Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Harris, Metria

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20 %-25 % of adults worldwide have metabolic syndrome. Vegetarian and vegan diets have demonstrated effectiveness in improving body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors, as compared with conventional therapeutic approaches, and are potentially useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. This article consists of two steps: (1) a review of the literature on studies examining vegetarian and vegan diets and metabolic syndrome and (2) a review of foods and nutrients that are protective against or associated with metabolic syndromes that may help to explain the beneficial effects of plant-based dietary approaches for metabolic syndrome. The present review found eight observational research studies, and no intervention studies, examining the association of plant-based dietary approaches with metabolic syndrome. These studies, conducted mostly in Asian populations, yielded varying results. The majority, however, found better metabolic risk factors and lowered risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals following plant-based diets, as compared with omnivores. Some dietary components that are lower in the diets of vegetarians, such as energy intake, saturated fat, heme iron, and red and processed meat, may influence metabolic syndrome risk. In addition, plant-based diets are higher in fruits, vegetables, and fiber, which are protective against the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25084991

  19. A Composite Element that Binds Basic Helix Loop Helix and Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors Is Important for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulation of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone β Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Nick A.; Lacza, Charlemagne T.; Hou, Melody Y.; Gregory, Susan J.; Kam, Kyung-Yoon; Xu, Shuyun; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2008-01-01

    Although FSH plays an essential role in controlling gametogenesis, the biology of FSHβ transcription remains poorly understood, but is known to involve the complex interplay of multiple endocrine factors including GnRH. We have identified a GnRH-responsive element within the rat FSHβ promoter containing an E-box and partial cAMP response element site that are bound by the basic helix loop helix transcription factor family members, upstream stimulating factor (USF)-1/USF-2, and the basic leucine zipper member, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), respectively. Expression studies with CREB, USF-1/USF-2, and activating protein-1 demonstrated that the USF transcription factors increased basal transcription, an effect not observed if the cognate binding site was mutated. Conversely, expression of a dominant negative CREB mutant or CREB knockdown attenuated induction by GnRH, whereas dominant negative Fos or USF had no effect on the GnRH response. GnRH stimulation specifically induced an increase in phosphorylated CREB occupation of the FSHβ promoter, leading to the recruitment of CREB-binding protein to enhance gene transcription. In conclusion, a composite element bound by both USF and CREB serves to integrate signals for basal and GnRH-stimulated transcription of the rat FSHβ gene. PMID:18550775

  20. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  1. Mass spectrometric methods for studying nutrient mineral and trace element absorption and metabolism in humans using stable isotopes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass spectrometric methods for determining stable isotopes of nutrient minerals and trace elements in human metabolic studies are described and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the techniques of electron ionization, fast atom bombardment, thermal ionization, and inductively coupled plasma and gas chromatography mass spectrometry are evaluated with reference to their accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and convenience, and the demands of human nutrition research. Examples of specific applications are described and the significance of current developments in mass spectrometry are discussed with reference to present and probable future research needs. (Author)

  2. Two dimensional finite element method for metabolic effect in thermoregulation on human males and females skin layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SaraswatiAcharya; Dil Bahadur Gurung; Vinod Prakash Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To deal the implication of metabolic reaction relying on dermal thicknesses of males and females for temperature distribution on the layers of dermal part at various atmospheric temperatures. Methods: The mathematical model involving bioheat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. Initially, human dermal region under consideration is divided into six parts: stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, papillary region, reticular region, fatty layer and muscle part of subcutaneous tissue. Pennes bioheat equation is used considering the suitable physical and physiological parameters that affect the heat regulation in the layers. Computer simulation has been used for numerical results and graph of the temperatures profiles. Results: Lower percentage of muscle mass and higher percentage of adipose tissue in subcutaneous part of females result lower metabolic rate compared to males. Metabolism is considered as a heat source within the body tissue. The study delineates that when the metabolic heat generation S increases, body temperature rises and when S decreases, it goes down. In higher ambient temperature T∞ effect of S is lower as compared to lower T∞. Conclusions: Males and females would differ in their physiological responses in temperature distribution due to differences in metabolic heat production between genders. The thinner layers of males lead to higher values of skin temperature than thicker layer of females. Thickness plays a significant role in temperature distributions in human males and females body. Current understanding of human thermoregulation is based on male patterns; studies on women are still relatively rare and involve only small number of subjects. So it is still necessary for micro level study for temperature distribution model on the dermal layers of males and females.

  3. Visual Functions and TraceElement Metabolism in Tobacco-toxic Optic Neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Visual functions and nutrition metabolic characteristics werestudied in 8 subjects(16 eyes)with tobacco-toxic optic neuropathy(TTON).Their visual functions tested by psychophysical and electrophysiologicmethods showed that:1.central vision diminished in 16 eyes,2.dyschromatopsias were found in 14 tested eyes,3.bilateral symmetricalcentral or cecocentral scotomas were the visual field characteristics in allcases,4.PVEP were severe abnormal in 3 spatial frequencies in all cases and56.3% of 15' checkboard ...

  4. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical diagrams for basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks based on log — ratio transformation of major-element data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Guevara, Mirna; Agrawal, Salil

    2006-10-01

    We present five new discriminant function diagrams based on an extensive database representative of basic and ultrabasic rocks from four tectonic settings of island arc, continental rift, ocean-island, and mid-ocean ridge. These diagrams were obtained after loge-transformation of concentration ratios of major-elements — a technique recommended for a correct statistical treatment of compositional data. Higher % success rates (overall values from ˜ 83 to 97%) were obtained for proposing these new diagrams as compared to those (˜82 to 94%) obtained from the discriminant analysis of the raw major-element concentration data (i.e., without the loge-transformation and without taking ratios of the compositional data, but using exactly the same database to provide an unbiased comparison), suggesting that such a data transformation constitutes a statistically correct and recommended technique. The new diagrams also resulted in less mis-classification of basic and ultrabasic rocks from known tectonic settings than the diagrams obtained from the raw data. The use of these highly successful new discriminant function diagrams is illustrated using Miocene to Recent basic and ultrabasic rocks from three areas of Mexico with complex or controversial tectonic settings (Mexican Volcanic Belt, Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, and Eastern Alkaline Province), as well as older rocks from three areas (Deccan, Malani, and Bastar) of India. Additionally, the major-element data from two ‘known’ continental arc settings are used to show that they are similar to those from the island arc setting. Continental rift setting is inferred for all Mexican cases and for one cratonic area of India (Malani) and an IAB setting for the Bastar craton. The Deccan flood basalt province of India is used to warn against an indiscriminate use of those discrimination diagrams that do not explicitly include the likely setting of the area under evaluation. An Excel template is also provided for an easy

  5. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway: a target for regulating energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that responds to oxidative stress by binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of genes coding for antioxidant enzymes like NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and proteins for glutathione synthesis. ...

  6. F-Element ion chelation in highly basic media. Annual progress report, October 1, 1996 - July 1, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The specific fundamental chemical objectives of this project are to: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and Ln ions in basic media formed in aqueous solutions with and without classical chelation agents (e.g., EDTA, polyphosphates, and organic carboxylates); (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonate and phosphonoacetate chelators of the types 1--3 and characterize their ionization properties by titrimetric techniques; (3) study the interactions of 5--7 with soluble oxide-hydroxide metallate species and higher molecular weight sols, gels and precipitates containing Sr and Ln ions, as time permits, interactions with oxide-hydroxide metallates of U, Th, Ba, Al and Fe will also be studied; (4) study the interactions of newly designed phosphonate ligands with oxide-hydroxide metallate species; (5) transfer the fundamental coordination chemistry revealed here to research groups at LANL and PNNL that will utilize the results to improve tank waste treatment protocols.'

  7. Basic toxicology and metabolism studies of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose using bacteria, cultured mammalian cells, and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shukun; Mei, Jie; Ahrén, Bo

    2004-10-01

    1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose (AF) is a monosaccharide occurring in edible morels, red seaweeds and certain mammalian tissues. It can be formed directly from starch and glycogen in vivo by alpha-1,4-glucan lyase (EC 4.2.2.13). In this study, the toxicity, absorption and metabolism of AF using bacteria, mammalian cells, rat and mouse models were examined. In Ames test, AF showed no genotoxicity using five strains of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, 100, 102, 1535 and 1537. AF caused no mammalian gene mutation as tested with mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. AF did not cause toxic symptoms in rats when it was administered as a single oral dose of 5 g/kg and observed over a 14-day period. Furthermore, at necropsy, no signs of abnormality were detected. Daily intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 2 g/kg AF to mice did not induce adverse effects throughout a 28-day period. Radioactive tracing experiments using 14C-labeled AF indicated that AF was efficiently absorbed since the major portion of radioactive material was recovered in urine. Further work using unlabeled AF indicated that the cyclic polyol 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol (AS) increased dramatically in both blood and urine upon AF administration at 1 g/kg ip, suggesting the existence of an efficient reduction mechanism from AF to AS, which was then excreted in urine. In conclusion, these studies indicate that AF had low or no toxicity and showed no mutagenicity. PMID:15354319

  8. Influence of the intake and composition of elemental diets on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L M; Russell, R I

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the elemental diets Vivonex (V) and Flexical (F) on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat has been investigated both with ad libitum feeding and when calorie intake was limited to that of control rats (C) fed a standard diet (Oxoid 41B). Ad libitum feeding of V and F for 9 weeks resulted in a weight gain in excess of that for the control diet. After 9 weeks of isocaloric feeding the V-fed rats were significantly lighter than those fed F and C. Fecal bile acid excretion (FBA) and the fractional turnover rates for cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) were measured. The elemental diets significantly reduced FBA when fed both ad libitum and isocalorically compared with the control diet, the reduction with V being significantly greater than for F. In the isocaloric feeding study both elemental diets significantly increased the half life of CA and CDC. The increase for CA was significantly greater for V than F but for CDC the effect of the two diets was the same. Thus the percentage of CDC-derived 6 substituted bile acids was greater with V than F feeding. There was a strong negative correlation between bile acid half-life and fecal excretion of metabolites for the three dietary groups indicating that bile acid pool size was unchanged by the elemental diets. A gross increase in liver lipid both histologically and chemically was found for the ad libitum fed V rats with a marked but lesser increase for F.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3755773

  9. Effect of nocturnal exhaustion exercise on the metabolism of selected elements

    OpenAIRE

    Patlar Suleyman; Gulnar Ubeyde; Baltaci Kasim Abdulkerim; Mogulkoc Rasim

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to examine how exercise performed until fatigue at night affects element distribution in the serum. The study examined 10 healthy sedentary males who were not actively engaged in any particular sport and whose mean age was 23.00±0.25 years, mean height 177.79±2.25 cm, and mean weight 70.70±1.63 kg. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at midnight twice: during rest before exercise and after exercise. Serum phosphorus, sodium...

  10. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. PMID:24642847

  11. Sensitivity of an eight-element phased array coil in 3 Tesla MR imaging. A basic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance advantages of an 8-element phased array head coil (8 ch coil) over a conventional quadrature-type birdcage head coil (QD coil) with regard to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image uniformity in 3 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We scanned a phantom filled with silicon oil using an 8 ch coil and a QD coil in a 3T MR imaging system and compared the SNR and image uniformity obtained from T1-weighted spin echo (SE) images and T2-weighted fast SE images between the 2 coils. We also visually evaluated images from 4 healthy volunteers. The SNR with the 8 ch coil was approximately twice that with the QD coil in the region of interest (ROI), which was set as 75% of the area in the center of the phantom images. With regard to the spatial variation of sensitivity, the SNR with the 8 ch coil was lower at the center of the images than at the periphery, whereas the SNR with the QD coil exhibited an inverse pattern. At the center of the images with the 8 ch coil, the SNR was somewhat lower, and that distribution was relatively flat compared to that in the periphery. Image uniformity varied less with the 8 ch coil than with the QD coil on both imaging sequences. The 8 ch phased array coil was useful for obtaining high quality 3T images because of its higher SNR and improved image uniformity than those obtained with conventional quadrature-type birdcage head coil. (author)

  12. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical diagrams for basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks based on log–ratio transformation of major-element data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surendra P Verma; Mirna Guevara; Salil Agrawal

    2006-10-01

    We present five new discriminant function diagrams based on an extensive database representative of basic and ultrabasic rocks from four tectonic settings of island arc, continental rift, ocean-island, and mid-ocean ridge. These diagrams were obtained after loge-transformation of concentration ratios of major-elements – a technique recommended for a correct statistical treatment of compositional data. Higher % success rates (overall values from ∼83 to 97%) were obtained for proposing these new diagrams as compared to those (∼82 to 94%) obtained from the discriminant analysis of the raw major-element concentration data (i.e., without the loge-transformation and without taking ratios of the compositional data, but using exactly the same database to provide an unbiased comparison), suggesting that such a data transformation constitutes a statistically correct and recommended technique. The new diagrams also resulted in less mis-classification of basic and ultrabasic rocks from known tectonic settings than the diagrams obtained from the raw data. The use of these highly successful new discriminant function diagrams is illustrated using Miocene to Recent basic and ultrabasic rocks from three areas of Mexico with complex or controversial tectonic settings (Mexican Volcanic Belt, Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, and Eastern Alkaline Province), as well as older rocks from three areas (Deccan, Malani, and Bastar) of India. Additionally, the major-element data from two ‘known’ continental arc settings are used to show that they are similar to those from the island arc setting. Continental rift setting is inferred for all Mexican cases and for one cratonic area of India (Malani) and an IAB setting for the Bastar craton. The Deccan flood basalt province of India is used to warn against an indiscriminate use of those discrimination diagrams that do not explicitly include the likely setting of the area under evaluation. An Excel template is also provided for an easy

  13. Investigation on the Use of the Weakly Basic Polyacrylate Anion-Exchanger Amberlite IRA-68 for Sorption and Separation of Iminodiacetate Complexes of Rare Earth Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the determined affinity series of rare earth element complexes with IMDA for the anion-exchangers, purification of macroquantities of Nd3+ from Y3+, Sm3+ from Ho3+, La3+ from Nd3+ and La3+ from Pr3+ on the weakly basic gel anion-exchanger Amberlite IRA-68 was studied. Using the presented method on 1 L of Amberlite IRA-68 in the acetate form, it is possible to obtain about 240 g Nd2O3 purified from Y2O3. Great difference in affinity of La3+ and Nd3+ as well as Pr3+ complexes for this anion-exchanger in the acetate form indicates the possibility of applying this process for purification of lanthanum on the increased scale. On 1 L of Amberilte IRA-68 in the acetate form it is possible to obtain about 1125 g La2O3 purified from Nd2O3. On the basis of these results it can be assumed that unique properties of polyacrylate anion-exchangers enable their application for separation of rare earth elements.

  14. Exploring the Metabolic Potential of Microbial Communities in Ultra-basic Reducing Spring at The Cedars, CA: Evidence of Microbial Methanogenesis and Heterotrophic Acetogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, L.; Cummings, E.; Cox, A.; Suzuki, S.; Morrrissey, L.; Lang, S. Q.; Richter, A.; Nealson, K. H.; Morrill, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Cedars is a complex of ultra-basic, reducing springs located in the Coastal Range Ophiolite (CA, USA), a site of present day serpentinization. Similar to other serpentinization-associated fluids, the groundwaters discharging at The Cedars contain elevated concentrations of C1-C6 alkanes and volatile organic acids (VOAs) which may originate from abiotic or thermogenic processes but can also be produced, consumed, or transformed by microbial activity. In contrast to other continental sites of serpentinization, geochemical indicators (δ13CCH4, δ2HCH4, CH4/C2-C6 alkanes) are consistent with a partial microbial origin of methane at The Cedars. These indicators, however, can provide only indirect evidence of microbial methanogenesis. To further explore the metabolic potential of the indigenous microbial communities at The Cedars, we conducted a series of microcosm experiments in which fluids and sediments collected at The Cedars were incubated with 13C labeled substrates (formate, acetate, bicarbonate, methanol) under anaerobic conditions. 13C from all amended substrates was incorporated into CH4 demonstrating that these microbial communities can convert both organic and inorganic substrates to CH4. The apparent fractionation of 13C between methane and potential substrates indicated that carbonate reduction was the dominant pathway of methanogenesis, and 16S rDNA based community profiling revealed the presence of an OTU closest related to Methanobacterium sp., an autotrophic (CO2/H2) methanogen. Concentrations of C1-C4 VOAs increased 5-fold over the course of the experiment indicating the microbial production of VOAs. This acetogenesis occurred heterotrophically as autotrophic acetogenesis can be excluded because (a) δ13C values of acetate were similar to those of inorganic carbon (inconsistent with the strong discrimination against 13C observed in autotrophic acetogenesis) and (b) no incorporation of 13C from labeled bicarbonate was into acetate was observed.

  15. SEVERAL ELEMENTS OF THE MULTI-RESOLUTION WAVELET ANALYSIS. Part 1: BASICS OF THE WAVELETS AND THE MULTI-RESOLUTION WAVELET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel Alekseevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Part 1 of this paper represents an introduction into the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The wavelet-based analysis is an exciting new problem-solving tool used by mathematicians, scientists and engineers. In the paper, the authors try to present the fundamental elements of the multi-resolution wavelet analysis in a way that is accessible to an engineer, a scientist and an applied mathematician both as a theoretical approach and as a potential practical method of solving problems (particularly, boundary problems of structural mechanics and mathematical physics. The main goal of the contemporary wavelet research is to generate a set of basic functions (or general expansion functions and transformations that will provide an informative, efficient and useful description of a function or a signal. Another central idea is that of multi-resolution whereby decomposition of a signal represents the resolution of the detail. The multi-resolution decomposition seems to separate components of a signal in a way that is superior to most other methods of analysis, processing or compression. Due to the ability of the discrete wavelet transformation technique to decompose a signal at different independent scaling levels and to do it in a very flexible way, wavelets can be named "the microscopes of mathematics". Indeed, the use of the wavelet analysis and wavelet transformations requires a new point of view and a new method of interpreting representations.

  16. Assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials and trace elements in playgrounds of selected basic schools in the Ga-East municipal district, Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 235U, 232Th series and natural 40K are the main source of natural radioactivity in soil and have long half-lives up to 1010 years. Therefore their presence in soils and rocks is simply considered as permanent. Also due to rapid urbanization, most of Basic School playgrounds in Accra are built close to major roads or industrial areas for which they are subject to many potential pollution sources, including vehicle exhaust and industrial emissions. A study has been carried out on playgrounds of basic schools in the Ga East municipal district in order to determine the exposure of the school children to naturally occurring radioactive materials (238U, 232Th and 40K) and trace elements [aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), potassium (K), lanthanum (La), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn)]. The activity concentrations were determined using high‐purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K determined were 19.8 ± 8.7, 29.1 ± 16.3 and 119.4 ± 97.9 Bq.kg-1 respectively. The average annual effective dose was 0.039 ± 0.021 mSv and it is below the dose limit of 1 mSv/year recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure control. Radiological hazard assessments arising from the natural radionuclides were carried out. The average concentration of 222Rn and exhalation rate were estimated to be 32.13 kBq.m-3 and 0.016 Bq.m-2.s-1 respectively, which compared well with the world average values [78 kBq.m-3 and 0.033 Bq.m-2.s-1 reported by (UNSCEAR, 2000)]. Soil samples were also analyzed for trace elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in order to assess the potential adverse health effects of the exposure of children to trace elements during their games at school. Doses incurred via ingestion and inhalation and the dose absorbed

  17. 活动理论视角下协作学习活动的基本要素%The Basic Elements of Collaborative Learning Activity in View of Activity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余亮; 黄荣怀

    2014-01-01

    协作学习活动设计的核心和关键即是对其基本要素的分析和配置。厘清协作学习活动的基本要素,是分析和设计协作学习活动的基础。以活动理论为视角,论述了协作学习活动的要素,并在此基础上建构了协作学习的结构模型,确立了资源、角色、任务和时序四个基本要素。最后,以此四要素为基本框架,比较和分析了四个协作脚本。%The crux of the design of collaborative learning activity is the analysis and allocation of its basic elements. Designing and analyzing the collaborative learning activity is on the basis of clarifying its basic elements. In the paper, the elements of collaborative learning activity in view of activity theory are discussed, on the basis of which the structure model of collaborative learning activity is built. With the ground on the structure model, task, sequence, role and resource as four basic elements of collaborative learning activity are decided on. In the end, four basic elements are taken as the framework to compare and analyze four collaboration scripts.

  18. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  19. Metabolism of /sup 90/Sr and other elements in man, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1977 (extended without additional funding to March 31, 1978) and renewal proposal, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, H.

    1977-01-01

    Trace element studies of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, and nickel were carried out under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males during different calcium intakes. Complete metabolic balances of the trace elements listed above were determined in each 6-day metabolic period for several weeks by analyzing the constant diet and the urinary and fecal excretions of these naturally occurring elements, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Strontium-90 metabolism studies in man were carried out in order to complete previously initiated investigations. Publications and presentations of papers derived from studies carried out during the current contract period are listed.

  20. Metabolism of 90Sr and other elements in man, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1977 (extended without additional funding to March 31, 1978) and renewal proposal, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element studies of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, and nickel were carried out under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males during different calcium intakes. Complete metabolic balances of the trace elements listed above were determined in each 6-day metabolic period for several weeks by analyzing the constant diet and the urinary and fecal excretions of these naturally occurring elements, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Strontium-90 metabolism studies in man were carried out in order to complete previously initiated investigations. Publications and presentations of papers derived from studies carried out during the current contract period are listed

  1. The Complementary Strip-Slot: From the Unit-Cell of Artificial Transmission Lines to the Basic Element of Novel Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Abdo Sánchez, Elena; Esteban Marzo, Jaime; Martín Guerrero, Teresa María; Page de la Vega, Juan Enrique; Camacho Peñalosa, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The complementary strip-slot radiating element and its applications are reviewed. The element is a modified version of the conventional microstrip-fed slot that presents very broad matching. Its inherent lattice equivalent circuit, its use as unit-cell of artificial transmission lines and its utility as radiating element are described. Promising experimental results for prototypes of a phased uniform array, a sequentially-rotated ring array and a log-periodic array based on the element ...

  2. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 21: Basic Transistor Theory; Module 21T: Multi-Element Vacuum Tubes. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This set of individualized learning modules on transistor theory is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two modules are included in…

  3. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons. The...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  7. Backpack Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Backpack Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Backpack Basics Print A ... it can cause back problems or even injury. Backpacks Are Best Backpacks can't be beat for ...

  8. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  9. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hygiene Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Hygiene Basics Print A A A Text Size What's ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  10. 国际脊髓损伤内分泌和代谢功能基础数据集①%International Spinal Cord Injury Endocrine and Metabolic Function Basic Data Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William A. Bauman; 张缨(译); 王一吉(译); 康海琼(译); 卫波(译); 逯晓蕾(译); Fin Biering-Sørensen; Andrei Krassioukov; 袁媛(译); 周红俊(译); 李建军(译); 刘根林(译); 郑樱(译); 郝春霞(译)

    2013-01-01

      目的国际脊髓损伤内分泌和代谢功能基础数据集的建立在于提出一个标准化的方法用于收集和报告日常生活中所需的基本内分泌和代谢功能信息,使之符合国际脊髓损伤数据集的目的和要求。方法专家组采用标准化方法根据国际脊髓损伤标准和数据集执行委员会、国际脊髓损伤协会行政和科学委员会、美国脊髓损伤协会理事会和对其有兴趣的组织和学会以及个人的建议,对初始数据进行修订。数据集在国际脊髓损伤协会及美国脊髓损伤协会网站公示2个月以征集意见。结果此数据集的最终版本包含脊髓损伤前后的内分泌和代谢功能状态诊断的诸多问题。如付诸应用,脊髓损伤患者伤前信息只需采集一次,而伤后信息可随时采集。结论学习并使用此数据集有助于促进脊髓损伤人群的内分泌和代谢功能基础数据收集和报告的一致性,便于评价和比较各项有关脊髓损伤后内分泌和代谢功能研究的结果。%Objective To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. Methods The International SCI Endocrine and Metabolic Function Data Set was developed by a working group. The initial data set document was revised on the basis of suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations and societies, and individual reviewers. In addition, the data set was posted for 2 months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Results The final International SCI Endocrine and Metabolic Function Data Set

  11. Application of IBA to determine the effects of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola) on the elemental metabolism in the rat liver and kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Poor or no antioxidant activity has been implicated in the aetiology of various pathologies. Since antioxidants are mostly derived from natural resources, the search for medicinal plants, that can either cure or alleviate ailments, has been phenomenal over the past decades. One plant, Garcinia kola, the oil of which is termed kolaviron, has been identified to have possible antioxidant activity [1]. Trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se, form an integral part in antioxidant activity, especially in organ metabolism. In this study organ (Iiver and kidney) metabolism of major such as C, O, N, S, and trace elements is investigated. The kolaviron was dissolved in corn oil. Two groups (control and experimental) of Wistar rats were selected. The animals were housed in accordance with the WHO animal regulations. Both groups had ad libitum access to standard rat chow and potable tap water. The control group was fed, by gavage, with 200 microlitre of the solution of kolaviron in com oil once per day for a period of 4 weeks. After this period the animals were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone. The organs were excised and homogenised into smaller parts which were freeze-dried - 80 deg C. The freeze-dried organ was then pulverized and press into a palette. Concentrations of trace elements were determined with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). PIXE was selected since with this technique concentrations down to minimum detection limits (MDLs) of parts per million (ppm) can be determined. A beam of 3 MeV protons was used for bombardment and a Be filter of 125 micrometer thickness for absorption. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) was used to determine the matrix composition. PIXE and BS measurements were determined simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy was used both as complementary and supplementary to PIXE and BS. Statistical tests of p < 0.5 were considered significant. 1] Ogada and Braide (2009) Nig. J. Physio. Sci., vol. 24

  12. Application of IBA to determine the effects of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola) on the elemental metabolism in the rat liver and kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Poor or no antioxidant activity has been implicated in the aetiology of various pathologies. Since antioxidants are mostly derived from natural resources, the search for medicinal plants, that can either cure or alleviate ailments, has been phenomenal over the past decades. One plant, Garcinia kola, the oil of which is termed kolaviron, has been identified to have possible antioxidant activity [1]. Trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se, form an integral part in antioxidant activity, especially in organ metabolism. In this study organ (Iiver and kidney) metabolism of major such as C, O, N, S, and trace elements is investigated. The kolaviron was dissolved in corn oil. Two groups (control and experimental) of Wistar rats were selected. The animals were housed in accordance with the WHO animal regulations. Both groups had ad libitum access to standard rat chow and potable tap water. The control group was fed, by gavage, with 200 microlitre of the solution of kolaviron in com oil once per day for a period of 4 weeks. After this period the animals were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone. The organs were excised and homogenised into smaller parts which were freeze-dried - 80 deg C. The freeze-dried organ was then pulverized and press into a palette. Concentrations of trace elements were determined with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). PIXE was selected since with this technique concentrations down to minimum detection limits (MDLs) of parts per million (ppm) can be determined. A beam of 3 MeV protons was used for bombardment and a Be filter of 125 micrometer thickness for absorption. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) was used to determine the matrix composition. PIXE and BS measurements were determined simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy was used both as complementary and supplementary to PIXE and BS. Statistical tests of p < 0.5 were considered significant. 1] Ogada and Braide (2009) Nig. J. Physio. Sci., vol. 24

  13. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ... rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  18. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ... In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  20. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of selenium following oral administration of elemental selenium nanoparticles or selenite in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Hansen, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    A suspension of nanoparticles of BSA-stabilized red amorphous elemental selenium (Se) or an aqueous solution of sodium selenite was repeatedly administered by oral gavage for 28 days at 0.05 mg/kg bw/day (low dose) or at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day (high dose) as Se to female rats. Prior to administration......, the size distribution of the Se nanoparticles was characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, which showed that the particles’ mean diameter was 19 nm and ranged in size from 10-80 nm. Following administration of the high dose of Se nanoparticles or selenite the...... concentration of Se was determined by ICP-MS in liver, kidney, urine, feces, stomach, lungs, plasma at µg/g level and in brain and muscle tissue at sub-µg/g level. In order to test if any elemental Se was present in liver, kidney or feces, an in situ derivatization selective to elemental Se was made by...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. The nucleus contains DNA and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills a cell, ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... bodies to meet and deliver impulses to another nerve cell. Axons can range in length from a ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... more specialized for specific functions. Skin cells protect, muscle cells contract, and neurons, the most highly specialized ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... where mental disorders begin and perhaps how to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance ...

  5. 色彩语言基本要素在绘本画面中的应用研究%Study on application of basic elements of color language in picture books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马培培

    2013-01-01

    In all of the paintings, color is an important form of painting language, is a symbol to express emotion, and even can be said to be a carrier of spirit, it is one of the elements of the artistic language. Each color has lightness, hue, and purity of these three basic elements, the basic elements more effectively express the picture of emotion, affect people's appreciation of emotion.%  在所有的绘画作品中,色彩是绘画语言的重要表现形式,是一种表达情感的符号,甚至可以说是一种精神的载体,它是艺术语言的构成要素之一。我们视觉感知到的每一种颜色都具有明度、色相、和纯度这三个基本的要素,这些基本元素的结和更有力地表达了画面情感,影响着人们的欣赏情绪。

  6. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  7. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  8. SEVERAL ELEMENTS OF THE MULTI-RESOLUTION WAVELET ANALYSIS. Part 1: BASICS OF THE WAVELETS AND THE MULTI-RESOLUTION WAVELET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Akimov Pavel Alekseevich; Mozgaleva Marina Leonidovna

    2012-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper represents an introduction into the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The wavelet-based analysis is an exciting new problem-solving tool used by mathematicians, scientists and engineers. In the paper, the authors try to present the fundamental elements of the multi-resolution wavelet analysis in a way that is accessible to an engineer, a scientist and an applied mathematician both as a theoretical approach and as a potential practical method of solving problems (particul...

  9. The relationship of sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activation protein and apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms with metabolic changes during weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Matinheikki, Jussi; Nenonen, Arja; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Lindi, Virpi; Hämelahti, Päivi; Laaksonen, Reijo; Fan, Yue-Mei; Kähönen, Mika; Fogelholm, Mikael; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2007-07-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and apolipoprotein E (apo E) regulate cellular and plasma lipid metabolism. Therefore, variations in the corresponding genes might influence weight reduction and obesity-associated metabolic changes. We investigated the relationships of SCAP (Ile796Val) and apo E polymorphisms on metabolic changes during weight reduction by using a 12-week very low-energy diet. Body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose, and insulin were assessed in 78 healthy premenopausal women (initial body mass index, 34 +/- 4 kg/m(2); age, 40 +/- 4 years) before and after the intervention. The SCAP genotype groups did not differ in the responses of any parameters measured during weight reduction. Apo E did not differentiate the weight loss, but the changes in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for the genotype groups apo E epsilon2/3, epsilon3/3, as well as epsilon3/4 and epsilon4/4 combined were -0.94 +/- 0.56 and -0.59 +/- 0.32, -0.71 +/- 0.49 and -0.49 +/- 0.45, and -0.55 +/- 0.47 and -0.37 +/- 0.39 mmol/L, respectively (P < .05 for both). In conclusion, neither the SCAP Ile796Val nor the apo E polymorphism was associated with weight loss in obese premenopausal women. However, the apo E-but not SCAP genotype-seems to be one of the modifying factors for serum cholesterol concentrations during very low-energy diet in obese premenopausal women. PMID:17570245

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... However, recent research points to a possible new class of antidepressants that can relieve symptoms of the ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, ... Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET Recovery Month September 2016 National ...

  1. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  2. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  4. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the ... for the cell to work properly including small structures called cell organelles. Dendrites branch off from the ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  11. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction ...

  13. Influence of hesperidin on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and related trace elements in γ-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of γ-irradiation induced cellular damage, as well as distortion in lipid profile and trace elements. Such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) crucially enmeshed in activity of a number of antioxidant enzymes. The administration of dietary antioxidants has been suggested to protect against the subsequent tissue damage. The present study was designed to establish the protective effect of hesperidin (HDN), a citrus bioflavonoid, on γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction in rats.Male albino rats were treated weekly with 3 oral doses of HDN (80 mg/kg body wt) for 8 weeks before and during exposure to fractionated 12 Gy γ-rays (2Gy weekly) for 6 weeks.Whole body γ-irradiation induced significant elevations in plasma Fe, Cu, Zn, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) as well as triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a product of lipid peroxidation accompanied with depression in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) content.Treatment with HDN before and throughout the irradiation period attenuated the elevation in Fe, Cu, Zn, MDA concentration, cholesterol, LDL, TAG and phospholipids. Meanwhile, GSH content was significantly elevated compared to the irradiated group.HDN pretreatment induced a modulatory role to oxidative stress, lipid profile and trace elements balance contributing in protection of antioxidant enzymes in γ-irradiated rats. The present study highlights HDN free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, and broadened its prospects as a natural supplemented food in treatment protocols of complementary settings.

  14. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... Authoritative information from government agencies and health-related organizations, available in both English and Spanish ( Español ) ClinicalTrials. ...

  16. The Needs for and the Basic Elements of an Integrated Approach to Planning, Organization and Management of Decommissioning Activities in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the principal results of analytical studies performed by Research Group of St.-Petersburg State Institute of Technology in the framework of the IAEA CRP on ''Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects in Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities''. The aims of the studies were to determine the adequacy of available tools and mechanisms for planning and organization of a large scale decommissioning and waste management activities; to define such elements of planning and management system that require changes and improvements; to elaborate recommendations on necessary actions; and to provide info analytical and methodical support for sustainable realization of decommissioning programme. Final report includes systematized information on a broad spectrum of issues related to CRP goals - from legislation, financing, subordination to concrete plans, projects, relevant manuals and guides addressed both to decision makers, technical executors and the public. (author)

  17. Basic research of equivalent optical nanocircuit elements%等效光学纳米电路元件的基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 付云起

    2013-01-01

    为了设计出一个电路系统,使其具有期望的复杂纳米电路响应这一目标,研究使用串联和并联连接的纳米粒子结构,来充当纳米电路元件的可行性.具体分析了一对联接在一起的半圆柱体,这是由于其简单的几何结构更易于研究分析.此工作分两步完成,首先对联接在一起的两个不同介电常数的共振半圆柱体,应用准静态闭合形式的解析方式来证明其电压分布与纳米电路元件的等效关系;其次利用数值模拟求出其结果,并对这些结果做出分析与解释.%We have investigated the possibility of connecting in series and parallel configurations plasmonic and/or dielectric nanoparticles acting as nanocircuit elements,with a goal for the design of a more complex nanocircuit circuit system with the desired response.In particular,we analyze a pair of conjoined half-cylinders,whose relatively simple geometry may be studied and analyzed analytically.This work contains two steps:Firstly,we derived a closed-form quasi-static analytical solution of the boundary-value problem associated with this geometry,to prove the effective voltage distributions may match that of nanocircuit elements; Secondly,we simulated the model with COMSOL,and analyzed the results to obtain a reasonable explanation.

  18. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  20. Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and plays an important ... of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  3. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Basic Backwardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  5. 5MeCDDO Blocks Metabolic Activation but not Progression of Breast, Intestine, and Tongue Cancers. Is Antioxidant Response Element a Prevention Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Ronald A; Townsend, Reid; Clapper, Margie L; Juliana, M Margaret; Steele, Vernon E; McCormick, David L; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2016-07-01

    The preventive efficacy of the triterpenoid 5MeCDDO was tested in two models of mammary cancer, the Min model of intestinal cancer, and a chemically induced model of head and neck cancer. In one model of mammary cancer, female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered MNU at 50 days of age, and 5MeCDDO (27 ppm) was administered in the diet beginning 5 days later for the duration of the study; 5MeCDDO was ineffective. In contrast, in a model examining initiation of mammary cancers by the procarcinogen dimethyl-benzanthracene, 5, 6-benzoflavone (500 ppm, an Ah receptor agonist) or 5MeCDDO (27 or 2.7 ppm) decreased tumor multiplicity by 90%, 80%, and 50%, respectively. This anti-initiating effect which is presumably mediated by altered metabolic activation parallels our observation that 5MeCDDO induced proteins of various antioxidant response element (ARE)-related phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes [e.g., GST Pi, AKR 7A3 (aflatoxicol), epoxide hydrolase, and quinone reductase] in the liver. 5MeCDDO tested in the 4-nitroquinoline-l-oxide (4-NQO) head and neck cancer model failed to decrease tumor incidence or invasiveness. In the Min mouse model of intestinal cancer, a high dose of 5MeCDDO (80 ppm) was weakly effective in reducing adenoma multiplicity [∼30% (P < 0.05)]; however, a lower dose was totally ineffective. These findings question whether measuring increased levels of certain ARE-related genes (e.g., quinone reductase, GST Pi), indicating decreased carcinogen activation are sufficient to imply general chemopreventive efficacy of a given agent or mixture. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 616-23. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27150634

  6. Spectroscopic evaluation researches on soft x-ray optical elements. Basic studies for development of soft-x-ray polarization elements using mica crystals in an energy region of 1-3 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed basic study about crystal-type soft-X-ray polarizers and phase retarders functioning in an energy region of 1-3 keV. For this purpose, we have developed a simulation code to predict the performance of these devices based on conventional dynamical theory, and investigated polarization properties of mica crystals. As the results of simulations, we have concluded that reflection- and transmission-type polarizers, and transmission-type phase retarders made of mica crystals have possibilities to work in an energy of 1-3 keV. Also, as a preliminary experiment, a reflection measurement was carried out for a symmetric Bragg 002 reflection of a mica crystal around the incidence of angle of 45deg using synchrotron radiation. Then we obtained the reflectivity of about 1.2% around 1 keV. Based on these results, we constructed a new design principle of soft-X-ray polarizers in this energy region. (author)

  7. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  8. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  9. The Hepatitis C Virus-induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activates the Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP) and Regulates Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Steven; Iqbal, Jawed; Sarkar-Dutta, Mehuli; Lane, Samantha; Nagaraj, Abhiram; Ali, Naushad; Waris, Gulam

    2016-02-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) relies on host lipids and lipid droplets for replication and morphogenesis. The accumulation of lipid droplets in infected hepatocytes manifests as hepatosteatosis, a common pathology observed in chronic hepatitis C patients. One way by which HCV promotes the accumulation of intracellular lipids is through enhancing de novo lipogenesis by activating the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). In general, activation of SREBPs occurs during cholesterol depletion. Interestingly, during HCV infection, the activation of SREBPs occurs under normal cholesterol levels, but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Our previous study has demonstrated the activation of the inflammasome complex in HCV-infected human hepatoma cells. In this study, we elucidate the potential link between chronic hepatitis C-associated inflammation and alteration of lipid homeostasis in infected cells. Our results reveal that the HCV-activated NLRP3 inflammasome is required for the up-regulation of lipogenic genes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA against the inflammasome components (NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, and caspase-1), we further show that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role in lipid droplet formation. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HCV-infected cells enables caspase-1-mediated degradation of insulin-induced gene proteins. This subsequently leads to the transport of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein·SREBP complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, followed by proteolytic activation of SREBPs by S1P and S2P in the Golgi. Typically, inflammasome activation leads to viral clearance. Paradoxically, here we demonstrate how HCV exploits the NLRP3 inflammasome to activate SREBPs and host lipid metabolism, leading to liver disease pathogenesis associated with

  10. Creating conditions for cooperative learning: Basic elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2003-01-01

    Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the ...

  11. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  12. Basic elements of a risk management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern industrial manger faces the challenge of safely and efficiently operating increasingly complex, sophisticated, and expensive plants in an atmosphere of reduced resources and increased competition, and frequently with heightened political and public oversight. These political and public concerns have become especially significant where the Federal Government regulates and/or funds programs that have a significant potential for adverse public safety or environmental impacts. Under these circumstances, a major accident or environmental insult could translate into major programmatic delay, redirection, or even plant closing. After-the-fact (reactive) resolution of safety and/or environment problems is both costly and time-consuming process. Therefore, it is prudent for managers at all levels to initiate aggressive proactive efforts to identify and control the risks (hazards) associated with their programs. Unfortunately, risk is not a concept with a single, universally accepted definition. It is most often represented as the product of the probability of occurrence of undesired events and the resultant consequences of those events. The consequences of concern may include: loss of human health, reduction in life expectancy, or loss of life; material or financial losses; environmental damage; or even societal disturbances. This paper discusses risk management and systems safety interest in which has intensified over the post decade principally because of public perceptions of the risks associated with nuclear power and the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes

  13. Effects of short-term application of low-dose growth hormone on trace element metabolism and blood glucose in surgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of short-term application of low-dose growth hormone on trace element metabolism and blood glucose in surgical patientsMETHODS: A total of 48 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal operations were randomized to receive either subcutaneous rhGH (0.15 IU/kg) or placebo (menstruum) injections daily for 7 d after surgery. The two groups had similar nutrition intake.Blood, feces, urine and drain samples were collected to measure zincum, cuprum and ferrum as well as glucose levels. Accumulative intake, excretion and balance of zincum, cuprum and ferrum, apparent absorption (AA)and apparent utilization (AU) of zincum, cuprum and ferrum, blood glucose levels and adverse events were estimated.RESULTS: There were no differences in accumulative intake and drain excretion between the two groups.The feces excretion and accumulative excretion of cuprum were lower in the rhGH group (P < 0.05). The urinary excretion of zincum, cuprum and ferrum was all significantly decreased in the rhGH group (P < 0.05)and the accumulative balance of zincum, cuprum and ferrum was improved compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). AA of cuprum in the rhGH group was almost twice as much as the placebo group (P < 0.05), and AU of zincum, cuprum and ferrum was all improved in the rhGH group (P < 0.05). The mean blood glucose level was significantly higher in the rhGH group than in the placebo group from d 3 to d 6 after operation (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Postoperative low-dose rhGH treatment improves the retention of zincum, cuprum and ferrum and decreases the excretion of zincum, cuprum and ferrum, improves the balance of zincum, cuprum and ferrum, and promotes the AA and AU of zincum,cuprum and ferrum. rhGH can be well tolerated without significant adverse effects and the blood glucose level can be well controlled.

  14. Basic study on behaviors of radioactive and toxic inorganic elements in environment, and environmental assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Outline of the prize-winning study of the 12th Osaka Nuclear Science Corporation Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1999-01-01

    This study was made aiming to establish geological disposal technology for high-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power plant. A basic study for the technology was made using various radioactive materials containing Pu, U, Cs, Se, etc. as a tracer. First, adsorption mechanisms of various nuclides in ground water such as Cs, Co, Se, etc. onto rocks were investigated by indoor experiment. A certain correlation between the apparent adsorption rate of a nuclide onto rocks and diffusion coefficient into micropores in rocks was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. To estimate the radionuclide migration during more than one thousand years based on the results from indoor experiments is difficult, so that construction of a mathematical model was attempted to make numerical simulation. Thus,it was suggested that the properties of underground barrier are considerably related to the adsorption rates of nuclides and also diffusion coefficients into micropores. In addition, the effects of soil microorganisms and organic compounds on the behaviors of radioactive nuclides in soil ecosphere were investigated by extra-low level analysis of long-life radioactivities. More than 10% of Pu derived from Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki were found to be strongly bound to organic compounds in soils, showing that the element is extremely reactive with organic substances. (M.N.)

  15. Myocardial energy metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial Energy Metabolism offers a scientific survey which may be looked upon as complementary to the classical haemodynamic view of the hart. Sections on Basic mechanisms, Models and techniques, and on Clinical implications make this book a worthwhile acquisition for cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, basic scientists in cardiovascular physiology, as well as for students with a more than average interest in the organ. Not all basic questions with regard to formation, breakdown and usage of energy (ATP) in the hart have been asked or answered, but invited experts from the fields of cardiac biochemistry, (electro)physiology, pharmacology, anaesthesiology and clinical cardiological research have covered the subject extensively from their own points of view. Furthermore, Myocardial Energy Metabolism shows how basic scientific knowledge may be integrated into cardiological practice. The potential that new techniques like NMR and PET-scanning may offer to the cardiologist of the near future becomes particularly clear when the heart is studied with regard to its energy metabolism

  16. Glucose and Fatty Acid Metabolism in a 3 Tissue In-Vitro Model Challenged with Normo- and Hyperglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Iori, Elisabetta; Vinci, Bruna; Murphy, Ellen; Marescotti, Maria Cristina; Avogaro, Angelo; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient balance in the human body is maintained through systemic signaling between different cells and tissues. Breaking down this circuitry to its most basic elements and reconstructing the metabolic network in-vitro provides a systematic method to gain a better understanding of how cross-talk between the organs contributes to the whole body metabolic profile and of the specific role of each different cell type. To this end, a 3-way connected culture of hepatocytes, adipose tissue and endot...

  17. A comparative study in Alzheimer's and normal brains of trace element distribution using PIXE and INA analyses and glucose metabolism by positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Stedman, JD; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    1999-01-01

    The onset of Alzheimer's disease has been shown to affect trace element concentrations in the brain when compared to "normal" subjects in ex vivo samples. The techniques used to determine trace element concentrations were proton-induced X-ray emission and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Wi

  18. The Storage Model of Big Data Basic-elements in HBase Database and Its Realization%大数据基元的HBase数据库存储模型与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桥兴; 强保华; 杨春燕

    2014-01-01

    大数据将在未来经济、社会和生活等领域产生深远影响,而大数据的整合存储研究为促进和深化其应用范围有重要的理论和实践意义。本文利用分布式文件系统HBase的数据存储结构特征,采用可拓学基元对异构数据集进行整合处理并存储在HBase数据库。通过提取数据特别是半结构化和非结构化数据的典型特征和属性取值并转换为基元后生成一个新的数据集,不但为数据分析和数据解释提供一种新的实现方式,而且为领域问题的策略生成提供大数据的研究思路和解决方案。%Big data will have a profound impact on economics , society and life in the near future , and the research on integration and storage of big data may play an important theoretical and practical role in pro-moting and deepening the application scope of big data .It utilized the data storage structure of the dis-tributed file system named as HBase and the basic-element of Extenics to integrate the heterogeneous data sets , and then stored the processed data set in HBase database .The new data set , which was obtained by extracting the typical characteristics as well as their value of data , especially the semi-structured and un-structured data , provides not only a new way for the analysis and interpretation of data but also the re-search ideas and strategy generation for the professional issues from the perspective of big data .

  19. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on hippocampal and parietal cortical neuronal cAMP-response element-binding protein expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Qu; Xuesong Xing; Jin Zang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) is a key modulator of various signaling pathways. CREB activation initiates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that promote neuronal survival. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on cerebral neuronal CREB expression following ischemia/reperfusion injury. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An immunohistochemical detection experiment was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Shenyang Medical College, between October 2006 and April 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 60 healthy, adult, Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated (n=12), ischemia/reperfusion (n=24), and bFGF-treated (n=24). Rabbit anti-rat CREB (1: 100) and biotin labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG were purchased from the Wuhan Boster Company, China. MetaMorph-evolution MPS. 0-BX51 microscopy imaging system was provided by China Medical University, China. METHODS: Rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were developed using the suture method for right middle cerebral artery occlusion. Two-hour ischemia was followed by reperfusion. Rats from the bFGF-treated and ischemia/reperfusion groups were intraperitoneally administered endogenous bFGF (500 IU/mL, 2 000 IU/kg) or an equal amount of physiological saline. Rats from the sham-operated group underwent a similar surgical procedure, without induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury and drug administration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After 48-hour reperfusion, hippocampal and parietal cortical neuronal CREB expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the absorbance of hippocampal CREB-positive products was determined using MetaMorph-evolutionMP5.0-BX51 microscopy imaging system. RESULTS: The sham-operated group exhibited noticeable CREB expression in hippocampal and parietal cortical neurons. In the ischemia/reperfusion group, the CREB expression was discrete and neurons were poorly arranged. The bFGF-treated group

  20. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics ...

  1. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord ...

  2. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  3. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord ...

  4. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of ...

  5. Long-term testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men ameliorates elements of the metabolic syndrome: an observational, long-term registry study

    OpenAIRE

    Traish, A M; Haider, A; Doros, G; Saad, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The goal of this study was to determine if long-term testosterone (T) therapy in men with hypogonadism, henceforth referred to as testosterone deficiency (TD), ameliorates or improves metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. Methods We performed a cumulative registry study of 255 men, aged between 33 and 69 years (mean 58.02 ± 6.30) with subnormal plasma total T levels (mean: 9.93 ± 1.38; range: 5.89–12.13 nmol/l) as well as at least mild symptoms of TD assessed by the Aging Males' symptoms ...

  6. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Regulation of glucose and fat metabolism in the liver by Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein (ChREBP) and impact of dietary influence

    OpenAIRE

    Elkatry, Haiam Omar Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Deregulationen in der Leberlipidsynthese sind häufig mit Adipositas und Diabetes Typ 2 verbunden und daher ist ein detailliertes Verständnis der beteiligten, regulierenden Stoffwechselwege sehr wichtig, um künftig potentielle therapeutische Targets zu identifizieren. Die Leber ist der wichtigste Ort für den Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel (Glykolyse und Glykogen-Synthese) sowie Triglycerid-Synthese (Lipogenese). Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) wurden in die Regulation durch ...

  8. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  9. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not ... the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ...

  10. Application of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy to the investigation of metabolic pathways of trace elements using stable isotopes as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc and copper metabolism became easier to study after science provided two research ways: Isotope tracer technique and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using stable isotopes is advantageous in humans because exposure to radioactivity is avoided and therefore the method can be used safely in infants and pregnant women. We have investigated the bioavailability of zinc in a group of premature infants and one term infant weighing 1 850 to 5 630 g and the copper absorption in a man and an adolescent with M. Wilson (a copper storage disease) and discuss the accurate isotope analysis of human feces in relation to mineral bioavailability studies of premature infants. It is shown that for the determination of bioavailability of zinc and copper, the method of chelate-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is valuable for routine application to clinical experiments; the human fecal samples resulting from diet suitably enriched with isotopes 68Zn, 70Zn or 65Cu can be routinely analysed with a precision of about 1% for these stable isotopes. The total zinc in feces was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the 70Zn/64Zn ratio by chelate-GC/MS (EI). We have found different absorption values between 3% to 70% for zinc in a group of different infants including twins, triplets and preterms. The copper uptake was determined to be 79.7% and 49.9%. (orig./RB)

  11. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  12. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  13. Climate Change: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: EPA Home Climate Change Basic Information Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change ... We can make a difference How is the climate changing in the U.S.? Observations across the United ...

  14. Studies on the relationship between trace element (selenium, zinc) accumulation in hair and metabolism in body of rabbit by using 75Se and 65Zn tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, the rabbit was used as experimental animal. After 2 months of feeding the diet with different levels of Se or Zn, five animals from each group were given an oral dose of Na275SeO3 or 65ZnSO4 solution, respectively. The process of absorption, exertion, accumulation and transfer of isotopes to the hair were determined, and the tissues retention of 75Se or 65Zn were also examined at the end of the experiments. The results obtained from the measurement of radioactive change of back hair in each group animal after the oral intake of 75Se or 65Zn showed that the 75Se or 65Zn transfer to hair were fast. At the seventh and fifth day after dosing, the 75Se or 65Zn were determined in the down-end section and upper-end section of back hair, and the radioactivity increased with time. At the first, the radioactivity in down-end section was higher than that of the upper-end section. However, at the end of experiment the upper-end section was higher than the down-end section. The data obtained from the different measuring point indicated that the accumulation, distribution of trace element in hair was not even. there was extended process from the down-end to the upper-end of hair and accumulation in upper-end section. The content of 75Se or 65Zn in hair was related to the level of Se or Zn in diet. However, there were difference among the different trace elements

  15. Linking Metabolism, Elemental Cycles, and Environmental Conditions in the Deep Biosphere: Growth of a Model Extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Under High-Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, G. C. M.; Cario, A.; Rogers, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems. Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. A. fulgidus cycles carbon and sulfur via heterotrophic and autotrophic sulfate reduction in various high temperature and high-pressure niches including shallow marine vents, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and deep oil reservoirs. Here we report the results of A. fulgidus growth experiments at optimum temperature, 83°C, and pressures up to 600 bars. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at 500 and 600 bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls. At pressures up to 400 bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding 400 bars. These results suggest that A. fulgidus continues carbon, sulfur and energy cycling unaffected by elevated pressures up to 400 bars, representing a variety of subsurface environments. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global

  16. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Text Size Did you ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  17. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  18. Beginning Visual Basic 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Thearon

    2010-01-01

    A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste

  19. Research and development of basic technologies for the next generation industries, 'three-dimensional circuit elements'. Evaluation on the research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 'sanjigen kairo soshi'. Kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    Research, development and evaluation were performed with an objective of establishing the basic technology related to three-dimensional circuit elements that integrate functions at ultra-high density. For the basic technology of lamination, the SOI technology suitable for the three-dimensional circuit elements was developed, and it has become possible to manufacture high-quality multi-layered crystalline structure by means of annealing that uses laser and electron beam. In addition, a lateral epitaxial technology for solid phase was developed, and the base to be applied to the three-dimensional circuit elements was established. Furthermore, the technology to put thin film circuits together would be useful for high-density integration in the future. The three-dimensional circuit makes parallel processing in each segment possible, whereas a possibility was shown that the processing can be performed at much higher speed than before. Actually a prototype three-dimensional circuit equipped with functions for parallel processing and judgment processing was fabricated. The image pre-processing which has been impossible on the real time basis in the conventional two-dimensional integrated circuit was realized in a speed as fast as milli-second order. These achievements lead to a belief that the targets for the present research and development have been achieved. (NEDO)

  20. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  1. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  2. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  3. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  4. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  5. Engineering of scintigraphy equipment - the basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic design of scintigraphy equipment for imaging small organs has been made. The equipment is a mini gamma camera. The function of the equipment is provide images of metabolism process in a body organ. The result of the equipment can be used to diagnose an illness. Radiation detection from a body organ is designed using single scintillation crystal detector which is coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). With this basic design of scintigraphy equipment is expected that scintigraphy equipment engineering activity can be carried out. (author)

  6. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  7. Exponentiation: A New Basic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brent

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the basic operations of school mathematics have been identified as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Notably, these operations are "basic," not because they are foundational to mathematics knowledge, but because they were vital to a newly industrialized and market-driven economy several hundred years…

  8. Turkey's Basic Education Programme

    OpenAIRE

    A. Remzi Sezgin

    2000-01-01

    In August 1997, the Government of Turkey greatly increased its efforts to implement eight-year obligatory education, through parliamentary approval of Law No. 4306 for Basic Education. The law mobilises significant resources for a major investment in school facilities through earmarked taxes, establishes a timetable for the Basic Education Programme and streamlines procedures to allow for swift action and implementation.

  9. Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Bardos, Achilles N.

    1990-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale, for use with preschool and primary-aged children, determines a child's school readiness and knowledge of English-language verbal concepts. The instrument measures 258 basic concepts in such categories as comparisons, time, quantity, and letter identification. This paper describes test administration, scoring and…

  10. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  11. The gene encoding acyl-CoA-binding protein is subject to metabolic regulation by both sterol regulatory element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Maria B; Bloksgaard, Maria; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Duval, Caroline; Staels, Bart; Mandrup, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    The acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10-kDa intracellular lipid-binding protein that transports acylCoA esters. The protein is expressed in most cell types at low levels; however, expression is particularly high in cells with a high turnover of fatty acids. Here we confirm a previous...... observation that ACBP expression in rodent liver is down-regulated by fasting, and we show that insulin but not glucose is the inducer of ACBP expression in primary rat hepatocytes. In keeping with the regulation by insulin, we show that ACBP is a sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) target...... that ACBP expression is significantly lower in livers from PPARalpha knock-out mice than in livers from wild type mice. In conclusion, expression of ACBP in rodent hepatocytes is subject to dual metabolic regulation by PPARalpha and SREBP-1c, which may reflect the need for ACBP during lipogenic as well...

  12. [Hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... risk associated with increased blood pressure. As the definition of the metabolic syndrome is based on dichotomization of cardiovascular risk factors with a continuously increasing risk, it cannot match risk stratification tools like the HeartScore for calculation of prognosis. However, the metabolic...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  13. The basic elements of economic infrastructure of rural areas in counties of the wielkopolskie voivodship Wyposażenie obszarów wiejskich powiatów województwa wielkopolskiego w podstawowe elementy infrastruktury gospodarczej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dolata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of studies presented in the paper allows to conclude that rural areas of Wielkopolskie voivodship are considerably differentiated as far as the distribution of economic infrastructure is concerned. Very high and high levels of infrastructure can be found in the counties in the central part of the voivodship around Poznań, its capital and two counties in the northern part of the voivodship. These counties have attained higher level of individually studied elements of infrastructure, as compared with the values calculated for rural areas in Poland in general. Counties of low and very low level of infrastructure occupy south-eastern part of the voivodship and vast areas located in its north-western part. In these areas not all inhabitants have access to gas-line system, sewage network and sewage treatment plants.

  14. 基于教育立法的教育问责基本要素探析%Analysis of the Basic Elements of Educational Accountability Based on Educational Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫华; 李更春; 吴鹏

    2013-01-01

    Educational accountability indicates certain relationships existing in educational system which stipulates the official controlling and controlled relationships between various groups related to the educational system, and indicates the responsibility of one party in terms of the other party’s educational resource management and the educational role. Within educational accountability arrangements, there are elements such as accountability subject and object, and scope and outcome of accountability. Educational legislation is a key basis of accountability. This paper analyses the above-mentioned accountability elements that entail the subiectiues, objectiues, scopes, standards and results of accounta bility.%教育问责昭示着特定的关系安排,它规定了与教育系统有关的不同群体之间一种正式的控制与被控制关系,标明了一方就教育资源的管理与自身角色,对另一方所负的某种责任。在问责关系的安排下,教育问责包涵了问责主体、问责客体、问责范围和结果等多种要素。教育立法是教育问责实践的核心依据,教育问责实践包含了问责的主体、客体、范围、标准和结果的基本要素。

  15. Delirium (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is addressed promptly. Delirium also differs from the psychosis of psychiatric disease, in which orientation, concentration and ... read the same materials their doctors are reading. Acute toxic-metabolic encephalopathy in adults Medically supervised alcohol ...

  16. BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  17. Directed basic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its execution, and in the requirement of no other deliverables than knowledge generation, directed basic research is no different from conventional (self-directed) basic research. The selected areas are determined in a national perspective. Directed Basic Research may be in an area where the knowledge generation would benefit Indian Society in the long term, or it may be in an area where the results of the research would benefit Indian Industry or our strategic interests in the long term. India can become a global innovation leader provided we have technology foresight to make the right technology choices, provided we introduce coherent synergy (a phrase I coined a few years back in this context) in our science and technology related activities and provided we establish an effective innovation ecosystem. We must also selectively promote some technology areas through directed basic research. Sustainable economic development in the future requires strong and increased funding of basic research. While directed basic research should be encouraged, self-directed basic research should also receive substantially increased support. (author)

  18. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  19. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  20. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  1. Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Low-sodium diet (Beyond the Basics) Authors Norman M Kaplan, ... This topic last updated: Sep 08, 2015. LOW-SODIUM DIET OVERVIEW — Sodium is an element that is ...

  2. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here . Basic Infertility Evaluation 450 x 274 | Running Time: 3 min 40 sec Dr. Roger Lobo of ... Causes of Female Infertility 450 x 274 | Running Time: 2 min 35 sec Dr. Roger Lobo, of ...

  3. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  4. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  5. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Understanding Infertility - The Basics A series of patient ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...

  6. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  7. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basic Infertility Evaluation 450 x 274 | Running Time: 3 min 40 sec Dr. Roger Lobo of the ... Coping With Infertility 450 x 274 | Running Time: 3 min 31 sec Dr. Roger Lobo of the ...

  8. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Understanding Infertility - The Basics A series of ... Site Terms & Conditions of Use | Web Design and Development by The Berndt Group

  9. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos here . Basic Infertility Evaluation 450 x 274 | Running Time: 3 min 40 sec Dr. Roger Lobo ... infertility. Causes of Female Infertility 450 x 274 | Running Time: 2 min 35 sec Dr. Roger Lobo, ...

  10. EHR/PHR Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR EHR/PHR Basics Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of ... information to it. With an electronic health record (EHR) or electronic medical record (EMR), your doctor (or ...

  11. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  12. Basics of Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Vedral, Vlatko; Martin B. Plenio

    1998-01-01

    Quantum computers require quantum logic, something fundamentally different to classical Boolean logic. This difference leads to a greater efficiency of quantum computation over its classical counter-part. In this review we explain the basic principles of quantum computation, including the construction of basic gates, and networks. We illustrate the power of quantum algorithms using the simple problem of Deutsch, and explain, again in very simple terms, the well known algorithm of Shor for fac...

  13. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  14. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  15. Iron and Iron Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms except some bacteria. A great number of new articles related to the iron metabolism have been published in recent years explaining new findings. Hepsidine, a peptide hormon, that is recently found, regulates iron methabolism by effecting iron absorbsion from gut, secreting iron from hepatic store and flows iron from macrophages. Hepsidin blockes to effluxe iron from cells by bounding to ferroportin and by inducing ferroportin destru...

  16. Topics and Problems in Metabolic P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Vincenzo; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2006-01-01

    P metabolic systems are a special class of P systems which seem to be adequate for expressing biological phenomena related to metabolism and signaling transduction in biological systems. We give the basic motivation for their introduction and some ideas about their applicability and development.

  17. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  18. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  19. Representation and Mechanism:An Interpretation of the Culture Structure Theory of the Contemporary Chinese National Cohesion Basic Elements Development%表征与机理:当代中华民族凝聚力基本要素发展的文化结构论解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田旭明

    2016-01-01

    民族凝聚力在根本上从属于文化结构论的研究范畴。从文化哲学的文化结构论角度来看,当代中华民族凝聚力的升华集中体现在其基本构成要素的自我发展上。这种自我发展是通过文化内在精神的自觉更新和多元文化相互潜移的文化整合来实现的。在这两种逻辑机制的交错中,当代中华民族凝聚力基本要素的自我发展不仅体现出了民族性与时代性的统一,还折射出了这种自我发展是一种理性的文化批判与文化重建。%The national cohesion in the root belongs to the category of cultural structure theory research .From the angle of cultural structure of cultural philosophy theory ,the sublimation of contemporary Chinese national cohesion embodied in the self-development of the basic elements .This spirit of self-development is realized by cultural inner self-conscious updating and multicultural latent integration each other .In these two logic mech-anism of crisscross ,the basic key elements of contemporary Chinese national cohesion of self -development not only reflects the unity of nationality and times ,but also reflects that the self-development is a kind of rational criticism and cultural reconstruction .

  20. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  1. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  2. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  3. Transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors introduce this volume of historical and research papers on the transuranium elements by reviewing the period of discovery of elements 93 and beyond. Then the authors highlight the research achievements that focus on the unique properties of the 5f elements. Finally, the authors outline the technology and applications of transuranium elements and their radiobiology

  4. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Transitions for Children with ...

  5. Hindi Basic Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, J. Martin; And Others

    This reader is intended to accompany the Basic Course in Spoken Hindi. Following an outline of the Devanagari script, 20 lessons are presented. Each consists of a reading selection, several illustrative sentences in English and Hindi, and a series of questions. Most of the reading selections were adapted from the magazine "Bal-Bharati." (RM)

  6. Basic Drafting: Book One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The first of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 13 topics in the following units: introduction to drafting, general safety, basic tools and lines, major equipment, applying for a job, media, lettering, reproduction, drawing sheet layout, architect's scale usage, civil engineer's scale usage, mechanical engineer's scale usage,…

  7. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  8. Portuguese Basic Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic course in Brazilian Portuguese consists of 75 lessons in six volumes. Volume I is in two parts, with the dialogs, questions and exercises presented in Portuguese in the first part, and the intonation patterns and English translations presented in the second. The general format follows the Defense Language Institute format, employing…

  9. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  10. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  11. IGBO, BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    A BASIC COURSE WAS PREPARED ON THE SPEECH OF TWO MEMBERS OF THE EZINEHITE GROUP OF IGBOS IN EASTERN NIGERIA. THE ESSENTIAL PHONOLOGICAL AND GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES OF IGBO ARE PRESENTED WITHIN A SMALL VOCABULARY OF APPROXIMATELY 600 ITEMS. THE COURSE MATERIALS CONSIST OF (1) TONE DRILLS, (2) 24 UNITS OF DIALOGS, NOTES, AND DRILLS, (3) SIX UNITS OF…

  12. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems and to...

  13. Operationalization of Basic Observables in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This novel approach to the foundation of the physical theory begins with thought experiments on measurement practice like Einstein for relativistic Kinematics. For a similar foundation of Dynamics one can start from Hermann von Helmholtz analysis of basic measurements. We define energy, momentum and mass from elemental ordering relations for "capability to execute work" and "impact" in a collision and apply Helmholtz program for quantification. From simple pre-theoretic (principle of inertia, impossibility of Perpetuum Mobile, relativity principle) and measurement methodical principles we derive all fundamental equations of Mechanics. We explain the mathematical formalism from the operationalization of basic observables.

  14. Trace element speciation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicological properties associated with an element depend upon its chemical form since this will dictate the metabolic pathway that the compound follows in the body. The speciation of the element is determinant for its physiological behaviour in a living system. The complicated interactions of the different forms of trace elements in human metabolism were reviewed and the species present were categorised into seven groups. The complexity of the tasks involved in a study of trace element speciation in man was illustrated and many of the pitfalls were identified together with an example of the detective approach that must be followed to elucidate the intricacies of the associations between trace elements and biomolecular moieties

  15. DRUG METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Singla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The termmetabolism, derived from the Greek language, simply means change or transformation. It relates to various processes within the body that convert food and other substances into energy and other metabolic byproducts used by the body. Drug metabolism is the body’s way of transforming drugs, so they can be excreted from the body. Many drugs arenot active until they have been metabolized in the body by enzymes that transform them. Most drugs are lipophilic, meaning they pass through membranes to reach their target site. Most drugs are treated by the body like foreign substances, also known as xenobiotics. Humans have evolved a complex system for xenobiotic metabolism

  16. Metabolic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body ( sepsis ) Thyroid disease Vitamin deficiencies (including vitamins B12 , B6 , E , and B1 ) Some metabolic disorders are ... by injection. Abnormal blood sugar level or thyroid function may need medicines to correct the problem. For ...

  17. New Develoopment of the Basic Theory of Extenics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiWen; YangChunyan; ZhaoYan; HeBin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,the new development of three basic theories of Extenics,incluing basic-element theory,extension set theory and extension logic theory ,has been introduced.And the new theoretical frame of Extenics has also been set forth.

  18. Basic components of construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system

    OpenAIRE

    Seleznova Olha Olexandrivna

    2015-01-01

    This article investigated the basic components of construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. It is developed the model of the construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. The article explores the essence of the stages of forming the construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. The article reveals the basic elements of marketing management – mission, goals, strategy. It describes the basic functions of marketing management system...

  19. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  20. Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008393 Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker on triglyceride metabolism in the liver: experiment with Zucker fatty rats. RAN Jianmin(冉建民), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, 4th Hosp Med Coll, Jinan Univ, Guangzhou 510220. Natl Med J China 2008;88(22):1557-1561. Objective To investigate the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism and mechanism thereof.

  1. Do the interactions between glucocorticoids and sex hormones regulate the development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marià eAlemany

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response don't seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release. These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e. levels of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment. Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies.

  2. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  3. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  4. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  5. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  6. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE – BASIC ELEMENT OF ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Simona Mărăcine

    2012-01-01

    The increasing mobility of the socio-economic life and the acceleration of the scientific-technical progress have caused profound changes in society and, implicitly, within organizations. They had to show a great capacity for adaptation, reorganization of activities and flexibility in the attempt to overcome competition and become efficient, a fact which led to changing the management methods, the organizational structures and, implicitly, to changing the organizational culture. It is crucial...

  8. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  9. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  10. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  11. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  12. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  13. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  14. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P

    2011-01-01

    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  15. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  16. Good gradings of basic Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyt, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    We classify good Z-gradings of basic Lie superalgebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. Good Z-gradings are used in quantum Hamiltonian reduction for affine Lie superalgebras, where they play a role in the construction of super W-algebras. We also describe the centralizer of a nilpotent even element and of an sl(2)-triple in gl(m|n) and osp(m|2n).

  17. Commercialization basics for the photonics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David A

    2013-01-01

    Most entrepreneurs have expertise in one or more of the critical areas of commercialization, but may lack key elements necessary for success. Commercialization Basics for the Photonics Industry serves as a roadmap for the commercialization process, helping identify and address roadblocks on the path to commercialization. Evaluation techniques will help determine the strength of a business opportunity and guide its development toward the best chance of success.

  18. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  19. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  20. Back to BASICs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The world economy is in a state of flux. While most OECD countries struggle to minimize the damage of the global financial crisis, a few countries maintain positive economic growth rates and are thus changing global power configurations. Among the most important emerging economies for international...... development are the BASIC countries: Brazil, South Africa, India and China. This article analyses why these countries have rejuvenated development cooperation, what they actually do in Africa, and how they do it. It argues that the most important aspect of the rejuvenation of non-traditional donors...

  1. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  2. Uranium: a basic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All energy sources and technologies, including uranium and the nuclear industry, are needed to provide power. Public misunderstanding of the nature of uranium and how it works as a fuel may jeopardize nuclear energy as a major option. Basic chemical facts about uranium ore and uranium fuel technology are presented. Some of the major policy decisions that must be made include the enrichment, stockpiling, and pricing of uranium. Investigations and lawsuits pertaining to uranium markets are reviewed, and the point is made that oil companies will probably have to divest their non-oil energy activities. Recommendations for nuclear policies that have been made by the General Accounting Office are discussed briefly

  3. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  4. Basic Verbs of Possession

    OpenAIRE

    Viberg, Åke

    2010-01-01

    Verbs of possession such as HAVE and GIVE have been extensively studied both typologically and from a cognitive linguistic perspective. The present study presents an analysis of possession verbs as a semantic field with a focus on the most basic verbs. It combines a corpus-based contrastive analysis with a sketch of a general lexical typology of possession verbs. The contrastive part consists of an analysis primarily of the Swedish verbs ge ‘give’, få ‘get’ and ta ‘take’ and their corresponde...

  5. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  6. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  7. A New Geochemical Classification of Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Changmou; L. Lynn Chyi

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical classification proposed by Goldschmidt was based on meteoritic analysis and elemental partition in blast furnace. There are many surprises when applied to the discussion of natural occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences in nature is, therefore, proposed for students learning geochemistry and geologists working in the field. Elements are classified into six groups including lithophile, oxyphile, siderophile, chalcophile, biophile, and atmophile elements. Five terms are taken from Goldshcmidt's original classification. Oxyphile is a new term.

  8. Metabolic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1980-08-01

    A systematic review of catalytic activities in thermal proteinoids and microspheres aggregated therefrom yields some new inferences on the origins and evolution of metabolism. Experiments suggest that, instead of being inert, protocells were already biochemically and cytophysically competent. The emergence and refinement of metabolism ab initio is thus partly traced conceptually. When the principle of molecular self-instruction, as of amino acids in peptide synthesis, is taken into account as a concomitant of natural selection, an expanded theory of organismic evolution, including saltations, emerges.

  9. Track A Basic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeant, D.; Deverasetty, S.; Luo, Y; Villahoz-Baleta, A.; Zobrist, S.; Rathnayake, V.; Russo, J.; Muesing, M.; Schiller, M; Andrabi, R; Kumar, R.; Bala, M; Nair, A.; Biswas, A.; Wig, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many HIV databases and applications focus on a limited domain of HIV knowledge. Since even a “simple” organism like HIV represents a very complex system with many interacting elements, the fractured structure of existing databases and applications likely limits our ability to investigate and understand HIV. To facilitate research, therefore, we have built HIVToolbox, which integrates much of the knowledge about HIV proteins and presents the data in an interactive web application. H...

  10. Basic research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined

  11. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  12. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  13. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  14. Finite Element Method: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal JAGOTA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The finite element method (FEM is a numerical analysis technique for obtaining approximate solutions to a wide variety of engineering problems. A finite element model of a problem gives a piecewise approximation to the governing equations. The basic premise of the FEM is that a solution region can be analytically modeled or approximated by replacing it with an assemblage of discrete elements (discretization. Since these elements can be put together in a variety of ways, they can be used to represent exceedingly complex shapes.

  15. Transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that neutron irradiation of uranium, beginning in 1934, led to the reported discovery of such transuranium elements as eka-rhenium. After a few years of investigation these were correctly identified, in December 1938, as fission products. The first real transuranium elements, with atomic numbers 93 and 94 (neptumiun and plutionium), were discovered in 1940-1941. Plutomiun-239 was shown to be fission-able with slow neutrons, and chemical methods for its separation in quantity were developed. Not until it was recognized that transuranium elements should be part of a 14-member actinide series could elements 95 and 96 (americium and curium) be chemically identified after their nuclear synthesis. This new view was the key to the synthesis and identified after their nuclear synthesis. This new view was the key to the synthesis and identification of the next seven transuranium elements, resulting in the completion of the actinide series at element 103 in 1961. The transactinide elements could, according to the actinide concept, also be correctly placed in the periodic table, and the chemical properties of the first transactinide elements, elements 104 and 105 (rutherfordium and hafnium), confirm this point of view. Transuranium elements through number 109 are now known

  16. Basics and application of PSpice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteenth chapters, which introduces basics and application of PSpice. The contents of this book are PSpice?, PSpice introduction, PSpice simulation, DC analysis, parametric analysis, Transient analysis, parametric analysis and measurements, Monte Carlo analysis, changing of device characteristic, ABM application. The elementary laws of circuit, R.L.C. basic circuit, Diode basic cc circuit, Transistor and EET basic circuit, OP-Amp basic circuit, Digital basic circuit, Analog, digital circuit practice, digital circuit application and practice and ABM circuit application and practice.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you already have metabolic syndrome, making these healthy lifestyle choices can help reduce your risk of heart disease and other health problems. If lifestyle changes alone can’t control your ... to help. Maintain a healthy weight Your doctor can measure your body mass ...

  18. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolis...

  19. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  20. Computing Heavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, N; Kortelainen, M; McDonnell, J; Moré, J; Nazarewicz, W; Pei, J; Sarich, J; Sheikh, J; Staszczak, A; Stoitsov, M; Wild, S M

    2011-01-01

    Reliable calculations of the structure of heavy elements are crucial to address fundamental science questions such as the origin of the elements in the universe. Applications relevant for energy production, medicine, or national security also rely on theoretical predictions of basic properties of atomic nuclei. Heavy elements are best described within the nuclear density functional theory (DFT) and its various extensions. While relatively mature, DFT has never been implemented in its full power, as it relies on a very large number (~ 10^9-10^12) of expensive calculations (~ day). The advent of leadership-class computers, as well as dedicated large-scale collaborative efforts such as the SciDAC 2 UNEDF project, have dramatically changed the field. This article gives an overview of the various computational challenges related to the nuclear DFT, as well as some of the recent achievements.

  1. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  2. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  3. Magnetism basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanita, Carmen-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    This textbook is aimed at engineering students who are likely to come across magnetics applications in their professional practice. Whether designing lithography equipment containing ferromagnetic brushes, or detecting defects in aeronautics, some basic knowledge of 21st century magnetism is needed. From the magnetic tape on the pocket credit card to the read head in a personal computer, people run into magnetism in many products. Furthermore, in a variety of disciplines tools of the trade exploit magnetic principles, and many interdisciplinary laboratory research areas cross paths with magnetic phenomena that may seem mysterious to the untrained mind. Therefore, this course offers a broad coverage of magnetism topics encountered more often in this millenium, revealing key concepts on which many practical applications rest. Some traditional subjects in magnetism are discussed in the first half of the book, followed by areas likely to spark the curiosity of those more interested in today’s technological achi...

  4. Basic trauma life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werman, H A; Nelson, R N; Campbell, J E; Fowler, R L; Gandy, P

    1987-11-01

    The impact of traumatic injuries on modern society in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic cost is enormous. Studies have shown that both advanced life support skills and rapid stabilization and transport of the trauma victim have a beneficial effect on the patient's ultimate outcome. The Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS) course was designed to provide pre-hospital care providers with the skills necessary to provide a thorough assessment, initial resuscitation, and rapid transportation of the trauma victim. Early studies suggest that the material is easily learned by prehospital care providers and that the on-scene time for trauma cases is reduced following training in BTLS. More widespread training in BTLS may have a significant effect on the mortality and morbidity associated with traumatic injuries. PMID:3662184

  5. Basic mathematics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Rosser, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Economics students will welcome the new edition of this excellent textbook. Mathematics is an integral part of economics and understanding basic concepts is vital. Many students come into economics courses without having studied mathematics for a number of years. This clearly written book will help to develop quantitative skills in even the least numerate student up to the required level for a general Economics or Business Studies course. This second edition features new sections on subjects such as: matrix algebra part year investment financial mathematics Improved pedagogical features, such as learning objectives and end of chapter questions, along with the use of Microsoft Excel and the overall example-led style of the book means that it will be a sure fire hit with both students and their lecturers.

  6. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  7. 15. Basic economic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clear value of economic data and analysis to decisionmakers has motivated them to mandate the creation of extensive global economic data sets. This chapter contains a set of these basic economic data, which provides the context for understanding the causes and the consequences of many of the decisions that affect the world's resources. Many traditional economic indicators fail to account for the depletion or deterioration of natural resources, the long-term consequences of such depletion, the equitable distribution of income within a country, or the sustainability of current economic practices. The type of measurement shown here, however, is still useful in showing the great differences between the wealthiest and the poorest countries. Tables are given on the following: Gross national product and official development assistance 1969-89; External debt indicators 1979-89; Central government expenditures; and World commodity indexes and prices 1975-89

  8. Insomnia Treatments (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education: Daytime sleepiness (The Basics) Patient education: Jet lag (The Basics) Patient education: What is a sleep ... use by UpToDate, but only for the clinical, educational or research purposes of the Institution. Further, access ...

  9. Distant elements of surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fortuitous alignment of a quasar and a distant galaxy has enabled astronomers to unravel the origin and evolution of chemical elements. Cosmologists and fossil hunters have more in common than it might first appear. Palaeontologists analyse fossil records of the last 3.5 billion years to track the evolution of life on Earth. Motivated by a similar curiosity, astronomers are searching for chemical elements in stars and cosmic gas to understand the origin of the chemistry of the universe, and how it has developed since the Big Bang. The basic theoretical framework of the universe's chemistry has been in place for half a century. The lightest elements - hydrogen and helium, along with trace amounts of deuterium and lithium - were created within a few minutes of the Big Bang. All of the other elements were assembled at much later times by the fusion of hydrogen and helium nuclei in the interior of stars. Some of these elements were dispersed through space in the violent supernova explosions with which some stars end their lives. They were then condensed into subsequent generations of stars, and into the planets that formed around them. Some of these elements were eventually incorporated into organic structures and became essential for life on Earth. This cosmic cycle continues to the present day. The closest region of active star formation is the Orion nebula, which is visible to anyone who looks up at the sky on a clear winter's night. But the details of the cycle are still far from clear. For example, we do not know when most of the elements were produced in the universe as a whole, or which stars were responsible for producing which elements. In order to unravel the path of chemical evolution we have to shift our attention to much further away than the Orion nebula. (U.K.)

  10. Web engineering security: essential elements

    OpenAIRE

    Glisson, W.B.; Welland, R.

    2007-01-01

    Security is an elusive target in today’s high-speed and extremely complex, Web enabled, information rich business environment. This paper presents the idea that there are essential, basic organizational elements that need to be identified, defined and addressed before examining security aspects of a Web Engineering Development process. These elements are derived from empirical evidence based on a Web survey and supporting literature. This paper makes two contributions. The first contribution ...

  11. DOE-2 basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  12. DOE-2 basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  13. Basics of aerothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    This successful book gives an introduction to the basics of aerothermodynamics, as applied in particular to winged re-entry vehicles and airbreathing hypersonic cruise and acceleration vehicles. The book gives a review of the issues of transport of momentum, energy and mass, real-gas effects as well as inviscid and viscous flow phenomena. In this second, revised edition the chapters with the classical topics of aerothermodynamics more or less were left untouched. The access to some single topics of practical interest was improved. Auxiliary chapters were put into an appendix. The recent successful flights of the X-43A and the X-51A indicate that the dawn of sustained airbreathing hypersonic flight now has arrived. This proves that the original approach of the book to put emphasis on viscous effects and the aerothermodynamics of radiation-cooled vehicle surfaces was timely. This second, revised edition even more accentuates these topics. A new, additional chapter treats examples of viscous thermal surface eff...

  14. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  15. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  16. Basic neutronics. Neutrons migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the basic neutronics necessary for the understanding of the operation of the different types of nuclear reactors: 1 - introduction to neutronics: principle of fission chain reactions, fast neutron reactors and thermal neutron reactors, capture, neutron status, variations with the reactor lattices; 2 - Boltzmann equation: neutrons population, neutrons migration, characterization of neutrons population and reactions, integral form of the Boltzmann equation, integral-differential form, equivalence between the two forms; 3 - reactor kinetics: fast neutrons and delayed neutrons, kinetic equations in punctual model, Nordheim equation, reactivity jumps, reactivity ramp; 4 - diffusion equation: local neutron status, Fick's law, diffusion equation, initial, boundary and interface conditions, nuclei in infinite and homogenous medium, some examples of solutions, developments in Eigenmodes; 5 - one-group theory: equation of the 'one-group - diffusion' theory, critical condition of the naked and homogenous reactor, critical condition of a reactor with reflectors, generalizations; 6 - neutrons moderation: different moderation mechanisms, elastic shock laws, moderation equation, some examples of solutions; 7 - resonance absorption of neutrons: advantage of the discontinuous moderation character, advantage of an heterogenous disposition, classical formula of the anti-trap factor in homogenous and heterogenous situation; 8 - neutrons thermalization: notions of thermalization mechanisms, thermalization equation, Maxwell spectrum, real spectrum, classical formula of the thermal utilisation factor, classical formula of the reproduction factor, moderation optimum. (J.S.)

  17. Back to basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to educate the public about the long road from obscure experiment to life-changing discovery, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has been enlisting prominent researchers, science writers, and scientific organizations such as the AGU. More than two years in development, the NAS basic science initiative “Beyond Discovery: The Path From Research to Human Benefits” is an attempt to translate peer-review-quality science papers into general-interest science articles and booklets.As conceived by NAS vice-president Jack Halpern and a host of representatives from the scientific community, the Beyond Discovery initiative will “develop case studies that identify and trace the origins of important technological and medical advances.” These case studies will be written by scientists in a style publishable in a journal such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. The articles are intended to be understandable to educators, college students, and the scientifically literate public. The case studies then will be further distilled by science writers into articles for a wider audience of policy makers and the general public.

  18. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  19. Egalitarianism, basic structure and rawlsian contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Fatauros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses whether it is appropriate to judge individual actions with the same principles of justice applicable to institutions. In order to achieve its aim the paper reviews Rawls` theory of justice and some objections against it. Critics of Rawlsian theory of justice deny that its principles only evaluate basic institutions. Furthermore, they claim that justice does not only require just institutions but just individual actions as well. The background hypothesis of this paper is that some principles suitable for some social contexts are not useful to judge other kind of social interactions. The argument relies on a normative interpretation of the notion of basic structure, which is considered a key element to defend the institutional character of the rawlsian account of justice.

  20. Concepções do profissional farmacêutico sobre a assistência farmacêutica na unidade básica de saúde: dificuldades e elementos para a mudança Conceptions of the pharmaceutical professional about the pharmaceutical assistance in basic health care units: difficulties and elements for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aílson da Luz André de Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi feita avaliação da Assistência Farmacêutica em farmácias de Unidades de Saúde do município de Ribeirão Preto, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Partindo-se do referencial de avaliação tecnológica em saúde e suas interfaces, foram realizadas entrevistas com os profissionais farmacêuticos, procurando-se conhecer as concepções desses atores sobre a assistência farmacêutica. Os resultados obtidos mostram um trabalho baseado na gestão burocrática dos medicamentos com objeto no controle de estoque do medicamento. Alguns elementos emergentes que poderão contribuir para a alteração deste quadro foram detectados: voluntarismo, busca pela valorização profissional, iniciativa de integração com a equipe de saúde, percepção do paciente como objeto de trabalho e formação profissional complementar.In the present study we evaluated the Pharmaceutical Assistance in pharmacies of Basic Health Care Units in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Considering the technological evaluation reference in health and its interfaces, pharmaceutical professionals were interviewed in a way to find out their conceptions about pharmaceutical assistance. The results showed a work based on the bureaucratic management of medicines specially the control of medicine supplies. Some emergent elements were thought to contribute to change this system: voluntarism, professional valorization, integration of the health team, perception of the patient as object of the work and complementary professional formation.

  1. Treatment of incorporated transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of this report and its tables and figures provide basic information on the decorporation of transuranium elements as well as an insight into the more general principles, trends and interactions. The detailed tables and the exhaustive list of important references should enable the reader to make his own conclusions in a minimum of time

  2. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  3. Basic rotor aerodynamics applied to wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M.O.L.

    1998-01-01

    It is the hope of the author that the notes will impart a basic understanding of the mechanisms behind the production of forces on a wind turbine. Even though aero-elastic codes, including a standard Blade Element Momentum method, can be bought, it is considered important that the theory behind this method and its limitations is understood. The aerodynamics of a wind turbine is important, but building a wind turbine is a multi disciplinary task since it requires knowledge of meteorology, atmospheric turbulence, fluid mechanics, structural dynamics, generators, electrical grid connections, gear boxes, hydraulics, foundations, economics and so on. (au) 14 refs.

  4. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M

    1976-01-01

    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  5. Radiolabelled Cellular Blood Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of the 5th International Symposion on Radiolabelling of Cellular Blood Elements to be held in Vienna, Austria, September 10-14, 1989. The Meeting is the fifth in a series of meetings designed to discuss the basics and clinical application of radiolabelling techniques. In these days, beside the search for new labelling agents and extending the knowledge in clinical use, the use of monoclonal antibodies is a big new challenge. All reviewed contributions that have been accepted for presentation are contained in this volume. (authors) 58 of them are of INIS scope

  6. Basic Education Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chengzhi Wang; Quanhua Zhou

    2002-01-01

    China's recent basic education reform followed and, in a certain way, imitated its economic reform. The economic reform merged the experimental dual (planned and market) price systems into a free market economy and yielded phenomenal success. Basic education reform, however, has not succeeded in transforming the introductory dual-track (key school and regular school) systems into a universal one. This article briefly examines the general process and outcomes of basic education reform. It disc...

  7. Basic Education Reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Wang

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available China's recent basic education reform followed and, in a certain way, imitated its economic reform. The economic reform merged the experimental dual (planned and market price systems into a free market economy and yielded phenomenal success. Basic education reform, however, has not succeeded in transforming the introductory dual-track (key school and regular school systems into a universal one. This article briefly examines the general process and outcomes of basic education reform. It discusses the following questions: Is basic education reform also a story of success? What significant lessons can the Chinese reform experience offer to other comparable developing countries?

  8. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  9. FXR: a metabolic regulator and cell protector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Dong Wang; Wei-Dong Chen; David D Moore; Wendong Huang

    2008-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription fac-tors. As a metabolic regulator, FXR plays key roles in bile acid, cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, FXR is a potential drug target for a number of metabolic disorders, especially those related to the metabolic syn-drome. More recently, our group and others have extended the functions of FXR to more than metabolic regulation, which include anti-bacterial growth in intestine, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis. These new findings suggest that FXR has much broader roles than previously thought, and also higl light FXR as a drug target for mul-tiple diseases. This review summarizes the basic information of FXR but focuses on its new functions.

  10. THE EFFECT OF TWO - ELEMNETED PROBIOTIC PREPARATE ON BASIC FATTENING PARAMETERS OF HYBRID HUBBARD JV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth stimulators on basic of probiotics are preparations biological character with correctly defined strains live micro organisms. Most important signification their used consisted in positive stimulation natural micro flora of digestive tract therefore fortified mechanisms of autoimmunity system of organism, what very narrowly relate with achieved utility animal parameters. Healthy and vital individuals marking better nutrient utilisation, equally growth intensity consistent higher slaughter yield. Propoul is two - elemental probiotic preparate designated for poultry, which include special selected strain of genus Lactobacillus. Results their affect is improve of immunity, metabolism and also favourable effect on utility.In 42- days experiment we tested effect of probiotic preparate Propoul on basic fattening parameters of hybrid Hubbard JV. We divided broiler chickens into three groups - control (C without probiotic, experimental 1(E1 with decreased probiotic amount during fattening period and experimental 2 (E2 with constant concentration of testing preparate. Propoul in fluid form we was applicating in drinking water. Effect of probiotic positive manifested in all observed parameters. With exception organic growth and growth index, where we founded favourable effect his application especially in first two weeks in all other both experimentals by expressive rate dominated in achieved values in compared with control. Mostly, from aspect average live weight, where we recorded from 2. week to end of fattening period statistically high significant (P<0.01 and statistically very high significant difference (P<0.001 in benefit of E1 and E2 groups.

  11. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  12. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic elements are disclosed having first and second silver halide emulsion layers comprised of a dispersing medium and radiation-sensitive silver halide grains, and a support interposed between said silver halide emulsion layers capable of transmitting radiation to which said second silver halide emulsion layer is responsive. These elements are characterized in that at least said first silver halide emulsion layer contains tabular silver halide grains and spectral sensitizing dye adsorbed to the surface of the grains. Crossover can be improved in relation to the imaging characteristics. (author)

  13. The California Basic Skills Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evolution and implementation of the California Basic Skills Initiative (CA BSI), a statewide effort to address ongoing basic skills and ESL needs of community college students and of all campus faculty, administrators, and staff who support these students. CA BSI strategies include assisting every college in assessing…

  14. Children and Their Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Debra Lindsey; Howard, Esther M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes obstacles presented by poverty in the fulfillment of the basic needs of children. Individually addresses Maslow's five basic needs with regard to children reared in poverty: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belonging and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-actualization needs. (Author/SD)

  15. A new multiresolution finite element method based on a multiresolution quadrilateral plate element

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, YiMing

    2014-01-01

    A new multiresolution quadrilateral plate element is proposed and a multiresolution finite element method is hence presented. The multiresolution analysis (MRA) framework is formulated out of a mutually nesting displacement subspace sequence, whose basis functions are constructed of scaling and shifting on the element domain of basic node shape function. The basic node shape function is constructed by extending shape function around a specific node. The MRA endows the proposed element with the resolution level (RL) to adjust the element node number, thus modulating structural analysis accuracy accordingly. As a result, the traditional 4-node quadrilateral plate element and method is a monoresolution one and also a special case of the proposed element and method. The meshing for the monoresolution plate element model is based on the empiricism while the RL adjusting for the multiresolution is laid on the rigorous mathematical basis. The accuracy of a structural analysis is fully determined by the RL, not by th...

  16. Metabolism and toxicity of californium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of californium can be compared with that of other transplutonium elements. The most important points are as follows: a fast blood clearance and fast bone uptake more important than liver uptake, a relatively high urinary excretion and kidney retention. Blood clearance of californium can be compared with that of americium. Distribution of californium 252 nitrate after intramuscular injection in rats was studied. There are very few experimental data on acute or long term toxicity of californium. (28 references)

  17. Analysis of Data on Xanthan Fermentation in Stationary Phase Using Black Box and Metabolic Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红武; 赵学明; 唐寅杰

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan fermentation data in the stationary phase was analyzed using the black box and the metabolic network models. The data consistency ls checked through the elemental balance in the black box model. In the metabolic network model, the metabolic flux distribution in the cell is calculated using the metabolic flux analysis method, then the maintenance coefficients is calculated.

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  20. Four basic laws in design science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Youbai

    2014-01-01

    A point on the distinction between design and science is given and the connotations of design science are discussed in the paper. Design should be understood as the first step of all human’s purposeful activity, which is a daily behavior for everyone. Four laws are summarized,which describe the basic patterns of design and are the constituents of design science. They are the law of design based on existed knowledge,law of in-completeness of design knowledge,law of design centered on new knowledge acquirement and law of competi-tiveness of design knowledge. The four basic laws show the knowledge essence of design. To enrich the existed knowledge,to make it convenient to be used,to teach designers with high intuition and inspiration in picking useful elements of existed knowledge and shaping competitive ideas and to have strong new knowledge acquire-ment facility are the basic conditions of good designs. Study of design science will promote the structure of tra-ditional engineering education. An important conclusion is derived that there will be no successful innovation without good design.

  1. Finite-Element Composite-Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, special-purpose finite-element program for analyzing behavior of composite material with microcomputer. Procedure leads to set of linear simultaneous equations relating unknown nodal displacement to applied loads. Written in HP BASIC 3.0.

  2. Glucose and fatty acid metabolism in a 3 tissue in-vitro model challenged with normo- and hyperglycaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Iori

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance in the human body is maintained through systemic signaling between different cells and tissues. Breaking down this circuitry to its most basic elements and reconstructing the metabolic network in-vitro provides a systematic method to gain a better understanding of how cross-talk between the organs contributes to the whole body metabolic profile and of the specific role of each different cell type. To this end, a 3-way connected culture of hepatocytes, adipose tissue and endothelial cells representing a simplified model of energetic substrate metabolism in the visceral region was developed. The 3-way culture was shown to maintain glucose and fatty acid homeostasis in-vitro. Subsequently it was challenged with insulin and high glucose concentrations to simulate hyperglycaemia. The aim was to study the capacity of the 3-way culture to maintain or restore normal circulating glucose concentrations in response to insulin and to investigate the effects these conditions on other metabolites involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The results show that the system's metabolic profile changes dramatically in the presence of high concentrations of glucose, and that these changes are modulated by the presence of insulin. Furthermore, we observed an increase in E-selectin levels in hyperglycaemic conditions and increased IL-6 concentrations in insulin-free-hyperglycaemic conditions, indicating, respectively, endothelial injury and proinflammatory stress in the challenged 3-way system.

  3. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  4. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body tissues. If you have a metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose ( ...

  5. Transient Ischemic Attack (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Hemorrhagic stroke treatment (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Ischemic ... symptoms and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Hemorrhagic stroke treatment (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Ischemic stroke ...

  6. Basic entwinements: unassuming analogue inserts in basic digital modeling (courses)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous, basic digital modelling tools are currently deployed with relative ease in architecture schools during the course of first year studies. While these first architectural projects essays sometimes communicate matter with already quite impressive professional outlooks, a certain disparity between the various intentions and the student’s actual grasp of the many basic architectural element’s interplays of form and space can become apparent. To alleviate, calibrate and cognitively fine...

  7. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.

    1983-09-01

    The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.

  8. Trace Element Management in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Abin Sebastian; Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling...

  9. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  10. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  11. About Alzheimer's Disease: Alzheimer's Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Alzheimer's Basics What is Alzheimer's disease? What happens to ... with Alzheimer's disease? What is dementia? What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain ...

  12. Bell's Palsy (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes caused by Bell's palsy will affect the appearance of your face, including how you smile. These ... are comfortable with some medical jargon. Patient information: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Shingles (Beyond ...

  13. Basic concept in plasma diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of various plasma diagnostics used for the study of plasma characteristics in different plasma experiments ranging from low temperature to high energy density plasma.

  14. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  15. Basic hypergeometry of supersymmetric dualities

    CERN Document Server

    Gahramanov, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    We introduce several new identities combining basic hypergeometric sums and integrals. Such identities appear in the context of superconformal index computations for three-dimensional supersymmetric dual theories. We give both analytic proofs and physical interpretations of the presented identities.

  16. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  17. Pancreatic Cancer (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Pancreatic cancer (Beyond the Basics) Author David P Ryan, MD ... pancreatic juice to the intestines. This type of pancreatic cancer, called "pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma," is discussed in this ...

  18. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  19. Basic statements of relativity theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2010-01-01

    Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.

  20. 微量元素调节糖尿病大鼠糖脂代谢的研究%Study on regulating effect of trace elements on metabolism of glucose and lipid in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠; 吴蕴棠; 车素萍; 常红; 王永明

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察微量元素锌铬硒对糖尿病大鼠降糖降脂的作用。方法:对四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠经灌胃分别补充锌铬硒及三者混合物。实验分为6组:0组为正常对照组;1组为阳性对照组;2组为补锌组;3组为补铬组;4组为补硒组;5组为混合组,6组均自由进食。灌胃4周时取血测血糖、血脂等指标。结果:(1)锌对糖尿病大鼠的生长发育有一定的促进作用(2)硒可使糖尿病大鼠的高血糖状况得到一定改善(3)补充锌对血清胆固醇上升、补充硒对血清甘油三酯上升有一定的抑制作用。结论:给糖尿病大鼠补充适量的锌、铬、硒,对其糖脂代谢有一定的改善作用。%Objective: To observe the effects of zinc, chromium, selenium on metabolism of glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. Methods: The diabetic rat's model was established with the alloxane. Zinc, chromium, selenium, and their mixture were supplemented by means of gavage to the diabetic rats . 62 rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, diabetic control, zinc group, chromium group, selenium group and mixed group. After the diabetic rats were feed for four weeks, blood glucose and serum lipids were detected. Results: Zinc can promote the growth and development of diabetic rats . The status of high blood glucose in diabetic rats was improved by supplement of selenium. Supplement of zinc and selenium can inhibit the rise in serum cholesterol and triglyceride, respectively. Conclusion: The adequate supplement of Zinc, chromium, and selenium to diabetic rats can improve their metabolism of glucose and lipids.

  1. Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Otsu, Kazuko

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current development in the Complementary Basic Education program (COBET), which aims to contribute to the provision of alternative learning opportunities for out-of-school children, particularly girls in a non-formal setting. The Ministry of Education and Culture started the program as part of the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) in 1999. Unlike traditional primary schools, the COBET centers have no school fees, no uniforms, no corporal punishment and no child labou...

  2. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  3. Visual Basic in easy steps

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Visual Basic in Easy Steps begins by describing the installation process, then introduces form controls, application properties, the programming language, and problem-solving techniques. It illustrates how to build and deploy a complete Windows application and how to create macros for Microsoft Office and web pages for Internet Explorer. By the end of this book, readers will have gained a sound understanding of Visual Basic - even without previous knowledge of programming languate - and be able to create their own interactive applications.

  4. Low-Frequency Radioastronomy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, P.

    2011-04-01

    With the many large instruments in construction or in project, the present epoch corresponds to a renewal of low-frequency radioastronomy. The field will attract new researchers and students not expert of the radioastronomy techniques. With this audience in mind, we present here a very brief introduction to radioastronomy basics, including propagation and polarization of low-frequency radio waves as well as instrumental aspects. Basic formulas are given. The references and internet links will allow the interested reader to go further.

  5. Clinical significance of T cell metabolic reprogramming in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Christoph; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Bardhan, Kankana; Seth, Pankaj; Weaver, Jessica D; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2016-12-01

    Conversion of normal cells to cancer is accompanied with changes in their metabolism. During this conversion, cell metabolism undergoes a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, also known as Warburg effect, which is a hallmark for cancer cell metabolism. In cancer cells, glycolysis functions in parallel with the TCA cycle and other metabolic pathways to enhance biosynthetic processes and thus support proliferation and growth. Similar metabolic features are observed in T cells during activation but, in contrast to cancer, metabolic transitions in T cells are part of a physiological process. Currently, there is intense interest in understanding the cause and effect relationship between metabolic reprogramming and T cell differentiation. After the recent success of cancer immunotherapy, the crosstalk between immune system and cancer has come to the forefront of clinical and basic research. One of the key goals is to delineate how metabolic alterations of cancer influence metabolism-regulated function and differentiation of tumor resident T cells and how such effects might be altered by immunotherapy. Here, we review the unique metabolic features of cancer, the implications of cancer metabolism on T cell metabolic reprogramming during antigen encounters, and the translational prospective of harnessing metabolism in cancer and T cells for cancer therapy. PMID:27510264

  6. The trace elements selenium, copper and zinc in pediatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Caillie-Bertrand (Micheline)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to investigate some pediatric aspects of trace element metabolism .The effects are described of 1) inadequate trace element intake , 2) trace element malabsorption mine and 4) sulphate.Within ,3) urinary losses during therapy with D-Pen

  7. Organisms and Elements. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made in this paper to fit the subject matter of the Symposium within a general biological framework. With this in view the following points are considered. Living organisms are autonomously functioning complex units, whose basic structures are macromolecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids) composed of only a few elements (C, H, O, N, S, P). However, the study of the life processes has increasingly shown that a considerable number of additional elements are of importance for many vital functions. Depending on differences in their ability to synthesize complex molecules, the organisms must continuously assimilate a greater or smaller variety of molecular and elemental constituents from their environments. Thus a complex network comprising many energy, food, and element chains exists in the biosphere. Living organisms are distributed among a variety of biotopes which differ greatly from each other (sea, brackish water, freshwater, land, air). Their basic food and energy requirements in these environments are reflected in their primary structures and ways of life (e. g. sessility, mobility). Furthermore, in many organisms, special external and internal pumps and other homeostatic mechanisms (hormones) exist which serve a special purpose in relation to particular elements in their environments. In those organisms which have, in the past, migrated from one main biotope to another, such a factor in their origin and development may be betrayed by their elemental compositions. Living organisms, therefore, form a unity with their non-living milieu. They are the living part of the elemental pool at the surface of this planet. A careful study of the elements present in the organisms - not just a descriptive study but rather a physiological one - is of fundamental importance for biology. (author)

  8. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  9. Genotype networks, innovation, and robustness in sulfur metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metabolism is a complex network of chemical reactions. This network synthesizes multiple small precursor molecules of biomass from chemicals that occur in the environment. The metabolic network of any one organism is encoded by a metabolic genotype, defined as the set of enzyme-coding genes whose products catalyze the network's reactions. Each metabolic genotype has a metabolic phenotype. We define this metabolic phenotype as the spectrum of different sources of a chemical element that a metabolism can use to synthesize biomass. We here focus on the element sulfur. We study properties of the space of all possible metabolic genotypes in sulfur metabolism by analyzing random metabolic genotypes that are viable on different numbers of sulfur sources. Results We show that metabolic genotypes with the same phenotype form large connected genotype networks - networks of metabolic networks - that extend far through metabolic genotype space. How far they reach through this space depends linearly on the number of super-essential reactions. A super-essential reaction is an essential reaction that occurs in all networks viable in a given environment. Metabolic networks can differ in how robust their phenotype is to the removal of individual reactions. We find that this robustness depends on metabolic network size, and on other variables, such as the size of minimal metabolic networks whose reactions are all essential in a specific environment. We show that different neighborhoods of any genotype network harbor very different novel phenotypes, metabolic innovations that can sustain life on novel sulfur sources. We also analyze the ability of evolving populations of metabolic networks to explore novel metabolic phenotypes. This ability is facilitated by the existence of genotype networks, because different neighborhoods of these networks contain very different novel phenotypes. Conclusions We show that the space of metabolic genotypes

  10. Metabolite coupling in genome-scale metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsson Bernhard Ø

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemically detailed stoichiometric matrices have now been reconstructed for various bacteria, yeast, and for the human cardiac mitochondrion based on genomic and proteomic data. These networks have been manually curated based on legacy data and elementally and charge balanced. Comparative analysis of these well curated networks is now possible. Pairs of metabolites often appear together in several network reactions, linking them topologically. This co-occurrence of pairs of metabolites in metabolic reactions is termed herein "metabolite coupling." These metabolite pairs can be directly computed from the stoichiometric matrix, S. Metabolite coupling is derived from the matrix ŜŜT, whose off-diagonal elements indicate the number of reactions in which any two metabolites participate together, where Ŝ is the binary form of S. Results Metabolite coupling in the studied networks was found to be dominated by a relatively small group of highly interacting pairs of metabolites. As would be expected, metabolites with high individual metabolite connectivity also tended to be those with the highest metabolite coupling, as the most connected metabolites couple more often. For metabolite pairs that are not highly coupled, we show that the number of reactions a pair of metabolites shares across a metabolic network closely approximates a line on a log-log scale. We also show that the preferential coupling of two metabolites with each other is spread across the spectrum of metabolites and is not unique to the most connected metabolites. We provide a measure for determining which metabolite pairs couple more often than would be expected based on their individual connectivity in the network and show that these metabolites often derive their principal biological functions from existing in pairs. Thus, analysis of metabolite coupling provides information beyond that which is found from studying the individual connectivity of individual

  11. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  12. A Triangular Periodic Table of Elementary Circuit Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Frank Z.

    2013-01-01

    Chua proposed an Elementary Circuit Element Quadrangle including the three classic elements (resistor, inductor, and capacitor) and his formulated, named memristor as the fourth element. Based on an observation that this quadrangle may not be symmetric, I proposed an Elementary Circuit Element Triangle, in which memristor as well as mem-capacitor and mem-inductor lead three basic element classes, respectively. An intrinsic mathematical relationship is found to support this new ...

  13. Immunomodulatory Pathways and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Prerna

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism plays a vital role in normal physiology, adaptive responses and host defense mechanisms. Research throughout the last decade has shown evidence that immune pathways communicate with metabolic pathways to alter the metabolic status in response to physiological or pathological signals. In this thesis, I will explore how immunomodulatory molecules affect metabolic homeostasis and conversely, how metabolic sensing pathways modulate immune responses. The first part my work utiliz...

  14. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  15. Separating the basic logics of the basic recurrences

    CERN Document Server

    Japaridze, Giorgi

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that, even at the most basic level (namely, in combination with only $\\gneg,\\mlc,\\mld$), the parallel, countable branching and uncountable branching recurrences of computability logic (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html) validate different principles.

  16. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M. J.; Wood, D. H.

    1983-09-01

    It is pointed out that the basic aerodynamics of modern floatation ovens, in which the continuous, freshly painted metal strip is floated, dried, and cured, is the two-dimensional analog of that of hovercraft. The basic theory for the static lift considered in connection with the study of hovercraft has had spectacular success in describing the experimental results. This appears surprising in view of the crudity of the theory. The present investigation represents an attempt to explore the reasons for this success. An outline of the basic theory is presented and an approach is shown for deriving the resulting expressions for the lift from the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly indicates the limitations on the validity of the expressions. Attention is given to the generally good agreement between the theory and the axisymmetric (about the centerline) results reported by Jaumotte and Kiedrzynski (1965).

  17. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  18. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. MATXTST, Basic Operations for Covariance Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: MATXTST and MATXTST1 perform the following operations for a covariance matrix: - test for singularity; - test for positive definiteness; - compute the inverse if the matrix is non-singular; - compute the determinant; - determine the number of positive, negative, and zero eigenvalues; - examine all possible 3 X 3 cross correlations within a sub-matrix corresponding to a leading principal minor which is non-positive definite. While the two programs utilize the same input, the calculational procedures employed are somewhat different and their functions are complementary. The available input options include: i) the full covariance matrix, ii) the basic variables plus the relative covariance matrix, or iii) uncertainties in the basic variables plus the correlation matrix. 2 - Method of solution: MATXTST employs LINPACK subroutines SPOFA and SPODI to test for positive definiteness and to perform further optional calculations. Subroutine SPOFA factors a symmetric matrix M using the Cholesky algorithm to determine the elements of a matrix R which satisfies the relation M=R'R, where R' is the transposed matrix of R. Each leading principal minor of M is tested until the first one is found which is not positive definite. MATXTST1 uses LINPACK subroutines SSICO, SSIFA, and SSIDI to estimate whether the matrix is near to singularity or not (SSICO), and to perform the matrix diagonalization process (SSIFA). The algorithm used in SSIFA is generalization of the Method of Lagrange Reduction. SSIDI is used to compute the determinant and inertia of the matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrices of sizes up to 50 X 50 elements can be treated by present versions of the programs

  1. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  2. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  3. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  4. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  5. Heavy elements (I). From transuranium elements to superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History of the synthesis and discovery of heavy elements starting from 93 is reviewed. This article describes the story of thrilling competition for the discovery of new elements with increasing difficulties as the atomic number increases, beginning the 93 element, neptunium. Particularly, competition between USA and USSR has lasted from 102 to 106 element and was unsettled until a new aspect was developed in relation with the superheavy elements theoretically predicted. Here, the search of naturally occurring superheavy elements is briefly explained as an introduction to the present and future perspectives of the research on the superheavy elements which is appearing in the succeeding article. (author)

  6. Bromide interference with iodine metabolism in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Hersonissos: ISTERH, 2007. E073-E073. [Conference International Society for Trace Element Research in Humans /8./. 21.10.2007-26.10.2007, Hersonisssos] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB401630701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * bromide * iodine * metabolism Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  7. Bromide interference with iodine metabolism in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 24, Suppl.1 (2008), S97-S98. ISSN 0742-2091. [Trace Elements in Diet , Nutrition and Health. 21.10.2008-26.10.2008, Hersonissos] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpr1 * bromide * iodine * metabolism Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  8. Basic digital photography in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliyadan Feroze; Manoj Jayasree; Venkitakrishnan S; Dharmaratnam A

    2008-01-01

    Digital photography has virtually replaced conventional film photography as far as clinical imaging is concerned. Though most dermatologists are familiar with digital cameras, there is room for improvement in the quality of clinical images. We aim to give an overview of the basics of digital photography in relation to dermatology, which would be useful to a dermatologist in his or her future clinical practice.

  9. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  10. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  11. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  12. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  13. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...

  14. Masonry. Basic Course. Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldrow, Oliver

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 22 terminal objectives for a basic masonry course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily). Organized subject matter and practical experiences are designed to prepare students for entry level skills in the masonry…

  15. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  16. The Audit Committee. Board Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, John S.

    2004-01-01

    The Effective Committees set of booklets comprises publications on the following committees: investment, buildings and grounds, academic affairs, student affairs, finance, development, trustees, audit, compensation, and executive. It is part of the AGB Board Basics Series. This report describes the primary role of an audit committee. The primary…

  17. Notes on basic materials (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture was a revision of basic material, intended for students who were mainly postgraduate at the end of their first year in experimental high energy physics. The subject headings include the following: notation and generalities; classification of particles; symmetry arguments; higher symmetries; SU 3 isoscalar factors; predictions from SU 3; charm; relativistic wave equations; Feynman graphical techniques. (U.K.)

  18. Element Interactivity and Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive load theory, element interactivity has been used as the basic, defining mechanism of intrinsic cognitive load for many years. In this article, it is suggested that element interactivity underlies extraneous cognitive load as well. By defining extraneous cognitive load in terms of element interactivity, a distinct relation between…

  19. Alimentary, metabolic and toxic osteopathies in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal changes in deficient or badly balanced nutrition (alimentary osteopathies) and osseous changes accompanying chronic desease of internal organs and metabolic disorders (metabolic osteopathies) are discussed. Basically, the classical generalised skeletal changes such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia, fibroosteoclacia and sklerosis of the bone can occur in their pure form or as a combination of two or more of these disorders. Finally the exogenic toxic osteopathies are discussed, nowadays fluorosis being the most important. Other external factors may be drugs like methotrexate and antiepileptic medications. (orig.)

  20. Dementia (Including Alzheimer Disease) (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient information: Tips for caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease (The Basics) Patient information: Mild cognitive impairment (The Basics) Patient information: Evaluating memory and thinking problems (The Basics) Patient information: Vitamin B12 deficiency and folate (folic acid) deficiency (The ...

  1. The effect of cadmium on plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.; Szaková, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    Budapest : Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, 2006. s. 71. [International Symposium on Trace Element in the Food Chain . 25.05.2006-27.05.2006, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cadmium * plant metabolism * glutamate kinase Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  2. The effect of cadmium on plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vokáč, Karel; Staszková, L.; Balík, J.; Szaková, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    Budapest : Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, 2006 - (Szilágyi, M.; Szentmihályi, K.), 256-260 [Trace Elements in the food chain . Budapest (HU), 25.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cadmium * plant metabolism * glutamate kinase Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  3. Nutrition in sport - basic principles

    OpenAIRE

    Handziski, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Sports medicine is a clinical and academic medical specialization that deal with promotion and stimulation of physical active way of leaving and diagnosing, medical treatment, prevention and rehabilitation of injuries and diseases acquired by physical activity, exercising and sport on any level. The sports medicine deals with prescription of dosed exercises (volume, intensity and frequency) in prevention and medical treatment of diseases (cardiovascular, degenerative, metabolic, malignant...

  4. Data input manual for RSI/TEVCO: a thermo/viscoelastic finite element computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RSI/TEVCO is a plane finite element code designed to analyze elastic, thermoelastic, viscoelastic, or thermoviscoelastic problems. The basic element is the eight noded isoparametric quadrilateral element, but a six noded subparametric triangular element may be used separately or for gradation purposes with quadrilateral elements

  5. Creating a Network of Dissent:The Heretical Idea of Basic income

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Erik Christian; Ydesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Containing appealing elements to both socialists and liberals the idea of basic income is characterized by its ability to transcend the topography of the established political landscape. Thus, the idea of basic income holds a potentiality only very rarely found among political ideas. However, since the breakthrough of neoliberal hegemony the idea of basic income has increasingly been ostracized to live a life in the periphery of the dominating discourse but has at the same time in the last te...

  6. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  7. [Metabolic syndrome: what, why, how and who?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlić-Renar, Ivana; Poljicanin, Tamara; Metelko, Zeljko

    2007-06-01

    Although first knowledge on the joint onset of cardiovascular risk factors had been gained earlier, the first systematic review of this condition was made by G. Reaven in 1988 with his thesis on syndrome X, today known as the metabolic syndrome, with insulin resistance as the common denominator. Four elements have been identified: central obesity, dyslipoproteinemia (increased triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol), hypertension and glucose intolerance. There are two most influential definitions: one by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the other by the International Diabetes Federation (/IDF). NCEP requires the presence of at least three of the following factors: abdominal obesity as assessed by waist circumference >102 cm (m) or >88 cm (f), dyslipoproteinemia defined as triglyceridemia > or =1.7 mmol/L and/or HDL cholesterol or =30/85 mmHg) and fasting glycemia > or =5.6 mmol/L (previously 6.1). IDF focuses on central obesity defined as waist circumference, taking into consideration sex and ethnic group specificities, with the presence of at least two additional factors (dyslipoproteinemia, hypertension, or increased fasting glycemia - all criteria virtually the same as in NCEP definition). Both IDF and NCEP define abdominal obesity by waist circumference, taking account of sex differences, and, in case of IDF, ethnic ones as well. The idea is to identify the simplest measure to indirectly determine the accumulation of visceral fat, which is, contrary to subcutaneous fat, a significant cardiovascular risk factor. However, waist circumference as the only criterion seems to be less specific than the waist-to-hip circumference ratio, which defines the risk more specifically and also better reflects insulin resistance. There is broad discussion as to whether the term metabolic syndrome contributes to the identification of persons at risk of cardiovascular disease better than its components, and, if so, which is the right set of components. It is

  8. Finite elements for analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Akin, J E; Davenport, J H

    1994-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee

  9. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolism. A few of them are: Fructose intolerance Galactosemia Maple sugar urine disease (MSUD) Phenylketonuria (PKU) Newborn ... disorder. Alternative Names Metabolism - inborn errors of Images Galactosemia References Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of ...

  10. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  11. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  13. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  14. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  15. Basic metallurgy for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this chapter, reader will be served with the basic knowledge on metallurgy for nondestructive testing. One the main application of nondestructive testing is to detect discontinuity of mass defect in metal. As we already know, metal are widely used in many application such as in building as a system, component and engineering product. Steel and iron are metal that usually used in industry, especially heavy industry such as gas and petroleum industry, chemistry, electric generation, automobile, and military device. Based on this, basic knowledge on metallurgy must need by NDT practitioner. The combination between metallurgy and datas from radiography testing can make radiographer good interpretation on quality of the metal inspected and can used to make a good decision either to accept or not certain product, system or components.

  16. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring smooth switching between the two modes of operation. The partial and full load controllers are both based on classical proportional-integral control theory as well as additional filters such as an option...

  17. Medical Computing: Another Basic Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1980-01-01

    Medical computing is frequently viewed as the application of established computer science techniques in medical domains. However, it is the thesis of this paper that many clinical computing tasks demand techniques that are as yet undeveloped. As a result, medical computing research should logically be closely tied to basic research in computer science. Failure to recognize that this developing discipline often requires fundamental investigation has tended to foster unrealistic expectations of...

  18. Psychometrics in Psychiatry: Basic Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin GÜLEÇ

    2009-01-01

    Understanding human mental process as a natural event is the mainstay for positive science. Measurement or scaling these processes is the basic component of positive science. If we call the science of psychometrics as "mind measuring", then the scales should be remarked as the tools of "mind meter". Besides, if science is considered as a play in which your assertions are only within the limit of your measurements, and then the book of rules ought to be writ...

  19. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  20. RF Basics I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's equations are introduced in their general form, together with a basic set of mathematical operations needed to work with them. After simplifying and adapting the equations for application to radio frequency problems, we derive the most important formulae and characteristic quantities for cavities and waveguides. Several practical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the derived equations and to explain the importance of the most common figures of merit.

  1. Basic semantics of product sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Egmond , R. van

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two experiments, we determined eight factors that underlie the semantic associations of product sounds (attention, roughness, smoothness, temporal constancy, (un)familiarity, unpleasantness, machinery, a...

  2. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  3. Positron emission tomography. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose

  4. Basic Science and The NIH

    OpenAIRE

    Varmus, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following is an edited version of the Keynote Speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology by Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health. The address, entitled Basic Science and the NIH, was given at the opening of the meeting in New Orleans on December 11, 1993. It was Varmus' first public policy talk as NIH Director.

  5. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  6. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  7. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Deter...

  8. Metabolic Syndrome and Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Amit; Marmura, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, ...

  9. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  10. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  11. Regulation of sphingomyelin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienias, Kamil; Fiedorowicz, Anna; Sadowska, Anna; Prokopiuk, Sławomir; Car, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids (SFs) represent a large class of lipids playing diverse functions in a vast number of physiological and pathological processes. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant SF in the cell, with ubiquitous distribution within mammalian tissues, and particularly high levels in the Central Nervous System (CNS). SM is an essential element of plasma membrane (PM) and its levels are crucial for the cell function. SM content in a cell is strictly regulated by the enzymes of SM metabolic pathways, which activities create a balance between SM synthesis and degradation. The de novo synthesis via SM synthases (SMSs) in the last step of the multi-stage process is the most important pathway of SM formation in a cell. The SM hydrolysis by sphingomyelinases (SMases) increases the concentration of ceramide (Cer), a bioactive molecule, which is involved in cellular proliferation, growth and apoptosis. By controlling the levels of SM and Cer, SMSs and SMases maintain cellular homeostasis. Enzymes of SM cycle exhibit unique properties and diverse tissue distribution. Disturbances in their activities were observed in many CNS pathologies. This review characterizes the physiological roles of SM and enzymes controlling SM levels as well as their involvement in selected pathologies of the Central Nervous System, such as ischemia/hypoxia, Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), depression, schizophrenia and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). PMID:26940196

  12. Evaluating Metabolic Syndrome in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Rekliti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MS is consisted by a group of interrelated disorders increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes causing diseases and deaths in modern world.Purpose of the current study is to relate the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome parameters in clinical practice.Data sources and methods: The methodology which was used in this study included Greek and international bibliography review with the help of key-words.Results: Bibliography review showed that the criteria for Metabolic Syndrome are not well-defined and vary according to age, gender and race, while new risk factors are identified every day. Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are the basic features of obesity in childhood and adolescence. As a result, the frequency of metabolic disorders constantly increases in overweight or obese children and adolescents and therefore it is necessary for the diagnosis of the syndrome.Conclusions: Metabolic Syndrome management should be based upon an individualized risk assessment and not upon a simple summation and effort in getting treatment separately for each metabolic disorder. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with multiple risk factors will contribute substantially to prevention by adopting a healthy lifestyle and reducing future syndrome complications.

  13. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  14. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  15. PRONET: Basic concepts of a system of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lasai

    1999-01-01

    In the work are expounded the principles and basic elements of a system of artificial intelligence. Knowledge representation develops according to the method settled for processing. A thing, a phenomenon can be determined or established by more modules subject to their state as well as the links and relations between them. The system creates a set of blocks (modules) for which the concurrent work is pre- established. The volume of knowledge can be also increased without increasing the number ...

  16. Predictions of synthesizing element 119 and 120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The evaporation residue cross sections of synthesizing superheavy nuclei Z=119, 120 are calculated by different sets of master equations with different dynamical variables. Two methods basically predicted similar results that the Ca induced hot fusion can 48 produce element 119 easier than produce 120, and the evaporation residue cross sections for 119 are detectable by current advanced techniques, while the evaporation residue cross sections are below 0.1 pb for producing element 120.

  17. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  18. Ghrelin in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Pulkkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of related risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and liver disease. Obesity, which has become a global public health problem, is one of the major risk factors for development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a complex disease, caused by the interplay between environmental and genetic factors. Ghrelin is one of the circulating peptides, which stimulates appetite and regulates energy balance, and thus is one of the candidate genes for obesity and T2DM. During the last years both basic research and genetic association studies have revealed association between the ghrelin gene and obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes

  19. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new process...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology.......Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...

  20. Integrative metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H McArthur IV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in experimental and computational synthetic biology are extremely useful for achieving metabolic engineering objectives. The integration of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering within an iterative design-build-test framework will improve the practice of metabolic engineering by relying more on efficient design strategies. Computational tools that aid in the design and in silico simulation of metabolic pathways are especially useful. However, software helpful for constructing, implementing, measuring and characterizing engineered pathways and networks should not be overlooked. In this review, we highlight computational synthetic biology tools relevant to metabolic engineering, organized in the context of the design-build-test cycle.

  1. Novel RSFQ elements and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of the Josephson digital circuits - Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) devices - have been introduced and experimentally investigated. The information in RSFQ-logic is carried by Single magnetic Flux Quanta (SFQ). The basic principle of operation of RSFQ elements lies in controlling SFQ in complex structures of Josephson junction arrays. DC powered RSFQ elements differ radically from latching family by much higher clock frequency up to 100 GHz. New RSFQ elements, which are necessary for practical application have been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. All refractory Nb-AlOx-Nb overdamped junctions (βc≤1, jc∼103A/cm2) have been successfully employed for fabrication of RSFQ microcircuits. Four-bit Flash type Analog to Digital converter (ADC) has been suggested, designed and tested. The DC/SFQ converter of information from potential into SFQ form as well as comparators and SFQ/DC converters for asynchronous readout were implemented. The RSFQ version of Flash type ADC surpasses traditional latching one for the next reasons: 1) DC powering; 2) asynchronous readout; 3) readout elements are allocated outside of comparator; 4) internal frequency of elements is higher than 50GHz. Latching logic to RSFQ converter has been fabricated, tested and used for DC/SFQ input current level stabilization. (orig.)

  2. [Basic science and applied science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547597

  3. Basic concepts of materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of accounting for nuclear materials to the efficient, safe, and economical operation of nuclear facilities is introduced, and the following topics are covered: material balance equation; item control areas; material balance uncertainty; decision procedures for materials accounting; conventional and near-real-time accounting; regulatory requirements of the US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and a summary related to the development of a materials accounting system to implement the basic concepts described. The summary includes a section on each of the following: problem definition, system objectives, and system design

  4. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo

  5. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  6. Psychometrics in Psychiatry: Basic Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Gülec

    2009-01-01

    Understanding human mental process as a natural event is the mainstay for positive science. Measurement or scaling these processes is the basic component of positive science. If we call the science of psychometrics as “mind measuring”, then the scales should be remarked as the tools of “mind meter”. Besides, if science is considered as a play in which your assertions are only within the limit of your measurements, and then the book of rules ought to be written precisely and updated regularly....

  7. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  8. Basic constant of matter world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was analysed how to gain constant 46 hidden among elementary units of matter world, which is divided into, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. Here it shows the unity of opposites on philosophy and simple symmetric beauty of mathphysics. The constant specifically shows that scope constant 44 in nuclides layer of matter world and chromosome number of mankind is 23 pairs, which is the highest form of matter motion, the basic cause of existing constant 46 is that matter exists in space-time with 4-dimensions, and it obeys the principle of the most lower energy

  9. The application of 10CFR830. 120 in a basic research environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1991-04-01

    In this paper, I describe the process of applying the 10 basic criteria of the proposed 10CFR830.120 to a basic research environment like Fermilab and discuss some of the issues associated with the implementation of such a program. I will also discuss some of the differences and similarities between the 18 basic elements of NQA-1 and the 10 criteria of 10CFR830.120 along with the more philosophical'' issues associated with performance versus process- based approach to quality in basic research.

  10. On Three Elements in Productive Skills Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2015-01-01

    Teaching productive skills are challenging components in English teaching.To explore proper methods to teach them,this essay will discuss a basic teaching model from the perspectives of three elements,tying to propose some advice for English teachers.

  11. Technology insight: metabonomics in gastroenterology-basic principles and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Nielsen, Ole H; Wang, Yulan L;

    2008-01-01

    Metabonomics-the study of metabolic changes in an integrated biologic system-is an emerging field. This discipline joins the other 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics) to give rise to a comprehensive, systems-biology approach to the evaluation of holistic in vivo function. Metabonom...... metabonomics in basic and clinical research, with emphasis on applications in the field of gastroenterology....

  12. Electrical machine analysis using finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I

  13. Photoshop Elements 10 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Elements 10 offers much of Photoshop's power without the huge price tag. It's a great tool for most image-editing buffs-whether you're a photographer, scrapbooker, or aspiring graphic artist. But Elements still doesn't come with a useful manual. This bestselling book helps you get the most out of the program, from the basics to advanced tips for both Windows and Mac users. The important stuff you need to know: Quickly learn your way around. Customize Elements to suit your working style.Get to work right away. Import, organize, and make quick image fixes with ease.Retouch any image. Learn how

  14. Photoshop Elements 9 the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Elements 9 offers much of Photoshop's power without the huge price tag. It's an ideal tool for most image-editing buffs -- including scrapbookers, photographers, and aspiring graphic artists. But Elements still doesn't come with a decent manual. This bestselling book will help you get the most out of the program, from the basics to advanced tips for both Windows and Mac. Quickly learn your way around. Customize Elements to suit your working style.Get to work right away. Import, organize, and make quick image fixes with ease.Retouch any image. Learn how to repair and restore your old and damag

  15. Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jiang; Jing Li; Lan Ma

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy metabolism is a fundamental biological process that is vital for the survival of all species. Disorders in the metabolic system result in deficiency or redundancy of certain nutrients, including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, etc. Abnormality of the energy metabolism system leads to a number of metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. Broadly speaking, the term "metabolic diseases" now tends to be widened to the category that refers to all diseases with metabolism disorder.

  16. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  17. Proposed physiologic functions of boron in plants pertinent to animal and human metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Blevins, D G; Lukaszewski, K M

    1994-01-01

    Boron has been recognized since 1923 as an essential micronutrient element for higher plants. Over the years, many roles for boron in plants have been proposed, including functions in sugar transport, cell wall synthesis and lignification, cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism, RNA metabolism, respiration, indole acetic acid metabolism, phenol metabolism and membrane transport. However, the mechanism of boron involvement in each case remains unclear. Recent work has focused on two majo...

  18. Optical and Ionization Basic Cosmic Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Julian; Andrade, Diego A.; Araujo, Aurora C.; Arceo, Luis; Cervantes, Carlos A.; Molina, Jorge A.; Palacios, Luz R.

    2014-03-01

    There are drift tubes, operating in the Geiger mode, to detect ionization radiation and there are Cerenkov radiation detectors based on photomultiplier tubes. Here is the design, the construction, the operation and the characterization of a hybrid detector that combines both a drift tube and a Cerenkov detector, used mainly so far to detect cosmic rays. The basic cell is a structural Aluminum 101.6 cm-long, 2.54 cm X 2.54 cm-cross section, 0.1 cm-thick tube, interiorly polished to mirror and slightly covered with TiCO2, and filed with air, and Methane-Ar at different concentrations. There is a coaxial 1 mil Tungsten wire Au-coated at +700 to +1200 Volts electronically instrumented to read out in both ends; and there is in each end of the Aluminum tube a S10362-11-100U Hamamatsu avalanche photodiode electronically instrumented to be read out simultaneously with the Tungsten wire signal. This report is about the technical operation and construction details, the characterization results and potential applications of this hybrid device as a cosmic ray detector element. CONACYT, Mexico.

  19. Basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoun, John

    2012-01-01

    To maximize office productivity, dentists should focus on performing tasks that only they can perform and not spend office hours performing tasks that can be delegated to non-dentist personnel. An important element of maximizing productivity is to arrange the schedule so that multiple patients are seated simultaneously in different operatories. Doing so allows the dentist to work on one patient in one operatory without needing to wait for local anesthetic to take effect on another patient in another operatory, or for assistants to perform tasks (such as cleaning up, taking radiographs, performing prophylaxis, or transporting and preparing equipment and supplies) in other operatories. Another way to improve productivity is to structure procedures so that fewer steps are needed to set up and implement them. In addition, during procedures, four-handed dental passing methods can be used to provide the dentist with supplies or equipment when needed. This article reviews basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity, based on the author's observations of business logistics used by various dental offices. PMID:22414506

  20. Metabolic syndrome and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eSachdev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevaleirnt and costly conditions.The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogensis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise.

  1. Inflammasomes and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Elinav, Eran; Thaiss, Christoph A; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune response pathways and metabolic pathways are evolutionarily conserved throughout species and are fundamental to survival. As such, the regulation of whole-body and cellular metabolism is intimately integrated with immune responses. However, the introduction of new variables to this delicate evolutionarily conserved physiological interaction can lead to deleterious consequences for organisms as a result of inappropriate immune responses. In recent decades, the prevalence and incidence of metabolic diseases associated with obesity have dramatically increased worldwide. As a recently acquired human characteristic, obesity has exposed the critical role of innate immune pathways in multiple metabolic pathophysiological processes. Here, we review recent evidence that highlights inflammasomes as critical sensors of metabolic perturbations in multiple tissues and their role in the progression of highly prevalent metabolic diseases. PMID:24274736

  2. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds......, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  3. METABOLIC WAR: A VARIATION FOR METABOLIC BIOCHEMISTRY LEARNING OF A WORLDLY KNOWN BOARD GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Anjos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical careers are highly wished by young students in Brazil. Although future jobs,  academic knowledge and higher earnings  are tempting reasons for this life choice, few of them are aware  of  the difficult path through the  basic classes. Advanced and specific disciplines  are easier to associate with the professional career itself, but few students can identify the importance  of the basic knowledge for their future work. Biochemistry is one of the most difficult  disciplines  for Brazilian students, probably due to the level of abstraction needed to fully learn and understand the topics. Some recent experimental tools, such as bioinformatics, are now helping students with the learning process, providing visual data for understanding biomolecule structure.  In addition to this, biochemical reactions  could be even tougher because of the many variables involved.  To facilitate the learning process for metabolic biochemistry, we created a game based on the board game WAR®,  using Photoshop software. Named Metabolic War, it keeps the same basic rules of WAR®, but with some minor changes. The continents are metabolic pathways (citric acid cycle, glycolysis, beta-oxidation, etc and the countries are metabolic intermediates. Similarly to the original game, players must conquer an objective (one or more metabolic pathways by dominating intermediates. But the desired intermediate must be a possible product from an intermediate the player already owns. This  and other  games were produced by Biomedicine  undergraduate  students  in Metabolic Biochemistry classes. It was presented to other students, who tested and acknowledged it as a great help in understanding metabolic biochemistry,  giving a great understanding of integrative metabolism. Keywords: game; Biochemistry; Metabolic Biochemistry learning; science learning; playful learning.

  4. Basic concepts of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  5. Basic Energy Research. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a research programme that covered the need for long-term basic research in Norway within the main fields of new renewable energy sources and hydroelectric power. For the hydropower part, emphasis was placed on the environmental consequences and several projects have been done, with different approaches. Other aspects of hydropower have also been supported, such as dam safety and flow in water paths connected to turbines. Within the field of renewable energies, priority was given to solar energy and bio energy. Research on hydrogen as an energy carrier has also been supported; the programme mainly targeted universities and the research institutes, and the education of PhD's has been a priority. The programme was funded through the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the budget was 33 million NOK for the period 1997 - 2000

  6. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  7. Basic results on braid groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2010-01-01

    These are Lecture Notes of a course given by the author at the French-Spanish School "Tresses in Pau", held in Pau (France) in October 2009. It is basically an introduction to distinct approaches and techniques that can be used to show results in braid groups. Using these techniques we provide several proofs of well known results in braid groups, namely the correctness of Artin's presentation, that the braid group is torsion free, or that its center is generated by the full twist. We also recall some solutions of the word and conjugacy problems, and that roots of a braid are always conjugate. We also describe the centralizer of a given braid. Most proofs are classical ones, using modern terminology. I have chosen those which I find simpler or more beautiful.

  8. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring...... in the feedback. The controller relies on generator speed as the primary feedback sensor. Additionally, the reference generator power is used as a feedback term to smoothen the switching between partial and full load operation. Optionally, a low-pass filtered wind speed measurement can be used for...... wind speed dependent minimum blade pitch in partial load operation. The controller uses the collective blade pitch angle and electromagnetic generator torque to control the wind turbine. In full load operation a feedback term from the collective blade pitch angle is used to schedule the gains of the...

  9. Basic Information about BCI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noshadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain Computer Interface (BCI systems establish a one way communication link between man and computer. The main goal of this technology is to provide a link between the brain and the physical world without any physical contact. Indeed these systems interlink thought to action. As the result, the user would be able to control the environment via brain signals. Electro-Encephalogram Signals (EEG is input signals for these systems that include two main stages for processing of those signals, feature extraction and classification. Almost researches in this field are done to find what feature extracting methods and classifier are suitable. As regard spread of the existing information in this field, in this study, we first introduce a BCI system and then try to collect and organize the most needed information for processing EEG signals in BCIs. This study with having sufficient references presents the basic information for researchers who want to start their studying in this field.

  10. Digital storytelling teaching robotics basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Scandola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital Storytelling (DST is a powerful tool for teaching complex concepts. DSTs are typically used in the humanities but several papers have shown that they are also a wonderful tool for the sciences because they are more involving, contextualized and can easily lead to deeper understanding. In the classical use of DST the story is thecontent, while the digital medium is the way of telling it. Our approach is slightly different: the story is not the content but a glue for the main contents, while the digital medium remains the way to tell the story. We propose the use of DST as a means to teach surgeons the basics of robotic surgery, by using a story that should be involving forthem, i.e. a surgical operation, within which we will illustrate specific concepts onrobotics in surgery.

  11. Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J; Barros, L Felipe

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+) gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na(+) -dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na(+) load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na(+) extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na(+) following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na(+) as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na(+) and the metabolic machinery. GLIA 2016;64:1667-1676. PMID:27027636

  12. Basic research on maxillofacial implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yoshiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2001-11-01

    Osseointegrated implants have begun to be used not only in general practice in dentistry but also in various clinical situations in the maxillofacial region. The process has yielded three problems: the spread of application, new materials and diagnostic methods, and management for difficult situations. This paper presents basic data and clinical guidelines for new applications, it investigates the characteristics of the materials and the usefulness of a new diagnostic method, and it studies effective techniques for difficult cases. The results obtained are as follows: Investigations into the spreading application. The lateral and superior orbital rim have sufficient bone thickness and width for the implant body to be placed. Osseointegrated implants, especially by the fixed bridge technique, are not recommended in the craniofacial bone and jaws of young children. Implant placement into bone after/before irradiation must be performed in consideration of impaired osteogenesis, the decrease of trabecular bone, and the time interval between implantation and irradiation. Investigations into materials and diagnostic methods. Hydroxyapatite-coated and titanium implants should be selected according to the characteristics of the materials. A dental simulating soft may also be applicable in the craniofacial region. Investigations into the management of difficult cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and tissue engineering should be useful for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of bone where implants are placed. Soft tissue around implants placed in the reconstructed area should be replaced with mucosal tissue. The data obtained here should be useful for increasing the efficiency of osseointegrated implants, but further basic research is required in the future. (author)

  13. Psychometrics in Psychiatry: Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gülec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mental process as a natural event is the mainstay for positive science. Measurement or scaling these processes is the basic component of positive science. If we call the science of psychometrics as “mind measuring”, then the scales should be remarked as the tools of “mind meter”. Besides, if science is considered as a play in which your assertions are only within the limit of your measurements, and then the book of rules ought to be written precisely and updated regularly. In the history of science, there are many incidents in which different tools which had been marked to measure several variables or things were later found to be unable to implement the measurement it had been assigned. Thus the book of rules should set the boundaries of measurements, where to start and to finish, by preventing any confounding factors. Validity and especially construct validity of the scales set the basic conceptual framework. But, positive science should present the proof of reliability before providing the validity. Reliability –how you measure- is considered to put an upper limit on validity because any problem in reliability makes it harder to detect a valid “signal”. Another important step in measurement is to apply same directives to all participants to assure standardization. Thereby, we could ensure that the entire world keep same standard in the evaluation and application of the scale. Other process is to obtain normative value according to related variables in order to prevent confounding possible cultural factors. All of these steps has been comprised under the title of standardization. With this article, we would like to make sense to the reader concerning what is meant by psychometric properties of scales and focus on the process of standardization and its components.

  14. Basic research on maxillofacial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osseointegrated implants have begun to be used not only in general practice in dentistry but also in various clinical situations in the maxillofacial region. The process has yielded three problems: the spread of application, new materials and diagnostic methods, and management for difficult situations. This paper presents basic data and clinical guidelines for new applications, it investigates the characteristics of the materials and the usefulness of a new diagnostic method, and it studies effective techniques for difficult cases. The results obtained are as follows: Investigations into the spreading application. The lateral and superior orbital rim have sufficient bone thickness and width for the implant body to be placed. Osseointegrated implants, especially by the fixed bridge technique, are not recommended in the craniofacial bone and jaws of young children. Implant placement into bone after/before irradiation must be performed in consideration of impaired osteogenesis, the decrease of trabecular bone, and the time interval between implantation and irradiation. Investigations into materials and diagnostic methods. Hydroxyapatite-coated and titanium implants should be selected according to the characteristics of the materials. A dental simulating soft may also be applicable in the craniofacial region. Investigations into the management of difficult cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and tissue engineering should be useful for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of bone where implants are placed. Soft tissue around implants placed in the reconstructed area should be replaced with mucosal tissue. The data obtained here should be useful for increasing the efficiency of osseointegrated implants, but further basic research is required in the future. (author)

  15. European Radiation Protection Course - Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is a major challenge in the industrial applications of ionising radiation, both nuclear and non-nuclear, as well as in other areas such as the medical and research domains. The overall objective of this textbook is to participate to the development of European high-quality scheme and good practices for education and training in radiation protection (RP), coming from the new Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. These ERPTS (European Radiation Protection Training Scheme) reflects the needs of the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), specifically with respect to the Directive 2013/59/Euratom in all sectors where ionising radiation are applied. To reflect the RPE training scheme, six chapters have been developed in this textbook: Radioactivity and nuclear physics; Interaction of ionising radiation with matter; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionising radiation; Detection and measurement of ionising radiation; Uses of sources of ionising radiation. The result is a homogeneous textbook, dealing with the ERPTS learning outcomes suggested by ENETRAPII project (European Network on Education and Training in Radiological Protection II) from the 7. Framework Programme. A cyber-book is also part of the whole training material to develop the concept of 'learning more' (http://www.rpe-training.eu). The production of this first module 'basics' training material, in the combined form of a textbook plus a cyber-book as learning tools, will contribute to facilitate mutual recognition and enhanced mobility of these professionals across the European Union. (authors)

  16. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    OpenAIRE

    Feinman Richard D; Hussain M Mahmood

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M) will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effec...

  17. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since th...

  18. Mevalonate metabolism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbacher, Georg; Thurnher, Martin

    2015-01-28

    Cancer cells are characterized by sustained proliferative signaling, insensitivity to growth suppressors and resistance to apoptosis as well as by replicative immortality, the capacity to induce angiogenesis and to perform invasive growth. Additional hallmarks of cancer cells include the reprogramming of energy metabolism as well as the ability to evade immune surveillance. The current review focuses on the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells and on the immune system's capacity to detect such changes in cancer cell metabolism. Specifically, we focus on mevalonate metabolism, which is a target for drug and immune based cancer treatment. PMID:24467965

  19. Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > The Basics ... such as treating health problems. What Is a Gene? To understand how genes work, let's review some ...

  20. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  1. Writing analytic element programs in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A

    2009-01-01

    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. PMID:19473273

  2. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at cultu...

  3. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Garovic, Vesna D.; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S.; Winham, Stacey J.; Zoran Obradovic; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Milic, Natasa M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics tra...

  4. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to soci

  5. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  6. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need fu

  7. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  8. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  9. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  10. Metabolic routes along digestive system of licorice: multicomponent sequential metabolism method in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Haiyu; Liu, Yang; Dong, Honghuan; Lv, Beiran; Fang, Min; Zhao, Huihui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to establish the multicomponent sequential metabolism (MSM) method based on comparative analysis along the digestive system following oral administration of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., leguminosae), a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for harmonizing other ingredients in a formulae. The licorice water extract (LWE) dissolved in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution (1 g/mL) was used to carry out the experiments and the comparative analysis was performed using HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to measure the LWE metabolic profile along the digestive system. The incubation experiment showed that the LWE was basically stable in digestive juice. A comparative analysis presented the metabolic profile of each prototype and its corresponding metabolites then. Liver was the major metabolic organ for LWE, and the metabolism by the intestinal flora and gut wall was also an important part of the process. The MSM method was practical and could be a potential method to describe the metabolic routes of multiple components before absorption into the systemic blood stream. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26418123

  11. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  12. Basic study on FP gas monitoring with Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) has recently got into the spotlight as an innovative technology for ultra high sensitive trace element analysis and/or efficient isotope separation and is being developed into more extensive application in various engineering fields with improvement of tunable laser performance. The present study is aiming to develop a new and advanced Failed Fuel Detection and Location (FFDL) technique based on fission product (FP) gas (such as Kr and Xe) monitoring with Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS), which combines RIS with mass spectrometry. Under collaborative works of advanced basic engineering research with JNC over four years since 1996, the feasibility study on the RIMS-FFDL have been made through basic experiments to detect Xe and Kr by using a RIMS system for common utilization installed at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of the University of Tokyo. This report describes the basic performance necessary to the design of RIMS-FFDL such as the detection limit, the elemental selectivity, etc. obtained from experiments and their theoretical analyses and also the successful results on the detection and isotopic ratio analysis of ppb level Xe/Kr tag gas in the cover gas sampled from the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO', which would lead to the conclusion that the RIMS-FFDL can satisfy all the requirements for conventional FFDL methods in addition to a novel function of no-line isotopic ratio analysis useful for the tag gas method adopted in the prototype fast reactor 'MONJU'. (author)

  13. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L Weissgerber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students' fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists.

  14. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S; Winham, Stacey J; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Milic, Natasa M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students' fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists. PMID:27058055

  15. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Garovic, Vesna D.; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S.; Winham, Stacey J.; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Milic, Natasa M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students’ fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists. PMID:27058055

  16. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  17. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  18. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  19. Basic Energy Sciences Program Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels to provide the foundations for new energy technologies and to support DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research disciplines covered by BES—condensed matter and materials physics, chemistry, geosciences, and aspects of physical biosciences— are those that discover new materials and design new chemical processes. These disciplines touch virtually every aspect of energy resources, production, conversion, transmission, storage, efficiency, and waste mitigation. BES also plans, constructs, and operates world-class scientific user facilities that provide outstanding capabilities for imaging and spectroscopy, characterizing materials of all kinds ranging from hard metals to fragile biological samples, and studying the chemical transformation of matter. These facilities are used to correlate the microscopic structure of materials with their macroscopic properties and to study chemical processes. Such experiments provide critical insights to electronic, atomic, and molecular configurations, often at ultrasmall length and ultrafast time scales.

  20. Basic design report of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has been developing a 330MWt integral reactor, SMART and its application system since 1997. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. The SMART system can produce portable water of 40.000m3/day using the MED-TVC desalination process and about 90MW of electricity. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as inherent safety and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment-friendly. The objective of this design report is to provide the overall information on the basic design of SMART NSSS, and the applied technologies. The information covers mainly NSSS design with some information on the desalination system. For the secondary system, only the information directly related to the coupling with NSSS are covered

  1. The atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law establishes clearly the principles that Japan makes R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy only for the peaceful purposes. All the other laws and regulations concerning atomic energy are based on the law. The first chapter lays down the above mentioned objective of the law, and gives definitions of basic concepts and terms, such as atomic energy, nuclear fuel material, nuclear source material, nuclear reactor and radiation. The second chapter provides for the establishment of Atomic Energy Commission which conducts plannings and investigations, and also makes decisions concerning R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy. The third chapter stipulates for establishment of two government organizations which perform R and D of atomic energy developments including experiments and demonstrations of new types of reactors, namely, Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Chapters from 4th through 8th provide for the regulations on development and acquisition of the minerals containing nuclear source materials, controls on nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, administrations of the patents and inventions concerning atomic energy, and also prevention of injuries due to radiations. The last 9th chapter requires the government and its appointee to compensate the interested third party for damages in relation to the exploitation of nuclear source materials. (Matsushima, A.)

  2. Heat transfer. Basics and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Boeckh, Peter von

    2012-07-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author's experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises of 45 minutes based on this textbook, have proved capable of designing independently complex heat exchangers such as for cooling of rocket propulsion chambers, condensers and evaporators for heat pumps. (orig.)

  3. Lymph node imaging: Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymph nodes are involved in a wide variety of diseases, particularly in cancer. In the latter, precise nodal staging is essential to guide therapeutic options and to determine prognosis. For long, imaging of the lymphatic system has been limited to lymph vessel,especially via the exclusive use of conventional lymphography, at the expense of invasive procedures and patient's discomfort. Three main technical advances, however, have recently completed the clinical armamentarium for lymph node imaging: first, the refinement of cross sectional imaging, i.e. CT and MRI, combined or not with dedicated contrast agents, has progressively replaced conventional lymphography in oncology situations; second, the development of intra-operative sentinel node mapping has profoundly modified the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in several cancer situations, mostly melanoma and breast cancer; finally, the increased availability of functional imaging, especially through the use of FDG-PET, has greatly contributed to the accuracy improvement of nodal metastases identification. The aim of this review will thus be to briefly review the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic systems and to overview the basic principles of up-to-date lymph node imaging

  4. Virtual cathode microwave devices -- Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thode, L.E.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high- frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement. 58 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Virtual cathode microwave devices: Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, L. E.; Snell, C. M.

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency while in other designs the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode, a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high-frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement.

  6. A "derrota da lei de Say": elementos teóricos fundamentais e algumas implicações metodológicas e dinâmicas The "defeat of the law of Say": basic theorical elements and some methodological and dynamic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ramalhete Moreira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A refutação da Lei de Say pela Teoria Geral (TG de Keynes está apoiada, basicamente, sobre dois elementos: a incerteza é necessária, mas não suficiente. A refutação completa daquela lei depende também de um ativo que possua as propriedades essenciais descritas e analisadas pela TG. Incerteza e moeda (enquanto ativo líquido permitem à economia um equilíbrio com desemprego involuntário. Destarte, a política econômica possui um papel lógico na economia e a análise econômica ganha novos elementos metodológicos e dinâmicos. Abre-se espaço para a instabilidade e a irreversibilidade na teoria econômica. Este artigo abrange essas considerações, a partir de uma abordagem pós-keynesiana.Fundamentally, the refutation of Say's Law by Keynes' General Theory (GT depends on two elements: the uncertainty is necessary, but not enough. The full refutation of that law also depends on an asset which has the essential properties described and analyzed by GT. Uncertainty and money (as a liquid asset allow the system an equilibrium with involuntary unemployment. Therefore, economic policy has a logical role on the system and economic analysis receives new methodological and dynamic elements. Instability and irrevocability reach place in economic theory. This article regards these considerations, from a post-keynesian perspective.

  7. The elements of life and medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-03-13

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed. PMID:25666066

  8. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  9. Metabolism in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Georg F

    2016-05-01

    Cancer metabolism has regained substantial research interest over recent years. The focus has been mostly on the primary tumor, while metabolic adjustments during dissemination have been less extensively researched. Deadhesion impairs glucose transport and brings about an ATP deficit that leads to apoptosis. To survive, metastasizing cancer cells need to increase ATP synthesis, which involves mitochondrial activity and is accomplished in part through peroxide signaling. This change in metabolism, associated with cancer spread, is different from the Warburg effect. Therefore it is important to distinguish between the metabolic adjustments in primary tumor cells and those in disseminating tumor cells. In general, it is likely that metabolic responses to environmental cues commonly occur in cell biology. PMID:26355498

  10. Probe into the Elements of Leisure Sports Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaixian; Gao, Qun

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the basic elements of leisure sports practice by referencing literature materials and logic analyses. Studies show that leisure sports practice consists of six elements, including leisure sports ideas, leisure sports environment, leisure sports time, leisure sports activity, leisure sports skill, and leisure sports state.…

  11. Elastic element showing low stiffness loss at large deflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.M.; Meijaard, J.P.; Jonker, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Compliant mechanisms like a parallel guidance and a cross pivot flexure contain leaf-springs. The basic elastic elements like leaf-springs and wire flexures constrain Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOFs) when flat or straight respectively. However, when deflected these elastic elements lose stiffness rapidly.

  12. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK)

  13. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH METABOLIC THERAPY FOR BRAIN ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kh. Shurdumova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes clinical experience with metabolic therapy, including neuroprotective drugs and antioxidants, for cerebrovascular diseases.It gives the results of basic Russian and foreign clinical studies of ethylmethylhydroxypyridoxine succinate and choline alfoscerate and discusses their efficacy and routes of administration.

  14. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH METABOLIC THERAPY FOR BRAIN ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kh. Shurdumova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes clinical experience with metabolic therapy, including neuroprotective drugs and antioxidants, for cerebrovascular diseases.It gives the results of basic Russian and foreign clinical studies of ethylmethylhydroxypyridoxine succinate and choline alfoscerate and discusses their efficacy and routes of administration.

  15. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis:Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutz W. Weber; Meinrad Boll; Andreas Stampfl

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at least 30 genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids. SREBPs are synthesized as precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they form a complex with another protein, SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP).The SCAP molecule contains a sterol sensory domain. In the presence of high cellular sterol concentrations SCAP confines SREBP to the ER. With low cellular concentrations, SCAP escorts SREBP to activation in the Golgi. There, SREBP undergoes two proteolytic cleavage steps to release the mature, biologically active transcription factor, nuclear SREBP (nSREBP). nSREBP translocates to the nucleus and binds to sterol response elements (SRE) in the promoter/enhancer regions of target genes. Additional transcription factors are required to activate transcription of these genes. Three different SREBPs are known, SREBPs-1a, -1c and -2. SREBP-1a and -1c are isoforms produced from a single gene by alternate splicing. SREBP-2is encoded by a different gene and does not display any isoforms. It appears that SREBPs alone, in the sequence described above, can exert complete control over cholesterol synthesis, whereas many additional factors (hormones,cytokines, etc.) are required for complete control of lipid metabolism. Medicinal manipulation of the SREBP/SCAP system is expected to prove highly beneficial in the management of cholesterol-related disease.

  16. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: water-sediment interactions of U, Pu, Am, and Cm; relative availability of actinide elements from abiotic to aquatic biota; comparative uptake of transuranic elements by biota bordering Pond 3513; metabolic reduction of 239Np from Np(V) to Np(IV) in cotton rats; evaluation of hazards associated with transuranium releases to the biosphere; predicting Pu in bone; adsorption--solubility--complexation phenomena in actinide partitioning between sorbents and solution; comparative soil extraction data; and comparative plant uptake data

  17. Republished: A straightforward guide to the basic science behind arrhythmogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumotier, Berengere M

    2015-04-01

    The underlying mechanisms behind cardiac arrhythmias are described in this manuscript. In clinical practice, significant arrhythmias are unpredictable, and under some conditions, potentially life-threatening. How can basic science help improve our understanding of molecular entities and factors behind the arrhythmia to advance, develop, adapt or deliver available medications? Structural heart disease and remodelling (e.g., heart failure, cardiomyopathy), the presence of modulating factors (i.e., diabetes mellitus, autonomic nervous system), genetic predispositions (i.e., channelopathies) are considerable preconditions, and influence the development of an arrhythmia. Cardiac arrhythmias may indeed share common basic mechanisms, while elements and substrates perpetuating these may be different and ultimately manifest as various ECG abnormalities. This article lists cellular and subcellular iatrogenic disorders responsible for abnormal impulse generation, or conduction disturbances, including the latest development in theories and biological research, for a better understanding of cellular disorders behind arrhythmogenesis. PMID:25862707

  18. Gaia on-board metrology: basic angle and best focus

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Brown, A G A; Busonero, D; Carminati, L; Carrasco, J M; Chassat, F; Erdmann, M; Gielesen, W L M; Jordi, C; Katz, D; Kohley, R; Lindegren, L; Loeffler, W; Marchal, O; Panuzzo, P; Seabroke, G; Sahlmann, J; Serpell, E; Serraller, I; van Leeuwen, F; van Reeven, W; Dool, T C van den; Vosteen, L L A

    2014-01-01

    The Gaia payload ensures maximum passive stability using a single material, SiC, for most of its elements. Dedicated metrology instruments are, however, required to carry out two functions: monitoring the basic angle and refocusing the telescope. Two interferometers fed by the same laser are used to measure the basic angle changes at the level of $\\mu$as (prad, micropixel), which is the highest level ever achieved in space. Two Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, combined with an ad-hoc analysis of the scientific data are used to define and reach the overall best-focus. In this contribution, the systems, data analysis, procedures and performance achieved during commissioning are presented

  19. Basic earthquake engineering from seismology to analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sucuoğlu, Halûk

    2014-01-01

    This book provides senior undergraduate students, master students and structural engineers who do not have a background in the field with core knowledge of structural earthquake engineering that will be invaluable in their professional lives. The basics of seismotectonics, including the causes, magnitude, and intensity of earthquakes, are first explained. Then the book introduces basic elements of seismic hazard analysis and presents the concept of a seismic hazard map for use in seismic design. Subsequent chapters cover key aspects of the response analysis of simple systems and building struc­tures to earthquake ground motions, design spectrum, the adoption of seismic analysis procedures in seismic design codes, seismic design principles and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. Helpful worked examples on seismic analysis of linear, nonlinear and base isolated buildings, earthquake-resistant design of frame and frame-shear wall systems are included, most of which can be solved using a hand calcu...

  20. Basics of acute stroke treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O2 delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.)