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Sample records for basic material properties

  1. Basic radiation sterilization properties of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foils of various materials were irradiated with 60Co with an activity of 11,538 TBq. The minimum radiation dose was 25 kGy. Changes in chemico-physical properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and were not detected after irradiation with 25 kGy. Packing foils were subjected to the following tests: mechanical tests, tests of weld strength, tests of impact resistance, free fall tests, permeability tests for water vapour and microbiological tests. The results of all tests were tabulated. The tests showed that the foils are impermeable for microorganisms and provided the welds are airtight the packed products remain sterile. (J.P.)

  2. Basic properties of a zirconia based fuel material for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of zirconia cubic solid solutions doped with yttria, erbia and ceria or thoria are investigated with emphasis on the potential use of this material as inert matrix fuel for plutonium incineration in a light water reactor (LWR). The material is selected on the basis of its neutronic properties. Zr and Y are not neutron absorbers. Among the rare earth elements, Er was identified as a suitable burnable poison. The high density cubic solid solution is stable for a rather large range of compositions and from room temperature up to about 3000 K. Samples irradiated under low and high energy Xe ion irradiation up to a fluence of 1.8.1016 Xe.cm-2 were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Low energy (60 keV) Xe ions did not produce amorphization. From the observed bubble formation, swelling values during irradiation at room temperature or at high temperature (925 K) were estimated to be 0.1-0.72% by volume. Furthermore, no amorphization was obtained by Xe irradiation under extreme conditions such as high energy (1.5 MeV) Xe ion irradiation and low temperature (20 K). This confirms the robustness of this material and argues in favour of the selection of a zirconia based material as an advanced nuclear fuel for plutonium incineration. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs

  3. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  4. Basic technology development for irradiation properties evaluation of research reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Kyu; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Dae Jong; and others

    2014-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to obtain the irradiation performance and behavior data such as the dimensional stability, microstructural changes, and mechanical characteristics for core structural materials at the temperature below 100 .deg. C. The final aim of this study is to develop basic technology for irradiation properties evaluation and establish an irradiation performance and behavior database(DB) of research reactor materials under research reactor operating conditions using HANARO. In this project, pre-irradiation examination such as microstructure analysis and an evaluation of mechanical properties on Be, zircaloy-4, and graphite was first performed before in-pile testing. Two capsules used to irradiate the specimens at low temperature (<100. deg. C) were designed and manufactured. The irradiation capsules were loaded and successfully irradiated for 4 and 8 cycles in the CT and IR2 test holes of HANARO, respectively. After performing the irradiation testing, post-irradiation examination (PIE) such as an irradiation growth, tensile strength and hardness on irradiated specimens was carried out in the hot cell of HANARO facility. The evaluated irradiation performance and behavior data for research reactor materials will be used to acquire the license for the design and development of research reactors including JRTR.

  5. Luminescence and the light emitting diode the basics and technology of leds and the luminescence properties of the materials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, E W; Pamplin, BR

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence and the Light Emitting Diode: The Basics and Technology of LEDS and the Luminescence Properties of the Materials focuses on the basic physics and technology of light emitting diodes (LEDS) and pn junction lasers as well as their luminescence properties. Optical processes in semiconductors and the useful devices which can be made are discussed. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the crystal structure and growth, as well as the optical and electrical properties of LED materials. The detailed fabrication of the LED is then considered, along with the lu

  6. Basic evaluation on physical properties of experimental fluorinated soft lining materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Yuta; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Akiba, Norihisa; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Matsushita, Nariko; Hishimoto, Munemitsu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the properties required for the clinical application of soft lining materials containing a fluorinated monomer versus that of conventional materials in an effort to develop a new soft lining material with long-term stable viscoelastic properties. Four soft lining materials were examined. Two experimental materials containing dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (SR12F) or tridecafluorooctyl methacrylate (SR13F) were prepared. Two commercial soft lining materials, one acrylic-based and one silicone rubber-based, were selected as reference materials. Shore A hardness, viscoelastic properties, water sorption, solubility, and staining resistance were evaluated. The Shore A hardness and the displacements were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test. The water sorption, the solubility and the color change were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The significance level was set at 0.05. SR12F and SR13F showed greater viscous flow, low water sorption, low solubility, and good staining resistance compared to the commercial products. The results indicate that the soft lining materials containing fluorinated monomers might have a potentially long-term stable viscoelastic behavior. PMID:21282889

  7. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  8. Selection and Basic Properties of the Buffer Material for High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhijian

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive wastes arising from a wide range of human activities are in many different physical and chemical forms, contaminated with varying radioactivity. Their common features are the potential hazard associated with their radioactivity and the need to manage them in such a way as to protect the human environment. The geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely disposing high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineered barrier system. The buffer is one of the main engineered barriers for HLW repository. It is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing property, radio nuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering property,canister supporting property, and stress buffering property over a long period of time. Bentonite is selected as the main content of buffer material that can satisfy the above requirements. The Gaomiaozi deposit is selected as the candidate supplier for China's buffer material of high level radioactive waste repository. This paper presents the geological features of the GMZ deposit and basic properties of the GMZ Na-bentonite. It is a super-large deposit with a high content of montmorillonite (about 75%), and GMZ-1, which is Na-bentonite produced from GMZ deposit is selected as the reference material for China's buffer material study.

  9. Basic material properties of Cr-Mo steels over 1273K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the steam generator (SG) of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), the tube may be exposed to higher temperatures higher than 1273K in sodium-water reaction caused by a single tube break accident. At this ultra high temperature, it is necessary to prevent the overheating rupture of SG tubes owing to the decrease of creep-rupture strength. In this study, the tensile and creep rupture tests at high temperature above 1273K were carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the SG tube materials. The testing temperatures were from 973 to 1573K which cover the temperature where phase transformation of material structure from α-phase to γ-phase occurs. The tested materials were 2.25Cr-1Mo (4 heats) and Modified 9Cr-1Mo (2 heats) steels. The heat-to-heat variation was negligible in tensile and creep rupture tests at high temperature range from 1223 to 1573K. Within the overheating temperature limits of the tubes, the creep effect was dominant even when the loading time was shorter than a few seconds. Creep test data of both steels at high temperature up to 1573K could be expressed by Larson-Miller parameter method, and design allowable values for tube rupture strength were formulated based on the results. (author)

  10. The influence of basic composition and microstructures on the properties of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the research into the electromagnetic properties of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials obtained by the ceramic method under different technological conditions. There has been ascertained the influence of basic composition and microstructures on the level of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials. The results indicate that increasing the surplus Fe2O3 up to 51.0 mol% leads to a shift in frequency interval in the direction of low frequencies. It can be explained by increase of the permeability and permittivity of a ferrite. - Highlights: • Increasing Fe2O3 up to 51.0 mol% leads to increasing permeability of a ferrite. • It also leads to a shift in frequency interval in the direction of low frequencies. • It is more effective to introduce Fe2O3 at the second stage of the crushing

  11. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  12. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  13. Basic concepts of materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of accounting for nuclear materials to the efficient, safe, and economical operation of nuclear facilities is introduced, and the following topics are covered: material balance equation; item control areas; material balance uncertainty; decision procedures for materials accounting; conventional and near-real-time accounting; regulatory requirements of the US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and a summary related to the development of a materials accounting system to implement the basic concepts described. The summary includes a section on each of the following: problem definition, system objectives, and system design

  14. The influence of basic composition and microstructures on the properties of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.G., E-mail: ilem58@mail.ru; Menshova, S.B.; Klimov, A.N.; Vergazov, R.M.

    2015-11-01

    This work deals with the research into the electromagnetic properties of Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials obtained by the ceramic method under different technological conditions. There has been ascertained the influence of basic composition and microstructures on the level of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Ni–Zn ferrite radio-absorbing materials. The results indicate that increasing the surplus Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 51.0 mol% leads to a shift in frequency interval in the direction of low frequencies. It can be explained by increase of the permeability and permittivity of a ferrite. - Highlights: • Increasing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 51.0 mol% leads to increasing permeability of a ferrite. • It also leads to a shift in frequency interval in the direction of low frequencies. • It is more effective to introduce Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the second stage of the crushing.

  15. Notes on basic materials (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture was a revision of basic material, intended for students who were mainly postgraduate at the end of their first year in experimental high energy physics. The subject headings include the following: notation and generalities; classification of particles; symmetry arguments; higher symmetries; SU 3 isoscalar factors; predictions from SU 3; charm; relativistic wave equations; Feynman graphical techniques. (U.K.)

  16. Raman scattering in GaN, AlN and AlGaN. Basic material properties, processing and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, J M

    2002-01-01

    dependence of the phonon frequencies and lifetimes was measured from 10 K to 1275 K. Empirical fitting and theoretical modelling of the temperature dependence was performed. The results have application for the monitoring of temperature in (Ga/AI)N. The E sub 2 (high) phonon frequency of GaN measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor local temperatures in active AIGaN/GaN hetero-structure field effect transistor devices (HFETs). The temperature rise in the active area of devices on sapphire substrates was significantly higher than for devices on 4H-SiC substrates. Temperatures were monitored to the point of device failure to gain insight into degradation mechanisms. GaN, AIN and AIGaN are very promising materials for high-power, high-temperature and high-frequency electronic device applications but many of their material properties and the effects of processing steps for device fabrication have not yet been fully investigated. AIGaN/GaN films were annealed at temperatures of 800 to 1300 deg C in...

  17. Raman scattering in GaN, AlN and AlGaN. Basic material properties, processing and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN, AIN and AIGaN are very promising materials for high-power, high-temperature and high-frequency electronic device applications but many of their material properties and the effects of processing steps for device fabrication have not yet been fully investigated. AIGaN/GaN films were annealed at temperatures of 800 to 1300 deg C in different ambient atmospheres. The films were then analysed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Compressive stress was found in films annealed in oxygen containing atmospheres which was significantly enhanced by the presence of water vapour in the annealing atmosphere. No stress was detected after annealing in nitrogen even at temperatures close to the thermal decomposition temperature and in the presence of water vapour. Thermal decomposition can be prevented by the use of high-pressure atmospheres during annealing. Mg/P implanted and non-implanted GaN films annealed at temperatures up to 1500 deg C with nitrogen over-pressures of 1-1.5 GPa were analysed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Annealing temperatures of 1400-1500 deg C resulted in the nearly full recovery of the crystalline quality of the ion-implanted GaN. Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy showed that no significant surface degradation occurred during the annealing. High-quality bulk AIN crystals were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The pressure dependence of the phonon frequencies was measured in the range 0 GPa to 9.5 GPa determining the mode-Grueneisen parameters. The temperature dependence of the phonon frequencies and lifetimes was measured from 10 K to 1275 K. Empirical fitting and theoretical modelling of the temperature dependence was performed. The results have application for the monitoring of temperature in (Ga/AI)N. The E2 (high) phonon frequency of GaN measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor local temperatures in active AIGaN/GaN hetero-structure field effect transistor devices (HFETs). The temperature rise in the active area of devices on sapphire

  18. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  19. Construction of irradiated material examination facility-basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic design of the hot cell facility which has the main purpose of doing mechanical and physical property tests of irradiated materials, the examination process, and the annexed facility has been made. Also basic and detall designs for the underground excavation work have been performed. The project management and tasks required for the license application have been carried out in due course. The facility is expected to be completed by the end of 1992, if the budgetary support is sufficient. (Author)

  20. Basic transport phenomena in materials engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and experimental techniques of transport phenomena in materials processing operations. Such fundamental knowledge is highly useful for researchers and engineers in the field to improve the efficiency of conventional processes or develop novel technology. Divided into four parts, the book comprises 11 chapters describing the principles of momentum transfer, heat transfer, and mass transfer in single phase and multiphase systems. Each chapter includes examples with solutions and exercises to facilitate students’ learning. Diagnostic problems are also provided at the end of each part to assess students’ comprehension of the material.  The book is aimed primarily at students in materials science and engineering. However, it can also serve as a useful reference text in chemical engineering as well as an introductory transport phenomena text in mechanical engineering. In addition, researchers and engineers engaged in materials processing operations will find the material use...

  1. Basic reactions of osteoblasts on structured material surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B�chter A.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess how bone substitute materials determine bone formation in vivo it is useful to understand the mechanisms of the material surface/tissue interaction on a cellular level. Artificial materials are used in two applications, as biomaterials alone or as a scaffold for osteoblasts in a tissue engineering approach. Recently, many efforts have been undertaken to improve bone regeneration by the use of structured material surfaces. In vitro studies of bone cell responses to artificial materials are the basic tool to determine these interactions. Surface properties of materials surfaces as well as biophysical constraints at the biomaterial surface are of major importance since these features will direct the cell responses. Studies on osteoblastlike cell reactivity towards materials will have to focus on the different steps of protein and cell reactions towards defined surface properties. The introduction of new techniques allows nowadays the fabrication of materials with ordered surface structures. This paper gives a review of present knowledge on the various stages of osteoblast reactions on material surfaces, focused on basic cell events under in vitro conditions. Special emphasis is given to cellular reactions towards ordered nano-sized topographies.

  2. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  3. RF microwave hybrids basics, materials and processes

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Hybrids vs MMICs. 2. Basic Concepts. 3. Planar Waveguides. 4. Current Flow and Loss Considerations. 5. Substrates. 6. Thick Film. 7. Thin Film. 8. Dielectric Deposition. 9. Polymers. 10. Processing Strategies. 11. Photolithography. 12. Electroplating. 13. Etching. 14. Components. 15. Packaging. 16. Superconductivity. 17. MEMS. Appendix A. Definition of symbols. Appendix B. Company directory. Appendix C. Conversion table. Appendix D. Graphic evaluation of w/h and eeff for microstrip. Subject Index.

  4. Some basic properties of environmentally adapted oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, E. [Div. of Machine Elements, Luleaa University of Technology (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    Environmental concern has led to a development of lubricants that are less harmful to the environmental than traditional mineral based oils. Biodegradability and non-toxicity are desired properties together with a competitive price and if possible they should also be derived from renewable raw materials. In order to have a major breakthrough for the new, environmentally adapted lubricating oils they must perform well in mechanical and hydraulic systems. They must reduce wear, increase efficiency and reduce maintenance costs equally well, or preferably better than mineral based oils. This paper presents primary results from an investigation where four environmentally adapted oils (rape seed, pine tree, diester and TMP-ester) are compared to a conventional naphthenic mineral oil. Viscosity and viscosity-pressure coefficients, limiting shear stress, friction properties and film forming ability have been evaluated under elastohydrodynamic conditions. It was found that the mineral oil had the highest values of pressure-viscosity coefficient, limiting shear stress and coefficient of friction. Rape seed oil had the second highest pressure-viscosity coefficient but the lowest limiting shear stress and coefficient of friction. Pine tree oil, diester and TMP-ester formed an intermediate group with rather similar results. The Hamrock-Dowson equation for central film thickness was found to overestimate film thickness by about 10-20 per cent with the least discrepancy for the mineral oil. (orig.) 8 refs.

  5. Basics of Ion Scattering in Nanoscale Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic ions interact with materials by collisions with the nuclei and electrons of the atoms that make up the material. In these collisions energy and momentum is transferred from the projectile particle which is a moving atom or ion, to the target particles (atomic nucleus or electron). Each collision leads to a slowing down of the moving projectile and also a deflection of the trajectory which gives rise to the term scattering which is often used synonymously to describe the energy transfer process. In this chapter, we introduce from an experimental viewpoint the underlying theory for interaction of ions for analysis and modification of nanometer scale materials. A more detailed theoretical overview of the topic can be found in the recent monographs by Sigmund. Detailed derivations of the formulae introduced will not be given here but can be found in standard texts that are indicated by references. The treatment here starts by considering an individual scattering event. The results are then used to consider the effects on the primary ion in the limit where a large number of collisions take place. Subsequently, the primary effects are considered in nanometer materials which approach the thin-medium limit where the primary particles encounter only limited number of scattering centers. Finally, the dissipation of the energy deposited by the primary projectiles in secondary processes such as cascades of displaced atoms and electrons will be considered in the thick and thin medium limits. This approach was chosen because it builds upon the standard concepts in ion-matter interactions that are well know and have been widely used in experimental measurements of the stopping force and applications such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), ion beam modification of materials etc.

  6. Algebraic properties of basic isohedral marked tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Gabriele H.

    2006-05-01

    In 1977 Grünbaum and Shephard described all possible 93 types of isohedral marked tilings of the plane; 46 of them are called basic, since their induced tile group is trivial. The aim of this paper is to give an algebraic description of all basic tilings. A purely algebraic characterization of the adjacency symmetries of tiles of the 46 basic tilings is presented. Moreover, 46 related abstract definitions of two-dimensional crystallographic groups supplement and extend those of the well-known book Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups by Coxeter and Moser.

  7. Polymer materials basic research needs for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknight, W.J.; Baer, E.; Nelson, R.D. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    The larger field covered in the workshop consists of (1) synthesis and characterization, (2) physical chemistry, (3) physics, and (4) engineering. Polymeric materials are properly regarded as new materials in their own right, not as replacements for existing materials. As such they need to be studied to understand the properties which are unique to them by virtue of their particular molecular structures. Technological applications will rationally follow from such studies. It is the objective of this report to point out basic research needs in polymer materials related to energy. The development of sophisticated instrumentation makes the task of molecular characterization possible on a level hitherto unattainable. Many of these instruments because of their size and complexity must of necessity be located at the DOE National Laboratories. The importance of personnel trained in the polymer field located at these facilities is emphasized. In the past there has been relatively little concerted polymer research within the energy community. This report attempts to describe the present situation and point out some needs and future research directions. (GHT)

  8. Mechanical Properties of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The subject of mechanical behavior has been in the front line of basic studies in engineering curricula for many years.  This textbook was written for engineering students with the aim of presenting, in a relatively simple manner, the basic concepts of mechanical behavior in solid materials. A second aim of the book is to guide students in their laboratory experiments by helping them to understand their observations in parallel with the lectures of their various courses; therefore the first chapter of the book is devoted to mechanical testing. Another aim of the book is to provide practicing engineers with basic help to bridge the gap of time that has passed from their graduation up to their actual involvement in engineering work. The book also serves as the basis for more advanced studies and seminars when pursuing courses on a graduate level. The content of this textbook and the topics discussed correspond to courses that are usually taught in universities and colleges all over the world, but with a differ...

  9. Research of basic factors influence to physical and chemical properties of compositional epoxy material applied as anti friction and anticorrosion surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test of epoxide composition filled by various loading having 80 w.p. (weight part) of red ochre coal clay shows that surface endurance with coal clay is 1.75 times more then iron endurance (standard), and surface with coal clay, correspondingly is 1.72 times. There was set up that the best physic and mechanic , chemical and anti friction properties will take the surface having at 100 w.p. resin E D-6 by 80 w.p. one of the loading as coal clay, ochre or molding loam

  10. BASIC PROPERTIES OF REFERENCE CROSSPLY CARBON-FIBER COMPOSITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corum, J.M.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides basic in-air property data and correlations-tensile, compressive, shear, tensile fatigue, and tensile creep-for a reference carbon-fiber composite being characterized as a part of the Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Materials and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-based design guidance for polymeric composites for automotive structural applications. The composite addressed here is a {+-}45{degree} crossply consisting of continuous Thornel T300 fibers in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. Basic tensile, compressive, and shear properties are tabulated for the temperature range from {minus}40 to 120 C. Fatigue response at room-temperature and 120 C are presented, and creep and creep rupture at room temperature only are reported. In all cases, two fiber orientations--0/90{degree} and {+-}45{degree}--relative to the specimen axes are addressed. The properties and correlations presented are interim in nature. They are intended as a baseline for planning a full durability test program on this reference composite.

  11. Magnetic materials fundamentals, products, properties, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hilzinger, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    At a practical level, this compendium reviews the basics of soft and hard magnetic materials, discusses the advantages of the different processing routes for the exploitation of the magnetic properties and hence assists in proper, fail-safe and economic application of magnetic materials. Essential guidelines and formulas for the calculation of the magnetic and electrical properties, temperature and long-term stability of permanent magnets, of inductive components and magnetic shielding are compiled. Selected fields of application and case studies illustrate the large diversity of technical applications. Application engineers will appreciate the comprehensive compilation of the properties and detailed characteristic curves of modern soft and hard magnetic materials. Materials scientists will enjoy the presentation of the different processing routes and their impact on the magnetic properties and students will profit from the survey from the basics of magnetism down to the applications in inductive components, ...

  12. Determinantal Probability: Basic Properties and Conjectures

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Russell

    2014-01-01

    We describe the fundamental constructions and properties of determinantal probability measures and point processes, giving streamlined proofs. We illustrate these with some important examples. We pose several general questions and conjectures.

  13. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  14. Electrical properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Solymar, L; Syms, R R A

    2014-01-01

    An informal and highly accessible writing style, a simple treatment of mathematics, and clear guide to applications have made this book a classic text in electrical and electronic engineering. Students will find it both readable and comprehensive. The fundamental ideas relevant to the understanding of the electrical properties of materials are emphasized; in addition, topics are selected in order to explain the operation of devices having applications (or possible future applications) in engineering. The mathematics, kept deliberately to a minimum, is well within the grasp of a second-year student. This is achieved by choosing the simplest model that can display the essential properties of a phenomenom, and then examining the difference between the ideal and the actual behaviour. The whole text is designed as an undergraduate course. However most individual sections are self contained and can be used as background reading in graduate courses, and for interested persons who want to explore advances in microele...

  15. Basic materials in the low-carbon society transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep decarbonization of basic materials production fundamentally requires new process technologies. The current climate policy framework tends to preserve industrial structures and reward incremental improvements rather than prepare for a low-carbon transition. G8 countries should develop policies that shift the focus from compensating carbon cost and incremental change to developing technologies and policy strategies for zero carbon emissions by 2050.

  16. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well

  17. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  18. Basics of averaging of the Maxwell equations for bulk materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chipouline, A; Tretyakov, S

    2012-01-01

    Volume or statistical averaging of the microscopic Maxwell equations (MEs), i.e. transition from microscopic MEs to their macroscopic counterparts, is one of the main steps in electrodynamics of materials. In spite of the fundamental importance of the averaging procedure, it is quite rarely properly discussed in university courses and respective books; up to now there is no established consensus about how the averaging procedure has to be performed. In this paper we show that there are some basic principles for the averaging procedure (irrespective to what type of material is studied) which have to be satisfied. Any homogenization model has to be consistent with the basic principles. In case of absence of this correlation of a particular model with the basic principles the model could not be accepted as a credible one. Another goal of this paper is to establish the averaging procedure for bulk MM, which is rather close to the case of compound materials but should include magnetic response of the inclusions an...

  19. Material properties in complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. Moein; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2011-01-01

    activation differently and through different sensing molecules and initiation pathways. The importance of material properties in triggering complement is considered and mechanistic aspects discussed. Mechanistic understanding of complement events could provide rational approaches for improved material design...

  20. Be-Cu gradient materials through controlled segregation. Basic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecklich, F.; Lorinser, M.; Hartmann, S.; Beinstingel, S. [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany); Linke, J.; Roedig, M.

    1998-01-01

    The joining of materials has a fundamental problematic nature: Creating a sharp interface between two different materials causes a more or less extreme jump in the properties at this point. This may result in the failure of the component under mechanical or thermal loads. In some cases there are further difficulties caused by using a third component (e.g. the transformation of Ag-lead into Cd by neutron beams). The solution may be the creating of a functionally gradient material (FGM) Be-Cu. We discuss the advantage of such a FGM and the probabilities of an new procedure for manufacturing 1-dimensional FGMs. (author)

  1. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the...... properties of lime mortar....

  2. Ferroelectric Thin Films Basic Properties and Device Physics for Memory Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films continue to attract much attention due to their developing, diverse applications in memory devices, FeRAM, infrared sensors, piezoelectric sensors and actuators. This book, aimed at students, researchers and developers, gives detailed information about the basic properties of these materials and the associated device physics. All authors are acknowledged experts in the field.

  3. Separability of Real Normed Spaces and Its Basic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nakasho Kazuhisa; Endou Noboru

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the separability of real normed spaces and its properties are mainly formalized. In the first section, it is proved that a real normed subspace is separable if it is generated by a countable subset. We used here the fact that the rational numbers form a dense subset of the real numbers. In the second section, the basic properties of the separable normed spaces are discussed. It is applied to isomorphic spaces via bounded linear operators and double dual spaces. In the last se...

  4. Measurement and Recording of Reflective Properties of Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bálský, Marek; Habel, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of measurement of reflective properties of materials used in the interior and to propose methods of recording of measured reflective properties of materials for calculation of multiple reflections in light scenes. One of the basic assumptions for definition of the appropriate methods of recording of measured reflective properties of materials is the analysis of input data and methods used for the calculation of multiple light reflections in co...

  5. Weathering products of basic rocks as sorptive materials of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelianenko, B.I.; Niconov, B.S.; Ryzhov, B.I.; Shikina, N.D. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Geologii Rudnykh Mestorozhdenij, Petrografii, Mineralogii i Geokhimii

    1994-06-01

    The principal requirements for employing natural minerals as buffer and backfill material in high-level waste (HLW) repositories are high sorptive properties, low water permeability, relatively high thermal conductivity, and thermostability. The major task of the buffer is to prevent the penetration of radionuclides into groundwater. The authors of this report examined weathered basic rocks from three regions of Russia in consideration as a suitable radioactive waste barrier.

  6. Weathering products of basic rocks as sorptive materials of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal requirements for employing natural minerals as buffer and backfill material in high-level waste (HLW) repositories are high sorptive properties, low water permeability, relatively high thermal conductivity, and thermostability. The major task of the buffer is to prevent the penetration of radionuclides into groundwater. The authors of this report examined weathered basic rocks from three regions of Russia in consideration as a suitable radioactive waste barrier

  7. Basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many defense and nuclear reactor systems require complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuits that are tolerant to high levels of radiation. This radiation can result from space, hostile environments or nuclear reactor and accelerator beam environments. In addition, many techniques used to fabricate today's complex very-large-scale integration circuits expose the circuits to ionizing radiation during the process sequence. Whatever its origin, radiation can cause significant damage to integrated-circuit materials. This damage can lead to circuit performance degradation, logic upset, and even catastrophic circuit failure. This paper provides a brief overview of the basic mechanisms for radiation damage to silicon-based integrated circuits. Primary emphasis is on the effects of total-dose ionizing radiation on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures

  8. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the...

  9. Tailoring of epoxy material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nakka, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    This research work is aimed to understand the effect of resin chemistry on the physical properties (e.g. moduli, viscoelasticity, moisture uptake, coefficient of thermal expansion) of cured aromatic epoxy-amine thermoset resins. This understanding will result into a good first approximation of the final properties. As a consequence in future it will be possible to design a resin with a well defined set of material properties. Although this research work cannot be generalized to all kinds of p...

  10. Properties of the zeros of generalized basic hypergeometric polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihun, Oksana; Calogero, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    We define the generalized basic hypergeometric polynomial of degree N in terms of the generalized basic hypergeometric function, by choosing one of its parameters to allow the termination of the series after a finite number of summands. In this paper, we obtain a set of nonlinear algebraic equations satisfied by the N zeros of the polynomial. Moreover, we obtain an N × N matrix M defined in terms of the zeros of the polynomial, which, in turn, depend on the parameters of the polynomial. The eigenvalues of this remarkable matrix M are given by neat expressions that depend only on some of the parameters of the polynomial; that is, the matrix M is isospectral. Moreover, in case the parameters that appear in the expressions for the eigenvalues of M are rational, the matrix M has rational eigenvalues, a Diophantine property.

  11. Basic properties of Gamma-ray loud blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, K. S.; Fan, J.H.; Zhang, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the basic properties of $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars, among them the central black hole mass, M, the Doppler factor, $\\delta$, the propagation angle of the $\\gamma$-rays with respect to the symmetric axis of a two-temperature accretion disk, $\\Phi$, and the distance (i.e. the height above the accretion disk), d at which the $\\gamma$-rays are created, for seven $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars with available GeV variability timescales and in which the abs...

  12. Property Status of Lunar Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar material. Lunar samples have been returned in the past by means of the Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) missions and, while most of the material re- mains government property and is used for scientific means, a small fraction has been transferred abroad and some has entered the private market. Apollo-collected moon- rocks have been offered, symbolically, to heads of States, and some foreign nations have subsequently transferred ownership to private individuals. The same, lunar ma- terial of Soviet provenience has entered the private market, this forming a valuable legal precedent for the lawfulness of sale of lunar material. Recently, plans were made public to award the Apollo astronauts with lunar rocks. While in the US there is a popular misconception that it is illegal to own lunar material, the truth lies elsewhere. As the Apollo samples are the property of the US government and a small fraction was stolen, lost, or misplaced, the US government intends to recover this material, unlawfully owned. In the same time, a significant number of individuals have been prosecuted for offering for sale fake lunar rocks. The present paper will analyse the different categories of lunar material according to its ownership status, and will as- sert that private property of lunar material is lawful, and lunar material that will be returned in the future will be able to enter the market without hindrances.

  13. The study of the basic mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol fiber cement stabilized macadam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shipeng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As a new material in the construction field,polyvinyl alcohol fiber cement stabilized macadam pavement has a very broad application prospects. The study of the basic mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol fiber cement stabilized macadam is also a hot spot today. This paper studies the flexural strength of polyvinyl alcohol fiber content is at 0.9Kg / m3 ,and the affect between the splitting tensile strength and the polyvinyl alcohol fiber.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly decreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  15. No protection for communal property as to basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complaint of unconstitutionality deals with two questions: 1. whether the petitioner can refer her objections and her action of voidance against the first partial construction license for the Wyhl power plant to the fact that her property is infringed according to paragraph 14 Abs. 1 GG (basic law) as she would have to expect her plot of land, which is situated at an air distance of 3-4 km and partially used as a winegard, bein encroached upon, 2. whether the preclusion of objections - including a period of one month after having disclosed the licensing papers according to paragraph 3 Abs. 1 of the Atomanlagen-Verordnung from 20th May 1960/ 29th October 1970 - is compatible with the right for effective legal protection according to paragraph 19 subsection 4 sentence 1 of the GG. The German Constitutional Court has rejected the first question, affirmed the second question and discussed the complaint of unconstitutionality as a whole. (orig./HP)

  16. No protection for communal property as to basic law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The complaint of unconstitutionality deals with two questions: 1. whether the petitioner can refer her objections and her action of voidance against the first partial construction license for the Wyhl power plant to the fact that her property is infringed according to paragraph 14 Abs. 1 GG (basic law) as she would have to expect her plot of land, which is situated at an air distance of 3-4 km and partially used as a winegard, being encroached upon, 2. whether the preclusion of objections - including a period of one month after having disclosed the licensing papers according to paragraph 3 Abs. 1 of the Atomanlagen-Verordnung from 20th May 1960/ 29th October 1970 - is compatible with the right for effective legal protection according to paragraph 19 subsection 4 sentence 1 of the GG. The German Constitutional Court has rejected the first question, affirmed the second question and discussed the complaint of unconstitutionality as a whole.

  17. Optical properties of metallic nanoparticles basic principles and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trügler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fascinating world of plasmonics and physics at the nanoscale, with a focus on simulations and the theoretical aspects of optics and nanotechnology. A research field with numerous applications, plasmonics bridges the gap between the micrometer length scale of light and the secrets of the nanoworld. This is achieved by binding light to charge density oscillations of metallic nanostructures, so-called surface plasmons, which allow electromagnetic radiation to be focussed down to spots as small as a few nanometers. The book is a snapshot of recent and ongoing research and at the same time outlines our present understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles, ranging from the tunability of plasmonic resonances to the ultrafast dynamics of light-matter interaction. Beginning with a gentle introduction that highlights the basics of plasmonic interactions and plasmon imaging, the author then presents a suitable theoretical framework for the description of metallic nanostructu...

  18. The use of high pressure in basic, materials, and life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four of the most important applications of the high pressure technique in today's science are: (1) to help identify the materials which reside deep within our earth or other heavenly bodies and determine their properties, (2) to uncover underlying systematics and critically test theoretical models, (3) to synthesize novel and useful materials not readily available by other means, and (4) to determine the effect of pressure on living organisms and explore the conditions favorable for the origin of life itself. High pressure studies currently enjoy an increasing popularity which is fueled by recent advances in the notably difficult experimental techniques. In this paper I will attempt to capture some of the current excitement in this field by offering brief synopses of selected experiments in the basic, materials, and life sciences

  19. Material properties of oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differences between the old (inter-) metallic superconductors and the new oxide superconductors are not limited to the much higher values of Tc attainable in the latter. There are many pervasive differences caused directly by oxide chemistry, quasi-perovskite local coordination configurations, and layered metal-semiconductor-metal'-semiconductor-structures. When these differences are ignored, for instance in theoretical models which make effective medium approximations, many experiments appear to present anomalous results. These anomalies largely disappear when account is taken of the real materials properties of the cuprates and other new oxide superconductors, for instance in theoretical models which treat transport as a partially percolative process. This percolative process directly reflects the fact that the highest values of Tc, as well as the most anomalous normal-state transport properties, occur in materials vicinal to a metal-insulator transition. As the metallic and insulating regions alternate even in single-crystal samples, effective medium models, and most effective-medium parameters, lose their significance. Examples of attempts to measure microscopic properties illustrate the importance of filamentary effects on both normal-state and superconductive properties

  20. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2013-01-01

    This book is mostly concerned on the experimental research of the nonlinear optical characteristics of various media, low- and high-order harmonic generation in different materials, and formation, and nonlinear optical characterization of clusters. We also demonstrate the inter-connection between these areas of nonlinear optics.   Nonlinear optical properties of media such as optical limiting can be applied in various areas of science and technology. To define suitable materials for these applications, one has to carefully analyse the nonlinear optical characteristics of various media, such as the nonlinear refractive indices, coefficients of nonlinear absorption, saturation absorption intensities, etc. Knowing the nonlinear optical parameters of materials is also important for describing the propagation effects, self-interaction of intense laser pulses, and optimisation of various nonlinear optical processes. Among those processes one can admit the importance of the studies of the frequency conversion of c...

  1. Determination of reliable material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. Chapter 5 is about the determination of reliable material properties. This concerns mainly mechanical test procedures and their interpretation. Some background concerning crack and fracture mechanisms is given

  2. Suggested Basic Materials for Educable Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Martha J.; And Others

    Printed materials, classroom equipment and audio-visual resources are listed for language arts, arithmetic, social studies, and science for the primary, intermediate, junior high, and senior high levels. Publishers' addresses and descriptions of the materials are given; also included are lists of professional books, bulletins, and curriculum…

  3. Basic properties of 3D cast skeleton structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present recent achievements in field of skeleton structures. The aim of this work is to show results of searching for mechanically and technologically advantageous micro- and macrostructures. Methods of microstructure controlling were described. Most important parameters of the manufacturing process were identified.Design/methodology/approach: The influence of internal topology to stress distribution was described with the use of computer simulations. Simulations of the mold filling processes were also carried out. Real experiments were performed to prove the simulation results. The Qualitative and quantitative metallographic analysis were also carried out.Findings: It was found that the octahedron shape of internal cell causes best stress distribution and that the skeleton castings are a good alternative for cellular materials such as metal foams, lattice structures and sandwich panels. Their structured arranged topology allows precise design of properties.Research limitations/implications: Casting methods used to manufacture materials such as described skeleton castings confirmed their usefulness. Not well known and used yet rheological properties of liquid metals allow obtaining shape complicated structures near to metallic foams but structured arranged.Practical implications: Technological parameters of the skeleton castings manufacturing process were developed. Without use of advanced techniques there is a possibility to manufacture cheap skeleton structures in a typical foundry. With use of advanced technology like 3D printing there are almost unlimited possibilities of the skeleton castings internal topologies.Originality/value: Three dimensional cast skeleton structures with internal topology of octahedron confirmed their usefulness as elements used for energy dissipation. Obtaining the homogenous microstructure in the whole volume of complicated shape castings can be achieved.

  4. Information as a basic property of the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonier, T

    1996-01-01

    A theory is proposed which considers information to be a basic property of the universe the way matter and energy are. Operationally--just as energy is defined in terms of its capacity to perform work--so is information defined in terms of its capacity to organize a system. Pure energy can perform no 'useful' (entropy reducing) work without a concomitant input of information. Conversely, all expenditures of energy lead to a reorganization of the universe, hence to a change in its information status. Energy and information are interconvertible; physicists have been able to ignore the information parameter principally for two major reasons. First, historically, just as there was no need to define energy prior to the advent of increasingly complex, powered machinery and cannons (Galileo was a military engineer), so was there no need until the 20th Century to define information. It was the telephone engineers who first preoccupied themselves with developing a theory of information. The second reason is that physicists invented accounting devices such as potential energy and entropy to explain the apparent disappearance of energy yet maintain the law of the conservation of energy. The proposed theory would consider that what is conserved is the sum of information and energy. The mathematical relationship between information and entropy is provided by the equation: I = (Io)e-S/k while the conversion of energy into information involves the relationship: 1 J/degree K = 10(23) bits (approximately) Acceptance of the theory would require paradigm shifts in a number of interrelated areas. PMID:8734520

  5. Research planning for new materials development based on basic · interdisciplinary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed to apply the super-interface theory to the basic · interdisciplinary science to find novel material and establish the basic technology for future economy. For this purpose, definition of the super-interface theory and new material, classification of three characteristics and four application fields for the super-interface theory, and planning the technology development roadmap were conducted. Through this work, the national competitiveness in the field of the new material development can be maximized by suggesting the development direction of multi-functional material based on the basic · interdisciplinary science

  6. Control over magnetic properties in bulk hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Christian; Quesada, Adrian; Saerbeck, Thomas; Rubia, Miguel Angel De La; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Jose Francisco; Schuller, Ivan K.; UCSD Collaboration; Instituto de Ceramica, Madrid Collaboration; Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Collaboration

    We present control of coercivity and remanent magnetization of a bulk ferromagnetic material embedded in bulk vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) by using a standard bulk synthesis procedure. The method generalizes the use of structural phase transitions of one material to control structural and magnetic properties of another. A structural phase transition (SPT) in the V2O3 host material causes magnetic properties of Ni to change as function of temperature. The remanent magnetization and the coercivity are reversibly controlled by the SPT without additional external magnetic fields. The reversible tuning shown here opens the pathway for controlling the properties of a vast variety of magnetic hybrid bulk systems. This Work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Science, DMR under grant DE FG02 87ER-45332.

  7. Basic materials and structures aspects for hypersonic transport vehicles (HTV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, E.; Uhse, W.

    A Mach 5 transport design is used to illustrate structural concepts and criteria for materials selections and also key technologies that must be followed in the areas of computational methods, materials and construction methods. Aside from the primary criteria of low weight, low costs, and conceivable risks, a number of additional requirements must be met, including stiffness and strength, corrosion resistance, durability, and a construction adequate for inspection, maintenance and repair. Current aircraft construction requirements are significantly extended for hypersonic vehicles. Additional consideration is given to long-duration temperature resistance of the airframe structure, the integration of large-volume cryogenic fuel tanks, computational tools, structural design, polymer matrix composites, and advanced manufacturing technologies.

  8. Basics of averaging of the Maxwell equations for bulk materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chipouline, A.; Simovski, C.; Tretyakov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Volume or statistical averaging of the microscopic Maxwell equations (MEs), i.e. transition from microscopic MEs to their macroscopic counterparts, is one of the main steps in electrodynamics of materials. In spite of the fundamental importance of the averaging procedure, it is quite rarely properly discussed in university courses and respective books; up to now there is no established consensus about how the averaging procedure has to be performed. In this paper we show that there are some b...

  9. Physical properties and Analysis of Electrical and Electronic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consists of 11 chapters. It covers basic quantum theory, schrodinger wave equation and value as well as probability and statistical mechanics in chapter 1- chapter 3. In chapter 4 and 5, it deals with state of materials determination and structure of materials determination. You will also study properties of materials such as electrical, magnetic, optical, thermal and mechanical ones in from chapter 6 to chapter 8. Lastly, you will learn semiconductor electronic theory, semiconductor devices and analysis method and principle of materials from chapter 9 to chapter 11.

  10. Properties of High Basicity Mold Fluxes for Peritectic Steel Slab Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xiao; HE Sheng-ping; XU Jian-fei; HUO Xu-ling; WANG Qian

    2012-01-01

    In high speed continuous casting of peritectic steel slabs, mold fluxes with high basicity are required for less surface defect product. However, the basicity of remaining liquid slag film tends to decrease in casting process because of the crystallization of 3CaO ·2SiO2 · CaF2. Thus, a way is put forward to improve mold fluxesr properties by raising the original basicity. In order to confirm the possibility of this method, the effect of rising original basicity on the properties of mold fluxes is discussed. Properties of high fluorine based mold fluxes with different basicities and contents of CaF2 , Na2 O, and MgO were measured, respectively. Then, properties of higher basicity mold fluxes were discussed and compared with traditional ones. The results show that increasing the basicity index can improve the melting and flow property of mold fluxes. With the increasing basicity, crystallization rate of mold fluxes increases obviously and crystallization temperature tends to decrease when the basicity exceeds 1.35. The method presen- ted before is proved as a potential way to resolve the contradiction between horizontal heat transfer controlling and solidified shell lubricating for peritectic steel slab casting. But further study on improving the flow property of liquid slag is needed. This work can be used to guide mold fluxes design for high speed continuous casting of peritectic steel slabs.

  11. The Elusive Memristor: Properties of Basic Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Wolf, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge "q" and the magnetic flux [phi] in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of…

  12. Scattering Properties of Candidate Planetary Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory investigation of the scattering properties of candidate planetary regolith materials is an important technique for understanding the physical properties of a planetary regolith. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  14. Design of materials with prescribed nonlinear properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    We systematically design materials using topology optimization to achieve prescribed nonlinear properties under finite deformation. Instead of a formal homogenization procedure, a numerical experiment is proposed to evaluate the material performance in longitudinal and transverse tensile tests...

  15. Study of relation between 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer factor and basic soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are reviewed in which along with the determination of the 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer factors, the basic properties of soils were determined. The basic properties of soils were completely determined only in a small number of experimental studies. In the said experiments, a multi-parameter regression analysis was used to find a regression equation suitable for reliable forecast of 137Cs content in plants according to the properties of soils. (author). 7 tabs., 34 refs

  16. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge q and the magnetic flux φ in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of these three elements and their circuits are a part of the standard curricula. The existence of the memristor as the fourth ideal circuit element was predicted in 1971 based on symmetry arguments, but was clearly experimentally demonstrated just last year. We present the properties of a single memristor, memristors in series and parallel, as well as ideal memristor-capacitor (MC), memristor-inductor (ML) and memristor-capacitor-inductor (MCL) circuits. We find that the memristor has hysteretic current-voltage characteristics. We show that the ideal MC (ML) circuit undergoes non-exponential charge (current) decay with two time scales and that by switching the polarity of the capacitor, an ideal MCL circuit can be tuned from overdamped to underdamped. We present simple models which show that these unusual properties are closely related to the memristor's internal dynamics. This tutorial complements the pedagogy of ideal circuit elements (R, C and L) and the properties of their circuits, and is aimed at undergraduate physics and electrical engineering students

  17. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Wolf, Stephen J [Department of Physics, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: yojoglek@iupui.edu

    2009-07-15

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge q and the magnetic flux {phi} in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of these three elements and their circuits are a part of the standard curricula. The existence of the memristor as the fourth ideal circuit element was predicted in 1971 based on symmetry arguments, but was clearly experimentally demonstrated just last year. We present the properties of a single memristor, memristors in series and parallel, as well as ideal memristor-capacitor (MC), memristor-inductor (ML) and memristor-capacitor-inductor (MCL) circuits. We find that the memristor has hysteretic current-voltage characteristics. We show that the ideal MC (ML) circuit undergoes non-exponential charge (current) decay with two time scales and that by switching the polarity of the capacitor, an ideal MCL circuit can be tuned from overdamped to underdamped. We present simple models which show that these unusual properties are closely related to the memristor's internal dynamics. This tutorial complements the pedagogy of ideal circuit elements (R, C and L) and the properties of their circuits, and is aimed at undergraduate physics and electrical engineering students.

  18. Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

    1985-09-01

    The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

  19. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Wolf, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a tutorial on the properties of the new ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge q and the magnetic flux $\\phi$ in a circuit, and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C, and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of these three elements and their circuits are a part of the standard curricula. The existence of the memristor as the fourth ideal circuit element was predicted in 1971 based on symmetry argu...

  20. Complex Network Properties of Chinese Natural Science Basic Research

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Wang, Z; Dang, Yanzhong; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zhongtuo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the research areas of Chinese natural science basic research from a point view of complex network . Two research areas are considered to be connected if they appear in one fund proposal. The explicit network of such connections using data from 1999 to 2004 is constructed. The analysis of the real data shows that the degree distribution of the research areas network(RAN) obeys two regiments power-law distribution. It displays small world effect in which randomly chosen pairs of research areas are typically separated by only a short path of intermediate research areas. The average distance of RAN decreases with time, while the average clustering coefficient increases with time, which indicates that the scientific study would like to be integrated together in terms of the studied areas. The data of 2004 demonstrates that the clustering coefficient of a node with degree $k$ follows the scaling flow, indicating that the hierarchical organization emerges in RAN.

  1. Thermoelectric properties in phase-separated half-Heusler materials

    OpenAIRE

    Krez, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of dissipated heat into electricity is the basic principle of thermoelectricity. In this context, half-Heusler (HH) compounds are promising thermoelectric (TE) materials for waste heat recovery. They meet all the requirements for commercial TE applications, ranging from good efficiencies via environmentally friendliness to being low cost materials. This work focused on the TE properties of Ti0.3Zr0.35Hf0.35NiSn-based HH materials. This compound undergoes an intrinsic phase sepa...

  2. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  3. Development and Evaluation of Consumer-Based Mathematics Materials in Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia F.; Kulm, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    In creating mathematics materials for adult basic education students, researchers (1) interviewed students and teachers to determine needs and objectives; (2) developed materials based on consumer mathematics skills; and (3) evaluated effectiveness by a pretest/posttest and student, teacher, and administrator questionnaires. Results showed the…

  4. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  5. Antarctic sea ice: Its development and basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports investigations on sea ice properties carried out during a number of expeditions into the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The results provide important baseline data, against which possible changes in the Antarctic sea ice cover as induced by climatic changes can be compared. This paper concentrates on results dealing with the textural properties and the ice thickness distributions of Antarctic sea ice. In addition, the author looks at the contribution of meteoric ice (snow ice) to the sea ice cover by means of δ18O measurements. While changes in extent and thickness are to be expected as a result of possible climatic warming, they propose that the amount of snow ice will serve as an additional indicator of such changes

  6. Spin-crossover materials properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of spin-crossover has a large impact on the physical properties of a solid material, including its colour, magnetic moment, and electrical resistance. Some materials also show a structural phase change during the transition. Several practical applications of spin-crossover materials have been demonstrated including display and memory devices, electrical and electroluminescent devices, and MRI contrast agents. Switchable liquid crystals, nanoparticles, and thin films of spin-crossover materials have also been achieved. Spin-Crossover Materials: Properties and Applicat

  7. Tax incentives for extraction and recycling of basic materials in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Scharf

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of the overall incentives generated by taxes with respect to the choice between extraction and recycling of basic materials in Canada. We calculate measures of the overall impact of the Canadian tax system on the incremental cost of (i) producing virgin material or recycled material that is to be used as an intermediate input in the production of a final product and (ii) producing finished products. The sectors that we examine include producers of p...

  8. Some basic criteria for using of accountancy common system and nuclear material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic criteria used by the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, using in the Accountancy and Control Common System of Nuclear Materials (SCCC) are presented and the control elements are described. The SCCC is a safeguard system used for all nuclear materials present in all nuclear activities executed by Brazil and Argentina. (C.G.C.). 4 refs, 1 tab

  9. Transit time instabilities in an inverted fireball. I. Basic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Gruenwald, J.; Fonda, B.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    A new fireball configuration has been developed which produces vircator-like instabilities. Electrons are injected through a transparent anode into a spherical plasma volume. Strong high-frequency oscillations with period corresponding to the electron transit time through the sphere are observed. The frequency is below the electron plasma frequency, hence does not involve plasma eigenmodes. The sphere does not support electromagnetic eigenmodes at the instability frequency. However, the rf oscillations on the gridded anode create electron bunches which reinforce the grid oscillation after one transit time or rf period, which leads to an absolute instability. Various properties of the instability are demonstrated and differences to the sheath-plasma instability are pointed out, one of which is a relatively high conversion efficiency from dc to rf power. Nonlinear effects are described in a companion paper [R. L. Stenzel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 012105 (2011)].

  10. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process

  11. Materials Properties Research at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presson, Joan B.; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MSFC is currently planning, organizing and directing test coupon fabrication and subsequent CTE testing for two mirror materials of specific interest to the AMSD and NGST programs, Beryllium 0-30H (Be 0-30H) and Ultra Low Expansion glass (ULE). The ULE test coupons are being fabricated at MSFC from AMSD core residuals provided by Kodak, The Be 0-30H test coupons are being fabricated at Brush Wellman using residuals from the SBMD. Both sets of test coupons will be sent to a test vendor selected through the NASA competitive proposal process with the test results being provided by written report to MSFC by the end of the fiscal year. The test results will become model input data for the AMSD analysts, both MSFC and contractor, providing an enhancement to the historical CTE data currently available.

  12. Spacecraft Charging Sensitivity to Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating spacecraft charging behavior of a vehicle in the space environment requires knowledge of the material properties relevant to the charging process. Implementing surface and internal charging models requires a user to specify a number of material electrical properties including electrical resistivity parameters (dark and radiation induced), dielectric constant, secondary electron yields, photoemission yields, and breakdown strength in order to correctly evaluate the electric discharge threat posed by the increasing electric fields generated by the accumulating charge density. In addition, bulk material mass density and/or chemical composition must be known in order to analyze radiation shielding properties when evaluating internal charging. We will first describe the physics of spacecraft charging and show how uncertainties in material properties propagate through spacecraft charging algorithms to impact the results obtained from charging models. We then provide examples using spacecraft charging codes to demonstrate their sensitivity to material properties. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize the importance in having good information on relevant material properties in order to best characterize on orbit charging threats.

  13. Macroscopic properties of model disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disordered materials are ubiquitous in nature and in industry. Soils, sedimentary rocks, wood, bone, polymer composites, foams, catalysts, gels, concretes and ceramics have properties that depend on material structure. Present techniques for predicting properties are limited by the theoretical and computational difficulty of incorporating a realistic description of material structure. A general model for microstructure was recently proposed by Berk [Berk, Phys.Rev.A, 44 5069 (1991)]. The model is based on level cuts of a Gaussian random field with arbitrary spectral density. The freedom in specifying the parameters of the model allows the modeling of physical materials with diverse morphological characteristics. We have shown that the model qualitatively accounts for the principal features of a wider variety of disordered materials including geologic media, membranes, polymer blends, ceramics and foams. Correlation functions are derived for the model microstructure. From this characterisation we derive mechanical and conductive properties of the materials. Excellent agreement with experimentally measured properties of disordered solids is obtained. The agreement provides a strong hint that it is now possible to correlate effective physical properties of porous solids to microstructure. Simple extensions to modelling properties of non-porous multicomponent blends; metal alloys, ceramics, metal/matrix and polymer composites are also discussed

  14. Decarbonising the energy intensive basic materials industry through electrification - implications for future EU electricity demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lechtenböhmer, Stefan; Nilsson, Lars J; Åhman, Max; Schneider, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    The need for low-carbon transitions in the industrial sector is increasingly recognised by governments and industry. However, radical pathways for reaching near-zero emissions in the energy intensive basic materials industry are still relatively unexplored. Most studies focus on mitigation options that lead to marginal emission reductions, e.g., energy and materials efficiency improvements and some fuel switching, or they rely on carbon capture and storage that allows continued use of existin...

  15. Basic Principles and Utilization Possibilities’ of Ultrasonic Phased Array in Material Nondestructive Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Cap; Klara Capova; Dagmar Faktorova

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the basic principles of operation and with the utilization possibilities of phased array (PA) in materials nondestructive testing (NDT). The first part deals with description of PA arrangement modes, which enable to generate, focus and steer the ultrasonic beem. The second part deals with the description of electromagnetic acoustic transducer PA operation. The last part deals with the description of the utilization of PA in nondestructive testing of conductive materials a...

  16. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  17. Anisotropy of Magnetic Properties in Textured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Szpunar

    1989-01-01

    A short survey is presented of techniques and methods used to correlate the texture with the magnetic anisotropy of various properties of soft and hard magnetic materials. Also, examples of magnetic materials are discussed with emphasis on techniques of processing which optimize the texture.

  18. High temperature magnetic balance for education : A basic investigation of the teaching materials for the material science education

    OpenAIRE

    Tokunaga, Toshihiko; Kasagi, Teruhiko; Maehara, Toshinobu; Tsutaoka, Takanori

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the several magnetic alloys and compounds were studied for the development of the teaching materials in the material science education by using a hand made high temperature magnetic balance. Magnetism treated were ferro-, para- and antiferromagnetism and magnetic phase transitions among them. Together with the data of resistivity, the possibility of the teaching materials concerning the material scie.nce education will he discussed.

  19. Optical properties of low-dimensional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, T

    1998-01-01

    This book surveys recent theoretical and experimental studies of optical properties of low-dimensional materials. As an extended version of Optical Properties of Low-Dimensional Materials (Volume 1, published in 1995 by World Scientific), Volume 2 covers a wide range of interesting low-dimensional materials including both inorganic and organic systems, such as disordered polymers, deformable molecular crystals, dilute magnetic semiconductors, SiGe/Si short-period superlattices, GaAs quantum wires, semiconductor microcavities, and photonic crystals. There are excellent review articles by promis

  20. Bioactive glasses materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylänen, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are used as highly effective implant materials throughout the human body to replace or repair damaged tissue. As a result, they have been in continuous use since shortly after their invention in the late 1960s and are the subject of extensive research worldwide.Bioactive glasses provides readers with a detailed review of the current status of this unique material, its properties, technologies and applications. Chapters in part one deal with the materials and mechanical properties of bioactive glass, examining topics such

  1. Basic properties of steel plant dust and technological properties of direct reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xue-Feng; Wang, Jing-Song; Xue, Qing-Guo; Ding, Yin-Gui; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Dong, Jie-Ji; Zeng, Hui

    2011-06-01

    Basic physicochemical properties of the dust from Laiwu Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. were studied. It is found that C, Zn, K, Na, etc. exist in the fabric filter dust, off gas (OG) sludge, fine ash in converter, and electrical field dust in sinter. Among these, OG sludge gives the finest particle, more than 90% of which is less than 2.51 μm. The dust can lead to a serious negative influence on the production of sintering and blast furnaces (BF) if it is recycled in sintering. The briquette and reduction experimental results showed that the qualified strength could be obtained in the case of 8wt% molasses or 4wt% QT-10 added as binders. Also, more than 75% of metallization ratio, more than 95% of dezincing ratio, as well as more than 80% of K and Na removal rates were achieved for the briquettes kept at 1250°C for 15 min during the direct reduction process. SEM observation indicated that the rates of indirect reduction and carbonization became dominating when the briquettes were kept at 1250°C for 6 min.

  2. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs

  3. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  4. Multifunctional Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Materials Processing and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This book presents selected topics on processing and properties of ferroelectric materials that are currently the focus of attention in scientific and technical research. Ferro-piezoelectric ceramics are key materials in devices for many applications, such as automotive, healthcare and non-destructive testing. As they are polycrystalline, non-centrosymmetric materials, their piezoelectricity is induced by the so-called poling process. This is based on the principle of polarization reversal by the action of an electric field that characterizes the ferroelectric materials. This book was born with the aim of increasing the awareness of the multifunctionality of ferroelectric materials among different communities, such as researchers, electronic engineers, end-users and manufacturers, working on and with ferro-piezoelectric ceramic materials and devices which are based on them. The initiative to write this book comes from a well-established group of researchers at the Laboratories of Ferroelectric Materials, Mate...

  5. Ergodic properties and thermodynamic behavior of elementary reversible cellular automata. I. Basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first part of a series devoted to the study of thermodynamic behavior of large dynamical systems with the use of a family of full-discrete and conservative models named elementary reversible cellular automata (ERCAs). In this paper, basic properties such as conservation laws and phase space structure are investigated in preparation for the later studies. ERCAs are a family of one-dimensional reversible cellular automata having two Boolean variables on each site. Reflection and Boolean conjugation symmetries divide them into 88 equivalence classes. For each rule, additive conserved quantities written in a certain form are regarded as a kind of energy, if they exist. By the aid of the discreteness of the variables, every ERCA satisfies the Liouville theorem or the preservation of phase space volume. Thus, if an energy exists in the above sense, statistical mechanics of the model can formally be constructed. If a locally defined quantity is conserved, however, it prevents the realization of statistical mechanics. The existence of such a quantity is examined for each class and a number of rules which have at least one energy but no local conservation laws are selected as hopeful candidates for the realization of thermodynamic behavior. In addition, the phase space structure of ERCAs is analyzed by enumerating cycles exactly in the phase space for systems of comparatively small sizes. As a result, it is revealed that a finite ERCA is not ergodic, that is, a large number of orbits coexist on an energy surface. It is argued that this fact does not necessarily mean the failure of thermodynamic behavior on the basis of an analogy with the ergodic nature of infinite systems

  6. Some basic principles in dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be estab- lished systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of con- volutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systemati- cally the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simpli- fied Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  7. Some basic principles in dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO En; LI WeiHua

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it Is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  8. Composite materials pipings: selection of basic materials and manufacturing process, quality control during manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to present a summary of the knowledge acquired at the R and D on resins used as composite matrix, the resistance to hydrolysis and mechanical strength of pipings made from these materials, and on quality control during manufacture. The initial targets concerning the material selection, industrial manufacturing and quality control procedures are presented. The paper describes the results obtained concerning the investigation of the damage produced by hydrolysis in polyesters, vinyl esters and epoxides, the influence of temperature, reinforcement and the mechanical characterization of the tubing manufacturing. The performances of the nondestructive testings (radiography, ultrasonic controls, differential interferometry and infrared thermography) used are also reported. The paper ends with a further research and testings programme. (author)

  9. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  10. Interface Properties in Extruded FRC-Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In a research and development project recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering and Materials, Technical University of Denmark a new extrusion process for HPFRCC-materials was demonstrated.It is shown that superior interfacial properties are obtained in a polypropylene fiber...... reinforced cementitious material extruded by the developed process. It is further more shown that the fiber-matrix bond is highly dependent on the relative slip at the interface and a bond-slip relationship is suggested for the extruded material. The observed very high fiber-matrix bond is explained by the...... densification of the interfacial matrix material which has taken place during the consolidation process and which can be observed in the thin-section analysis....

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.10 - What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and environmental management policies for real property? 102-80.10 Section 102-80.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 102-80.10 What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property? The basic safety...

  12. Informatics derived materials databases for multifunctional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, we provide an overview of the development of quantitative structure–property relationships incorporating the impact of data uncertainty from small, limited knowledge data sets from which we rapidly develop new and larger databases. Unlike traditional database development, this informatics based approach is concurrent with the identification and discovery of the key metrics controlling structure–property relationships; and even more importantly we are now in a position to build materials databases based on design ‘intent’ and not just design parameters. This permits for example to establish materials databases that can be used for targeted multifunctional properties and not just one characteristic at a time as is presently done. This review provides a summary of the computational logic of building such virtual databases and gives some examples in the field of complex inorganic solids for scintillator applications. (review)

  13. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ANIMASI BERBASIS VISUAL BASIC (VBA) SPREADSHEET EXCEL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PENGUASAAN KONSEP MAHASISWA PADA MATERI POTENSIAL OSILATOR HARMONIK SEDERHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati, Nurhayati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan media berbasis visual basic (VBA) spreadsheet excel dalam membelajarkan materi potensial osilator harmonik dan menganalisis  pengaruh penggunaan media tersebut terhadap penguasaan konsep dan mahasiswa fisika. Selain itu penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang tanggapan mahasiswaterhadap implementasi media berbasis visual basic (VBA) spreadsheet excel pada materi potensial osilator harmonik.Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kuasi ...

  14. Data base on structural materials aging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where long-term and environment-dependent properties of concretes and other structural materials are being collected and assembled into a data base. These properties will be used to evaluate the current condition of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to estimate the future performance of these materials during the continued service period.

  15. AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grüneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.

  16. Materialism and well-being among Chinese college students: the mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjie; Yao, Meilin; Yan, Wenfan

    2014-10-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study explored the potential mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and well-being among Chinese college students. The results showed that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction and fully mediated the relationships among materialism and emotional well-being, subjective vitality, and self-actualization. The findings indicated the importance of considering both subjective and psychological well-being and the interpretative power of basic psychological need satisfaction and Chinese culture in the flow from materialism to well-being. PMID:23740261

  17. Correlation of basic TL, OSL and IRSL properties of ten K-feldspar samples of various origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfampa, I.K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Polymeris, G.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Pagonis, V. [McDaniel College, Physics Department, Westminster, MD 21157 (United States); Theodosoglou, E. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, ‘Athena’ R.& I.C., Kimmeria University Campus, GR67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, G., E-mail: gkitis@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • OSL and IRSL bleaching behavior of ten K-feldspar samples is presented. • OSL and IRSL decay curves were component resolved using tunneling model. • The growth of integrated OSL and IRSL signals versus time was described by new expression based on tunneling model. • Correlation between TL, OSL and IRSL signals and of all properties with K-feldspar structure was discussed. - Abstract: Feldspars stand among the most widely used minerals in dosimetric methods of dating using thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Having very good dosimetric properties, they can in principle contribute to the dating of every site of archaeological and geological interest. The present work studies basic properties of ten naturally occurring K-feldspar samples belonging to three feldspar species, namely sanidine, orthoclase and microcline. The basic properties studied are (a) the influence of blue light and infrared stimulation on the thermoluminescence glow-curves, (b) the growth of OSL, IRSL, residual TL and TL-loss as a function of OSL and IRSL bleaching time and (c) the correlation between the OSL and IRSL signals and the energy levels responsible for the TL glow-curve. All experimental data were fitted using analytical expressions derived from a recently developed tunneling recombination model. The results show that the analytical expressions provide excellent fits to all experimental results, thus verifying the tunneling recombination mechanism in these materials and providing valuable information about the concentrations of luminescence centers.

  18. Correlation of basic TL, OSL and IRSL properties of ten K-feldspar samples of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • OSL and IRSL bleaching behavior of ten K-feldspar samples is presented. • OSL and IRSL decay curves were component resolved using tunneling model. • The growth of integrated OSL and IRSL signals versus time was described by new expression based on tunneling model. • Correlation between TL, OSL and IRSL signals and of all properties with K-feldspar structure was discussed. - Abstract: Feldspars stand among the most widely used minerals in dosimetric methods of dating using thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Having very good dosimetric properties, they can in principle contribute to the dating of every site of archaeological and geological interest. The present work studies basic properties of ten naturally occurring K-feldspar samples belonging to three feldspar species, namely sanidine, orthoclase and microcline. The basic properties studied are (a) the influence of blue light and infrared stimulation on the thermoluminescence glow-curves, (b) the growth of OSL, IRSL, residual TL and TL-loss as a function of OSL and IRSL bleaching time and (c) the correlation between the OSL and IRSL signals and the energy levels responsible for the TL glow-curve. All experimental data were fitted using analytical expressions derived from a recently developed tunneling recombination model. The results show that the analytical expressions provide excellent fits to all experimental results, thus verifying the tunneling recombination mechanism in these materials and providing valuable information about the concentrations of luminescence centers

  19. The European Fusion Material properties database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials research represents a significant part of the European and world effort on fusion research. A European Fusion Materials web-based relational database is being developed to collect, expand and preserve for the future the data produced in support of the NET, DEMO and ITER. The database allows understanding of material properties and their critical parameters for fusion environments. The system uses J2EE technologies and the PostgreSQL relational database, and flexibility ensures that new methods to automate material design for specific applications can be easily implemented. It runs on a web server and allows users access via the Internet using their preferred web browser. The database allows users to store, browse and search raw tests, material properties and qualified data, and electronic reports. For data security, users are issued with individual accounts, and the origin of all requests is checked against a list of trusted sites. Different user accounts have access to different datasets to ensure the data is not shared unintentionally. The system allows several levels of data checking/cleaning and validation. Data insertion is either online or through downloaded templates, and validation is through different expert groups, which can apply different criteria to the data

  20. Basic criteria in material selection for equipment of NPPs containing the type WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General principles of materials selection for NPP equipment are reported with due regard for operating conditions. The emphasis is on the selection of materials for equipment elements of water cooled and moderated reactors. Based on a 25 year operating experience a conclusion is made that on reactor materials selection the following properties should be taken into consideration: corrosion resistance, mechanical strength, low cycle fatigue strength and resistance to brittle fracture. Experimental data on the behaviour of a number of carbon, alloy and heat resistant steels under operating conditions are presented

  1. Optical properties of photochromic and thermochromic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yeon-Gon

    The optical properties of some thin film materials can be altered by an external stimulus. Photochromic and thermochromic materials, including inorganic and organic substances, have optical properties that can be changed in a reversible manner by irradiation and temperature respectively. These materials can be used in applications such as radiation or thermal sensors, information storage devices and smart window applications in buildings and cars. In this work, major effort was concentrated on passive thermal control coatings based on photochromic and thermochromic materials. The inorganic photochromic materials were based on tungsten and molybdenum oxide films and the organic photochromic materials included spiropyrans and spirooxazines. In addition, photochromic composite organic-inorganic films and thermochromic vanadium oxide films were prepared. The samples were synthesized using sputtering, sol-gel process, and thermal oxidation. The optical properties were investigated for the first time by ultraviolet/visible/infrared (UV/VIS/IR) spectroscopic ellipsometry, attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For amorphous oxide films, the oxygen deficiency was important in determining the photochromic properties of the films. In the mid-infrared region, no photochromism was observed for the films. The optical properties of organic-inorganic composite films changed in the VIS/NIR wavelength region markedly in a reversible process, with UV irradiation. The composite films containing tungsten heteropolyoxometalate (HPOM) showed faster coloration and bleaching than pure tungsten oxide films. The composite films with molybdenum HPOM showed faster coloration and much slower bleaching than tungsten HPOM. The spiropyran and spirooxazine doped polymeric films were investigated for the first time using infrared and ATR ellipsometry. The infrared optical functions obtained by ATR measurements were a little smaller

  2. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials by electrospinning and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanofibers and nanotubes, have been the focus of intensive research due to their peculiar structures and resultant fascinating properties. However, the applications of 1D nanostructures have been hindered by the slow progress of the synthesis and characterization methods for these nanoscaled materials. Well controlled dimensionality, tailorable morphology and assembly, high phase purity and controllable crystallinity are major concerns when generating these nanostructures. In this work, a relatively simple technique---electrospinning---has been introduced for the preparation of 1D organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Materials under investigation include polymer/metal oxide (WO 3, MoO3) composite nanofibers and polymer/MWNT composite nanofibers. Notably, peculiar nanostructures, such as polycrystalline nanowires, nanoplatelets and nanobelts, can also be obtained after post-calcination processing on the nanocomposite materials. Spectroscopy techniques, such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM and Raman have been carried out to obtain structural and morphological information from the electrospun composite nanofibers. Meanwhile, some advanced characterization methods and measurements have been developed and designed to investigate the nanofibers from a basic science view point as to their properties. Specific designs of experiment include: synchrotron-based in situ XRD for phase transition monitoring; gas flow control bench for sensitivity measurement; three-point-bending by AFM for mechanical property measurement. In summary, the electrospinning technique provides a versatile method for synthesizing and assembling 1D nanocomposite structures. The electrospun composite nanofibers showed promising electrical and mechanical properties, which may find applications for gas sensors, reinforced fibrous materials and nano-electrical devices.

  3. Modelling electrical properties of composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Composite field grading materials are used to avoid stressconcentrations in high voltage applications such as cableaccessories and generator or motor end windings. The compositematerials consist of an insulating matrix filled with suitableconducting or semi-conducting particles. Silicon carbide (SiC)powder is one such filler that is being employed. The compositematerials display complex electrical characteristics that aredependent on filler properties, particle concentration,frequency and ele...

  4. Irreversibility of electrical insulating material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Polansky; Vaclav Mentlik

    2007-01-01

    Property changes in electrical insulating materials that appear during repeated voltage stress (e. g. in an applied voltage test) are an often discussed problem. The voltage exposure leads to irreversible changes in a negative sense as this investigation clearly demonstrates. A slow deterioration appears even in the case of the above mentioned applied voltage test when the irreversible effects of particular measurements superimpose. These are the effects of irreversible behavior of the insula...

  5. Properties of nanoclay PVA composites materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/ Na-rich Montmorillonite (MMT nanocomposites were prepared using solution method to create polymer-clay nanocomposite (PCN material. The PCN material was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, demonstrating polymer-clay intercalation that has a high d-spacing (lower diffraction angles in the PCN XRD pattern, compared to the pure MMT clay XRD pattern, which has a low d-spacing (high diffraction angles. The nano-scanning electron microscope (NSEM was used to study the morphological image of the PVA, MMT and PCN materials. The results showed that intercalation that took place between the PVA and MMT produced the PCN material. The mechanical properties of the pure PVA and the intercalated polymer material were studied. It was found that the small amount of MMT clay made the tensile modulus and percentage of the total elongation of the nano-composite significantly higher than the pure PVA polymer value, due to polymer-clay intercalation. The thermal stability of the intercalated polymer has been studied using thermal analytical techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results showed that the PCN material is more thermally stable than the pure PVA polymer.

  6. Heterogeneous integration of semiconductor materials: basic issues, current progress, and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    2012-06-01

    The world's dominant IC material, silicon, cannot do everything we want a semiconductor material to do. However, for this discussion, the fact that Si wafers are of high quality, large and cheap is of great interest. This is important for at least two reasons. First, nearly all of the electronic and photonic compound semiconductor devices that comprise the current $20 billion per year market are fabricated on substrates that are either very expensive or non-optimal for the epitaxy required to realize the device or an IC of interest. A second reason is the integration of new functionality to current Si technology. Clearly, if many of the current photonic applications already realized in current compound semiconductor technology could be integrated into Si technology, some of the herculean efforts to continue following Moore's Law (including trying to do it via nanotechnology) could be mitigated. This presentation examines some of the basic materials science issues involved with heterogeneous integration of semiconductor materials. These include those applications in which the active device region requires a high degree of crystal perfection and those that do not. Epitaxy issues at the hetero-interface, heterovalent versus homovalent epigrowth, and dislocation dynamics are presented. Notable historical examples are summarized, followed by examples of current successful approaches including the materials science concepts used to achieve the results. A list is made of some challenges that need to be solved in order to continue making future progress.

  7. Removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solution using sulphuric acid activated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study the adsorption of Basic Violet, 14 from aqueous solution onto sulphuric acid activated materials prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum (CS) and Theobroma cacao (TS) shells were investigated. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results showed that CS has a superior adsorption capacity compared to the TS. The adsorption capacity was found to be 1416.43 mg/g for CS and 980.39 mg/g for TS. The kinetic data results at different concentrations were analysed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order model. Boyd plot indicates that the dye adsorption onto CS and TS is controlled by film diffusion. The adsorbents were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The materials used in this study were economical waste products and hence can be an attractive alternative to costlier adsorbents for dye removal in industrial wastewater treatment processes. PMID:27330899

  8. Investigation and basic evaluation for ultra-high burnup fuel cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ultra-high burnup of the power reactor, it is an essential problem to develop the cladding with excellent durability. First, development history and approach of the safety assessment of Zircaloy for the high burnup fuel were summarized in the report. Second, the basic evaluation and investigation were carried out on the material with high practicability in order to select the candidate materials for the ultra-high burnup fuel. In addition, the basic research on modification technology of the cladding surface was carried out from the viewpoint of the addition of safety margin as a cladding. From the development history of the zirconium alloy including the Zircaloy, it is hard to estimate the results of in-pile test from those of the conventional corrosion test (out-pile test). Therefore, the development of the new testing technology that can simulate the actual environment and the elucidation of the corrosion-controlling factor of the cladding are desired. In cases of RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) and LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident), it seems that the loss of ductility in zirconium alloys under heavy irradiation and boiling of high temperature water restricts the extension of fuel burnup. From preliminary evaluation on the high corrosion-resistance materials (austenitic stainless steel, iron or nickel base superalloys, titanium alloy, niobium alloy, vanadium alloy and ferritic stainless steel), stabilized austenitic stainless steels with a capability of future improvement and high-purity niobium alloys with a expectation of the good corrosion resistance were selected as candidate materials of ultra-high burnup cladding. (author)

  9. Correlation of basic TL, OSL and IRSL properties of ten K-feldspar samples of various origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfampa, I. K.; Polymeris, G. S.; Pagonis, V.; Theodosoglou, E.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.

    2015-09-01

    Feldspars stand among the most widely used minerals in dosimetric methods of dating using thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Having very good dosimetric properties, they can in principle contribute to the dating of every site of archaeological and geological interest. The present work studies basic properties of ten naturally occurring K-feldspar samples belonging to three feldspar species, namely sanidine, orthoclase and microcline. The basic properties studied are (a) the influence of blue light and infrared stimulation on the thermoluminescence glow-curves, (b) the growth of OSL, IRSL, residual TL and TL-loss as a function of OSL and IRSL bleaching time and (c) the correlation between the OSL and IRSL signals and the energy levels responsible for the TL glow-curve. All experimental data were fitted using analytical expressions derived from a recently developed tunneling recombination model. The results show that the analytical expressions provide excellent fits to all experimental results, thus verifying the tunneling recombination mechanism in these materials and providing valuable information about the concentrations of luminescence centers.

  10. Chosen manufacture methods of Polymeric Graded Materials with electrical and magnetic properties gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stabik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present main results of Polymeric Graded Materials (PGMs investigations realized in Silesian University of Technology, Division of Metallic and Polymeric Materials Processing. Methods of PGMs manufacture with electrical and magnetic properties gradation are mainly discussed.Design/methodology/approach: In short introduction general remarks on functionally graded materials (FGMs and PGMs are presented. Next, methods used to prepare PGMs are presented together with physical basics determining composition, structure and properties gradation. Research methodology and chosen results showing PGMs structure and properties are also presented.Findings: Achieved results show that it is possible do design graded material structure and composition and to manufacture PGM that not precisely but in high extend meets designed requirements. The basic condition to accomplish this task is that physical basics of structure and composition gradient formation are known and relations between technological process parameters and ready material characteristics are properly applied.Research limitations/implications: Only chosen methods of PGMs manufacture are presented and only chosen PGMs characteristics are discussed.Practical implications: Presented technologies are widely used in industry to processing polymeric materials. Defined changes in parameters and properly designed composition will allow to utilize these technologies to PGMs manufacture. Ready parts with properties gradation may be applied in almost all industry branches. Few possible applications are presented in the text.Originality/value: New types of PGMs are described in the paper. Attention is paid mainly to materials with gradation of electrical and magnetic properties. The paper may be interesting for scientists involved in PGMs and for industry engineers looking for materials with electrical and magnetic properties gradation.Keywords: Multifunctional materials

  11. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  12. THE ACOUSTOMICROSCOPY METHODS FOR STUDY OF STRUCTURAL PARAMETRES AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSTOV A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependences of physical-mechanical properties from structural parameters of material play very important role. The paper deals with the perspectives of the application of acoustic microscopy methods for studying the changes of physical - mechanical properties of materials in a condensed state under external influence. The basic principles of the methods as well as the results of the experiments of studying the structure of materials in a condensed state and its transformation upon changing the composition and types of thermomechanical treatment are given in the article. The high sensitivity to non-heterogeneity and defects upon acoustic visualization and in the regime of determining physic-mechanical properties are demonstrated.

  13. Helium retention properties of plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fusion reactor, the continuous removal of helium from the core plasma is needed in order to sustain the ignition condition. For this purpose, it has been proposed to place helium selective pumping metals, which can trap more helium than hydrogen, in the vicinity of the divertor. In this study, the helium and hydrogen trapping properties of nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, SS 304 and Inconel 625 were examined. Namely, the dependencies of irradiation temperature on the amount of trapped helium and hydrogen were obtained by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), after helium or hydrogen plasma irradiation. In those metals, nickel showed the most suitable selective pumping capability. Nickel had the helium selective pumping property above 100 C. The maximum amount of trapped helium was (2-3) x 1016 He/cm2 at an irradiation temperature of 200 C and 600 C. The optimum temperature becomes about 600 C when nickel is used for a selective pumping material. (orig.)

  14. Cement replacement materials. Properties, durability, sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Concrete Technology Center

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this book is to present the latest findings in the properties and application of Supplementary Cementing Materials and blended cements currently used in the world in concrete. Sustainability is an important issue all over the world. Carbon dioxide emission has been a serious problem in the world due to the greenhouse effect. Today many countries agreed to reduce the emission of CO2. Many phases of cement and concrete technology can affect sustainability. Cement and concrete industry is responsible for the production of 7% carbon dioxide of the total world CO2 emission. The use of supplementary cementing materials (SCM), design of concrete mixtures with optimum content of cement and enhancement of concrete durability are the main issues towards sustainability in concrete industry.

  15. New Monolayered Materials Exhibiting Unusual Electronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    Computationally based approaches are allowing to progress in the discovery and design of nano-scaled materials. Here we propose a series of new mono-layered compounds with exotic properties. By means of density functional theory calculations we demonstrate that the pentagonal arrangement of SiC2 yields an inverted distribution of the p-bands which leads to an unusual electronic behaviour of the material under strain [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (33), pp 19469]. A different pentagonal arrangement of C atoms enables the formation of Dirac cones which, unlike graphene, exhibit a strain-mediated tunable band gap. This work is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. Thermal Radiative Properties of Xonotlite Insulation Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin ZHANG; Gaosheng WEI; Fan YU

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of thermal radiative properties of xonotlite-type calcium silicate insulation material. Transmittance spectra were first taken using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR)for the samples with ρ = 234 kg/m3. Specific extinction coefficient spectra were then obtained by applying Beer's law.Finally,by using the diffusion approximation,the specific Rossland mean extinction coefficients and radiative thermal conductivities were obtained for various temperatures. The results show that the specific spectral extinction coefficient of xonotlite is larger than 7 m2/kg in the whole measured spectra, and diffusion approximation equation is a reasonable description of radiative heat transfer in xonotlite insulation material. The specific Rossland mean extinction coefficient of xonotlite has a maximum ualue at 400 K and the radiative thermal conductivity is almost proportional to the cube of temperature.

  17. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  18. CONTROLLABILITY OF A CLASS OF HYBRID DYNAMIC SYSTEMS ( Ⅰ )--BASIC PROPERTIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广明; 王龙; 叶庆凯

    2003-01-01

    The controllability for switched linear system with time-delay in controls was first investigated. The whole work contains three parts. This is the first part, including problem formulation and some preliminaries. Firstly, the mathematical model of switched linear systems with time-delay in control functions vas presented. Secondly, the concept of column space , cyclic invariant subspace and generalized cyclic invariant subspace were introduced.And some basic properties, such as separation lemma , were presented. Finally, a basic lemma was given to reveal the relation between the solution set of a centain integral equations and the generalized cyclic invariant subspace. This lemma will play an important role in the determination of controllability. All these definitions and lemmas are necessary research tools for controllability analysis.

  19. International nuclear safety center database on material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International nuclear safety center database on the following material properties is described: fuel, cladding,absorbers, moderators, structural materials, coolants, concretes, liquid mixtures, uranium dioxide

  20. Energy analysis of the basic materials utilized in electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-30

    The energy content per mile of installed underground and overhead power transmission systems has been calculated for the following types of systems: self-contained oil-filled cables; HPOF pipe-type cables; extruded dielectric cables; compressed-gas-insulated systems; overhead lines (ac and dc) and two proposed superconducting systems (ac and dc). The system operating voltages analyzed included 138, 230, 345, 500, 765 and 1,200 kV for ac systems, but all systems were not analyzed at the higher voltages. The dc overhead lines operated at +-200, +-400, +-600 and +-800 kV. Total installed energy content for these systems ranged from 4 x 10/sup 9/ to 1.2 x 10/sup 11/ Btu per mile. Installation energy requirements were generally 10% or less of the inherent system energy content based on the materials used in each system. Most of the energy content in each system can be attributed to the metallic components; plastic and insulating oil also contribute significantly. The energy content of 36 materials and basic products, in terms of Btu per ton, was calculated as part of this study. Substitution of conductor materials (e.g., aluminum for copper) in cable systems resulted in changes in the total system energy content on the order of 15%.

  1. Interactive computer-based instruction: Basic material control and accounting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of interactive, computer-based training (CBT) courses can be a time- and resource-saving alternative to formal instruction in a classroom milieu. With CBT, students can proceed at their own pace, fit the study course into their schedule, and avoid the extra time and effort involved in travel and other special arrangements. The demonstration given here is an abbreviated, annotated version of a recently developed course in basic material control and accounting designed for the MC and A novice. The system used is ''Quest'' which includes multi-media capabilities, individual scoring, and built-in result-reporting capabilities for the course administrator. Efficient instruction and training are more important than ever because of the growing numbers of relatively inexperienced persons becoming active in safeguards

  2. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  3. Decree 2805 by means of which the National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, is established

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree has for object to establish a National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, under the supervision of the National Council for the Nuclear Industry Development. Its aims are to account nuclear materials, to control nuclear activities, to preserve and control nuclear information, to keep technical relationship with specialized organizations, and to garant nuclear safeguards

  4. Relaxation properties of natural and artificial cellulose materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to relaxation properties of natural and artificial cellulose materials. Therefore the dielectric properties of natural and artificial cellulose materials depending on influence of frequency and temperature are studied.

  5. Local mechanical properties of inhomogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Materials having discrete inhomogeneities, e.g. composites, are of increasing interest for the modern science and technology. The peculiarity of such materials is stochastic microstructure, that requires to use the probabilistic approaches for modeling of their properties. There are two main problems in the mechanics of composites. The first one deals with the determination of the macroscopic law of Hook: The effective elastic modules, connecting the tensors of average stresses and strains, are required to be calculated in this case. Another one is the evaluation of local fields of stresses (strains), i.e. the problem of the calculation of tensor operators of their concentration. These operators connect the average (external) stresses (strains) in the material with their internal (local) values. These problems are mutually connected, because in any known approximations the solution of stochastic differential equations (the equilibrium equations for elastic mediums with a microstructure) are required in the both case. The determination of local fields of stresses, which exceed the breaking point of the matrix or inclusions, is required for modeling of local damage of composites. Thus, the dependence of local fields of stresses (strains) on a distance between inclusions should be considered as the important property of composites. In this work only matrix composites are discussed. Assuming, that the composite is macroscopically homogeneous, the nonlinear dependence of average distance between inclusions on their bulk concentration is established. The various kinds of approximations are obtained for the evaluation of local fields of stresses and strains, which are similar to approximations of Voigt, Reuss and other authors for the calculation of effective elastic properties. Application of these results allows to establish the dependence between operators of the concentration of stresses (strains) and the average distance between inclusions. In conclusion

  6. A three-scale model of basic mechanical properties of Nafion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav; Vokoun, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2015), s. 763-776. ISSN 0191-5665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1296; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Nafion * mechanical properties * mesomechanics * material structure * hydration Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.473, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11029-015-9466-y

  7. Influence of thermal treatments on the basic and catalytic properties of Mg,Al-mixed oxides derived from hydrotalcites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bastiani

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the influence of calcination conditions on basic properties and catalytic performance of Mg,Al-mixed oxides derived from a hydrotalcite sample (Al/(Al+Mg=0.20. Various heating rates, calcination atmospheres and lengths of calcination at 723K were evaluated. TPD of CO2 and retroaldolization of diacetone alcohol (DAA were used to determine the basic properties of the mixed oxides. The basic site density determined by TPD of CO2 showed a better correlation with catalytic activity for acetone/citral aldol condensation than the relative basicity obtained from retroaldolization of DAA. Calcination atmosphere was the parameter that influenced most the basic and the catalytic properties of the Mg,Al-mixed oxides, with calcination under dry air being the best choice.

  8. Methods for assessing basic particle properties and cytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalantzi, O.-I.; Biskos, G.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration of materials and products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to the market is posing many concerns regarding their environmental impacts. To assess these impacts, there is an urgent need of techniques for determining the health-related properties of ENPs and standa

  9. The Behaviour of Laboratory Soil Electrical Resistivity Value under Basic Soil Properties Influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity method (ERM) was a popular indirect geophysical tools adopted in engineering, environmental and archaeological studies. In the past, results of the electrical resistivity value (ERV) were always subjected to a long discussion and debate among the related parties such as an engineers, geophysicists and geologists due to its lack of clarification and evidences in quantitative point of view. Most of the results produced in the past was always been justified using qualitative ways which difficult to be accept by certain parties. In order to reduce the knowledge gap between those parties, this study has performed a laboratory experiment of soil box resistivity test which supported by an additional basic geotechnical test as referred to particle size distribution test (d), moisture content test (w), density test (ρbulk) and Atterberg limit test (LL, PL and PI). The test was performed to establish a series of electrical resistivity value with different quantity of water content for Clayey SILT and Silty SAND soil. It was found that the ERV of Silty SAND (600 - 7300 Ωm) was higher than Clayey SILT (13 - 7700 Ωm) due to the different quantity of basic soil properties value obtained from the basic geotechnical test. This study was successfully demonstrated that the fluctuation of ERV has greatly influenced by the variations of the soil physical properties (d, w, ρbulk, LL, PL and PI). Hence, the confidence level of ERV interpretation will be increasingly meaningful since it able to be proved by others parameter generated by laboratory direct test

  10. Composition, structure and mechanical properties of several natural cellular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The stem piths of sunflower, kaoliang and corn are natural cellular materials. In this paper, the contents of the compositions of these piths are determined and their cell shapes and structures are examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. Further research is conducted in the effects of the compositions and structures of the piths on the mechanical properties after testing the partial mechanical properties. The results show that the total cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content of each sample approaches 75% of the dry mass of its primary cell walls. With the fall of R value, a parameter relative to the contents of the main compositions, the flexibilities of the cellular piths descend while their stresses and rigidities increase. The basic cell shape making up the sunflower pith is approximately a tetrakaidehedron. The stem piths of kaoliang and corn are made up of cells close to hexangular prisms and a few tubular ones which can observably reinforce their mechanical properties in the axial directions.

  11. Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Deepika

    Recent advances in low dimensional materials (LDMs) have paved the way for unprecedented technological advancements. The drive to reduce the dimensions of electronics has compelled researchers to devise newer techniques to not only synthesize novel materials, but also tailor their properties. Although micro and nanomaterials have shown phenomenal electronic properties, their mechanical robustness and a thorough understanding of their structure-property relationship are critical for their use in practical applications. However, the challenges in probing these mechanical properties dramatically increase as their dimensions shrink, rendering the commonly used techniques inadequate. This dissertation focuses on developing techniques for accurate determination of elastic modulus of LDMs and their mechanical responses under tensile and shear stresses. Fibers with micron-sized diameters continuously undergo tensile and shear deformations through many phases of their processing and applications. Significant attention has been given to their tensile response and their structure-tensile properties relations are well understood, but the same cannot be said about their shear responses or the structure-shear properties. This is partly due to the lack of appropriate instruments that are capable of performing direct shear measurements. In an attempt to fill this void, this dissertation describes the design of an inexpensive tabletop instrument, referred to as the twister, which can measure the shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of micron-sized individual fibers. An automated system applies a pre-determined twist to the fiber sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and KevlarRTM 119, were found to have G = 17 and 2.4 GPa, respectively. In addition to measuring the shear

  12. POTENTIAL OF VEGETABLE TANNING MATERIALS AND BASIC ALUMINUM SULPHATE IN SUDANESE LEATHER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI, HAROUN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological pressures on chromium have now forced the leather industry to look for possible alternatives. A vegetable- aluminum combination tannage has been studied, with special attention being given to intended final product. Aluminum is mineral tanning agents that are widely used to stabilize collagens in the leather industry. In this study, the crosslinking of vegetable and aluminum, with collagens, have been explored. This kind of chrome free tannage give us leathers with shrinkage temperature around 125oC, elongation at break 65.6%, tensile strength 38 N/mm2, and tear strength 98 N/mm. The chemical properties of the combination tanned leathers are found to be quite normal. Among the combination system evaluated, a vegetable pretannage followed by retannage with basic aluminum sulphate was found to produce stronger leather with the durable characteristics. In contrast, pre-tanning with aluminum possibly tightens the collagen fiber network, preventing high molecular weight vegetable tannins from interacting with collagen fibres. Optimal results were obtained when 10% (w/w vegetable tannins (garad and 2% Aluminum sulphate was used.

  13. Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media

    OpenAIRE

    Schurig, D.; J. B. Pendry; Smith, D R

    2006-01-01

    Complex and interesting electromagnetic behavior can be found in spaces with non-flat topology. When considering the properties of an electromagnetic medium under an arbitrary coordinate transformation an alternative interpretation presents itself. The transformed material property tensors may be interpreted as a different set of material properties in a flat, Cartesian space. We describe the calculation of these material properties for coordinate transformations that describe spaces with sph...

  14. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  15. Pilot program to assess proposed basic quality assurance requirements in the medical use of byproduct materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Nelson, K.; Meinhold, C.B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    In January 1990, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed amendments to 10 CFR Part 35 that would require medical licensees using byproduct material to establish and implement a basic quality assurance program. A 60-day real-world trial of the proposed rules was initiated to obtain information beyond that generally found through standard public comment procedures. Volunteers from randomly selected institutions had opportunities to review the details of the proposed regulations and to implement these rules on a daily basis during the trial. The participating institutions were then asked to evaluate the proposed regulations based on their personal experiences. The pilot project sought to determine whether medical institutions could develop written quality assurance programs that would meet the eight performance-based objectives of proposed Section 35.35. In addition, the NRC wanted to learn from these volunteers if they had any recommendations on how the rule could be revised to minimized its cost and to clarify its objectives without decreasing its effectiveness. It was found that licensees could develop acceptable QA programs under a performance-based approach, that most licensee programs did meet the proposed objectives, and that most written QA plans would require consultations with NRC or Agreement State personnel before they would fully meet all objectives of proposed Section 35.35. This report describes the overall pilot program. The methodology used to select and assemble the group of participating licensees is presented. The various workshops and evaluation questionnaires are discussed, and detailed findings are presented. 7 refs.

  16. Pilot program to assess proposed basic quality assurance requirements in the medical use of byproduct materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1990, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed amendments to 10 CFR Part 35 that would require medical licensees using byproduct material to establish and implement a basic quality assurance program. A 60-day real-world trial of the proposed rules was initiated to obtain information beyond that generally found through standard public comment procedures. Volunteers from randomly selected institutions had opportunities to review the details of the proposed regulations and to implement these rules on a daily basis during the trial. The participating institutions were then asked to evaluate the proposed regulations based on their personal experiences. The pilot project sought to determine whether medical institutions could develop written quality assurance programs that would meet the eight performance-based objectives of proposed Section 35.35. In addition, the NRC wanted to learn from these volunteers if they had any recommendations on how the rule could be revised to minimized its cost and to clarify its objectives without decreasing its effectiveness. It was found that licensees could develop acceptable QA programs under a performance-based approach, that most licensee programs did meet the proposed objectives, and that most written QA plans would require consultations with NRC or Agreement State personnel before they would fully meet all objectives of proposed Section 35.35. This report describes the overall pilot program. The methodology used to select and assemble the group of participating licensees is presented. The various workshops and evaluation questionnaires are discussed, and detailed findings are presented. 7 refs

  17. Hydrodynamics and Material Properties Experiments Using Pulsed Power Techniques*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinovsky, Robert; Trainor, R. James

    1999-06-01

    Within the last few years a new approach for exploring dynamic material properties and advanced hydrodynamics at extreme conditions has joined the traditional techniques of high velocity guns,and explosives. The principle tool is the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner. The most attractive pulse power system for driving such experiments is an ultra-highcurrent, low impedance, microsecond time-scale source that is economical both the build and operate. Liner specifications vary but in general share requirements for a high degree of symmetry and uniformity after implosion. When imploded in free flight to velocities 10-30 km/sec and kinetic energies of from one to 25 MJ/cm of height, liners are attractive impactors for producing strong (>10 Mbar) shocks in the target. Simple geometries can, in principle, produce multi-shock environments to reach off-hugoniot states. When filled with a compressible material, liners can deliver almost adiabatic compression to the target. When the liner surrounds a (small)nearly incompressible target material, for example a condensed noble gas, a liner can deliver enormous pressure to the target almost isentropically. When the compressible material is a magnetic field, flux compression can results in compressed fields above 1000 tesla in macroscopic volumes for materials studies.In this paper we will review basic scaling argumentsthat set the scale of environments available. We will mention the pulse power technology under development at Los Alamos and provide a summary of results from experiments testing solid metal liners under magnetic drive and a few examples of experiments performed withinterim systems. Other papers in this conference will provide specific proposals for pulse power driven shock-wave experiments.

  18. a Brief Survey on Basic Properties of Thin Films for Device Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. C.; Shekhawat, M. S.

    Thin film materials are the key elements of continued technological advances made in the fields of optoelectronic, photonic and magnetic devices. Thin film studies have directly or indirectly advanced many new areas of research in solid state physics and chemistry which are based on phenomena uniquely characteristic of the thickness, geometry and structure of the film. The processing of materials into thin films allows easy integration into various types of devices. Thin films are extremely thermally stable and reasonably hard, but they are fragile. On the other hand organic materials have reasonable thermal stability and are tough, but are soft. Thin film mechanical properties can be measured by tensile testing of freestanding films and by the micro beam cantilever deflection technique, but the easiest way is by means of nanoindentation. Optical experiments provide a good way of examining the properties of semiconductors. Particularly measuring the absorption coefficient for various energies gives information about the band gaps of the material. Thin film materials have been used in semiconductor devices, wireless communications, telecommunications, integrated circuits, rectifiers, transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photoconductors and light crystal displays, lithography, micro- electromechanical systems (MEMS) and multifunctional emerging coatings, as well as other emerging cutting technologies.

  19. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  20. The weak Lefschetz property for Artinian graded rings and basic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Amasaki, Mutsumi

    2011-01-01

    The basic sequence of a homogeneous ideal $I\\sset R=k[\\seq{x}{1}{r}]$ defining an Artinian graded ring $A=R/I$ not having the weak Lefschetz property has the property that the first term of the last part is less than the last term of the penultimate part. For a general linear form $\\ell$ in $\\seq{x}{1}{r}$, this fact affects in a certain way the behavior of the $r-1$ square matrices in $k[\\ell]$ which represent the multiplications of the elements of $A$ by $\\seq{x}{1}{r-1}$ through a minimal free presentation of $A$ over $k[\\ell]$. Taking advantage of it, we consider some modules over an algebra generated over $k[\\ell]$ by the square matrices mentioned above. In this manner, for the case $r=3$, we prove that an Artinian \\Gor\\ graded ring $A=k[x_1,x_2,x_3]/I$ has the weak Lefschetz property if $\\ch{k}=0$ and the number of the minimal generators of $0:_A\\ell$ over $k[x_1,x_2,x_3]$ is two.

  1. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are

  2. Understanding and Predicting the Properties of Complex Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Predicting the properties of new materials prior to manufacturing is a topic attracting great industrial and scientific interest. Mechanical properties are currently of particular interest given the increasing demand for stronger, thinner, and more flexible materials in recent years. Property pre...... and viscosity can be quantitatively predicted for oxide network glasses of industrial interest, such as borates and borosilicates....

  3. Application technique of data free way on the basic reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data free way (DFW) is a system that links by WWW the database of the reactor materials stored by the four organs such as the National Research Institute for Metals, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., JAERI and JST. By using browser of Internet, we may be accessible to the database of DFW via Japanese home page in WWW and retrieve information not to be conscious of each organ. Four organs use the same hardware and software. The construction of system, data structure, input data, user interface and using examples of DFW were explained. A creep property data of stainless steel and diffusion data of metals were stored. We tried to computerize papers. The system was improved to reduce retrieval time. (S.Y.)

  4. 46 CFR 164.013-3 - Material properties and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material properties and workmanship. 164.013-3 Section..., Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-3 Material properties and workmanship. (a) General. The unicellular polyethylene foam shall be all new material complying with the requirements outlined in this...

  5. Application technique of data free way on the basic reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), and Japan Science and Technology Promotion Corporation (JST) construct each own data base on each advantageous field to develop mutually and cooperatively a system called data free way and applicable mutually for four each organization by connecting them with a network to construct a huge dispersion type data base system. In 1998 fiscal year, it was conducted by these four organization cooperatively to fill up the system applicable for function showing data content and data retrieving function by using internet. In NRIM, as a result to input the data on mechanical properties of irradiated SUS 316 stainless steel, a new information could be obtained. In order to fill up the data base for reactor materials, a use interface for the data base was developed. In addition, a system capable to use a program to estimate activation due to nuclear reaction when the materials was exposed by neutron radiation through internet was begun to develop. (G.K.)

  6. Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a general methodology and a set of practical recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic cloaks-structures that can render themselves and a concealed object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the flexibility of continuum transformations that produce approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect, eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be composed of combinations of solid materials rather than fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic properties of such media, which support shear waves in addition to the compression waves associated with the acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic metamaterials with Poisson's ratio ν>0.49, shear waves do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with ν∼0.499) and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the scalar acoustic wave equation.

  7. Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Ghezzo, Fabrizia; Hunt, John; Smith, David R, E-mail: yaroslav.urzhumov@duke.ed [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We propose a general methodology and a set of practical recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic cloaks-structures that can render themselves and a concealed object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the flexibility of continuum transformations that produce approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect, eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be composed of combinations of solid materials rather than fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic properties of such media, which support shear waves in addition to the compression waves associated with the acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic metamaterials with Poisson's ratio {nu}>0.49, shear waves do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with {nu}{approx}0.499) and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the scalar acoustic wave equation.

  8. Utilization of electric properties of granular and powdery materials

    OpenAIRE

    Z. HlaváÄÂová

    2005-01-01

    Determination of electrical properties is utilized in a wide range of disciplines and industries. A brief compendium of electrical properties utilization of granular and powdery agricultural and food materials is presented in this paper. Electrical properties of granular and powdery materials are influenced by various factors. The most important are moisture content and its distribution in materials, temperature, density, volume or bulk density. The relationships between the resistivity, cond...

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the basic biomechanical properties of freeze-dried bovine pericardium (FDBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sterilization using gamma radiation on the basic biomechanical properties of freeze dried bovine pericardium (FDBP). Bovine pericardium was obtained from the Shah Alam Abattoir, Selangor. The pericardial sacs were cleaned, freeze-dried and irradiated with 25 kGy gamma rays at Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT), Bangi, Selangor. The biomechanical properties of one hundred strips (1 cm by 4 cm) each of the irradiated and non-irradiated of FDBP were measured respectively by instron tensometer (Instron 4301) using 5 m/min cross 'head speed. The strips thickness was measured by Mitutoyo thickness gauge. The mean values of the tensile strength (12.4±0.522 MPa/mm2), load at auto break (1 8.5±1.08 N/mm2), modulus of elasticity (stiffness) (62.69±2.48 MPa/mm2) and elongation rate (5 1 %) for non-irradiated FDBP were found to be significantly higher (P2, 9.3±4.2 N/mm2, 35.7±1.7 MPa/mm2 and 43% respectively. However, the thickness between the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). Although sterilization using gamma irradiation is effective against disease transmission by bioprosthesis, it can caused significant decreased in FDBP tensile strength, load at auto break, Yang modulus and elongation rate. (Author)

  10. Distribution of unique information as a basic marketing tool territory (on the materials of Lisva urban district, Perm territory)

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, O.; Iksanova, E.; Kuvardina, M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the distribution of unique information as a basic tool for marketing territory. The expediency of the limitations of the target audience informing potential tourists and investors. The effective means of propagation of the unique information, which entail the increase of the prestige of the territory on the materials Lisva city district.

  11. Determination of Basic Structure-Property Relations for Processing and Modeling in Advanced Nuclear Fuel: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project objective is to study structure-property relations in solid solutions of nitrides and oxides with surrogate elements to simulate the behavior of fuels of inert matrix fuels of interest to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), with emphasis in zirconium-based materials. Work with actual fuels will be carried out in parallel in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three key aspects will be explored: microstructure characterization through measurement of global texture evolution and local crystallographic variations using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD); determination of mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, quasi-static compression strength, and hardness, as functions of load and temperature, and, finally, development of structure-property relations to describe mechanical behavior of the fuels based on experimental data. Materials tested will be characterized to identify the mechanisms of deformation and fracture and their relationship to microstructure and its evolution. New aspects of this research are the inclusion of crystallographic information into the evaluation of fuel performance and the incorporation of statistical variations of microstructural variables into simplified models of mechanical behavior of fuels that account explicitly for these variations. The work is expected to provide insight into processing conditions leading to better fuel performance and structural reliability during manufacturing and service, as well as providing a simplified testing model for future fuel production

  12. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  13. Multi-scale modeling in heterogeneous material properties : An application to porous piezoelectric material

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Mitsuteru

    2012-01-01

    Many engineering problems involve different scale in space or time. The main interest for engineering designer is to find an optimum macroscopic response of structure, although the macroscopic response is strongly dependent on the microscopic material properties. The material itself has an individual microstructure, and the optimum material is fabricated by controlling the microstructure. Usually, the macroscopic material properties are measured by the experimental material tests. The asympto...

  14. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) starch: Basic physico-chemical characteristics and use as thermoplastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Contreras, K; Carrasco, C; Pozo, C; Bouza, R; Franco, C M L; Giraldo, D

    2014-11-01

    Starch isolated from non-edible Aesculus hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35 μm, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317 °C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing. PMID:25129797

  15. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  16. Materials Issues in Advanced Nuclear Systems: Executive Summary of DOE Basic Research Needs Workshop, 'Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  17. New elastoplastic materials with performance properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of high performance materials using EPDM rubber and polyethylene mixtures with a low cost, nonpolluting and minimum investment technology is studied. These new materials can be used for obtaining a lot of goods for the economy, sport and private life.

  18. Nuclear criticality safety basics for personnel working with nuclear fissionable materials. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE order 5480.1A, Chapter V, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. The ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Basic Program - Phase I'' is documented in this report. The revised program has been developed to clearly illustrate the concept of nuclear safety and to help the individual employee incorporate safe behavior in his daily work performance. Because of this, the subject of safety has been approached through its three fundamentals: scientific basis, engineering criteria, and administrative controls. Only basics of these three elements were presented. 5 refs

  19. Cold and warm atomic gas around the Perseus molecular cloud I: Basic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stanimirovic, Snezana; Lee, Min-Young; Heiles, Carl; Miller, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Using the Arecibo Observatory we have obtained neutral hydrogen (HI) absorption and emission spectral pairs in the direction of 26 background radio continuum sources in the vicinity of the Perseus molecular cloud. Strong absorption lines were detected in all cases allowing us to estimate spin temperature (T_s) and optical depth for 107 individual Gaussian components along these lines of sight. Basic properties of individual HI clouds (spin temperature, optical depth, and the column density of the cold and warm neutral medium, CNM and WNM) in and around Perseus are very similar to those found for random interstellar lines of sight sampled by the Millennium HI survey. This suggests that the neutral gas found in and around molecular clouds is not atypical. However, lines of sight in the vicinity of Perseus have on average a higher total HI column density and the CNM fraction, suggesting an enhanced amount of cold HI relative to an average interstellar field. Our estimated optical depth and spin temper...

  20. Lattice model of linear telechelic polymer melts. II. Influence of chain stiffness on basic thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for semiflexible linear telechelic melts, developed in Paper I, is applied to examine the influence of chain stiffness on the average degree of self-assembly and the basic thermodynamic properties of linear telechelic polymer melts. Our calculations imply that chain stiffness promotes self-assembly of linear telechelic polymer melts that assemble on cooling when either polymer volume fraction ϕ or temperature T is high, but opposes self-assembly when both ϕ and T are sufficiently low. This allows us to identify a boundary line in the ϕ-T plane that separates two regions of qualitatively different influence of chain stiffness on self-assembly. The enthalpy and entropy of self-assembly are usually treated as adjustable parameters in classical Flory-Huggins type theories for the equilibrium self-assembly of polymers, but they are demonstrated here to strongly depend on chain stiffness. Moreover, illustrative calculations for the dependence of the entropy density of linear telechelic polymer melts on chain stiffness demonstrate the importance of including semiflexibility within the LCT when exploring the nature of glass formation in models of linear telechelic polymer melts

  1. Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurig, D; Pendry, J B; Smith, D R

    2006-10-16

    Complex and interesting electromagnetic behavior can be found in spaces with non-flat topology. When considering the properties of an electromagnetic medium under an arbitrary coordinate transformation an alternative interpretation presents itself. The transformed material property tensors may be interpreted as a different set of material properties in a flat, Cartesian space. We describe the calculation of these material properties for coordinate transformations that describe spaces with spherical or cylindrical holes in them. The resulting material properties can then implement invisibility cloaks in flat space. We also describe a method for performing geometric ray tracing in these materials which are both inhomogeneous and anisotropic in their electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. PMID:19529371

  2. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  3. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  4. Studies on mechanical high-temperature properties of materials with sprayed coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Ljasenko, B.A.; Zygylev, O.V.

    1983-03-01

    The results of studies on the tensile strength, creep behaviour and durability in the temperature range from 1 700 to 2 400 K of surface-coated molybdenum samples for experimental times <=10h. are reported here. Monolayer coatings based on molybdenum disilicide and bilayer coatings consisting of a ground coating of molybdenum disilicide and a cover layer of glass and high-melting oxides are used as protective coatings. The ground coating is formed by a thermodiffusion process and the cover coating formed with the aid of a plasma spaying technique. A suggestion is made for optimizing the properties of the combination basic material/coating by taking as criterium the heat resistance and standard parameters for the properties of the basic material and the coating, together with their adhesion resistance.

  5. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.Tc superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB2, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  6. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C. (eds.) [and others

    2003-07-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  7. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  8. Faulting and jointing in sedimentary rocks. Basic concepts and impact on bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic aspects of joint and fault analysis in little disturbed sedimentary sequences are discussed, with reference to recent literature and, particularly, to relevant experience from structural reservoir modelling in the oil industry. Jointing is relatively simple, since joints are, by definition, tectonic fractures (non-cohesive partings) on which no displacement has taken place. In contrast, faults - by definition, fractures on which significant slip has taken place - are more localized and irregular in distribution, more variable in orientation, and more complicated to parametrize because of the practical difficulties of defining the slip vector. Small faults and micro-faults can be thought of as forming an interconnected network in zones adjacent to large faults, and in other areas of strain concentration due to displacement variations and/or slip incompatibilities. These zones surround rock volumes of low fracture intensity. The experience gained from the geomechanical and geo-hydraulic modelling of hydrocarbon reservoirs will be relevant to radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous rocks, keeping in mind the long time scale and the special characteristics of clay-rich material. (author)

  9. High-temperature superconductors: Fundamental properties and novel materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings are a peer refereed, published account of Symposium M, High Temperature Superconductor Fundamental Properties and Novel Materials Processing, held at the November 29--December 2, 1989 meeting of the Materials Research Society in Boston, Massachusetts. The papers are organized under the following headings: Theory, crystal chemistry and thermodynamic properties; Synthesis and characterization: bulk powder, Synthesis and characterization: films and superlattices; Microstructural studies, Critical currents and flux dynamics; Physical properties; Applications-oriented studies

  10. Adsorption Properties of Chalk Reservoir Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis

    Understanding adsorption energetics and wetting properties of calcium carbonate surfaces is essential for developing remediation strategies for aquifers, improving oil recovery, minimising risk in CO2 storage and optimising industrial processes. This PhD was focussed on comparing the vapour....../gas adsorption properties of synthetic calcium carbonate phases (calcite, vaterite and aragonite) with chalk, which is composed of biogenic calcite (>98%). In combination with data from nanotechniques, the results demonstrate the complexity of chalk behavior and the role of nanoscale clay particles. The results...

  11. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    electrochemical reactions take place at elevated temperatures from 300 and up to 1000 C. This has as consequence that the region around the threephase- boundary (TPB), where the electron conducting electrode, the electrolyte and the gas phase reactants meet, is the region where the electrochemical processes take...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... materials in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the...

  12. Standard test method for determining the superplastic properties of metallic sheet materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the procedure for determining the superplastic forming properties (SPF) of a metallic sheet material. It includes tests both for the basic SPF properties and also for derived SPF properties. The test for basic properties encompasses effects due to strain hardening or softening. 1.2 This test method covers sheet materials with thicknesses of at least 0.5 mm but not greater than 6 mm. It characterizes the material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition. Note 1—Most industrial applications of superplastic forming involve a multi-axial stress condition in a sheet; however it is more convenient to characterize a material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition. Tests should be performed in different orientations to the rolling direction of the sheet to ascertain initial anisotropy. 1.3 This method has been used successfully between strain rates of 10-5 to 10-1 per second. 1.4 This method has been used successfully on Aluminum and Titanium alloys. The use of the method wi...

  13. Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles of Antiferromagnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bødker, Franz;

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Temperature series of Mossbauer spectra of non-interacting, superparamagnetic hematite nanoparticles were fitted by use of the Blume-Tjon relaxation model. It has been fo...

  14. Strength properties and hydraulic properties of materials for monolithic barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, V.F.; Krikunenko, V.K.; Omel' chenko, A.S.; Denisova, G.F.

    1981-04-01

    This paper discusses investigations into physical and mechanical properties of gypsum cements used in underground black coal mines for construction of fire burners. Dependence of mechanical gypsum cement properties on proportion of water, gypsum and cement is analyzed. A formula for calculation of uniaxial compressive strength depending on water proportion is given. It is stated that relation between compressive strength and shear strength of gypsum cement is of major importance for investigations of fire barrier strength. The test stand used for static investigations of fire barrier models made of gypsum cement is described. Its design is given in a scheme. The proposed formulae permit the mechanical and physical properties of gypsum cements to be forecast on the basis of proportion of water, gypsum and cements in the mixture transported hydraulically to a fire zone. (In Russian)

  15. Prediction of the influence of material properties on fuel rod behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing interest on the influence of materials properties on fuel rod behaviour under constant power, power ramping and load-following operation of a nuclear power plant. Analytical tools are required in order to determine the effect of the modification of given material properties, as well as to analyze actual irradiation behaviour and PIE results. CNEA has developed the BACO Code for the analysis of fuel rod behaviour under irradiation. Its modular structure and detailed coupling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation induced phenomena makes it an interesting tool for the prediction of the influence of material properties on the fuel rod performance and integrity. In this paper, we present a study of the effect of some material properties - i.e. fuel porosity, densification, Zircaloy mechanical properties and anisotropy, among others - on fuel rod behaviour. The study covers constant power, and power ramping. Power ramping due to fuel reshuffling in HWRs is specially analyzed, as well as the influence of ramp velocity and pre-conditioning on the fuel rod integrity. A brief discussion is included regarding the interrelation between basic fuel design, material properties, operating conditions and fuel integrity. (author)

  16. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton; Taylor, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here to...... cover the design of a structure and associated material properties for a system composed of a generic form of nonlinear softening material. As was established in the earlier study on design with linear materials, the formulation for combined 'material and structure' design with softening materials can...... be expressed as a convex problem. However, the optimal distribution of material properties predicted in the nonlinear problem depends on the magnitude of load, in contrast to the case with linear material. Computational solutions are presented for several example problems, showing how the optimal...

  17. Structural properties of porous materials and powders used in different fields of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Volfkovich, Yury Mironovich; Bagotsky, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and concise description of most important aspects of experimental and theoretical investigations of porous materials and powders, with the use and application of these materials in different fields of science, technology, national economy and environment. It allows the reader to understand the basic regularities of heat and mass transfer and adsorption occurring in qualitatively different porous materials and products, and allows the reader to optimize the functional properties of porous and powdered products and materials. Written in an straightforward and transparent manner, this book is accessible to both experts and those without specialist knowledge, and it is further elucidated by drawings, schemes and photographs. Porous materials and powders with different pore sizes are used in many areas of industry, geology, agriculture and science. These areas include (i) a variety of devices and supplies; (ii) thermal insulation and building materials; (iii) oil-bearing geologic...

  18. Polymer Basics: Classroom Activities Manipulating Paper Clips to Introduce the Structures and Properties of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Yunusa

    2014-01-01

    A simple and effective hands-on classroom activity designed to illustrate basic polymer concepts is presented. In this activity, students build primary structures of homopolymers and different arrangements of monomers in copolymer using paper clips as monomers. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of polymer structures,…

  19. Synthesis and Catalytic Performance of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous Material Having Basic Nanospace

    OpenAIRE

    Shishido, Tetsuya; Kawaguchi, Toru; Iwashige, Tomohito; Teramura, Kentaro; Hitomi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Tsunehiro

    2010-01-01

    Basic nanospace was synthesized by the homogeneous modification of FSM-16 with 3-(triethoxysilyl)pyridine, which is a rigid substrate without an alkyl chain as linker. Aldol condensation of butanal gave the corresponding dimer in high yields over 3-(triethoxysilyl)pyridine-modified FSM-16. A copper-pyridine complex was immobilized within the interior of FSM-16 using the modified pyridyl group as a ligand and the oxidative coupling polymerization of 2,5-dimethylphenol proceeded with high regio...

  20. Dissolution and electrochemical properties of molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) in basic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution and electrochemical properties of molybdenum carbide were investigated using a number of electrochemical techniques, including general corrosion tests (GCT), linear voltammetry (LV), potential controlled electrolysis (PCE) and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM), in basic media (0.5-4 M NaOH and 1 M NaHCO3/Na2CO3, pH 9.1-11.3). It was shown that the Mo2C corrosion potential (Ecorr) shifted towards negative values from -0.39 to -0.96 V/SCE with an increase of the OH- concentration and did not depend on the CO32- concentration in the electrolyte. LV measurements in carbonate buffer (pH 9.2), evidenced three potential regions: passivation from Ecorr to -0.2 V/SCE, pseudopassivation from -0.25 to 0 V/SCE and anodic dissolution (transpassivation) at E > 0.1 V/SCE. The potentials delimiting the mentioned regions decreased with the increase of the OH- concentration, becoming undistinguished in 2 M NaOH. The Mo2C dissolution rate (kdiss) in the transpassive state was estimated using LV data. In 4 M NaOH at -0.1 V/SCE, kdiss reached 430 mg cm-2h-1 and decreased with the decrease of the OH- concentration and the electrolysis potential. The Mo2C dissolution current efficiency varied between 12 and 13Fmol-1 Mo2C, proving the formation of the intermediate products of a carbon oxidative degradation during PCE. The presence of C2O42- and non-identified aromatic compounds in the electrolytes after Mo2C dissolution was ascertained, using capillary zone electrophoresis. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) confirmed the formation of a pseudopassive film and demonstrated the increase of its thickness with the increase of the applied potential. The effect of the presence of Mo2C on the irradiated UC fuel dissolution rate and the mechanisms involved are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Basic properties of sintering dust from iron and steel plant and potassium recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Zhan; Zhancheng Guo

    2013-01-01

    With the production of crude steel,China produces several million tons of sintering dusts which contain a great deal of valuable metals such as,K,Na,Zn,Pb.If discharged directly without adequate treatment,these elements can lead to adverse effects on the environment.Therefore,it is very necessary to determine how to separate these elements from the dust before discharge.Several physical and chemical detection methods were used to study the basic properties of sintering dust.At the same time,preliminary experiments on the recovery of the potassium resources from the sintering dust were carried out.The mean particle size of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust determined by a laser granulometer was 41.468 μm.Multi-point BET and single-point BET analysis showed that the surface area of the ESP dust was 2.697 m2/g.XRD measurements detected the following phases in the ESP dust:Fe2O3,Fe3O4,KC1 and NaC1,and Fe2O3,Fe3O4 and SiO2 in the water-washed dust.SEM-EDS results proved that in the ESP dust,K mostly existed in the form of KC1 particles without being coated.Leaching experiments showed that the KC1 in the ESP dust could be separated and recovered by water leaching and fractional crystallization.Through the recovery experiments,the yield of K-Na vaporized crystalline salt was 18.56%,in which the mass fractions of KCI,NaC1,CaSO4 and K2SO4 were about 61.03%,13.58%,14.03% and 9.97%,respectively.This process is technically viable and considerable in economic benefit.There was almost no secondary pollution produced in the whole recovery process.

  2. Cold and warm atomic gas around the Perseus molecular cloud. I. Basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Arecibo Observatory, we have obtained neutral hydrogen (HI) absorption and emission spectral pairs in the direction of 26 background radio continuum sources in the vicinity of the Perseus molecular cloud. Strong absorption lines were detected in all cases, allowing us to estimate spin temperature (Ts ) and optical depth for 107 individual Gaussian components along these lines of sight. Basic properties of individual H I clouds (spin temperature, optical depth, and the column density of the cold and warm neutral medium (CNM and WNM), respectively) in and around Perseus are very similar to those found for random interstellar lines of sight sampled by the Millennium H I survey. This suggests that the neutral gas found in and around molecular clouds is not atypical. However, lines of sight in the vicinity of Perseus have, on average, a higher total H I column density and the CNM fraction, suggesting an enhanced amount of cold H I relative to an average interstellar field. Our estimated optical depth and spin temperature are in stark contrast with the recent attempt at using Planck data to estimate properties of the optically thick H I. Only ∼15% of lines of sight in our study have a column density weighted average spin temperature lower than 50 K, in comparison with ≳ 85% of Planck's sky coverage. The observed CNM fraction is inversely proportional to the optical depth weighted average spin temperature, in excellent agreement with the recent numerical simulations by Kim et al. While the CNM fraction is, on average, higher around Perseus relative to a random interstellar field, it is generally low, between 10%-50%. This suggests that extended WNM envelopes around molecular clouds and/or significant mixing of CNM and WNM throughout molecular clouds are present and should be considered in the models of molecule and star formation. Our detailed comparison of H I absorption with CO emission spectra shows that only 3 of the 26 directions are clear

  3. Size-Dependent Materials Properties Toward a Universal Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisbiers G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the lack of experimental values concerning some material properties at the nanoscale, it is interesting to evaluate this theoretically. Through a “top–down” approach, a universal equation is developed here which is particularly helpful when experiments are difficult to lead on a specific material property. It only requires the knowledge of the surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterial, its size as well as the statistic (Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein followed by the particles involved in the considered material property. Comparison between different existing theoretical models and the proposed equation is done.

  4. Tension mechanical properties of recycled glass-epoxy composite material

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Jelena M.; Ljubić Darko M.; Stamenović Marina R.; Dimić Ivana D.; Putić Slaviša S.

    2012-01-01

    The significance of composite materials and their applications are mainly due to their good properties. This imposes the need for their recycling, thus extending their lifetime. Once used composite material will be disposed as a waste at the end of it service life. After recycling, this kind of waste can be used as raw materials for the production of same material, which raises their applicability. This indicates a great importance of recycling as a method of the renowal of composite ma...

  5. Properties of Sealing Materials in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köser, Claus

    years collected data on water chemistry from groundwater wells throughout the country. Based on these data it has been found that the levels of pesticides and their degradation products have been exceeded in many cases. The content of pesticides and degradation products can be the results of leaky...... pellets as sealing material in groundwater wells. The way and the pattern, in which bentonite pellets are deposited, have been shown to have an effect on the swelling pressure of the bentonite seal. During the transport phase of pellets from the terrain to a given sedimentation depth, a sorting process...... in this Ph.D. thesis, a number of recommendations has been offered; i) a change regarding the production of pellets and ii) how sealing material must be treated in the actual construction of groundwater wells....

  6. Pyroelectric materials, their properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the pyroelectric effect and its measurement, pyroelectric materials are dealt with. Three groups of compounds such as single crystals, ceramics, and polymers are described. The values of pyroelectric coefficients, dielectric constants and Curie temperatures are given. The first group of materials contains triglycine salts and their derivatives, lithium salts and other inorganic salts, especially niobates. The second group contains the ceramics lead zirconate titanate (PZT), barium titanate, and lanthanum-doped PZT. In the polymer group especially polyvinylidene fluoride has been treated. The use of pyroelectric detectors can be found in a wide variety of applications and few of these have been mentioned such as infrared thermal imaging, non-contact infrared temperature sensing, pollution monitoring, intruder alarms, and laser diagnostics

  7. Mapping the fracture properties of engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Mike

    2013-09-01

    Among Alan Cottrell's many extraordinary talents was that of an inspirational teacher. He had a masterful ability to explain the underlying physics of the Science of Materials and at the same time to simplify and to present the big picture. His teaching-texts live on, still among the clearest and most insightful expositions of the subject. This paper surveys part of one of the fields to which he contributed so much - Fracture - with education and the big picture in mind.

  8. Inverse estimation of properties for charring material using a hybrid genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire characteristics can be analyzed more realistically by using more accurate material properties related to the fire dynamics and one way to acquire these fire properties is to use one of the inverse property estimation techniques. In this study an optimization algorithm which is frequently applied for the inverse heat transfer problems is selected to demonstrate the procedure of obtaining fire properties of a solid charring material with relatively simple chemical structure. Thermal decomposition is occurred at the surface of the test plate by receiving the radiative energy from external heat sources and in this process the heat transfer through the test plate can be simplified by an unsteady one dimensional problem. The input parameters for the analyses are the surface temperature and mass loss rate of the char plate which are determined from the actual experiment of from the unsteady one-dimensional analysis with a given set of eight properties. The performance of hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is compare with a basic genetic algorithm (GA) in order to examine its performance. This comparison is carried out for the inverse property problem of estimating the fire properties related to the reaction pyrolysis of some relatively simple materials; redwood and red oak. Results show that the hybrid genetic algorithm has better performance in estimating the eight pyrolysis properties than the genetic algorithm

  9. Model criterion and basic principles of construction bank data abrasive materials durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Вишневський

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available  The generalized model is created and the criterion of an abrasive wear of surfaces of materials is determined at not hard-mounted corpuscles. The principle of construction of a data bank of an abrasive wear resistance of materials of friction units is determined. 

  10. Scholar-activating teaching materials for quantum physics. Pt. 2. Basic facts of quantum physics and heuristic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally in the center of interest on quantum physics referring to schools the question lies, whether electrons and photons are now particles or waves, a question, which is often characterized by the phrase ''wave-particle dualism'', which notoriously not exists in its original meaning. Against that by the author - basing on important preparatory works of Kueblbeck and Mueller - a new concept for the treatment of quantum physics for the school was proposed, which puts ''basic facts'' in the foreground, comparable with the Kueblbeck-Mueller ''characteristic features''. The ''basic facts'' are similar to axioms of quantum physics, by means of which a large number of experiments and phenomena can be ''explained'' at least qualitatively - in a heuristic way -. Instead of the so-called ''wave-particle dualism'' here uncertainty and complementarity are put in the foreground. The new concept is in the Internet under http://www.forphys.de extensively presented with many further materials. In the partial volumes of this publication manifold and carefully elaborated teaching materials are presented, by means of which scholars can get themselves the partial set of quantum physics referring to schools by different methods like learn at stations, short referates, Internet research, group puzzle, the query-sheet or the card-index method etc. In the present 2. part materials for the ''basic facts'' of quantum physics are prepared, by which also modern experiments can be interpreted. Here deals it with the getting of knowledge and application of the ''basic Facts''. This pursues also by real scholar experiments, simulations and analogy tests. The scholars obtain so more simply than generally a deeper insight in quantum physics.

  11. Correlating morphology to macroscopic properties of disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current models of material properties are largely empirical, without sound theoretical connections to material microstructure. In the absence of any general theory, mechanical properties (elasticity, fracture toughness) and transport properties (thermal and electrical conductivity, permeability and diffusivity) of solids are usually correlated to the fraction of species by a simple empirical equation. Most experimental and theoretical work has been devoted to establishing the phenomenological correlation coefficients for different classes of materials. A general model for microstructure was recently proposed by Berk, based on level cuts of a Gaussian Random Field (GRF) with arbitrary spectral density. The freedom in specifying the parameters of the model allows the modelling of physical materials with diverse morphological characteristics. The authors show that the model qualitatively accounts for the principal features of a wider variety of disordered materials including geological media, membranes, polymer blends, ceramics and foams. Correlation functions for the model microstructure and the mechanical and conductive properties of the materials are derived. Excellent agreement with experimentally measured properties of disordered solids is obtained. Simple transport properties (thermal and electrical conductivity, permeability and diffusivity) have been simulated on parallel supercomputers and in all cases lie between the (sometimes mutually exclusive) bounds. Furthermore, the upper bound has been shown to have good predictive power. This has allowed the theoretical estimation of elastic properties: a result which is beyond current simulation techniques. 15 refs., 4 figs

  12. Basic study on intelligent materialization of glass; Glass no intelligent ko zairyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-31

    This is the report No. 98 issued by the Inorganic Material Research Institute. An intelligent material is a substance and/or material which responds intelligently to environmental conditions and exhibits functions. One of the features of amorphous materials including amorphous glass is a large freedom in chemical composition. These materials maintain order in short distance, but have as a whole the turbulent and specific atom orientation. Therefore, high tolerability in selecting the composition, and diverse synthesizing methods are available. A wide range of utilization may be conceived, such as introduction of the state of electrons having different valences in a structure, and the diverse chemical combinations. Patterns of existence of polyhedrons having different orientations, and how they are connected correlate closely with an external environment. Intelligent materials have high freedom against change in the external environment and are suitable to exhibit intelligent functions. Setting heat and light as the external conditions, attempts have been made on search and creation of intelligent materials based on state change induced by interactions between the two factors. Fundamental studies have been made on synthesis of different environment responding glasses and films, and on factors and phenomena for exhibition of the intelligence. 62 refs., 91 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. A preliminary irradiation test of the new ceramics materials for the innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovative basic research concerns the association of basic science and technology with high temperature irradiation environments. The direction of research involves novel and bold challenges both in nuclear and non-nuclear fields. The innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering is one of the key subjects using the HTTR as well as other research reactors. JAERI organized the HTTR Utilization Research Committee in 1993 to promote basic research. The HTTR Utilization Committee consists of three subcommittees in the field of new materials development, fusion technology research and high-temperature in-core instrumentation development. As the beginning of the programme, a maximum of 66 subjects were proposed in a wide variety of research fields. Through helpful and critical comments and discussion by the committee, eight subjects have finally been selected for a preliminary test using out-of-pile facilities and currently available irradiation facilities such as accelerators, research and testing reactors. The purpose of the preliminary test using JMTR is to examine and demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility and effectiveness of these subjects with regard to the HTTR. The aim of this paper is to describe the preliminary irradiated test conditions such as irradiated fluence, irradiated temperature and installed specimen on the capsules, and also to show the specifications and performances of the apparatus for Post/Ante Irradiation Experiment. (author)

  14. Basic properties of transformation remanent magnetization due to the Verwey transition of magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Mochizuki, N.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2010-12-01

    Recent explorations of Mars and Moon have observed many magnetic anomalies which probably recorded ancient magnetic fields. Many authors have pointed out a correlation between magnetic anomaly patterns and geological features, especially impact craters (e.g. Acuna et al., 1999; Mitchell et al., 2007). Although impact-origin magnetic signatures can give key information of the planetary dynamo evolution, details of shock remanent magnetization (SRM) acquisition mechanisms have not been revealed yet. One of the plausible mechanisms of SRM is transformation remanent magnetization (TrRM). Nagata et al. (1963) found that magnetite acquire remanence by heating through the Verwey transition in a magnetic field (inverse thermoremanent magnetization, ITRM). Ozima et al. (1963) measured field dependence of the intensity of ITRM which was produced by warming from 123 K to room temperature. Dunlop (2006, 2007) studied intensity and stability of TrRM as a function of grain size. However, there have been only a few systematic studies of TrRM concerning magnetic field record. Focusing on the Verwey transition, we have conducted TrRM experiments to examine basic magnetic properties of parallelism, proportionality and stability. In the experiment, natural rock samples containing multi-domain (MD) magnetite grains and crushed magnetite samples were used. They were cooled down from room temperature to a temperature lower than the Verwey transition temperature (Tv) and then warmed back to room temperature in a weak DC field or zero-filed. In the present study, three types of transformation remanences are defined: (1) transformation remanent magnetization (TrRM) which is acquired by cooling and warming in a constant DC field, (2) transformation warming remanent magnetization (TrWRM) which is acquired by cooling in zero field and warming in a DC field, and (3) transformation cooling remanent magnetization (TrCRM) which is acquired by cooling in a DC field and warming in zero field. We

  15. Transport properties of colossal magnetoresistive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, K A

    2002-01-01

    A microwave technique was developed in order to test the validity of the hypothesis that the microwave transport of polycrystalline, optimally doped, colossal magnetoresistive materials was dominated by intragranular material. The microwave surface resistance at 9GHz was compared with dc resistivity and magnetisation to study the influence of yttrium doping on the grain boundary regions of bulk polycrystalline samples of La sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub - sub x Y sub x Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 MnO sub 3. It was found that, within the grains, the addition of yttrium causes the activation energy above T sub p to increase. A phenomenological model was introduced to explain the data in terms of the difference in structure between the grain and grain boundary regions. The technique was also used to study the influence of deoxygenation on the grain boundary regions of bulk, polycrystalline, La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3. For samples interconnected porosity, low temperature (600 deg C), short a...

  16. Spectroscopic properties of rare earths in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Jürgen; Osgood, R; Warlimont, Hans; Liu, Guokui; Jacquier, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at researchers and graduate students, this book provides up-to-date information for understanding electronic interactions that impact the optical properties of rare earth ions in solids. Its goal is to establish a connection between fundamental principles and the materials properties of rare-earth activated luminescent and laser optical materials. The theoretical survey and introduction to spectroscopic properties include electronic energy level structure, intensities of optical transitions, ion-phonon interactions, line broadening, and energy transfer and up-conversion. An important aspect of the book lies in its deep and detailed discussions on materials properties and the potential of new applications such as optical storage, information processing, nanophotonics, and molecular probes that have been identified in recent experimental studies. This volume will be a valuable reference book on advanced topics of rare earth spectroscopy and materials science.

  17. Preparation and Properties of Friction Materials by Using Two Kinds of Fibrous Industrial Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shang-yue; HU Shan; LI Zhen; ZHANG De; LIU Xin-hai; SONG Xu-bo

    2003-01-01

    The basic technology and properties of the brake blocks made of modified needle-like wollastonite and fibrous sepiolite were intensively researched.The impact strengthes and fixed velocity friction of the brake blocks prepared by different recipes were tested. The testing results show that it is feasible for needle-like wollastonite and fibrous sepiolite to take the place of asbestos as the reinforced materials of friction materials.The braking effect of the brake blocks is the best when the ratio of the needle-like wollastonite to the fibrous sepiolite was 1∶6.

  18. Basic criteria in choosing materials for the equipment of NPP with WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General principles of materials selection for NPP equipment based on operational conditions are reported. Main attention is given to the choice of criteria which are decisive for components of water-water power reactors. In this case the decisive factors are as follows: the provision of strength in general, resistance to brittle fracture, corrosion resistance. All materials used for manufacture of nuclear power plants should be certified in accordance with mentioned requirements

  19. VALIDATED PROTOCOLS FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME FRUIT SPECIES TO PRODUCE PRE-BASIC PLANT MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Isac; Mihail Coman

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining virus free fruit planting material, conservation and utilization for large scale production of certified fruit trees, was and is still an objective demand. It knows already that significant cultural performances achieved by fruit trees, are direct related to the biological value of planting material used. Often it is necessary to introduce rapidly in culture new varieties and, this it is possible through tissue culture. Tissue culture is commonly called "cloning" or "micropropagatio...

  20. Material properties of concentrated pectin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, Gabor; MacDougall, Alistair J; Smith, Andrew C; Ring, Stephen G

    2004-05-17

    We have examined the mechanical behaviour of different types of pectin at high concentrations (> 30% w/w), relevant to the behaviour of pectin in the plant cell wall, and as a film-forming agent. Mechanical properties were examined as a function of counterion type (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), concentration and extent of hydration. Hydration was controlled in an osmotic stress experiment where pectin films were exposed to concentrated polyethylene glycol [PEG] solutions of known osmotic pressure. We investigated the mechanical behaviour under simple extension. The results show that the swelling and stiffness of the films are strongly dependent on pectin source and ionic environment. At a fixed osmotic stress, both Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) counterions reduce swelling and increase the stiffness of the film. PMID:15113669

  1. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinea, M. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)], E-mail: m.voinea@unitbv.ro; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)

    2008-08-25

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO{sub x} cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO{sub x} was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components.

  2. MD-portal Materials Database: Effective Materials Property Information Management in Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeonggeun; Kil, Soyeon; Kwon, Junhyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The collective properties of the nuclear materials are defined as standard industrial codes such as ASME codes. While in service, the materials are aged and degraded, and the initial properties are changed according to the operating environments. These changes are a matter of substantial concern of the operators, regulators, and researchers in nuclear fields. Hence, the material property database considering the degradation is required, and the successful management and use of material property information must be responsive to the continuing changes and increasing complexity in nuclear engineering materials. Recently, the nuclear materials division in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) launched a comprehensive portal website for nuclear material information, which is known as the MD-portal. The MD-portal contains various technical documents on the degradation and development of nuclear materials. Additionally, the nuclear materials database (MatDB) is incorporated in it. The MatDB covers the mechanical properties of various nuclear structural materials used as the components: a reactor pressure vessel, steam generator, and primary and secondary piping. In this study, we introduced the MD-portal MatDB briefly, and showed an application of the MatDB to the real case of material degradations in NPPs.

  3. MD-portal Materials Database: Effective Materials Property Information Management in Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective properties of the nuclear materials are defined as standard industrial codes such as ASME codes. While in service, the materials are aged and degraded, and the initial properties are changed according to the operating environments. These changes are a matter of substantial concern of the operators, regulators, and researchers in nuclear fields. Hence, the material property database considering the degradation is required, and the successful management and use of material property information must be responsive to the continuing changes and increasing complexity in nuclear engineering materials. Recently, the nuclear materials division in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) launched a comprehensive portal website for nuclear material information, which is known as the MD-portal. The MD-portal contains various technical documents on the degradation and development of nuclear materials. Additionally, the nuclear materials database (MatDB) is incorporated in it. The MatDB covers the mechanical properties of various nuclear structural materials used as the components: a reactor pressure vessel, steam generator, and primary and secondary piping. In this study, we introduced the MD-portal MatDB briefly, and showed an application of the MatDB to the real case of material degradations in NPPs

  4. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  5. Cellular and Porous Materials Thermal Properties Simulation and Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; de Lemos, Marcelo J S

    2008-01-01

    Providing the reader with a solid understanding of the fundamentals as well as an awareness of recent advances in properties and applications of cellular and porous materials, this handbook and ready reference covers all important analytical and numerical methods for characterizing and predicting thermal properties. In so doing it directly addresses the special characteristics of foam-like and hole-riddled materials, combining theoretical and experimental aspects for characterization purposes.

  6. Structure and transport properties in organized polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cheiellini, E

    1998-01-01

    This multi-authored book includes selected contributions reviewing the results achieved in the synthesis and characterization of organized polymeric materials. The focus is on competitive materials with liquid crystalline or electroconductive properties. The fine tuning of the properties offered by advanced chemical synthesis has been investigated by a large number of state-of-the-art techniques, including both microscopic (ESR, NMR, dielectrometry, fluorescence, IR, Raman spectroscopy) and macroscopic (calorimetric, mechanical) methodologies. The book also provides an updated coverage of the

  7. Part and material properties in selective laser melting of metals

    OpenAIRE

    Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Badrossamay, Mohsen; Yasa, Evren; Deckers, Jan; Thijs, Lore; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Recent technical improvements of additive manufacturing (AM) have shifted the application of these processes from prototyping to the production of end-use parts either as customised or series. Selective laser melting (SLM) holds a special place within the variety of AM processes due to the flexibility of materials being processed, and the capability to create functional components having mechanical properties comparable to those properties of bulk materials. The process, however, is character...

  8. Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

  9. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung-Woo; Young-Sun JEONG

    2014-01-01

    Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acous...

  10. Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors Materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Stephen; O'Neill, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of t...

  11. Solder joint technology materials, properties, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, King-Ning

    2007-01-01

    Solder joints are ubiquitous in electronic consumer products. The European Union has a directive to ban the use of Pb-based solders in these products on July 1st, 2006. There is an urgent need for an increase in the research and development of Pb-free solders in electronic manufacturing. For example, spontaneous Sn whisker growth and electromigration induced failure in solder joints are serious issues. These reliability issues are quite complicated due to the combined effect of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. To improve solder joint reliability, the science of solder joint behavior under various driving forces must be understood. In this book, the advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints are emphasized and methods to prevent these reliability problems are discussed.

  12. Basic properties of somatosensory-evoked responses in the dorsal hippocampus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellistri, Elisa; Aguilar, Juan; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; Foffani, Guglielmo; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2013-05-15

    The hippocampus is a pivotal structure for episodic memory function. This ability relies on the possibility of integrating different features of sensory stimuli with the spatio-temporal context in which they occur. While recent studies now suggest that somatosensory information is already processed by the hippocampus, the basic mechanisms still remain unexplored. Here, we used electrical stimulation of the paws, the whisker pad or the medial lemniscus to probe the somatosensory pathway to the hippocampus in the anaesthetized rat, and multisite electrodes, in combination with tetrode and intracellular recordings, to look at the properties of somatosensory hippocampal responses. We found that peripheral and lemniscal stimulation elicited small local field potential responses in the dorsal hippocampus about 35-40 ms post-stimulus. Current source density analysis established the local nature of these responses, revealing associated synaptic sinks that were consistently confined to the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG), with less regular activation of the CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM). A delayed (40-45 ms), potentially active, current source that outlasted the SLM sink was present in about 50% cases around the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Somatosensory stimulation resulted in multi-unit firing increases in the majority of DG responses (79%), whereas multi-unit firing suppression was observed in the majority of CA1 responses (62%). Tetrode and intracellular recordings of individual cells confirmed different firing modulation in the DG and the CA1 region, and verified the active nature of both the early ML sink and delayed somatic CA1 source. Hippocampal responses to somatosensory stimuli were dependent on fluctuations in the strength and composition of synaptic inputs due to changes of the ongoing local (hippocampal) and distant (cortical) state. We conclude that somatosensory signals reach the hippocampus mainly from layer II entorhinal cortex to

  13. MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

    2010-12-13

    MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

  14. Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Basic Program and Option 2: Fundamental Processes and Material Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassowski, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Propellants, chamber materials, and processes for fabrication of small high performance radiation cooled liquid rocket engines were evaluated to determine candidates for eventual demonstration in flight-type thrusters. Both storable and cryogenic propellant systems were considered. The storable propellant systems chosen for further study were nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with either hydrazine or monomethylhydrazine as fuel. The cryogenic propellants chosen were oxygen with either hydrogen or methane as fuel. Chamber material candidates were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rhenium protected from oxidation by CVD iridium for the chamber hot section, and film cooled wrought platinum-rhodium or regeneratively cooled stainless steel for the front end section exposed to partially reacted propellants. Laser diagnostics of the combustion products near the hot chamber surface and measurements at the surface layer were performed in a collaborative program at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. The Material Sample Test Apparatus, a laboratory system to simulate the combustion environment in terms of gas and material temperature, composition, and pressure up to 6 Atm, was developed for these studies. Rocket engine simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the materials under simulated combustor flow conditions, in the diagnostic test chamber. These tests used the exhaust species measurement system, a device developed to monitor optically species composition and concentration in the chamber and exhaust by emission and absorption measurements.

  15. Functional Nanostructured Materials: Synthetic Aspects and Properties Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fei

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, the synthesis of functional nanostructured materials including stimuli responsive nanomat composites, nanoparticles and biodegradable polyester nanofibers are presented. Further the novel properties such as controlled water absorption/desorption, fast thermo responsive properties and potential applications in biomedical and microelectronic fields were investigated. In chapter 4.1, photoresponsive sup...

  16. Materials thermal and thermoradiative properties/characterization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Ho, C. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Reliable properties data on well characterized materials are necessary for design of experiments and interpretation of experimental results. The activities of CINDAS to provide data bases and predict properties are discussed. An understanding of emissivity behavior is important in order to select appropriate methods for non-contact temperature determination. Related technical issues are identified and recommendations are offered.

  17. Identification of effective properties of particle reinforced composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kushnevsky, V.; Morachkovsky, O.; Altenbach, H.

    1998-01-01

    For the determination of effective elastic properties an energy averaging procedure has been used for particle reinforced composite materials. This procedure is based on finite element calculations of the deformation energy of a characteristic volume element. The proposed approach allows the determination of effective properties of particle reinforced composite with acceptable precision. The calculated effective properties of the composite are found in range between upper and lower Hashin-Sht...

  18. Elastic properties of various ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio of various ceramics have been investigated at room temperature and compared with data from the literature. The ceramic materials investigated are Al2O3, Al2O3-ZrO2, MgAl2O4, LiAlO2, Li2SiO3, Li4SiO4, UO2, AlN, SiC, B4C, TiC, and TiB2. The dependence of the elastic moduli on porosity and temperature have been reviewed. Measurements were also performed on samples of Al2O3, AlN, and SiC, which had been irradiated to maximum neutron fluences of 1.6.1026 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV) at different temperatures. The Young's modulus is nearly unaffected at fluences up to about 4.1024 n/m2. However, it decreases with increasing neutron fluence and seems to reach a saturation value depending upon the irradiation temperature. The reduction of the Young's modulus is lowest in SiC. (orig.)

  19. Mathematical Modeling and Simulations of Phase Change Materials in Basic Orthogonal Coordinate Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, Daniel; Dutil, Yvan; Ben Salah, Nizar; Lassue, Stephane

    2010-09-15

    Energy storage components improve the energy efficiency of systems by reducing the mismatch between supply and demand. Phase change materials are attractive since they provide a high energy storage density at constant temperatures. Nevertheless, the incorporation of such materials in a particular application often calls for numerical analyses due to the non-linear nature of the problem. The review of the mathematical models will include selected results to enable one to start his/her research with an exhaustive overview of the subject. This overview also stresses the need to match experimental investigations with recent numerical analyses.

  20. Methods for nuclear material control used in the basic production of a typical radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for destructive and non-destructive assay of the component and isotopic composition of nuclear materials are described, namely gravimetric, titrimetric, coulometric, mass spectrometry, as well as those based on registration of neutron and γ radiations. Their metrologic characteristics are described. The techniques described are suggested to be used for nuclear material (NM) control and accounting purposes at the model radiochemical plant for processing irradiated fuel subassemblies from power reactors. The measurement control program is also described. This program is intended for the measurement quality assurance in the framework of NM control and accountancy system

  1. Material Properties for Fiber-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Rouanet, Stephane; Moses, John; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramic fiber-reinforced silica aerogels are novel materials for high performance insulation, including thermal protection materials. Experimental data are presented for the thermal and mechanical properties, showing the trends exhibited over a range of fiber loadings and silica aerogel densities. Test results are compared to that of unreinforced bulk aerogels.

  2. The design and modeling of periodic materials with novel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jonathan Bernard

    Cellular materials are ubiquitous in our world being found in natural and engineered systems as structural materials, sound and energy absorbers, heat insulators and more. Stochastic foams made of polymers, metals and even ceramics find wide use due to their novel properties when compared to monolithic materials. Properties of these so called hybrid materials, those that combine materials or materials and space, are derived from the localization of thermomechanical stresses and strains on the mesoscale as a function of cell topology. The effects of localization can only be generalized in stochastic materials arising from their inherent potential complexity, possessing variations in local chemistry, microstructural inhomogeneity and topological variations. Ordered cellular materials on the other hand, such as lattices and honeycombs, make for much easier study, often requiring analysis of only a single unit-cell. Theoretical bounds predict that hybrid materials have the potential to push design envelopes offering lighter stiffer and stronger materials. Hybrid materials can achieve very low and even negative coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) while retaining a relatively high stiffness -- properties completely unmatched by monolithic materials. In the first chapter of this thesis a two-dimensional lattice is detailed that possess near maximum stiffness, relative to the tightest theoretical bound, and low, zero and even appreciably negative thermal expansion. Its CTE and stiffness are given in closed form as a function of geometric parameters and the material properties. This result is confirmed with finite elements (FE) and experiment. In the second chapter the compressive stiffness of three-dimensional ordered foams, both closed and open cell, are predicted with FE and the results placed in property space in terms of stiffness and density. A novel structure is identified that effectively achieves theoretical bounds for Young's, shear and bulk modulus

  3. Perspective: Interactive material property databases through aggregation of literature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ram; Sparks, Taylor D.

    2016-05-01

    Searchable, interactive, databases of material properties, particularly those relating to functional materials (magnetics, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, etc.) are curiously missing from discussions of machine-learning and other data-driven methods for advancing new materials discovery. Here we discuss the manual aggregation of experimental data from the published literature for the creation of interactive databases that allow the original experimental data as well additional metadata to be visualized in an interactive manner. The databases described involve materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and for the electrodes of Li-ion batteries. The data can be subject to machine-learning, accelerating the discovery of new materials.

  4. Understanding Materials Science History · Properties · Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Rolf E

    2005-01-01

    This introduction to materials science both for students of engineering and physics and for the interested general public examines not only the physical and engineering properties of virtually all kinds of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and recycling. It covers all topics on materials from an entirely novel perspective: the role materials have played throughout history in the development of humankind and technologies. Specifically, it shows the connection between the technical and the cultural, economic, ecological, and societal aspects of materials science. It aims to whet the appetite of its readers and inspire them to further explore the properties and applications of metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics, and electronic materials by presenting easily understandable explanations and entertaining historical facts. It is also intended to raise the reader’s awareness of their obligations to society as practicing engineers and scientists....

  5. A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Hongwei; YAO; Lei; ZHAO; Hong; ZHANG; Jichuan; XUE; Zhaohong

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials is presented.The dynamic mechanical parameters of materials are first measured by using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Apparatus(DMTA) at low frequencies,usually less than 100 Hz; then based on the Principles of Time-Temperature Super position (TTS),these parameters are extended to the frequency range that acousticians are concerned about,usually from hundreds to thousands of hertz; finally the extended dynamic mechanical parameters are transformed into acoustic parameters with the help of acoustic measurement and inverse analysis.To test the feasibility and accuracy,we measure a kind of rubber sample in DMTA and acquire the basic acoustic parameters of the sample by using this method.While applying the basic parameters to calculating characteristics of the sample in acoustic pipe,a reasonable agreement of sound absorption coefficients is obtained between the calculations and measurements in the acoustic pipe.

  6. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO2, shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10−19 m2; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10−17 m2; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure

  7. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanling; Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO2, shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10-19 m2; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10-17 m2; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens' permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  8. Materials Sciences programs, fiscal year 1978: Office of Basic Energy Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    A compilation and index are provided of the the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. The report is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index.

  9. FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

  10. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index

  11. Materials Sciences programs, fiscal year 1978: Office of Basic Energy Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation and index are provided of the the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. The report is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index

  12. Structure and properties of sintered tool gradient materials

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; B. Dołżańska

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of the presented is to elaborate the fabrication technology of novel sintered tool gradient materials on the basis of hard wolfram carbide phase with cobalt binding phase, and to carry out research studies on the structure and properties of the newly elaborated sintered tool gradient materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following research studies have been carried out to elaborate a new group of sintered tool gradient materials, wolfram carbide with cobalt ma...

  13. Impact of carbonation on water transport properties of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonation is a very well-known cementitious materials pathology. It is the major cause of reinforced concrete structures degradation. It leads to rebar corrosion and consequent concrete cover cracking. In the framework of radioactive waste management, cement-based materials used as building materials for structures or containers would be simultaneously submitted to drying and atmospheric carbonation. Although scientific literature regarding carbonating is vast, it is clearly lacking information about the influence of carbonation on water transport properties. This work then aimed at studying and understanding the change in water transport properties induced by carbonation. Simultaneously, the representativeness of accelerated carbonation (in the laboratory) was also studied. (author)

  14. The interpretation of XPS spectra: Insights into materials properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Nelin, Connie J.

    2013-06-01

    We review basic and advanced concepts needed for the correct analysis of XPS features. We place these concepts on rigorous foundations and explore their physical and chemical meanings without stressing the derivation of the mathematical formulations, which can be found in the cited literature. The significance and value of combining theory and experiment is demonstrated by discussions of the physical and chemical origins of the main and satellite XPS features for a variety of molecular and condensed phase materials. BE: binding energy. The binding energy of an electron associated with a peak in a photoelectron spectra. CI: configuration interaction. The common use is to describe many-body wavefunctions that are the mixing of several determinants for different configurations. CSF: configuration state function. A determinant or combination of determinants that is an eigenfunction of the angular momentum operators. Normally CSFs are formed for Russell-Saunders, L-S coupling but they can also be formed for j-j coupling. CT: charge transfer. Usually refers to the transfer of an electron from a ligand orbital into an unoccupied or partially occupied, metal orbital. CSOV: constrained space orbital variation. A theoretical procedure for decomposing the contributions to various properties by constraining the space of orbitals varied and the space of basis functions in which they are varied. ΔSCF: delta self-consistent field. Normally refers to the difference in the properties of two states, an initial and a final state, each determined from separate self-consistent field variations. DFT: density functional theory. DHF: Dirac-Hartree-Fock. ER: relaxation energy. Erel: relative energy. Normally of the BE of a peak relative to some reference BE taken as zero. FC: Franck-Condon. Normally used in connection with the vibrational broadening of peaks in photoemission spectra. FO: frozen orbital. Used to describe wavefunctions and other properties obtained when the orbitals of the

  15. Tension mechanical properties of recycled glass-epoxy composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelena M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of composite materials and their applications are mainly due to their good properties. This imposes the need for their recycling, thus extending their lifetime. Once used composite material will be disposed as a waste at the end of it service life. After recycling, this kind of waste can be used as raw materials for the production of same material, which raises their applicability. This indicates a great importance of recycling as a method of the renowal of composite materials. This study represents a contribution to the field of mechanical properties of the recycled composite materials. The tension mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of once used and disposed glass-epoxy composite material were compared before and after the recycling. The obtained results from mechanical tests confirmed that the applied recycling method was suitable for glass-epoxy composite materials. In respect to the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity it can be further assessed the possibility of use of recycled glass-epoxy composite materials.

  16. Electromechanical actuation of buckypaper actuator: Material properties and performance relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes can be assembled into macroscopic thin film materials called buckypapers. To incorporate buckypaper actuators into engineering systems, it is of high importance to understand their material property-actuation performance relationships in order to model and predict the behavior of these actuators. The electromechanical actuation of macroscopic buckypaper structures and their actuators, including single and multi-walled carbon nanotube buckypapers and aligned single-walled nanotube buckypapers, were analyzed and compared. From the experimental evidence, this Letter discusses the effects of the fundamental material properties, including Young modulus and electrical double layer properties, on actuation performance of the resultant actuators. -- Highlights: ► In this study we identified the figure of merit of the electromechanical conversion. ► Different type of buckypaper was realized and characterized for actuation properties. ► The results demonstrated the potential of Buckypapers/Nafion for actuation

  17. Application of the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to the Tokai spent fuel reprocessing facilityssing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1978 and 1979 individuals from the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the feasibility of applying the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to PNC-Tokai reprocessing facility in Japan. The system developed for Tokai requires weekly in-process physical inventories for the process MBA, and allows 2-3 additional days for completion of measurements and for data reduction and evaluation. The study concluded that such a system would be feasible, and recommended that an actual field test should be conducted as soon as feasible. (author)

  18. Finite Element Method for Analysis of Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauhe, Jens Christian

    The use of cellular and composite materials have in recent years become more and more common in all kinds of structural components and accurate knowledge of the effective properties is therefore essential. In this wok the effective properties are determined using the real material microstructure...... determined using theoretical models. Besides the determination of the effective properties, viscoelastic and damage analysis have been performed on a number of material microstructures....... obtain a proper description of the material microstructure the finite element models must contain a large number of elements and this problem is solved by using the preconditioned conjugated gradient solver with an Element-By-Element preconditioner. Finite element analysis provides the volume averaged...

  19. Optimization of Vertical Well Placement for Oil Field Development Based on Basic Reservoir Rock Properties using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Tutuka Ariadji; Pudjo Sukarno; Kuntjoro Adji Sidarto; Edy Soewono; Lala Septem Riza; Kenny David

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the quality of basic reservoir rock properties is a common practice to locate new infills or development wells for optimizing an oil field development using a reservoir simulation. The conventional technique employs a manual trial and error process to find new well locations, which proves to be time-consuming, especially, for a large field. Concerning this practical matter, an alternative in the form of a robust technique was introduced in order that time and efforts could be reduce...

  20. Elastic properties of quaternary oxyarsenide LaOFeAs as basic phase for new 26-52K superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Shein, I. R.; IVANOVSKII A.L.

    2008-01-01

    The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential has been applied to predict the elastic properties of quaternary oxyarsenide LaOFeAs - the basic phase for the newly discovered 26-52K superconductors. The optimized lattice parameters, independent elastic constants (Cij), bulk modulus B, compressibility betta, and shear modulus G are evaluated and discussed. For the first time the numeri...

  1. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  2. Basic principles for establishing best practice materials characterisation methods based on Rietveld diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of Rietveld modelling of materials microstructure character is often limited by practitioners being unfamiliar with the basis of non-linear least squares analysis and its limitations. This paper considers the basis of good practice with particular reference to (1) the critical importance of data quality and (2) careful management of the refinement process. The analytical descriptors considered are phase composition levels and lattice parameters. (Author)

  3. Comparing Active Auditors viewpoints in Public and Private Sector over Determining Basic Materiality Levels in Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Farajzadeh; Tahereh Azizzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Materiality is a threshold quality in accounting which has priority over other qualitative characteristics of financial information. In other word, financial information are important in decision-making only when they are important with respect to this to definition, omission or altering these significant information can change the judgments and decisions of logical user over the affairs of a business entity. The purpose of this research was to identify the auditors` ideas in private and publ...

  4. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and coal fly ash as basic components of prefabricated building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Antonio; Marroccoli, Milena; Calabrese, Daniela; Valenti, Gian Lorenzo; Montagnaro, Fabio

    2013-03-01

    The manufacture of prefabricated building materials containing binding products such as ettringite (6CaO·Al2O3·3SO3·32H2O) and calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) can give, in addition to other well-defined industrial activities, the opportunity of using wastes and by-products as raw materials, thus contributing to further saving of natural resources and protection of the environment. Two ternary mixtures, composed by 40% flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum or natural gypsum (as a reference material), 35% calcium hydroxide and 25% coal fly ash, were submitted to laboratory hydrothermal treatments carried out within time and temperature ranges of 2h-7days and 55-85°C, respectively. The formation of (i) ettringite, by hydration of calcium sulfate given by FGD or natural gypsum, alumina of fly ash and part of calcium hydroxide, and (ii) CSH, by hydration of silica contained in fly ash and residual lime, was observed within both the reacting systems. For the FGD gypsum-based mixture, the conversion toward ettringite and CSH was highest at 70°C and increased with curing time. Some discrepancies in the hydration behavior between the mixtures were ascribed to differences in mineralogical composition between natural and FGD gypsum. PMID:23219474

  5. Radiation chemistry from basics to applications in material and life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives a progress report on the many and original contributions of radiation chemistry to the fundamental knowledge of the vast domain of chemical reactions and its applications. Radiation chemistry techniques indeed make it possible to elucidate detailed physicochemical mechanisms in inorganic and organic chemistry (including in space) and in biochemistry. Moreover, this comprehension is applied in materials science to precisely control syntheses by radiation, such as radiopolymerization, radio-grafting, specific treatment of surfaces (textiles, paintings, inks,..), synthesis of complex nano-materials, degradation of environmental pollutants and radioresistance of materials for nuclear reactors. In life sciences, the study of the effects of radiation on bio-macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) not only permits the comprehension of normal or pathological biological mechanisms, but also the improvement of our health. In particular, many advances in cancer radiotherapy, in the radioprotection of nuclear workers and the general population, as well as in the treatment of diseases and the radiosterilization of drugs, could be obtained thanks to this research. Abundantly illustrated and written in English by top international specialists who have taken care to render the subjects accessible, this work will greatly interest those curious about a scientific field that is new to them and students attracted by the original and multidisciplinary aspects of the field. At a time when radiation chemistry research is experiencing spectacular development in numerous countries, this book will attract newcomers to the field. (authors)

  6. Ground and excited state properties of high performance anthocyanidin dyes-sensitized solar cells in the basic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

  7. Ground and excited state properties of high performance anthocyanidin dyes-sensitized solar cells in the basic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prima, Eka Cahya [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (Indonesia); Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman, E-mail: yatman@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno [Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell.

  8. MPOD: A Material Property Open Database linked to structural information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspired by the Crystallography Open Database (COD), the Material Properties Open Database (MPOD) was given birth. MPOD aims at collecting and making publicly available at no charge tensorial properties (including scalar properties) of phases and linking such properties to structural information of the COD when available. MPOD files are written with the STAR file syntax, used and developed for the Crystallographic Information Files. A dictionary containing new definitions has been written according to the Dictionary Definition Language 1, although some tricks were adopted to allow for multiple entries still avoiding ambiguousness. The initial set includes mechanical properties, elastic stiffness and compliance, internal friction; electrical properties, resistivity, dielectric permittivity and stiffness, thermodynamic properties, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and expansion; electromechanical properties, piezoelectricity, electrostriction, electromechanical coupling; optical properties; piezooptic and photoelastic properties; superconducting properties, critical fields, penetration and coherence lengths. Properties are reported in MPOD files where the original published paper containing the data is cited and structural and experimental information is also given. One MPOD file contains information relative to only one publication and one phase. The files and the information contained therein can also be consulted on-line at (http://www.materialproperties.org).

  9. Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations Part 1: Basic Properties, Cognitive Environment, Characteristics of the Princes

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2015-01-01

    A Sleeping Beauty in Science is a publication that goes unnoticed (sleeps) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (is awakened by a prince). In this paper we investigate important properties of Sleeping Beauties, particularly to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. Therefore, it is important to investigate the reasons for and processes related to delayed recognition. First we analyze basic properties of the SBs such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics (names of authors, country, institution), as well as the journals and fields of the SBs are analyzed. Next we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based ...

  10. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    The synthesis of high quality material is an essential step in the process of obtaining meaningful information about the material’s properties, and therefore, is an important link between physics and chemistry. Semiconductors; superconductors; solid-electrolytes; glasses; pigments; dielectric, fe...... chemistry; inorganic chemistry; solid state chemistry; solid state physics; materials chemistry; and mineralogy; and so they will not be repeated here. To this respect, the various footnotes refer the reader to a selection of relevant texts.......The synthesis of high quality material is an essential step in the process of obtaining meaningful information about the material’s properties, and therefore, is an important link between physics and chemistry. Semiconductors; superconductors; solid-electrolytes; glasses; pigments; dielectric......, ferroelectric, thermoelectric, luminescent, photochromic and magnetic materials; are technologically important classes of material, that are represented by numerous inorganic phases. Yet how many of us are aware of their precise chemical compositions, and have sufficient knowledge to actually make them...

  11. A Summary of the Fatigue Properties of Wind Turbine Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, HERBERT J.

    1999-10-07

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue critical structures, e.g., an airplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. In this paper, I review these fatigue data. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for wood, metals (primarily aluminum) and fiberglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fiberglass discussion because this material is current the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The paper focuses on the data developed in the U.S., but cites European references that provide important insights.

  12. Application of the international basic safety standards to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological and regulatory developments concerning exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) during the last two decades have resulted in progress towards achieving broad international consensus on managing exposure to NORM. The need for radiation protection measures in work activities involving minerals and raw materials has been addressed by the IAEA in Safety Reports Series No. 49: 'Assessing the need for Radiation Protection Measures in Work Involving Minerals and Raw Materials'. The report identifies the industry sectors and process materials most likely to need regulatory consideration and provides information to assist regulatory bodies in establishing the necessary radiation protection measures. The industry sectors likely to require regulatory consideration are the mining and processing of uranium ore, the extraction of rare earth elements, the production and use of thorium and its compounds, the production of niobium and ferro-niobium the mining of certain ores other than uranium, the production of oil and gas, the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments, the phosphate industry, the zircon and zirconia industries, the production of certain metals, coal combustion and water treatment. Regulatory control is needed for mining and processing of uranium and thorium in ores (including monazite). In other NORM industries, doses received by workers and members of the public have been found to be mostly below 1 mSv per year, and may not require the implementation of comprehensive radiation protection programmes. This is in line with the graded approach to regulation, as embodied in the 'International Basis Safety Standards for Protection against ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources' IAEA Safety Series No.115 (the BSS). A revised version of the BSS which is currently being drafted incorporates numerical criteria for the regulation of NORM. For radionuclides in the 238U and 232Th decay series, a criterion of 1 Bq/g has been

  13. Acoustical properties of selected tissue phantom materials for ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zell, K [Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Sperl, J I [GE Global Research-Europe, Advanced Medical Applications Laboratory, Garching (Germany); Vogel, M W [GE Global Research-Europe, Advanced Medical Applications Laboratory, Garching (Germany); Niessner, R [Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Haisch, C [Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2007-10-21

    This note summarizes the characterization of the acoustic properties of four materials intended for the development of tissue, and especially breast tissue, phantoms for the use in photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. The materials are agar, silicone, polyvinyl alcohol gel (PVA) and polyacrylamide gel (PAA). The acoustical properties, i.e., the speed of sound, impedance and acoustic attenuation, are determined by transmission measurements of sound waves at room temperature under controlled conditions. Although the materials are tested for application such as photoacoustic phantoms, we focus here on the acoustic properties, while the optical properties will be discussed elsewhere. To obtain the acoustic attenuation in a frequency range from 4 MHz to 14 MHz, two ultrasound sources of 5 MHz and 10 MHz core frequencies are used. For preparation, each sample is cast into blocks of three different thicknesses. Agar, PVA and PAA show similar acoustic properties as water. Within silicone polymer, a significantly lower speed of sound and higher acoustical attenuation than in water and human tissue were found. All materials can be cast into arbitrary shapes and are suitable for tissue-mimicking phantoms. Due to its lower speed of sound, silicone is generally less suitable than the other presented materials. (note)

  14. Experimental Research on Properties of Materials of Grounding Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Da-Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a experimental research on properties of materials of grounding resistor. Experiment test of the grounding resistor in the state of analog ground fault have been done, the performance parameters on the mechanics, thermal and electrical of alloy materials with different kinds and different specification have been got. The performance and its character of alloy materials have been grasped in the state of analog ground fault by analysis and processing. The research results have an important significance on the material selection and structure design of low resistance grounding resistor.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  16. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  17. Thermophysical properties of materials for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to establish a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials was organized within the framework of the IAEA's International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors. The work within the CRP started in 1990. The objective of the CRP was to collect and systemaize a thermophysical properties data base for light and heavy water reactor materials under normal operating, transient and accident conditions. The important thermophysical properties include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, enthalpy, thermal expansion and others. These properties as well as the oxidation of zirconium-based alloys, the thermophysical characteristics of high temperature concrete-core melt interaction and the mechanical properties of construction materials are presented in this report. It is hoped that this report will serve as a useful source of thermophysical properties data for water cooled reactor analyses. The properties data are maintained on the THERSYST system at the University of Stuttgart, Germany and are internationally available. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Acido-basic properties of proton pump inhibitors in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristl, Albin

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacological characteristics of proton pump inhibitors are related to their protolytic behavior estimated by their pK(a) values. Lansoprazole is a potent anti-acid drug from this group. Because of its poor stability a rapid spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of its pK(a) values. Three pK(a) values were obtained: an acidic pK(a1) = 8.84 and two basic, pK(a2) = 4.15 and pK(a3) = 1.33. These pK(a) values were discussed from the point of lansoprazole structure and instability with the aim of locating basic and acidic moieties in the molecule of proton pump inhibitors. They were also compared with experimentally determined pK(a) values from the literature and with some pK(a) values calculated by different programs. PMID:18720145

  19. Environmental degradation of fiber reinforced plastic materials in neutral, acidic, and basic aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkatt, A.; Bank, L.C.; Gentry, T.R.; Prian, L.; Shan, R.; Sang, J.C.; Pollard, R. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Kinetic measurements on the dissolution of oxide components of fiber-reinforced plastics show that the dissolution in aqueous media is a complex phenomenon and that changes in the nature of the controlling mechanism during the time of exposure can lead to an increase in rate. As a result, thorough understanding of the mechanisms is imperative in developing models for prediction of the long-term degradation of these composites. Thermogravimetric analysis has been found to be a promising indicator of the structural changes associated with the degradation process. Results obtained on specimens of concrete reinforcement rods made out of a E-glass/vinylester FRP material show that weight loss between 150 and 300 C is sensitively dependent on the nature of the corroding medium, the duration of exposure, and, in particular, the temperature at which the material was previously exposed. This weight loss correlates with the extent of moisture absorption. The enhanced weight loss between 150 and 300 C observed in the cases of samples previously exposed to attack by an aqueous media apparently reflects the increase in number of monomeric species as a result of the exposure. Increase in the effective area out of which monomers may volatilize as a result of the formation or propagation of microcracks, pores, or fiber-matrix interfacial gaps in the course of exposure may also contribute to enhanced weight loss. The conclusion that the extent of weight loss is indicative of the extent of degradation is supported by chemical, infrared and NMR analysis of the evolved vapors and by determination of their molecular weight. Both the weight loss at elevated temperatures and the tensile strength show a strong dependence on temperature and a parabolic time dependence. Raman spectroscopy is a highly sensitive and convenient technique of following structural changes. The techniques explored here can provide important data for modeling of the environmental degradation process.

  20. ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS AS A SUBSOIL AND MATERIAL FOR BASIC HYDRO-TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Wierzbicki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of geotechnical parameters of the alluvial deposit (the areas of the Vistula and Warta river valleys with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (cone penetration test and DMT (flat dilatometer test methods, as well as by the vane test (VT. The article includes the analysis of overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 4 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne’s formula (1995 was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefulness of the alluvial deposit as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterized by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition. On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  1. Flow-induced properties of nanotube-filled polymer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Semen B; Douglas, Jack F; Obrzut, Jan; Grulke, Eric A; Migler, Kalman B

    2004-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are under intense investigation in materials science owing to their potential for modifying the electrical conductivity sigma, shear viscosity eta, and other transport properties of polymeric materials. These particles are hybrids of filler and nanoscale additives because their lengths are macroscopic whereas their cross-sectional dimensions are closer to molecular scales. The combination of extended shape, rigidity and deformability allows CNTs to be mechanically dispersed in polymer matrices in the form of disordered 'jammed' network structures. Our measurements on representative network-forming multiwall nanotube (MWNT) dispersions in polypropylene indicate that these materials exhibit extraordinary flow-induced property changes. Specifically, sigma and eta both decrease strongly with increasing shear rate, and these nanocomposites exhibit impressively large and negative normal stress differences, a rarely reported phenomenon in soft condensed matter. We illustrate the practical implications of these nonlinear transport properties by showing that MWNTs eliminate die swell in our nanocomposites, an effect crucial for their processing. PMID:15273745

  2. Bone strength and material properties of the glenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Jensen, N.C.; Odgaard, A.; Pedersen, C.M.; Sjøbjerg, J.O.; Dalstra, M.

    1997-01-01

    models were all based on assumptions that the material properties of the glenoid were similar to those of the tibial plateau. The osteopenetrometer was used to assess the topographic strength distribution at the glenoid. Strength at the proximal subchondral level of the glenoid averaged 66.9 MPa. Higher...... of the cortical bone to the total glenoid strength was assessed by compression tests of pristine and cancellous-free glenoid specimens. Strength decreased by an average of 31% after the cancellous bone was removed. The material properties of the glenoid cancellous bone were determined by axial......The quality of the glenoid bone is important to a successful total shoulder replacement. Finite element models have been used to model the response of the glenoid bone to an implanted prosthesis. Because very little is known about the bone strength and the material properties at the glenoid, these...

  3. Basic rock properties for the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of a high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kang, Chul Hyung

    1999-04-01

    Deep geological radioactive waste disposal is generally based on the isolation of the waste from the biosphere by multiple barriers. The host rock is one of these barriers which should provide a stable mechanical and chemical environment for the engineered barriers. In the evaluation of the safety of the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems, an important part of the safety analysis is an assessment of the coupling or interaction between thermal, hydrological, and mechanical effects. In order to do this assessment, adequate data on the characteristics of different host rocks are necessary. The properties of the rock and rock discontinuity are very complex and their values vary in a wide range. The accuracy of the result of the assessment depends on the values of these properties used. The present study is an attempt to bring together and condense data for the basic properties of various rock masses, which are needed in the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the deep geological radioactive waste repository. The testing and measurement methods for these basic properties are also presented. Domestic data for deep geological media should be supplemented in the future, due to the insufficiency and the lack of accuracy of the data available at present. (author). 28 refs., 21 figs.

  4. Basic rock properties for the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep geological radioactive waste disposal is generally based on the isolation of the waste from the biosphere by multiple barriers. The host rock is one of these barriers which should provide a stable mechanical and chemical environment for the engineered barriers. In the evaluation of the safety of the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems, an important part of the safety analysis is an assessment of the coupling or interaction between thermal, hydrological, and mechanical effects. In order to do this assessment, adequate data on the characteristics of different host rocks are necessary. The properties of the rock and rock discontinuity are very complex and their values vary in a wide range. The accuracy of the result of the assessment depends on the values of these properties used. The present study is an attempt to bring together and condense data for the basic properties of various rock masses, which are needed in the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the deep geological radioactive waste repository. The testing and measurement methods for these basic properties are also presented. Domestic data for deep geological media should be supplemented in the future, due to the insufficiency and the lack of accuracy of the data available at present. (author). 28 refs., 21 figs

  5. Strong basic anion exchangers with adsorption properties for chlorocomplex uranyl ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (S-DVB) are still the most commonly used as starting copolymers in the synthesis of ion exchangers with special destinations, such as the enrichment process of 235U due to their high chemical resistance. For this purpose, a special concern has been lately focused on the preparation of macroporous strong basic anion exchangers containing one or two hydroxyalkyl substituents. An average pore radius around 1000 A, which is correlated with a high permanent porosity, a good stability of the resin in HCl with concentrations up to 8 N, a thermal resistance up to 150 deg C at least and a high mechanical strength are the main characteristics requested for this purpose. In a previous work we have reported the preparation of some macroporous S-DVB copolymers with sizes in the range 90-200 μm by employing 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as a porogen, at a high dilution of monomers (D ≥ 0.55) and their subsequent transformation in macroporous strong basic anion exchangers with an average pore radius higher than 50 nm. In the present study, the characteristics of the starting S-DVB macroporous copolymers synthesized in the presence of N-butyl alcohol (nBA) as porogen and those of the strong basic anion exchangers derived therefrom have been studied. Activation by chloromethylation reaction of the macroporous S-DVB copolymers was performed with paraformaldehyde (CH2O)n/trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in the presence of FeCl3 as catalyst, in chloroform as a reaction medium. Strong basic anion exchangers with diethyl 2-hydroxyethyl benzylammonium groups were obtained by the amination of the chloromethylated S-DVB copolymers with diethyl 2-hydroxyethylamine (DEHEA). The corresponding strong basic anion exchangers showed an ionic exchange capacity in the range 1.8-2.2 meq/g, depending on the crosslinking degree and the dilution of the starting copolymer, and an average pore radius, rp, around 80 nm. Such characteristics make these resins promising

  6. Monazite, the basic raw material for rare earth beneficiation from beach sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest monazite deposits in the world are the readily accessible placers in beach, bar and dune sands along the west and east coasts of India. The commercial monazite deposits in India are natural concentration of monazite with other valuable minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, etc. in the beach placers. These high grade accruals deposited to 1 - 1.5 m depth are selectively collected using labour intensive methods and processed for individual mineral recovery. All known methods of physical concentration of minerals are used for separating monazite and other valuable minerals. These make use of the five important physical properties of the minerals, viz., electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, specific gravity, surface characteristics and grain size distribution. The Indian Rare Earths (IRE) are operating three minerals beneficiation plants - two in the western coast at Chavara in Kerala and Manavalakurichi in Tamilnadu and one in the eastern coast of Chatrapur in Orissa State. Due to intensive selective mining all these years, there is considerable depletion in the quality of beach accruals which if fed directly to the processing plants will considerably affect their efficiency. Therefore, IRE has introduced integrated mining systems using dredge and pre-concentrate the dredge spoils to the required grade using spiral plants before feeding to the dry mills in the above plants. IRE has also advanced plans to exploit the 5 million m.t. monazite reserves in the country. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of porous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peijun Wei; Zhuping Huang

    2005-01-01

    The frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties (phase velocity, attenuation and elastic modulus) of porous materials are studied numerically. The coherent plane longitudinal and shear wave equations, which are obtained by averaging on the multiple scattering fields, are used to evaluate the frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of a porous material. It is found that the prediction of the dynamic effective properties includes the size effects of voids which are not included in most prediction of the traditional static effective properties. The prediction of the dynamic effective elastic modulus at a relatively low frequency range is compared with that of the traditional static effective elastic modulus, and the dynamic effective elastic modulus is found to be very close to the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound.

  8. The influence of basic physical properties of soil on its electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity technique has become a famous alternative tool in subsurface characterization. In the past, several interpretations of electrical resistivity results were unable to be delivered in a strong justification due to lack of appreciation of soil mechanics. Traditionally, interpreters will come out with different conclusion which commonly from qualitative point of view thus creating some uncertainty regarding the result reliability. Most engineers desire to apply any techniques in their project which are able to provide some clear justification with strong, reliable and meaningful results. In order to reduce the problem, this study presents the influence of basic physical properties of soil due to the electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition. Two different conditions of soil embankment model were tested under electrical resistivity test and basic geotechnical test. It was found that the electrical resistivity value (ERV, ρ) was highly influenced by the variations of soil basic physical properties (BPP) with particular reference to moisture content (w), densities (ρbulk/dry), void ratio (e), porosity (η) and particle grain fraction (d) of soil. Strong relationship between ERV and BPP can be clearly presents such as ρ ∞ 1/w, ρ ∞ 1/ρbulk/dry, ρ ∞ e and ρ ∞ η. This study therefore contributes a means of ERV data interpretation using BPP in order to reduce ambiguity of ERV result and interpretation discussed among related persons such as geophysicist, engineers and geologist who applied these electrical resistivity techniques in subsurface profile assessment.

  9. Polymers for electricity and electronics materials, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Drobny, Jiri George

    2011-01-01

    The comprehensive, practical book that explores the principles, properties, and applications of electrical polymers The electrical properties of polymers present almost limitless possibilities for industrial research and development, and this book provides an in-depth look at these remarkable molecules. In addition to traditional applications in insulating materials, wires, and cables, electrical polymers are increasingly being used in a range of emerging technologies. Presenting a comprehensive overview of how electrical polymers function and how they can be applied in the elec

  10. Structure and properties of sintered tool gradient materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the presented is to elaborate the fabrication technology of novel sintered tool gradient materials on the basis of hard wolfram carbide phase with cobalt binding phase, and to carry out research studies on the structure and properties of the newly elaborated sintered tool gradient materials.Design/methodology/approach: The following research studies have been carried out to elaborate a new group of sintered tool gradient materials, wolfram carbide with cobalt matrix, to elaborate their fabrication technology and to determine their structure and properties: a fabrication technology of mixtures and the formation technology of wolfram carbide gradient materials with cobalt matrix WC-Co was applied and elaborated; sintering conditions were selected experimentally: time, temperature and sintering atmosphere as well as isostatic condensation, ensuring the best structure and properties; phase and chemical composition of the sintered gradient WC-Co materials was determined using EDX, EBSD methods and qualitative X-ray analysis; the structure of sintered gradient WC-Co materials was investigated using scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; mechanical and physical properties of sintered gradient WC-Co materials was determined: porosity, density, hardness, resistance to abrasive wear, resistance to brittle cracking.Findings: The presented research results confirm that the newly elaborated technology of powder metallurgy, which consists in sequential coating of the moulding with layers having the increasing content of carbides and decreasing concentration of cobalt, and then sintering such a compact, ensures the acquisition of the required structure and properties, including the resistance to cracking and abrasive wear of tool gradient materials, due to earned high hardness and resistance to abrasive wear on the surface as well as high resistance to cracking in the core of the materials fabricated in such a

  11. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig

  12. Fibrous random materials: From microstructure to macroscopic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdchi, K.; Luding, S.

    2013-06-01

    Fibrous porous materials are involved in a wide range of applications including composite materials, fuel cells, heat exchangers and (biological)filters. Fluid flow through these materials plays an important role in many engineering applications and processes, such as textiles and paper manufacturing or transport of (under)ground water and pollutants. While most porous materials have complex geometry, some can be seen as two-dimensional particulate/fibrous systems, in which we introduce several microscopic quantities, based on Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations, to characterize their microstructure. In particular, by analyzing the topological properties of Voronoi polygons, we observe a smooth transition from disorder to order, for increasing packing fraction. Using fully resolved finite element (FE) simulations of Newtonian, incompressible fluid flow perpendicular to the fibres, the macroscopic permeability is calculated in creeping flow regimes. The effect of fibre arrangement and local crystalline regions on the macroscopic permeability is discussed and the macroscopic property is linked to the microscopic structural quantities.

  13. Handbook on dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials

    CERN Document Server

    Komarov, Vyacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    The application of microwave energy for thermal processing of different materials and substances is a rapidly growing trend in modern science and engineering. In fact, optimal design work involving microwaves is impossible without solid knowledge of the properties of these materials. Here s a practical reference that collects essential data on the dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials, saving you countless hours on projects in a wide range of areas, including microwave design and heating, applied electrodynamics, food science, and medical technology. This unique book provides hard-to-find information on complex dielectric permittivity of media at industrial, scientific, and medical frequencies (430 MHz, 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8 GHz, and 24.125GHz). Written by a leading expert in the field, this authoritative book does an exceptional job at presenting critical data on various materials and explaining what their key characteristics are concerning microwaves.

  14. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  15. Material Property Characterization of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M

    2013-01-01

    Several material properties (modulus, strengths, and fracture toughness) of a textile composite have been evaluated to provide input data to analytical models of Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS). The material system is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. Tensile, compressive, shear, and fracture toughness properties have been measured at ambient and elevated temperatures. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Specimens were tested with and without through-thickness stitching.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES CuSn10 BEARING MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sadık ÜNLÜ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronzes which copper based alloys is widely used because of properties physical, thermal and tribological as journal bearing material. This material that has tribological performance good conclusions gives at journal bearings. In this study, CuSn10 bronze that were manufactured journal bearings friction and wear properties has been examined and compared. SAE 1050 steel shaft has been used as counter abrader. Experiments have been carried out 10 N and 20 N loads, 750 and 1500 rpm, dry and lubricated conditions by using radial journal bearing wear test rig. As a results, high friction coefficient and weigh loss have been obtained at dry condition more than lubricated condition.

  17. Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Nash

    2005-11-02

    This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.

  18. Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Polymeric Materials Through Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, G. M.; Bandorawalla, T.; Herring, H. M.; Gates, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoindentation is used to determine the dynamic viscoelastic properties of six polymer materials. It is shown that varying the harmonic frequency of the nanoindentation does not have any significant effect on the measured storage and loss moduli of the polymers. Agreement is found between these results and data from DMA testing of the same materials. Varying the harmonic amplitude of the nanoindentation does not have a significant effect on the measured properties of the high performance resins, however, the storage modulus of the polyethylene decreases as the harmonic amplitude increases. Measured storage and loss moduli are also shown to depend on the density of the polyethylene.

  19. Composite piping: basic materials, manufacturing methods, hydrolysis resistance. Bibliographical data and state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has decided to replace traditional materials by glass reinforced plastic for the manufacture of certain PWR water piping. However, these are liable to in-service degradation through the hydrolysis of the operating conditions which can involve mechanical stresses or specific temperature and humidity conditions. These resins have been the subject of bibliographical surveys and laboratory experiments providing the following main results: the water diffusion in the selected thermoset resins (polyester, vinyl-ester, epoxy) can reach one percent in weight, according to the relative humidity and temperature; the water absorption is a reversible phenomenon, at the beginning and is followed by hydrolysis, an irreversible deterioration affecting the chemical functions of the polymeric chain. Thermally activated, the reaction limits the temperature for the use of these resins; polyester resins are made of a large number of ester bonds and are highly sensitive to hydrolysis. These resins can be classified on the basis of the alcohol and acid which they come acid. A possible hydrolytic degradation does not prevent from using these resins in humid environments. The cooling towers in Belleville, Nogent ad Chooz are equipped with water collecting channels made of polyester laminates which have behaved satisfactorily since their installation in 1982. In acid environments, even concentrated, resins have a better behavior than in a neutral medium. However, they can be liable to stress corrosion. Polyester resins ar not suitable for use in concentrated base media. Vinyl-ester resins are more appropriate for this purpose, although their resistance will be lower than in a neutral environment. When resins are used as a matrix for composites, the presence of glass fibers modifies their behavior. The physico-chemical protection of the fiber/matrix interfaces and of the surface of the glass itself through the sizing of the fibers plays key role in the durability of the composites, which

  20. Electronic transport properties of few-layer graphene materials

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, S.; Craciun, M. F.; Khodkov, T.; Koshino, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene -a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - it was clear that this truly is a unique material system with an unprecedented combination of physical properties. Graphene is the thinnest membrane present in nature -just one atom thick- it is the strongest material, it is transparent and it is a very good conductor with room temperature charge mobilities larger than the typical mobilities found in silicon. The significance played by this new m...

  1. Nanomechanical and phononic properties of structured soft materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gomopoulos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Significant interest in nanotechnology, is stimulated by the fact that materials exhibit qualitative changes of properties when their dimensions approach ”finite-sizes”. Quantization of electronic, optical and acoustic energies at the nanoscale provides novel functions, with interests spanning from electronics and photonics to biology. The present dissertation involves the application of Brillouin light scattering (BLS) to quantify and utilize material displacementsrnfor probing phononics and e...

  2. Dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from fired materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluszcz, A.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an examination of the dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from ancient fired materials. Eleven samples of different origin were tested for their TL and GLSL (green light stimulated luminescence) sensitivities within the mGy dose range. Very promising results...... quartz grains from selected materials could be used for the dosimetry of environmental gamma radiation for the purposes of paleodosimetric dating methods as well as for accident dosimetry....

  3. Textile Materials with New Properties Used for Confections Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Neacşu A. N.; Madar A.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of textile clothing depends on the quality of prime materials and also on the technology used; this must ensure a balance between transferred heat, resulted humidity and human and environmental thermal demands, all this bringing about physiological comfort. In order to meet consumers’ demands regarding the production of products which are easy to maintain and have high hygiene properties, new prime materials are searched, with a view to ensuring a wide range of clothing. Taking in...

  4. Design of materials Configurations for enhanced phononic and electronic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of novel nonlinear dynamic and electronic phenomena is presented for the specific cases of granular materials and carbon nanotubes. This research was conducted for designing and constructing optimized macro-, micro- and nano-scale structural configurations of materials, and for studying their phononic and electronic behavior. Variation of composite arrangements of granular elements with different elastic properties in a linear chain-of-sphere, Y-junction or 3-D configurations le...

  5. Thermomechanical Properties of Corundum—Mullite—Zirconia Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONGXiangchong; SUNGengcheng

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical properties at elevated tempera-tures of corundum-mullite materials and the effects of zirconia and titania additions have been investi-gated.The results are correlated with changes in microstructure,Based on the results of these investi-gations ,reaction-sintered corundum-mullite-zirco-nia materials with improved hot strength and ther-mal shock resistance have been developed for refractor-ries usage.

  6. Near-Field Microwave Microscopy of Materials Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Anlage, Steven M.; Steinhauer, D. E.; Feenstra, B. J.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2000-01-01

    Near-field microwave microscopy has created the opportunity for a new class of electrodynamics experiments of materials. Freed from the constraints of traditional microwave optics, experiments can be carried out at high spatial resolution over a broad frequency range. In addition, the measurements can be done quantitatively so that images of microwave materials properties can be created. We review the five major types of near-field microwave microscopes and discuss our own form of microscopy ...

  7. Overview of European Community (Activity 3) work on materials properties of fast reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee set up in 1974 the Working Group Codes and Standards, and organized its work into four main activities: Manufacturing standards, Structural analysis, Materials and Classification of components. The main purpose of materials activity is to compare and contrast existing national specifications and associated properties relevant to structural materials in fast reactors. Funds are available on a yearly basis for tasks to be carried out through Study Contracts. At present about four Study Contract Reports are prepared each year

  8. Background material properties of selected silicone potting compounds and raw materials for their substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, G.L.; Switzer, S.T.

    1978-05-01

    Since Dow Corning discontinued production of 93-119, 93-120, 93-122, Pantex joined with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to develop substitutes for these materials. Raw materials chosen for this project include Sylgard 184, Sylgard 186, Q3-6527 Dielectric Gel, Q3-6559 Accelerator, DC 1107 and Cab-o-Sil MS-75. This report deals with physical and chemical properties of these materials.

  9. Standard Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide establishes the essential and desirable elements of data required for the identification in computerized material property databases of fibers, fillers, and core materials used in composite materials. A recommended format for entry of these fields into a computerized database is provided. Examples of the application of this guide are also included. 1.2 The recommended format described in this guide is suggested for use in recording data in a database, which is different from contractural reporting of actual test results. The latter type of information is described in materials specifications shown in business transactions and is subject to agreement between vendor and purchaser. 1.3 The materials covered by this guide include fibers, both continuous and discontinuous, and fillers of various geometries which are used as reinforcements in composite materials, as well as core materials used in sandwich composites. Cores may be foam, honeycomb, or naturally occurring materials such as balsa wood....

  10. Tribological and Wear Properties of Multi-Layered Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The usage of fabrics as reinforcements in composites is spreading due to fabrics’ properties. The use of fabrics allows obtaining of sinuous surfaces, for instance, unlike the use of prepregs. Using fabrics as reinforcements it is also possible to obtain laminate-like materials having the same matrix in all their volume. In the case of pre-pregs usage always it is necessary to discuss about the bonding between individual plies. For this study eight materials were formed. The forming method consisted in placing the pre-polymer imbued fabric pieces into a mould to obtain plates of composites. Two types of fabric were used: one simple type of untwisted tows of carbon fibres and the second one simple type of alternated untwisted tows of carbon and aramide fibres. Both fabrics were prepared in order to ensure the matrix adherence. The polymer matrix is realised from epoxy system EPIPHEN RE 4020 / EPIPHEN DE 4020 filled with clay and talc in equal amounts of 5% (weight ratio. The use of clay and talc were meant to improve the thermal dimensional stability of final materials. Tribological properties of formed materials were studied using pin-on-disk method with steel disk and pins made of materials. Both orientation of reinforcement fibres relative to friction direction were taken into account. Results are encouraging further studies in order to identify the best solution of forming a multi-component material with more than one designable property.

  11. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  12. Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

    2009-08-15

    high energy resource plant. European scientists already brought Asian Miscanthus species and bred a new hybrid called Miscanthus x giganteus, which is now being used as a biofuel material in Europe and would be widely used in the world in the near future if fundamental questions, such as fiber transformation to alcohol or other breeding techniques, are answered. (author)

  13. The synthesis and properties of nanoscale ionic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert Salgado

    2010-02-17

    In this article we discuss the effect of constituents on structure, flow, and thermal properties of nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs). NIMs are a new class of nanohybrids consisting of a nanometer-sized core, a charged corona covalently attached to the core, and an oppositely charged canopy. The hybrid nature of NIMs allows for their properties to be engineered by selectively varying their components. The unique properties associated with these systems can help overcome some of the issues facing the implementation of nanohybrids to various commercial applications, including carbon dioxide capture,water desalinization and as lubricants. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Zirconium and hafnium and their alloys - materials for nuclear engineering and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium is very suitable as a structural material in reactor engineering due to its very small neutron cross section, while hafnium, with its large cross section, is used for absorption purposes. After a short historical survey, deposits, reserves and extraction are gone into, and the present metallurgical techniques to prepare the pure metal and its alloys are described. The production of semifinished products for use in the nuclear industry is described, and the properties required for the various structural parts are discussed. The main emphasis is on zirconium, while hafnium is mentioned only when there are basic differences from zirconium. (orig./GSC)

  15. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  16. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-02-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  17. Administrative Aspects of the Criticality Controls Used in Programmes for Basic Criticality Research, Reactor Development and Materials Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the administrative and procedural aspects of criticality controls used by a field office of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in programmes that include reactor criticals, research and materials testing reactors, and power reactor development. Situations encountered include handling, storing, and processing large quantities of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 of various configurations and compositions in laboratories and operations which gather basic criticality data, processing of fissile material, and varied reactor research and development, programmes including fuel materials. Similar situations exist for uranium-233 and plutonium-238 on a smaller laboratory scale. The administrative controls and interactions of the USAEC field office and the operating contractors, who operate these installations for the USAEC, are outlined. Also, the purpose and scope of the direct examination by USAEC personnel of these contractor facilities are analysed. The programme has been in effect for three years and is believed to be successful in maintaining efficient operations and an acceptable low level of risk of inadvertent criticality. Success of this programme is in good measure due to the close working relationship between the staffs of the USAEC field office and the operating contractors. (author)

  18. Phase change memory materials, composition, structure and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frumar, M.; Frumarová, Božena; Wágner, T.; Přikryl, J.; Hrdlička, M.

    Darwin : Charles Darwin University, 2006. ID8-ID8. [International Conference on Optical and Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Applications 2006. 16.06.2006-20.06.2006, Darwin ] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0627 Keywords : phase change memory Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  19. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth. PMID:25439707

  20. Learning to Apply Models of Materials While Explaining Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpin, Tiia; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying structural models is important to chemistry education at the upper secondary level, but it is considered one of the most difficult topics to learn. Purpose: This study analyses to what extent in designed lessons students learned to apply structural models in explaining the properties and behaviours of various materials.…

  1. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  2. Low temperature radiative properties of materials used in cryogenics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Věra; Hanzelka, Pavel; Králík, Tomáš; Srnka, Aleš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2005), s. 529-536. ISSN 0011-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2065109 Keywords : structural materials * radiant properties * cryostats Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.762, year: 2005

  3. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2014-01-01

    Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how the...

  4. Mechanics of advanced materials analysis of properties and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Matveenko, Valery

    2015-01-01

    The last decades have seen a large extension of types of materials employed in various applications. In many cases these materials demonstrate mechanical properties and performance that vary significantly from those of their traditional counterparts. Such uniqueness is sought – or even specially manufactured – to meet increased requirements on modern components and structures related to their specific use. As a result, mechanical behaviors of these materials under different loading and environmental conditions are outside the boundaries of traditional mechanics of materials, presupposing development of new characterization techniques, theoretical descriptions and numerical tools. The book presents interesting examples of recent developments in this area. Among the studied materials are bulk metallic glasses, metamaterials, special composites, piezoelectric smart structures, nonwovens, etc.

  5. Basic electrophysiological properties of spinal cord motoneurons during old age in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F R; Boxer, P A; Fung, S J; Chase, M H

    1987-07-01

    1. The electrophysiological properties of alpha-motoneurons in old cats (14-15 yr) were compared with those of adult cats (1-3 yr). These properties were measured utilizing intracellular recording and stimulating techniques. 2. Unaltered in the old cat motoneurons were the membrane potential, action potential amplitude, and slopes of the initial segment (IS) and soma dendritic (SD) spikes, as well as the duration and amplitude of the action potential's afterhyperpolarization. 3. In contrast, the following changes in the electrophysiological properties of lumbar motoneurons were found in the old cats: a decrease in axonal conduction velocity, a shortening of the IS-SD delay, an increase in input resistance, and a decrease in rheobase. 4. In spite of these considerable changes in motoneuron properties in the old cat, normal correlations between different electrophysiological properties were maintained. The following key relationships, among others, were the same in adult and old cat motoneurons: membrane potential polarization versus action potential amplitude, duration of the afterhyperpolarization versus motor axon conduction velocity, and rheobase versus input conductance. 5. A review of the existing literature reveals that neither chronic spinal cord section nor deafferentation (13, 21) in adult animals produce the changes observed in old cats. Thus we consider it unlikely that a loss of synaptic contacts was responsible for the modifications in electrophysiological properties observed in old cat motoneurons. 6. We conclude that during old age there are significant changes in the soma-dendritic portion of cat motoneurons, as indicated by the modifications found in input resistance, rheobase, and IS-SD delay, as well as significant changes in their axons, as indicated by a decrease in conduction velocity. PMID:3612223

  6. Material and Flexural Properties of Fiber-reinforced Rubber Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminger, Nicholas P.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the material properties of rubber concrete with the addition of fibers, and to determine optimal mixture dosages of rubber and fiber in concrete for structural applications. Fiber-reinforced concrete and rubberized concrete have been researched separately extensively, but this research intends to combine both rubber and fiber in a concrete matrix in order to create a composite material, fiber-reinforced rubber concrete (FRRC). Sustainability has long been important in engineering design, but much of the previous research performed on sustainable concrete does not result in a material that can be used for practical purposes. While still achieving a material that can be used for structural applications, economical considerations were given when choosing the proportions and types of constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete mixtures were designed, placed, and tested in accordance with common procedures and standards, with an emphasis on practicality. Properties that were investigated include compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility. The basis for determining the optimal concrete mixture is one that is economical, practical, and exhibits ductile properties with a significant strength. Results show that increasing percentages of rubber tend to decrease workability, unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity while the toughness is increased. The addition of steel needle fibers to rubber concrete increases unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility of the composite material.

  7. Moisture effect on mechanical properties of polymeric composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airale, A. G.; Carello, M.; Ferraris, A.; Sisca, L.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of moisture on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was investigated. Four materials had been take into account considering: both 2×2-Twill woven carbon fibre or glass fibre, thermosetting matrix (Epoxy Resin) or thermoplastic matrix (Polyphenylene Sulfide). The specimens were submitted for 1800 hours to a hygrothermic test to evaluate moisture absorption on the basis of the Fick's law and finally tested to verify the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength). The results showed that the absorbed moisture decreases those properties of composites which were dominated by the matrix or the interface, while was not detectable the influence of water on the considered fibre. An important result is that the diffusion coefficient is highest for glass/PPS and lowest for carbon/epoxy composite material. The results give useful suggestions for the design of vehicle components that are exposed to environmental conditions (rain, snow and humidity).

  8. LINEAR ACTIVE STRUCTURES AND MODES (Ⅰ)--BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景绘; 龚靖; 王永刚

    2004-01-01

    Some basic concepts about the active structures were firstly explained, and the main subjects to study in the field of active structure dynamics were synthesized. For the linear active structures, the annotations on the modes were done in detail. The physical meanings of the right and left eigenvectors were explained. The right eigenvectors are the modal shapes and the modal responses of an active structure depend on the left ones. The adjoint structure of an active structure was defined and the reciprocity theorem was interpreted. For two active structures, which are adjoint to each other and with the reciprocal gain-matrices, the right and left eigenvector are reciprocal. The relationship between an active structure and the corresponding passive structure is expressed with the transfer functions, which is employed to resolve the estimation problems.

  9. Identification of material properties of sandwich structure with piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on light-weight sandwich structures made of carbon-epoxy skins and foam core which have unique bending stiffness compared to conventional materials. The skins are manufactured by vacuum autoclave technology from unidirectional prepregs and the sandwich is then glued together. The resulting material properties of the structure usually differ from those provided by manufacturer or even those obtained from experimental tests on separate materials, which makes computational models unreliable. Therefore, the properties are identified using the combination of experimental analysis of the sandwich with attached piezoelectric transducer and corresponding static and modal finite element analyses. Simple mathematical optimization with repetitive finite element solution is used. The model is then verified by transient analysis when the piezoelectric patch is excited by harmonic signals covering the first two eigen-frequencies and the induced oscillations are measured by laser sensor.

  10. Microwave Technologies-- Determination of Magnetic and Dielectric Materials Microwave Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Obol, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    In this study, four different techniques are presented. 1 Rectangular waveguide measurement technique for normal microwave materials microwave properties such as permeability and permittivity. This technique removed guess parameter and dispersive effect issues of the old waveguide measurement techniques. It projects a new route for determination of any microwave materials magnetic and dielectric properties without using any guesses. 2 Coaxial probe measurement technique for the liquid and biological tissues dielectric permittivity. This coaxial probe technique has an advantage which is to attain the highest reflected signal from the coaxial probe tip, so that it is a fast and very sensitive technique to differentiate lossy materials dielectric permittivity. This technique could be useful non destructive detections for tumors in hospital and non destructive detections for chemical liquids as well. 3 A microstripline measurement technique for oxides microwave measurement at low frequency spectra where the waveg...

  11. Structure-property relationships in silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Derzon, D.K.; Wang, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    The simultaneous formation of a filler phase and a polymer matrix via in situ sol-gel techniques provides silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials of high strength. This study concentrates on the effects of temperature and relative humidity on a trimodal polymer system in an attempt to accelerate the reaction as well as evaluate subtle process- structure-property relations. It was found that successful process acceleration is only viable for high humidity systems when using the tin(IV) catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate. Processes involving low humidity were found to be very temperature and time dependent. Bimodal systems were investigated and demonstrated that the presence of a short-chain component led to enhanced material strength. This part of the study also revealed a link between the particle size and population density and the optimization of material properties.

  12. Evaluation of radiation-shielding properties of the composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the evaluation of radiation-shielding properties of composite materials with respect to gamma-radiation. As a binder for the synthesis of radiation-shielding composites we used lead boronsilicate glass matrix. As filler we used nanotubular chrysotile filled with lead tungstate PbWO4. It is shown that all the developed composites have good physical-mechanical characteristics, such as compressive strength, thermal stability and can be used as structural materials. On the basis of theoretical calculation we described the graphs of the gamma-quanta linear attenuation coefficient depending on the emitted energy for all investigated composites. We founded high radiation-shielding properties of all the composites on the basis of theoretical and experimental data compared to materials conventionally used in the nuclear industry - iron, concrete, etc

  13. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO. Follow......This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped Zn...... temperatures. Clear correlations between the initial crystallographic phase of the dopants and the thermoelectric properties of the resulting Al-doped ZnO were observed. For Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO, the spark plasma sintering conditions together with the microstructural evolution and thermoelectric properties...... of the samples were investigated in detail. A proposed solid-state-reaction model suggested that a sintering temperature above 1223K would be preferable in order to achieve phase equilibrium in the samples. The sintering mechanism of the ZnO particles and microstructural evolutions at different...

  14. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  15. Intellectual property policy and shaping attitudes practice in a basic-research institution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rypáček, František

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i, 2011. s. 81-86. ISBN 978-80-85009-67-5. [Chemistry & IP - a liaison for successful innovation. 03.05.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : IMC * intellectual property Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  16. Characterization of the electromechanical properties of EAP materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrita, Stewart; Bhattachary, Kaushik; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2001-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging class of actuation materials. Their large electrically induced strains (longitudinal or bending), low density, mechanical flexibility, and ease of processing offer advantages over traditional electroactive materials. However, before the capability of these materials can be exploited, their electrical and mechanical behavior must be properly quantified. Two general types of EAP can be identified. The first type is ionic EAP, which requires relatively low voltages (materials requires large electric fields (>100MV/m) to achieve longitudinal deformations at the range from 4 - 360%. Some of the difficulties in characterizing EAP include: nonlinear properties, large compliance (large mismatch with metal electrodes), nonhomogeneity resulting from processing, etc. To support the need for reliable data, the authors are developing characterization techniques to quantify the electroactive responses and material properties of EAP materials. The emphasis of the current study is on addressing electromechanical issues related to the ion-exchange type EAP also known as IPMC. The analysis, experiments and test results are discussed in this paper.

  17. Microstructure characterization and magnetic properties of nano structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.C

    2000-07-01

    The present thesis deals with the unique microstructural properties and their novel magnetic properties of core-shell Ni-Ce nano composite particles, carbon encapsulated Fe, Co, and Ni nanoparticles and the nano crystallization behavior of typical ferromagnetic Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} ribbons. These properties have intensively been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy [eds.]; selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), Ft-IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition, magnetic moments measurements at different temperatures and applied fields have been performed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present studies may provide the insights for the better understanding of the correlation between the unique microstructure and novel magnetic properties for several magnetic nano structured materials. (Author)

  18. Microstructure characterization and magnetic properties of nano structured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis deals with the unique microstructural properties and their novel magnetic properties of core-shell Ni-Ce nano composite particles, carbon encapsulated Fe, Co, and Ni nanoparticles and the nano crystallization behavior of typical ferromagnetic Fe78Si9B13 ribbons. These properties have intensively been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (Eds.); selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), Ft-IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition, magnetic moments measurements at different temperatures and applied fields have been performed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present studies may provide the insights for the better understanding of the correlation between the unique microstructure and novel magnetic properties for several magnetic nano structured materials. (Author)

  19. Synthesis, Structure, and Basic Magnetic and Thermoelectric Properties of the Light Lanthanide Aurobismuthides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Elizabeth M; Xie, Weiwei; Gibson, Quinn D; Cava, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    We report the crystal structures and elementary properties of the new aurobismuthides La3Au3Bi4, Ce3Au3Bi4, Pr3Au3Bi4, Nd3Au3Bi4, Sm3Au3Bi4, and Gd3Au3Bi4. These ternary compounds are found only for the large lanthanides and crystallize in the cubic Y3Au3Sb4 structure type, which is a stuffed Th3P4-type derivative. The compounds are electron-precise, leading to semiconducting behavior, and display magnetic properties arising from localized lanthanide f states. Resistivity data, Seebeck coefficient measurements, and electronic structure calculations suggest that these phases are heavily doped, p-type semiconductors. Nd3Au3Bi4 and Sm3Au3Bi4 have Seebeck coefficients of 105 and 190 μV/K at 350 K, respectively, making them worthy of further thermoelectric studies. PMID:26974337

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Adipose and Other Tissues: Basic Biological Properties and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Orbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells that were initially isolated from bone marrow. However, subsequent research has shown that other adult tissues also contain MSCs. MSCs originate from mesenchyme, which is embryonic tissue derived from the mesoderm. These cells actively proliferate, giving rise to new cells in some tissues, but remain quiescent in others. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Isolation and induction of these cells could provide a new therapeutic tool for replacing damaged or lost adult tissues. However, the biological properties and use of stem cells in a clinical setting must be well established before significant clinical benefits are obtained. This paper summarizes data on the biological properties of MSCs and discusses current and potential clinical applications.

  1. Properties of granular analogue model materials: A community wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkmüller, Matthias; Schreurs, Guido; Rosenau, Matthias; Kemnitz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    We report the material properties of 26 granular analogue materials used in 14 analogue modelling laboratories. We determined physical characteristics such as bulk density, grain size distribution, and grain shape, and performed ring shear tests to determine friction angles and cohesion, and uniaxial compression tests to evaluate the compaction behaviour. Mean grain size of the materials varied between (c. 100 and 400 micrometer). Analysis of grain shape factors show that the four different classes of granular materials (14 quartz sands, 5 dyed quartz sands, 4 heavy mineral sands and 3 size fractions of glass beads) can be broadly divided into two groups consisting of 12 angular and 14 rounded materials. Grain shape has an influence on friction angles, with most angular materials having higher internal friction angles (between c. 35° and 40°) than rounded materials, whereas well-rounded glass beads have the lowest internal friction angles (between c. 25° and 30°). We interpret this as an effect of intergranular sliding versus rolling . Most angular materials have also higher basal friction angles (tested for a specific foil) than more rounded materials, suggesting that angular grains scratch and wear the foil., Most materials have a cohesion in the order of 10-100 Pa except for well-rounded glass beads, which show a trend towards a quasi-cohesionless (C tests reveal that rounded grains generally show less compaction than angular grains. We interpret this to be related to the initial packing density reached during sieving which is higher for rounded grains than for angular grains. Ring-shear test data show that angular grains undergo a longer strain-hardening phase than more rounded materials. This might explain why analogue models consisting of angular grains accommodate deformation in a more distributed manner prior to strain localisation than models consisting of rounded grains. Also, models build with angular grains will tend to show more dilatancy during

  2. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex(®), ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight(®) 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young's modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young's modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  3. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  4. Use of microsamples for mechanic properties and microstructure control of basic metal in main circulation pipeline of the South-Ukrainian NPP after 100 thousand hours of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of mechanical property control studies of basic metal in main circulation pipeline of the South-Ukrainian NPP are exposed. Non-destructive methodic of microsample cutting was developed. Prospects of its use are discussed

  5. Preparation and Properties of Orthogonal Piezoelectric Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun; Lu Ying; Zhang Xingguo; Shen Yi; Chen Chun

    2004-01-01

    . PZT piezoelectric ceramic with La2O3, SrCO3, BaO and Sb2O5 was prepared. It has high value of the piezoelectric strain constant d33 ( -681 PC/N) and high value of-d33/d31 (2.65). Orthogonal piezoelectric composite materials was designed and prepared by PZT, DAD- 40 electric conductive adhesive and E51 epoxy resin. The OPCM shows obvious orthogonal anisotropy. The matching property of the interface between piezoelectric ceramic and polymer of OPCM relies on the defects of interface. The proper conductive mid-layer could improve the matching property of the interface.

  6. Thermophysical properties of new materials; Proprietes thermophysiques des materiaux nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `thermo-kinetics` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 5 papers entitled: `characterization of thermal properties using periodical methods at the Odeillo test centre: developments and applications`; `measurement of the distribution of local thermophysical properties by IR images processing and averaging technique`; `extension of shock probes to the characterization of multi-layers - development of a simple device for the characterization of insulating materials or shear fluids`; `thermal local diffusivity of constituents of carbon/carbon composites`; `new method for the thermal diffusivity measurement of thermo-hardenable resins during polymerization`. (J.S.)

  7. Electrostatic levitation technology for thermophysical properties of molten materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of undercooled liquids often require some kind of levitator which isolates samples from container walls. We introduce in this presentation a high temperature/high vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) which promises some unique capabilities for the studies of thermophysical properties of molten materials. Although substantial progress has been made in the past several months, this technology is still in the development stage, therefore, in this presentation we only focus on the present state of the HTHVESL(1) and point out other capabilities which might be realized in the near future.

  8. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.M. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J.A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  9. Vanadium poisoning of cattle with basic slag. Concentrations in tissues from poisoned animals and from a reference, slaughterhouse material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A; Madej, A; Galgan, V; Petersson, L R

    1996-03-01

    lowest in the kidney (0.244, 0.213 and 0.058 mg/kg w.w., respectively). In the organs of the cows (n = 24), which were less exposed, the corresponding values were 0.012, 0.095 and 0.013 mg/kg w.w., respectively. Vanadium concentrations were also determined in livers of cows and calves at regular slaughter in four geographic regions of Sweden. In one of the regions, where basic slag (with 3% vanadium) had been used for many years, the values were significantly higher than those in the other regions. In a material of 293 specimens, an upper reference limit of 0.012 mg/kg liver w.w., with a 90% confidence interval of 0.011-0.019 mg/kg w.w., was found to be normal for cattle in Sweden. Concentrations above the Highest Swedish Reference Value, 0.019 mg/kg liver can be considered elevated. Vanadium-containing basic slag used as fertilizer caused poisoning in a herd of cattle and its regional use was detectable in livers from cattle at regular slaughter. Such fertilizer must be applied in a proper way. It should be ploughed in and any direct contact of grazing animals with the hazardous fertilizer should be prevented. PMID:8819837

  10. Material properties of high Cr-Mo steel. 3. Mechanical properties of HCM12A (FBR) after thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the FBR components, cyclic thermal loads are predominant and creep deformation must be taken into account. Therefore, the applicability of high chromium ferritic steel for structural material of the future advanced Fast Breeder Reactor is investigated in the feasibility study on commercialized FBR cycle systems, since both of thermal properties and high temperature strength of the steel are superior to those of conventional austenitic stainless steels. In this study, tensile, hardness, impact and relaxation tests are conducted in order to evaluate the basic mechanical properties of each HCM12A(2001-FBR). The material is aged at 600degC for 3000h and 6000h. The aged materials are also tested as well as the as-received one. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained; (1) Though 0.2% proof stress and ultimate tensile strength of thermal aged specimens are smaller than those of as-received ones, those properties still larger than those of as-received Mod.9Cr-1Mo and HCM12A steels for thermal power generating plants and the values of Sy and Su which were given in a tentative plan of HCM12A material properties guideline. (2) The ductility of the material are degraded by aging. The Fracture elongation and reduction of area of the as-received are inferior to those of Mod.9Cr-1Mo and HCM12A steels. (3) Upper shelf energy (USE) of the materials in Charpy impact test decreases with aging. 600degC-6000h aging process degrades the USE of HCM12A(2001-FBR) from about 110 J/cm2 to 65 J/cm2. The USE of the HCM12A(2001-FBR) steel is less than 1/2 and 2/3 of those of Mod.9Cr-1Mo and HCM12A steels, respectively. (4) Relaxation stress material aged at 600degC for 6000h was smaller than as-received one in both 0.15% and 0.30% strain controlled stress relaxation test. (5) The metallurgical examinations suggest that coarsening of M23C6 and precipitation of Laves phase in prior γ-grain, lath and packet boundaries due to thermal aging result in ductility decrease. (author)

  11. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Fabrics of Different Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes dependence of mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on integrated fabric structure factor j and raw material density r, among the fabrics of different raw material (cotton, wool, polypropylene, polyester and polyacrylnitrile and woven in different conditions. The received results demonstrate that sometimes strong dependences exist (wool, polypropylene and polyacrylnitrile, whereas in some cases (cotton and polyester there is no correlation. It was also discovered that the breaking force and elongation at break in the direction of weft increase, when fabric structure becomes more rigid. In the meantime variations of the curves in the direction of warp are insignificant. Regarding static friction force and static friction coefficient (found in two cases, when fabrics were rubbing against leather and materials, it was discovered that consistency of the curves is irregular, i. e. they either increase or decrease, when integrated fabric structure factor j growth. It was also identified that some dependences are not strong and relationship between explored and analyzed factors does not exist. Variation of all these mechanical properties with respect to material density r enables to conclude that increase of material density r results in poor dependences or they are whatsoever non-existent.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.487

  12. Basic Topological and Geometric Properties of Cesàro–Orlicz Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yunan Cui; Henryk Hudzik; Narin Petrot; Suthep Suantai; Alicja Szymaszkiewicz

    2005-11-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions under which the Cesàro–Orlicz sequence space $\\mathrm{ces}_$ is nontrivial are presented. It is proved that for the Luxemburg norm, Cesàro–Orlicz spaces $\\mathrm{ces}_$ have the Fatou property. Consequently, the spaces are complete. It is also proved that the subspace of order continuous elements in $\\mathrm{ces}_$ can be defined in two ways. Finally, criteria for strict monotonicity, uniform monotonicity and rotundity (= strict convexity) of the spaces $\\mathrm{ces}_$ are given.

  13. Market-led Development versus Basic Needs: Common Property and the Common Good in St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Thornburg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that contemporary development policies have failed to solve the problem of the maldistribution of economic resources, poverty, underemployment, and skewed income distribution. With the collapse of the Lomé Convention in 1996, St. Lucia saw its banana export market suffer a steep decline. Since then, Lomé St. Lucia has focused on market-led international tourism as the new engine of growth. Market-led development is fraught with economic cycles of up and down that lead to economic uncertainty and catastrophe for many people of limited resources. Much government revenue is spent on tourist-oriented infrastructure at the expense of a well-funded social security system. A new, morally oriented economic philosophy is called for at this time. The focus should be on a basic-needs approach and the welfare of the population rather than the needs of the market for continual growth and profit. In this regard, the paper examines the role of family land tenure in providing a common good to help alleviate the hardships of economic downturn. For thousands of co-owning heirs that may need refuge from the vagaries of the international market, family land can provide temporary economic or subsistence shelter. With an economy of limited opportunity, government policy informed by a sense of moral obligation should encourage family land as a form of social security for those numerous co-owners working in off-farm enterprises such as tourism, in which economic uncertainty is ever present.

  14. Elastic and strength properties of metal rubber material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Aleksandrovich Troynikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available MR material is a porous structure obtained by cold pressing of blanks from metal spiral into elastic elements finished by shape and size, which further will be formed into vibration isolators. The application efficiency of vibration isolators based on the MR material in the vibration isolation systems is mainly determined by its elastic and strength properties. This paper deals with experimental work, the relationship between technological and operational parameters is based on the similarity theory and dimensional analysis. The results of the study for practical use are obtained in closed form.

  15. Mechanical properties of materials with nanometer scale dimensions and microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, William D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The three-year grant for which this final report is required extends from 2011 to 2015, including a one-year, no-cost extension. But this is just the latest in a long series of grants from the Division of Materials Sciences of DOE and its predecessor offices and agencies. These include contracts or grants from: the Metallurgy Branch of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (from the late 1960s to the mid-1970s), the Materials Science Program of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (from the mid- to late- 1970s), and the Division of Materials Science of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy (from the early 1980s to the present time). Taken all together, these offices have provided nearly continuous support for our research for nearly 50 years. As we have said on many occasions, this research support has been the best we have ever had, by far. As we look back on the nearly five decades of support from the Division of Materials Sciences and the predecessor offices, we find that the continuity of support that we have enjoyed has allowed us to be most productive and terms of papers published, doctoral students graduated and influence on the field of materials science. This report will, of course, cover the three-year period of the present grant, in summary form, but will also make reference to the output that resulted from support of previous grants from the Division of Materials Sciences and its predecessor offices.

  16. Basic Properties of Concrete Incorporating Recycled Ceramic Aggregate and Ultra-fine Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fengli; LIU Junhua; MA Baoguo; HUANG Jian; LI Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Recycled ceramic mixed sand (RCMS) was obtained by partially replacing ultra-fine sand with recycled ceramic coarse sand (RCCS). The effects of RCCS replacement rate on the apparent density, workability, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of recycled ceramic concrete (RCC) were investigated. In addition, the relationship between the water-cement ratio and compressive strength of RCC was also studied. The experimental results indicate that the reusing of recycled ceramic aggregate can improve the cohesiveness and water retentiveness of fresh concrete and benefit the mechanical properties development. When the RCCS replacement rate is not less than 40%, the mechanical properties of RCC are superior to those of the reference concrete. Moreover, when recycled ceramic medium sand was completely used as fine aggregate, the maximum increase in both compressive strength and splitting tensile strength were obtained, comparing with those of reference concrete, the increment ratio was 19.85% and 32.73%, respectively. The microscopic analysis shows that the using of recycled ceramic aggregate can meliorate distinctly the structure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and increase the compaction degree of cement paste. Furthermore, an expression of the compressive strength of RCC and the cement-water ratio is regressed and gains a good linear relativity. It is an effective way to recycle waste ceramic, and the consumption of recycled ceramic aggregate could reach from 26.9%to 47.6%of the total weight of aggregate in producing concrete.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Materials with Nanometer Scale Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William D. Nix

    2004-10-31

    We have been engaged in research on the mechanical properties of materials with nanometer-scale microstructural dimensions. Our attention has been focused on studying the mechanical properties of thin films and interfaces and very small volumes of material. Because the dimensions of thin film samples are small (typically 1 mm in thickness, or less), specialized mechanical testing techniques based on nanoindentation, microbeam bending and dynamic vibration of micromachined structures have been developed and used. Here we report briefly on some of the results we have obtained over the past three years. We also give a summary of all of the dissertations, talks and publications completed on this grant during the past 15 years.

  18. Textile Materials with New Properties Used for Confections Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of textile clothing depends on the quality of prime materials and also on the technology used; this must ensure a balance between transferred heat, resulted humidity and human and environmental thermal demands, all this bringing about physiological comfort. In order to meet consumers’ demands regarding the production of products which are easy to maintain and have high hygiene properties, new prime materials are searched, with a view to ensuring a wide range of clothing. Taking into consideration the acceleration of changes and the global inter-connections, a company must develop its capacity of innovation in order to bring products with new properties on the market before others do.

  19. Optical properties of glazing materials at normal incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Powles, R.

    2001-10-01

    Measurements of spectral transmittance T and reflectance R at normal incidence continue to be the most common and accurate source of energy performance data for glazing materials. Prediction of these radiometric properties from more fundamental materials data is often confounded by the complexity and uncertainty of coating structures. Angle-dependent radiometric properties of coated glazing will probably be predicted from normal-incidence data rather than being measured at many angles. The general error level demonstrated in round-robin tests is on the order 1-2%; it is often necessary to achieve better levels of performance. Based on results obtained following the round-robin tests, it is expected that accuracy of better than 0.5% can be generally achieved. A new type of absolute standard reference is described and tested with promising results.

  20. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  1. Development of graphene oxide materials with controllably modified optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Anton; Galande, Charudatta; Mohite, Aditya; Ajayan, Pulickel; Weisman, R. Bruce

    2015-03-01

    One of the major current goals in graphene research is modifying its optical and electronic properties through controllable generation of band gaps. To achieve this, we have studied the changes in optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in water suspension upon the exposure to ozone. Ozonation for the periods of 5 to 35 minutes has caused a dramatic bleaching of its absorption and the concurrent appearance of strong visible fluorescence in previously nonemissive samples. These observed spectral changes suggest a functionalization-induced band gap opening. The sample fluorescence induced by ozonation was found to be highly pH-dependent: sharp and structured emission features resembling the spectra of molecular fluorophores were present at basic pH values, but this emission reversibly broadened and red-shifted in acidic conditions. These findings are consistent with excited state protonation of the emitting species in acidic media. Oxygen-containing addends resulting from the ozonation were detected by XPS and FTIR spectroscopy and related to optical transitions in localized graphene oxide fluorophores by computational modeling. Further research will be directed toward producing graphene-based optoelectronic devices with tailored and controllable optical properties.

  2. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the need for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to sensitive information such as proprietary data. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single "gold source" of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply chains. Fortunately, material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data "pedigree" traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  3. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipupo OLOMO; Olufikayo ADERINLEWO; Moses TANIMOLA; Silvana CROOPE

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive) tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concr...

  4. Tensile Properties of Fiber Materials under Different Strain Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jie; GU Bo-hong; WANG Shan-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests of aranid and high strength PVA fiber bundles are carried out under a wider range of strain rate by use of MTS (Materials Testing System) and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus.The influences of strain rate on mechanical properties of aramid and high strength polyvinyl alcohol fibers ar estudied. Micro failure mechanisms of fibers at different strain rates are examined by means of SEM.

  5. Modelling of electromagnetic material properties at microwave frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Alsadi, Majid Hamid Nassar

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, electromagnetic interference (EMI) has raised serious issues in terms of the unintentional radiation that disrupts the near proximity equipment from working properly. One solution to reduce the effects of EMI is the use of electromagnetic shielding. Carbon fibre composite (CFC) material is a promising customised product that has entered numerous industrial areas due to its attractive properties like high strength, low weight, and the resistance to chemical substances and corr...

  6. The principles of burying radioactive waste: basic physical and thermomechanical properties of geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the various types of radioactive wastes (short and long lives), the principles of radioactive waste storage in geologic structures are detailed: water is the main vector of migration so radionuclides are buried at depth within a medium of very low permeability and hydraulic gradient; the geological medium must retain its integrity during all the duration of their activity; its very age is obviously the guarantee of its future, but tectonic movements, erosion, climate must not deteriorate it in any way nor break down its structure. The thermomechanical effects are examined for each host medium such as plastic media (salt, clay) and brittle media (granite, shale) with an estimation of the long term and very long term rheological properties. 4 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs

  7. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cantilever Shaped Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thundat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcantilevers were first introduced as imaging probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM due to their extremely high sensitivity in measuring surface forces. The versatility of these probes, however, allows the sensing and measurement of a host of mechanical properties of various materials. Sensor parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, amplitude of vibration and bending due to a differential stress can all be simultaneously determined for a cantilever. When measuring the mechanical properties of materials, identifying and discerning the most influential parameters responsible for the observed changes in the cantilever response are important. We will, therefore, discuss the effects of various force fields such as those induced by mass loading, residual stress, internal friction of the material, and other changes in the mechanical properties of the microcantilevers. Methods to measure variations in temperature, pressure, or molecular adsorption of water molecules are also discussed. Often these effects occur simultaneously, increasing the number of parameters that need to be concurrently measured to ensure the reliability of the sensors. We therefore systematically investigate the geometric and environmental effects on cantilever measurements including the chemical nature of the underlying interactions. To address the geometric effects we have considered cantilevers with a rectangular or circular cross section. The chemical nature is addressed by using cantilevers fabricated with metals and/or dielectrics. Selective chemical etching, swelling or changes in Young’s modulus of the surface were investigated by means of polymeric and inorganic coatings. Finally to address the effect of the environment in which the cantilever operates, the Knudsen number was determined to characterize the molecule-cantilever collisions. Also bimaterial cantilevers with high thermal sensitivity were used to discern the effect of temperature

  8. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature. PMID:25540244

  9. Flexural Behavior of HPFRCC Members with Inhomogeneous Material Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Joon Shin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexural behavior of High-performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC has been investigated, especially focusing on the localization of cracks, which significantly governs the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members. From four points bending tests with HPFRCC members, it was observed that almost evenly distributed cracks formed gradually, followed by a localized crack that determined the failure of the members. In order to investigate the effect of a localized crack on the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members, an analytical procedure has been developed with the consideration of intrinsic inhomogeneous material properties of HPFRCC such as cracking and ultimate tensile strengths. From the comparison, while the predictions with homogeneous material properties overestimated flexural strength and ductility of HPFRCC members, it was found that the analysis results considering localization effect with inhomogeneous material properties showed good agreement with the test results, not only the flexural strength and ductility but also the crack widths. The test results and the developed analysis procedure presented in this paper can be usefully applied for the prediction of flexural behaviors of HPFRCC members by considering the effect of localized cracking behavior.

  10. Development of soft magnetic materials with special properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New steps in the development of soft magnetic alloys are based on a better understanding of the magnetizing processes in close connection with the development of magnetic forms and components for different applications. New result on the influence of crystal grains, inclusions, and mechanical stresses on the soft magnetic properties of Ni-Fe-alloys with ca. 50 to 75% Nickel-contents are given. Special soft magnetic alloys were developed and improved for low temperature applications, for small temperature coefficients, for different shapes of hysteresis loops, or for high wear resistance - and moreover forms, components, and basic designs of chokes for RFI suppression, of transformers for electronic power supplies, of transformers for ground-fault interrupters, and for magnetic shielding equipments. (orig.) 891 GSC/orig. 892 AV

  11. Thermophysical and thermochemical properties of fast reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and chemical properties of materials occurring within the core of a liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are reviewed. Properties particularly relevant to predicting the reactor's behaviour under various accident scenarios and during normal operations are considered and recommendations in a form suitable for use in computer codes which model such situations are put forward. Included in the review are the following properties: (a) Oxide fuels: density and thermal expansion, temperature of fusion, enthalpy and specific heat, vapour pressure, viscosity, diffusion and creep, emissivity, thermal conductivity, surface tension and energy. (b) AISI M316 stainless steel: composition, thermal expansion, temperature of fusion, enthalpy and specific heat, thermal conductivity, vapour pressure, viscosity. (c) Sodium: density, enthalpy and specific heat, vapour pressure, emissivity, diffusion, thermal conductivity, surface tension, viscosity, equation of state, critical constants

  12. Progress in composites: Microstructure-thermomechanical-property correlations of two-phase and porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper basically deals with the aim, to a get a better scientific insight into the effects of microstructure and properties of multi-phase and porous materials and to use the results technologically for tailoring those materials. First the theory of microstructure-property correlations including both, the bound concept and the model concept, is described using conductivity and Youngs modulus of elasticity as property examples. Since in the frame of the theoretical derivation no fitting factors have been permitted to be introduced into the bound equations and constitutive equations the determination of the microstructural factors by quantitative microstructural analysis is demonstrated in the second part of the contribution. By comparing measured and calculated property values for porous ceramics, graphite and metals as well as cermets, metal-polymer and polymer-ceramic-composites the equations are tested for engineering conditions. Finally the dependences of the thermal conductivity and Youngs modulus of elasticity on porosity are used to predict the thermal shock resistance of porous glass and to compare the results with experimental values. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic shape memory alloys: Basic properties and applications; Aleaciones magneticas con memoria de forma: propiedades basicas y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barandiaran, J. M.; Lazpita, P.; Guiterrez, J.; Garcia Arribas, A.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Asua, E.; Etxebarria, V.; Chernenko, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    These materials can undergo large deformations when subjected to external stresses when they are in the phase low temperature due to the super elasticity property. Super elasticity properties and memory effect form derived from the martensitic transformation, which thermoelastic transformation is involved in effort as well as temperature. The transformation autoacomodante called for a single crystal phase austenite gives rise to several crystals spontaneously martensite with their axes oriented in different directions to accommodate the deformation of the network. These crystals called variant or twins and their movement and change orientation gives rise to the super elasticity. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. A comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of nanofibrous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubun, German P.; Bessudnova, Nadezda O.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration or replacement of lost or damaged hard tooth tissues remain a reconstructive clinical dentistry challenge. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of novel concepts and methodologies of tissue engineering for the synthesis of three-dimensional graft constructs that are equivalent to original organs and tissues. This structural and functional compatibility can be reached by producing ultra-thin polymer filament scaffolds. This research aims through a series of studies to examine different methods of polymer filament material special preparation and test mechanical properties of the produced materials subjected to a tensile strain. Nanofibrous material preparation using chemically pure acetone and mixtures of ethanol/water has shown no significant changes in sample surface morphology. The high temperature impact on material morphology has resulted in the modification of fiber structure. In the course of mechanical tests it has been revealed the dependence of the material strength on the spinning solution compositions. The results achieved point to the possibility to develop nanofibrous materials with required parameters changing the methodology of spinning solution production.

  15. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nehls

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied pavement seam material. This is the soil substrate in joints of pervious pavements in urban areas. It is mostly 1 cm thick and develops from the original seam filling by depositions of all kinds of urban residues, including anthropogenic organic substances. It was investigated, how this unique form of organic matter influences the filter properties of seam material and how the seam material influences heavy metal transport through the pavement. The seam material is characterised by a darker munsell colour, higher organic carbon content, higher surface areas, higher cation exchange capacities, but a lower fraction of high adsorption energy sites compared to the original seam filling. The deposited anthropogenic organic matter itself could be characterised as particulate and non-polar. Compared to natural soils, it has a small surface area and a low surface charge density resulting in a small cation exchange capacity of only 75 cmol(+ kg−1C. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material towards Pb is similar, towards Cd it is much smaller compared to natural soils. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb. For Cd the infiltration from ponds can lead to a displacement of Cd during only one decade.

  16. Material properties from contours: New insights on object perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Deiana, Katia

    2015-10-01

    In this work we explored phenomenologically the visual complexity of the material attributes on the basis of the contours that define the boundaries of a visual object. The starting point is the rich and pioneering work done by Gestalt psychologists and, more in detail, by Rubin, who first demonstrated that contours contain most of the information related to object perception, like the shape, the color and the depth. In fact, by investigating simple conditions like those used by Gestalt psychologists, mostly consisting of contours only, we demonstrated that the phenomenal complexity of the material attributes emerges through appropriate manipulation of the contours. A phenomenological approach, analogous to the one used by Gestalt psychologists, was used to answer the following questions. What are contours? Which attributes can be phenomenally defined by contours? Are material properties determined only by contours? What is the visual syntactic organization of object attributes? The results of this work support the idea of a visual syntactic organization as a new kind of object formation process useful to understand the language of vision that creates well-formed attribute organizations. The syntax of visual attributes can be considered as a new way to investigate the modular coding and, more generally, the binding among attributes, i.e., the issue of how the brain represents the pairing of shape and material properties. PMID:26072333

  17. Engineering Properties and Correlation Analysis of Fiber Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of the amount of silica fume addition and volume fraction of steel fiber on the engineering properties of cementitious materials. Test variables include dosage of silica fume (5% and 10%, water/cement ratio (0.35 and 0.55 and steel fiber dosage (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%. The experimental results included: compressive strength, direct tensile strength, splitting tensile strength, surface abrasion and drop-weight test, which were collected to carry out the analysis of variance to realize the relevancy and significance between material parameters and those mechanical properties. Test results illustrate that the splitting tensile strength, direct tensile strength, strain capacity and ability of crack-arresting increase with increasing steel fiber and silica fume dosages, as well as the optimum mixture of the fiber cementitious materials is 5% replacement silica fume and 2% fiber dosage. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient was conducted to evaluate the influence of the material variables and corresponds to the experiment result.

  18. PREFACE: Workshop on Oxide Materials 2014: Novel Multifunctional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M. E.; Lopera, W.

    2015-07-01

    The 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties was held in Cali, Colombia, from September 15 to September 19 on the campus of Universidad del Valle. It was a great privilege to have had this workshop in Cali after the first workshop on oxide materials commemorating the first centennial of the discovery of the superconductivity in 2011. The meeting gathered an audience of 80 participants, 10 invited speakers with two or three plenary talks each, 20 short oral contributions, two poster sessions with 20 presentations each. This proceedings volume contains papers reported at the conference. The Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Oxide Materials: Novel Multifunctional Properties were edited by Maria Elena Gomez and Wilson Lopera with the assistance of Carlos William Sanchez and Albert Ortiz as copy editor. We are grateful for the financial support from COLCIENCIAS through research project COLCIENCIAS-UNIVALLE contract 002/2013; Universidad de Valle through Professor Ivan Ramos, Rector; the Faculty of Science with Professor Jaime Cantera, Dean; the Center of Excellence on Novel Materials with Professor Pedro Prieto, Director; ICETEX, and INTECO Ltda. Further details about the conference, including details of the invited speakers and plenary sessions are available in the PDF. Maria Elena Gómez, Editor Wilson Lopera, Editor

  19. Further developments in material properties determined by vibration analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang; Andreasen, Lotte; Seifert, Mette

    1997-01-01

    A method was described in Materialnyt 1 (1995) on "Material properties determined by vibration analysis". This new method of materials testing has been further developed as the result of research at the Building Materials Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark.Practical aspects of the method...... with respect to configurations of vibration equipment and shapes of test specimens used. Sensitivity studies have been made to identify sources of errors which may disturb the reliability of the method used in practice. Practical aspects with respect to test set-ups are considered in these studies - as...... assumed to be familiar with the method considered as it is described in Materialenyt 1 (1995) previously referred to. The whole set-up, including symbols, terms, viscoelastic models, and some equations refer to this publication directly without further comments....

  20. Corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Cheol; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This experiment has examined the corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials. There were slight changes of weight after the occurring of corrosion based on time and H2SO4 concentration, but in general, the weight increased. It is assumed that this happens due to the basalt fiber precipitate. Prior to the corrosion, friction-wear behavior showed irregular patterns compared to metallic materials, and when it was compared with the behavior after the corrosion, the coefficient of friction was 2 to 3 times greater. The coefficient of friction of all test specimen ranged from 0.1 to 0.2. Such a result has proven that the basalt fiber, similar to the resin rubber, shows regular patterns regardless of time and H2SO4 concentration because of the space made between resins and reinforced materials.

  1. Phase relationships, basic metallurgy and superconducting properties of Nb3Sn and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase relationships and the superconducting properties of Nb3Sn are compared with those of other high Tsub(c) compounds crystallizing in the A15 structure: Nb3Al, Nb3Ga, Nb3Ge, V3Si, V3Ga ... Characteristic differences of these systems, i.e., the shape of the A15 phase field, the variation of Tsub(c) with composition or with atomic ordering, are discussed. Recent methods leading to the accurate determination of the phase relationships in these systems up to 2000 0C are reviewed. The discussion is extended to the low temperature relationships in Nb3Sn and V3Si with the corresponding tetragonal modifications. Methods for observing these low temperature details and recent results about their influence on Tsub(c) are presented. In the case of Nb3Sn, the factors influencing the formation of the low temperature tetragonal phase, such as hydrostatic pressure, precompression in multifilamentary wires, or hydrogen loading, are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Basic Properties of Conductivity and Normal Hall Effect in the Periodic Anderson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2016-04-01

    Exact formulas of diagonal conductivity σxx and Hall conductivity σxy are derived from the Kubo formula in hybridized two-orbital systems with arbitrary band dispersions. On the basis of the theoretical framework for the Fermi liquid based on these formulas, the ground-state properties of the periodic Anderson model with electron correlation and weak impurity scattering are studied on the square lattice. It is shown that imbalance of the mass-renormalization factors causes remarkable increase in σxx and σxy in the valence-fluctuation regime as the f level increases while the cancellation of the renormalization factors causes slight increase in σxx and σxy in the Kondo regime. The Hall coefficient RH shows almost constant behavior in both the regimes. Near half filling, RH is expressed by the total hole density as R{H} = 1/(bar{n}{hole}e) while RH approaches zero near quarter filling, which reflects the curvature of the Fermi surface. These results hold as far as the damping rate for f electrons is less than about 10% of the renormalized hybridization gap. From these results we discuss pressure dependence of residual resistivity and normal Hall effect in Ce- and Yb-based heavy electron systems.

  3. Dielectric properties for SF6 and SF6 mixtures predicted from basic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α and eta, the ionization and attachment coefficients, and (E/N)*, the limiting breakdown electric field-to-gas density ratio, in SF6 and SF6 mixtures were calculated by numerically solving the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution. The calculations require a knowledge of several electron collision cross sections. Published momentum transfer and ionization cross sections for SF6 were used. Various attachment cross sections for SF6 were measured by using electron beam techniques with mass spectrometric ion detection. A total cross section for electronic excitation of SF6 was determined by comparing the predicted values of α, eta, and (E/N)* with measured values obtained from spatial current growth experiments in SF6 in uniform fields over an extended range of E/N. With this self-consistent set of SF6 cross sections, together with published He cross sections, it was then possible to predict the dielectric properties of SF6--He mixtures. Published experimental values of α for these mixtures lie between the values of α calculated with and without ionization of SF6 by excited He atoms. Published experimental values of (E/N)* agree with the calculations to within 5%. 11 figures

  4. Prebreakdown phenomena in liquids: propagation ‘modes’ and basic physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaint, O.

    2016-04-01

    Prebreakdown phenomena in liquids (usually called ‘streamers’) were characterized experimentally in a wide range of experimental conditions, liquid nature and additives. The description of these phenomena leads to a complex and frequently confused situation, since their properties widely vary when parameters such as liquid nature or voltage are changed. In this review paper, we try to obtain a more comprehensive presentation of pre-breakdown phenomena in liquids by considering different propagation ‘modes’, which can be recognized in a wide range of liquid nature and experimental conditions. On the basis of experimental results either published previously or original, we will review the main parameters and features able to better characterize these modes, and show their general interest. ‘Positive’ streamers observed in point-plane geometry in non-polar liquids are mainly considered here. Some elements allowing a comparison with water, characterized by a much higher permittivity and conductivity are given. The text is concluded by considerations concerning the different physical processes involved in modes.

  5. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP > HPOP > OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na+ in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper

  6. The M Protein of SARS-CoV: Basic Structural and Immunological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwu Hu; Jianping Shi; Xiangjun Tian; Feng Jiang; Xiaoqian Zhao; Jun Wang; Siqi Liu; Changqing Zeng; Jian Wang; Huanming Yang; Jie Wen; Lin Tang; Haijun Zhang; Xiaowei Zhang; Yan Li; Jing Wang; Yujun Han; Guoqing Li

    2003-01-01

    We studied structural and immunological properties of the SARS-CoV M (mem-brane) protein, based on comparative analyses of sequence features, phylogeneticinvestigation, and experimental results. The M protein is predicted to contain atriple-spanning transmembrane (TM) region, a single N-glycosylation site near itsN-terminus that is in the exterior of the virion, and a long C-terminal region inthe interior. The M protein harbors a higher substitution rate (0.6% correlated toits size) among viral open reading frames (ORFs) from published data. The foursubstitutions detected in the M protein, which cause non-synonymous changes,can be classified into three types. One of them results in changes of pI (isoelectricpoint) and charge, affecting antigenicity. The second changes hydrophobicity of theTM region, and the third one relates to hydrophilicity of the interior structure.Phylogenetic tree building based on the variations of the M protein appears tosupport the non-human origin of SARS-CoV. To investigate its immunogenicity,we synthesized eight oligopeptides covering 69.2% of the entire ORF and screenedthem by using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with sera from SARSpatients. The results confirmed our predictions on antigenic sites.

  7. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 μm), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 μm), middle IR (3-5 μm), far IR (8-14 μm), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06μm and 10.6μm laser, 3-5μm and 8-14μm IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were

  8. Basic thermal–mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The potassium doped tungsten grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. • The cracking threshold of the W–K alloy was in the range of 0.44–0.66 GW/m2. • Recrystallization occurred at 0.66–1.1 GW/m2 during the thermal shock tests. • No cracks emerged during the thermal fatigue tests (0.44 GW/m2, 1000 cycles). • Recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles during the thermal fatigue tests. - Abstract: The potassium doped tungsten (W–K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W–K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W–K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m2 in a step of 0.22 GW/m2. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44–0.66 GW/m2. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66–1.1 GW/m2 basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m2 up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles

  9. Basic properties of transition remanent magnetizations of magnetite in relation to the ambient field using granite samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiko; Seita, Kazuhiro; Miyagawa, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Kogiso, Tetsu; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated basic properties of transition remanent magnetization of natural magnetite in granite samples collected from the Minnesota River Valley, North America. Transition remanence was imparted during cooling and/or warming through the Verwey transition around 120 K. Depending on magnetic field conditions during cooling and warming, three types of transition remanences have been categorized: (1) TrRM, acquired during a cycle of field cooling and field warming; (2) TrWRM, acquired during zero-field cooling and field warming and (3) TrCRM, imparted during field cooling and zero-field warming. These remanences fulfil basic laws of remanent magnetization: (1) directions of the transition remanences are parallel to direction of the applied field (the law of parallelism), (2) intensities of the transition remanences are proportional to the applied field intensity (the law of proportionality) and (3) sum of the partial transition remanences is equal to the total transitional remanence, that is, TrRM = TrWRM + TrCRM. In addition, the ratio of TrRM to TRMLTD (the demagnetized component of thermoremanent magnetization by low-temperature demagnetization) shows a nearly constant value of ˜0.34. This relationship might reflect differences in equilibrium magnetic domain state at low and high temperature.

  10. Strain weakening and localisation: material properties or boundary effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Malte C.; Leever, Karen; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2015-04-01

    Strain weakening is commonly seen as one of the major causes of localisation of deformation into shear zones in brittle media. Several studies, both numerical and physical experiments, investigate its influence. Typically, these studies choose a certain model configuration and test various material properties and their influence on localisation in that particular configuration. This approach, however, does not take into account the fundamental importance of boundary conditions on the processes of localisation, weakening and overall shear zone evolution. To address this issue, we perform physical experiments in granular materials. We create shear fractures within a sample of granular material (sand) using different experimental apparatuses that apply different boundary conditions. Among them are standard machines such as a Ring-Shear Tester and the classical Riedel set up, as well as a newly designed set up. Boundary conditions can be varied from purely kinematic to more dynamically controlled and from laterally confined to unconfined. Nevertheless, the final result of deformation is an approximately straight strike-slip shear zone in all cases. We monitor boundary force (i. e. material strength) and, where experimentally accessible, strain, at high temporal resolution during deformation. With our different set ups we are able to produce very different patterns of deformation and weakening in the same material under the same constant rate of shearing and with the same final result. Observed patterns span from nearly instantaneous formation of one single through-going shear zone to slow, step-wise growth of a complex network of interacting cracks. Weakening in all cases matches well the structural evolution. Variations of weakening for a given material in different set ups are larger than for different materials in a given set up. Our results show that for a given material the style and rate of localisation can change drastically, depending on only slight changes of

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of PVD coatings for tool materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this work is to investigate and compare the properties of (Ti,AlN, Ti(C,N and (Ti,Al,SiN coatings, deposited on cemented carbide and cermet substrates.Design/methodology/approach: Coatings deposition were carried out using the PVD method by the cathodic arc evaporation (CAE process. Investigations of surfaces and structures of the deposited coatings were carried out with use of SEM and TEM methods. Roughness parameter measurements, adhesion evaluation of the coatings on the investigated inserts, the Vickers microhardness measurements and detailed cutting tests were carried out to compare the properties of the investigated materials.Findings: The results of the investigations carried out confirm the advantages of PVD coatings deposited onto both: cemented carbides and cermets, especially in case of (Ti,AlN and (Ti,Al,SiN coatings. Coatings deposited onto the investigated substrates are characterised by good adhesion, high microhardness, taking effect in very high increasing of wear resistance.Practical implications: Deposition of hard, thin, multicomponent coatings on materials surface by PVD method features one of the most intensely developed directions of improvement of the working properties of materials. Employment of introduced combinations of substrates and coatings make it possible to transit of machining of semi-products from roughing to semi-finishing or finishing in one setting.Originality/value: Coatings based on (Ti,AlN, (Ti,Al,SiN as well as Ti(C,N were developed to provide better performance over titanium nitride since the incorporation of aluminum or carbon in TiN increased hardness, decreased coefficient of friction of the coatings. Tools with such coatings reveal a significant life extension in service compared to the uncoated tools or coated with simple coatings based on monolayers of nitrides or carbonitrides, improvement of the tribological contact conditions in the tool-chip-machined material contact zone

  12. Optimization of Vertical Well Placement for Oil Field Development Based on Basic Reservoir Rock Properties using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuka Ariadji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the quality of basic reservoir rock properties is a common practice to locate new infills or development wells for optimizing an oil field development using a reservoir simulation. The conventional technique employs a manual trial and error process to find new well locations, which proves to be time-consuming, especially, for a large field. Concerning this practical matter, an alternative in the form of a robust technique was introduced in order that time and efforts could be reduced in finding best new well locations capable of producing the highest oil recovery. The objective of the research was to apply Genetic Algorithm (GA in determining wells locations using reservoir simulation to avoid the manual conventional trial and error method. GA involved the basic rock properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, and oil saturation, of each grid block obtained from a reservoir simulation model, which was applied into a newly generated fitness function formulated through translating the common engineering practice in the reservoir simulation into a mathematical equation and then into a computer program. The maximum of the fitness value indicated a final searching of the best grid location for a new well location. In order to evaluate the performance of the generated GA program, two fields that had different production profile characteristics, namely the X and Y fields, were applied to validate the proposed method. The proposed GA method proved to be a robust and accurate method to find the best new well locations for field development. The key success of this proposed GA method is in the formulation of the objective function.

  13. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  14. Materials Selection, Synthesis, and Dielectrical Properties of PVC Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Mobarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials selection process for electrical insulation application was carried out using Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES program. Melt mixing technique was applied to prepare polyvinyl-chloride- (PVC- nanofumed silica and nanomontmorillonite clay composites. Surface analysis and particles dispersibility were examined using scanning electron microscope. Dielectrical properties were assessed using Hipot tester. An experimental work for dielectric loss of the nanocomposite materials has been investigated in a frequency range of 10 Hz–50 kHz. The initial results using CES program showed that microparticles of silica and clay can improve electrical insulation properties and modulus of elasticity of PVC. Nano-montmorillonite clay composites were synthesized and characterized. Experimental analyses displayed that trapping properties of matrix are highly modified by the presence of nanofillers. The nanofumed silica and nanoclay particles were dispersed homogenously in PVC up to 10% wt/wt. Dielectric loss tangent constant of PVC-nanoclay composites was decreased successfully from 0.57 to 0.5 at 100 Hz using fillers loading from 1% to 10% wt/wt, respectively. Nano-fumed silica showed a significant influence on the electrical resistivity of PVC by enhancing it up to 1 × 1011 Ohm·m.

  15. Oxide Thermoelectric Materials: A Structure-Property Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Abanti; Shubha, V.

    2014-04-01

    Recent demand for thermoelectric materials for power harvesting from automobile and industrial waste heat requires oxide materials because of their potential advantages over intermetallic alloys in terms of chemical and thermal stability at high temperatures. Achievement of thermoelectric figure of merit equivalent to unity ( ZT ≈ 1) for transition-metal oxides necessitates a second look at the fundamental theory on the basis of the structure-property relationship giving rise to electron correlation accompanied by spin fluctuation. Promising transition-metal oxides based on wide-bandgap semiconductors, perovskite and layered oxides have been studied as potential candidate n- and p-type materials. This paper reviews the correlation between the crystal structure and thermoelectric properties of transition-metal oxides. The crystal-site-dependent electronic configuration and spin degeneracy to control the thermopower and electron-phonon interaction leading to polaron hopping to control electrical conductivity is discussed. Crystal structure tailoring leading to phonon scattering at interfaces and nanograin domains to achieve low thermal conductivity is also highlighted.

  16. Material properties of microcrystalline silicon for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Czang-Ho; Shin, Myunghun; Lim, Mi-Hwa; Seo, Jun-Yong; Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Hee-Yong; Kim, Byoung-June; Choi, Donguk [Development Group, LCD Division, Samsung Electronics, Yongin City, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The paper reviews the material requirements of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si) in terms of the device operation and configuration for thin film solar cells and thin film transistors (TFTs). We investigated the material properties of {mu}c-Si films deposited by using 13.56 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from a conventional H{sub 2} dilution in SiH{sub 4}. Two types of intrinsic {mu}c-Si films deposited at the high pressure narrow electrode gap and the low pressure wide electrode gap were studied for the solar cell absorption layers. The material properties were characterized using dark conductivity, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The {mu}c-Si quality and solar cell performance were mainly determined by microstructure characteristics. Solar cells adopting the optimized {mu}c-Si film demonstrated high stability with no significant changes in solar cell performance after air exposure for six months and subsequent illumination for over 300 h. The results can be explained that low ion bombardment and high atomic hydrogen density under the PECVD condition of the high pressure narrow electrode gap produce high-quality {mu}c-Si films for solar cell application. (author)

  17. Learning to apply models of materials while explaining their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpin, Tiia; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Background:Applying structural models is important to chemistry education at the upper secondary level, but it is considered one of the most difficult topics to learn. Purpose:This study analyses to what extent in designed lessons students learned to apply structural models in explaining the properties and behaviours of various materials. Sample:An experimental group is 27 Finnish upper secondary school students and control group included 18 students from the same school. Design and methods:In quasi-experimental setting, students were guided through predict, observe, explain activities in four practical work situations. It was intended that the structural models would encourage students to learn how to identify and apply appropriate models when predicting and explaining situations. The lessons, organised over a one-week period, began with a teacher's demonstration and continued with student experiments in which they described the properties and behaviours of six household products representing three different materials. Results:Most students in the experimental group learned to apply the models correctly, as demonstrated by post-test scores that were significantly higher than pre-test scores. The control group showed no significant difference between pre- and post-test scores. Conclusions:The findings indicate that the intervention where students engage in predict, observe, explain activities while several materials and models are confronted at the same time, had a positive effect on learning outcomes.

  18. Biosilica-glass formation using enzymes from sponges [silicatein]: Basic aspects and application in biomedicine [bone reconstitution material and osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Gan, Lu; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-09-01

    In the last 15 years biomineralization, in particular biosilicification (i.e., the formation of biogenic silica, SiO2), has become an exciting source of inspiration for the development of novel bionic approaches, following "Nature as model". Among the silica forming organisms there are the sponges that have the unique property to catalyze their silica skeletons by a specific enzyme termed silicatein. In the present review we summarize the present state of knowledge on silicatein-mediated "biosilica" formation in marine sponges, the involvement of further molecules in silica metabolism and their potential application in biomedicine. Recent advancements in the production of bone replacement material and in the potential use as a component in the treatment of osteoporosis are highlighted.

  19. Basicity determination for neutral phosphorus organic extragents by NMR 31P-method in two-phase systems, and quantitative interrelations of acido-basic extractive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the method for determination of basicity of neutral organophosphorus compounds of XGZP=0 type (X, G, Z=C4H9, C8H17, C6H5). The method is based on change of chemical shift of phosphorus-31 nuclei in two-phase extraction system depending on acidity function HO, HA, HPO. It is shown that the method can be used for evaluation and forecasting of phosphine oxide ability in the processes of UO2SO4 solvent extraction from aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid

  20. Applicability of miniature specimen techniques for evaluating the mechanical properties of pressure tube and cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Miniature Specimen Test Techniques (MSTT) namely Small Punch Test (SPT) and Ball Indentation Test (BIT) are commonly employed for evaluating the tensile properties of metallic materials. While discs of 3mm diameter with 0.25mm thickness are utilized for SPT method, the samples for BIT are of any shape with parallel polished top and bottom surfaces having thickness of at least 1mm. The SPT technique is based on driving a ball through clamped miniature disc specimens for deforming till it fractures whereas BIT involves multiple indentations, load and unload cycles at a single indentation point on a polished metallic surface by a spherical indenter. The specimens were fabricated from Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube (PT) material that is used in pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR). A suitable die-punch assembly was designed and developed in house to clamp the specimen to carry out the small punch test with the help of a screw-driven universal testing machine. In this work we have utilized miniature tensile specimens for evaluating and comparing the mechanical properties of PT material with that obtained from SPT and BIT. The tensile specimens were prepared using wire cut Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) as per general guideline of ASTM standard E-8. Tests were carried out at ambient and higher temperatures. The tensile properties obtained from tension test and two MSTTs show that the tensile properties vary with orientation and temperature. In order to evaluate mechanical properties of cladding tube two techniques namely SPT and Ring Tension Test (RTT) have been used. The RTT is another technique, already established for estimation of the mechanical properties of cladding tube material in the transverse direction. Experimental results were generated at ambient and higher temperatures by preparing specimens from the same cladding tube in the form of 3mm discs and rings. The basic fixture that was used for carrying out ring tension test of the cladding tube consists

  1. Controlling the Casimir force via the electromagnetic properties of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the Casimir force between two parallel plates can be achieved through adjusting the frequency-dependent electromagnetic properties of materials of the two plates. We show that, for different plate separations, the main contribution to the Casimir force comes from different frequency regions: For smaller (larger) separation, it comes from the higher (lower) frequency region. When the separation of the plates increases, the Casimir force can vary from attractive to repulsive and/or vice versa, by selecting the two plates with suitable electromagnetic properties. We discuss how a restoring Casimir force, which varies from repulsive to attractive by increasing the separation, can be realized and that the stable equilibrium is formed at zero Casimir force.

  2. Acoustic Properties of Innovative Material from Date Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Abd AL-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An organic material is one of the major requirements to improve living environment and the invention of materials need to consider for the best solution. This study presents an experimental investigation on pure porous from Date Palm Fibre (DPF. The effectiveness of sound absorbers depends on structural architecture of this material. This study was conducted to examine the potential of using date palm fibre as sound absorber. The effects of porous layer thicknesses, densities and compression on Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC of sound absorber using date palm fibre were studied. Approach: Rigid frame Johnson-Allard Model for various sample thicknesses was used in this study. The measurements were conducted in impedance tube on normal incidence acoustic absorption. The date palm fibre was mixed with latex which used for physical treatment on this material. Acoustic absorption behaviour of a porous material with different thicknesses was studied as well as samples with same thickness but different densities. In addition, samples with same properties but different period of compression time were inspected. The tests were in accordance to ISO 10534-2 and ASTM E1050-98 international standards for Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC. Results: The experimental data indicates that two peak values of AAC is 0.93 at 1356Hz for sample with 50 mm thickness, also the AAC at high frequency for same thickness is 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz that means able to improve acoustic absorption coefficient at low and high frequencies with significant increasing. Meanwhile, another experimental results were acquired for AAC of date palm fibre, with samples thicknesses of 35 mm at different densities .The results show that denser sample (11 Kg m-3 has higher AAC value of 0.83 at 1934- 2250 Hz as compared to less dense sample (9.92 Kg m-3 with AAC value 0.84 at 2443-2587 Hz . Conclusion: Acoustic absorption coefficient AAC of date palm fibre was

  3. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-01

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  4. Structure and magnetic properties of powder soft magnetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Konieczny

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents influence of high-energy mechanical milling process, isothermal annealing and toa combination of these two technologies of cobalt base metallic glasses Co77Si11.5B11.5 on magnetic propertiesand their structure.Design/methodology/approach: The powder test piece obtained from the input amorphous ribbon in highenergyball milling. The diffraction examinations and examinations of thin foils were made on the JEOL JEM200CX transmission electron microscope. Observations of the structure of powders were made on the OptonDSM-940 scanning electron microscope. The X-ray tests were realized with the use of the XRD 7 SEIFERTFPMdiffractometer.Findings: analysis of the magnetic properties test results of the of the Co77Si11.5B11.5 powders obtained inthe high-energy ball of milling process proved that the process causes significant decrease in the magneticproperties. The structure and magnetic properties of this material may be improved by means of a proper choiceof parameters of this process as well as the final thermal treatment.Research limitations/implications: For the powders, further magnetical, structure and composition examinationsare planed.Practical implications: The amorphous and nanocrystalline metal powders obtained by high-energy ballmilling of metallic glasses feature an alternative to solid alloys and make it possible to obtain the ferromagneticnanocomposites, whose shape and dimensions can be freely formed.Originality/value: The paper presents influence of parameters of the high-energy ball milling process onstructure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic powder materials obtained in this technique. Results and adiscussion of the influence of high energy mechanical milling process on particle size and their distribution aswell as structure and magnetic properties of investigated samples is presented.

  5. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  6. Measurements of interface fracture properties of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, interface Fracture properties are measured. To this end, glass/epoxy Brazilian disk specimens are studied. In order to calibrate the specimen, a numerical procedure is used. The finite element method is employed to derive stress intensity factors as a function of loading angle and crack length. By means of the weight friction method together with finite elements, a correction to the stress intensity factors for residual thermal stresses is obtained. These are combined to determine the critical interface energy release rate as a function of phase angle Tom the measured load and crack length at Fracture. A series of tests on a glass/epoxy material pair were carried out. It may be observed from the results that the residual thermal stresses resulting from the material mismatch greatly affect the interface toughness values

  7. Thermoelectric properties of Al doped Mg2Si material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we have calculated thermoelectric properties of Al doped Mg2Si material (Mg2−xAlxSi, x=0.06) using Pseudo potential plane wave method based on DFT and Semi classical Boltzmann theory. The calculations showed n-type conduction, indicating that the electrical conduction are due to electron. The electrical conductivity increasing with increasing temperature and the negative value of Seebeck Coefficient also show that the conduction is due to electron. The thermal conductivity was increased slightly by Al doping with increasing temperature due to the much larger contribution of lattice thermal conductivity over electronic thermal conductivity

  8. Engineering Properties and Correlation Analysis of Fiber Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Ting Lin; Yuan-Chieh Wu; An Cheng; Sao-Jeng Chao; Hui-Mi Hsu

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the amount of silica fume addition and volume fraction of steel fiber on the engineering properties of cementitious materials. Test variables include dosage of silica fume (5% and 10%), water/cement ratio (0.35 and 0.55) and steel fiber dosage (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%). The experimental results included: compressive strength, direct tensile strength, splitting tensile strength, surface abrasion and drop-weight test, which were collected to carry out the analysi...

  9. Anticoagulation property and security of artificial heart valve material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xianghui; LIU; Xianghuai; ZHANG; Feng; LI; Changron

    2005-01-01

    Heart valve diseases threaten human health. One reliable way to save lives of such patients is to replace the pathologically changed heart valves by artificial ones. Over 2 million patients have received LTI-carbon heart valve's implantation. However, the thrombosis after the implantation is one of the difficulties that need to be solved. In order to improve the blood compatibility and security of mechanical heart valves, ion beam technology was used to modify the surface properties of the materials. The investigation results have been summarized in this paper.

  10. Design of materials configurations for enhanced phononic and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, Chiara

    The discovery of novel nonlinear dynamic and electronic phenomena is presented for the specific cases of granular materials and carbon nanotubes. This research was conducted for designing and constructing optimized macro-, micro- and nano-scale structural configurations of materials, and for studying their phononic and electronic behavior. Variation of composite arrangements of granular elements with different elastic properties in a linear chain-of-sphere, Y-junction or 3-D configurations led to a variety of novel phononic phenomena and interesting physical properties, which can be potentially useful for security, communications, mechanical and biomedical engineering applications. Mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes with different atomic arrangements and microstructures were also investigated. Electronic properties of Y-junction configured carbon nanotubes exhibit an exciting transistor switch behavior which is not seen in linear configuration nanotubes. Strongly nonlinear materials were designed and fabricated using novel and innovative concepts. Due to their unique strongly nonlinear and anisotropic nature, novel wave phenomena have been discovered. Specifically, violations of Snell's law were detected and a new mechanism of wave interaction with interfaces between NTPCs (Nonlinear Tunable Phononic Crystals) was established. Polymer-based systems were tested for the first time, and the tunability of the solitary waves speed was demonstrated. New materials with transformed signal propagation speed in the manageable range of 10-100 m/s and signal amplitude typical for audible speech have been developed. The enhancing of the mitigation of solitary and shock waves in 1-D chains were demonstrated and a new protective medium was designed for practical applications. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D strongly nonlinear system have been investigated providing a broad impact on the whole area of strongly nonlinear wave dynamics and creating experimental basis for new

  11. Properties of Cement Based Materials Containing Copper Tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Onuaguluchi, Obinna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Increasing demands for copper and copper allied products have made the processing of low grade ores with high volume waste output unavoidable. Presently, billions of tons of copper tailings can be found in major copper producing countries. This study explored the possibility of using these copper tailings either as a cement replacement or additive material in pastes, mortars and concretes of 0.65, 0.57 and 0.50 w/b ratios. Fresh properties of mixtures such as paste consistencies an...

  12. A parametric study of influence of material properties on car cabin environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorny Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently the author presented the paper describing a car cabin heat load model for the prediction of the car cabin environment. The model allowed to simulate a transient behavior of the car cabin, i.e. radiant temperature of surfaces, air temperature and relative humidity. The model was developed in Dymola and was built on the basic principles of thermodynamics and heat balance equations. The model was validated by experiments performed on the Škoda Felicia during various operational conditions. In this paper the authors present a parametric study investigating influence of material properties on a car cabin environment. The Matlab version of the car cabin heat load model has been developed and used. The model was extended by simple graphical user interface and it was deployed into the stand alone executable application. The aim of this parametric study is to identify most important material properties and its effect on the cabin environment during specific operational conditions of car. By means of a sensitive analysis it can identified which material parameters have to be defined precisely and which parameters are not so important for the prediction of the air temperature inside cabin.

  13. Main mechanisms of material properties degradation under reactor pressure vessel operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of NPP equipment operation materials are subjected to a prolonged influence of loads, associated with the variation of inner pressure and temperature under various conditions. Each equipment element damage is associated with some material fracture mechanism. For NPP equipment the mechanisms of irreversible damage accumulation are related with: irradiation embrittlement, thermal and strain aging, fatigue damages from mechanical and thermal loading, stress corrosion and fatigue corrosion, creep and thermal relaxation stresses, erosion and weak, thermal shock. The basic tasks of specialists working in the sphere of the provision of reliability and service life of nuclear power equipment are not only the determination of the main mechanisms of damages and reasons of their appearance, but also the study of methods which would permit to control these properties completely. By giving some examples of Russian NPP equipment with VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors the paper presents most typical degradation mechanisms of equipment material properties, including weldments, in the process of operation and methods to recover by using various technological means. (author)

  14. Atomic-scale simulations of material behaviors and tribology properties for BCC metal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, D. Aristizabal; P, A. Parra; P, López; E, Restrepo-Parra

    2016-01-01

    This work has two main purposes: (i) introducing the basic concepts of molecular dynamics analysis to material scientists and engineers, and (ii) providing a better understanding of instrumented indentation measurements, presenting an example of nanoindentation and scratch test simulations. To reach these purposes, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoindentation and scratch test technique were carried out for generic thin films that present BCC crystalline structures. Structures were oriented in the plane (100) and placed on FCC diamond substrates. A pair wise potential was employed to simulate the interaction between atoms of each layer and a repulsive radial potential was used to represent a spherical tip indenting the sample. Mechanical properties of this generic material were obtained by varying the indentation depth and dissociation energy. The load-unload curves and coefficient of friction were found for each test; on the other hand, dissociation energy was varied showing a better mechanical response for films that present grater dissociation energy. Structural change evolution was observed presenting vacancies and slips as the depth was varied. Project supported by la DirecciónNacional de Investigación of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, “the Theoretical Study of Physical Properties of Hard Materials for Technological Applications” (Grant No. 20101007903).

  15. Research on the icephobic properties of fluoropolymer-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuqing; Xia, Qiang; Zhu, Lin; Xue, Jian; Wang, Qingjun; Chen, Qing-min

    2011-03-01

    Fluoropolymer, because of the extremely low surface energy, could be non-stick to water and thus could be a good candidate as anti-icing materials. In this paper, the icephobic properties of a series of fluoropolymer materials including pristine PTFE plates (P-PTFE), sandblasted PTFE plates (SB-PTFE), two PTFE coatings (SNF-1 and SNF-CO1), a fluorinated room-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber coating (F-RTV) and a fluorinated polyurethane coating (F-PU) have been investigated by using SEM, XPS, ice adhesion strength (tensile and shear) tests, and static and dynamic water contact angle analysis. Results show that the fluoropolymer material with a smooth surface can significantly reduce ice adhesion strength but do not show obvious effect in reducing ice accretion at -8 °C. Fluoropolymers with sub-micron surface structures can improve the hydrophobicity at normal temperature. It leads to an efficient reduction in the ice accretion on the surface at -8 °C, due to the superhydrophobicity of the materials. But the hydrophobicity of this surface descends at a low temperature with high humidity. Consequently, once ice layer formed on the surface, the ice adhesion strength enhanced rapidly due to the existence of the sub-micron structures. Ice adhesion strength of fluoropolymers is highly correlated to CA reduction observed when the temperature was changed from 20 °C to -8 °C. This property is associated with the submicron structure on the surface, which allows water condensed in the interspace between the sub-micron protrudes at a low temperature, and leads to a reduced contact angle, as well as a significantly increased ice adhesion strength.

  16. Mechanical properties of new dental pulp-capping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Matthew J; Casey, Jeffery A; VanderWeele, Richard A; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of pulp-capping materials may affect their resistance to fracture during placement of a final restorative material or while supporting an overlying restoration over time. The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus of 2 new pulp-capping materials (TheraCal LC and Biodentine), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium hydroxide over time. Specimens were created in molds and tested to failure in a universal testing machine after 15 minutes, 3 hours, and 24 hours. The MTA specimens did not set at 15 minutes. At all time periods, TheraCal LC had the greatest compressive and flexural strengths. After 3 and 24 hours, Biodentine had the greatest flexural modulus. TheraCal LC had greater early strength to potentially resist fracture during immediate placement of a final restorative material. Biodentine had greater stiffness after 3 hours to potentially provide better support of an overlying restoration under function over time. PMID:26742167

  17. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  18. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  19. Mechanical properties of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High performance aluminosilicate based cementitious materials were produced using calcined gangue as one of the major raw materials.The gangue was calcined at 500℃.The main constituent was calcined gangue, fly ash and slag, while alkali-silicate solutions were used as the diagenetic agent.The structure of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials was studied by the methods of IR, NMR and SEM.The results show that the mechanical properties are affected by the mass ratio between the gangue, slag and fly ash, the kind of activator and additional salt.For 28-day curing time, the compressive strength of the sample with a mass proportion of 2:1:1 (gangue: slag: fly ash) is 58.9 MPa, while the compressive strength of the sample containing 80wt%gangue can still be up to 52.3 MPa.The larger K+ favors the formation of large silicate oligomers with which Al(OH)4- prefers to bind.Therefore, in Na-K compounding activator solutions more oligomers exist which result in a stronger compressive strength of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials than in the case of Na-containing activator.The reasons for this were found through IR and NMR analysis.Glauber's salt reduces the 3-day compressive strength of the paste, but increases its 7-day and 28-day compressive strengths.

  20. Structure and magnetic properties of powder HITPERM material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Frąckowiak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work is to investigate the structure and magnetic properties of the cobalt based HITPERM amorphous alloy Co68Fe4Mo1Si13.5B13.5 subjected high-energy ball milling and to the isothermal annealing to a combination of these two technologies.Design/methodology/approach: The nanocrystalline ferromagnetic powders were manufactured by high-energy ball milling of metallic glasses ribbons in as state. Using the HFQS program the distributions of the magnetic hyperfine P(H fields were determined for spectra smoothed in this way, employing the Hesse-Rübartsch method. Observations of the structure of powders were made on the OPTON DSM-940 scanning electron microscope. The diffraction examinations and examinations of thin foils were made on the JEOL JEM 200CX transmission electron microscope equipped in equipped with the EDS LINK ISIS X- ray energy dispersive spectrometer made by Oxford. Graphical analyses of the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns, as well as of the HC=f(TA relationship were made using the MICROCAL ORIGIN 6.0 program.Findings: The analysis of the structure and magnetic properties test results of the HITPERM powders alloy Co68Fe4Mo1Si13.5B13.5 obtained in the high-energy ball of milling process proved that the process causes significant decrease in the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties of this material and structure and may be improved by means of a proper choice of parameters of this process as well as the final thermal treatment.Research limitations/implications: For the soft magnetic powder material, further magnetical, composition examinations and structure are planed.Practical implications: Feature an alternative to solid alloys are the amorphous and nanocrystalline metal powders obtained by milling of metallic glasses and make it possible to obtain the ferromagnetic nanocomposites, whose dimensions and shape can be freely formed.Originality/value: The paper presents results of influence of parameters

  1. Effect on image data resampling in evaluation of the basic imaging properties for a digital radiographic system based on a flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effect on image data resampling in an evaluation of the basic imaging properties for a digital radiographic system based on a flat panel detector (FPD). One of the latest digital radiographic systems was used in this study. This system was based on a direct-conversion FPD of amorphous selenium. The basic imaging properties of the system were evaluated by measuring characteristic curve, presampled modulation transfer function (MTF), and Wiener spectrum (WS) using Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image with a matrix size of 2048 x 2048. The evaluations were performed under two conditions because matrix size automatically changes according to the selection of imaging size. One of the conditions was a different matrix size between image data acquired on the FPD and the output image (DICOM image for which resampling was performed). The other condition was that these matrices be the same size (DICOM image with no resampling performed). Resampling did not affect the characteristic curves. However, MTF and the WS obtained from the resampled data were different from those of the one not resampled, which is considered to be the 'inherent' basic imaging properties, and this phenomenon was remarkable, especially in terms of the MTFs. Our study indicates that the effect on resampling should not be disregarded in evaluating the basic imaging properties of digital radiographic systems. Therefore, it is mandatory to use DICOM images for which no resampling was performed in order to evaluate the inherent basic imaging properties for digital radio graphic systems. (author)

  2. MatProps: Material Properties Database and Associated Access Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrenberger, J K; Becker, R C; Goto, D M; Neely, J R; Wallin, B K

    2007-08-13

    Coefficients for analytic constitutive and equation of state models (EOS), which are used by many hydro codes at LLNL, are currently stored in a legacy material database (Steinberg, UCRL-MA-106349). Parameters for numerous materials are available through this database, and include Steinberg-Guinan and Steinberg-Lund constitutive models for metals, JWL equations of state for high explosives, and Mie-Gruniesen equations of state for metals. These constitutive models are used in most of the simulations done by ASC codes today at Livermore. Analytic EOSs are also still used, but have been superseded in many cases by tabular representations in LEOS (http://leos.llnl.gov). Numerous advanced constitutive models have been developed and implemented into ASC codes over the past 20 years. These newer models have more physics and better representations of material strength properties than their predecessors, and therefore more model coefficients. However, a material database of these coefficients is not readily available. Therefore incorporating these coefficients with those of the legacy models into a portable database that could be shared amongst codes would be most welcome. The goal of this paper is to describe the MatProp effort at LLNL to create such a database and associated access library that could be used by codes throughout the DOE complex and beyond. We have written an initial version of the MatProp database and access library and our DOE/ASC code ALE3D (Nichols et. al., UCRL-MA-152204) is able to import information from the database. The database, a link to which exists on the Sourceforge server at LLNL, contains coefficients for many materials and models (see Appendix), and includes material parameters in the following categories--flow stress, shear modulus, strength, damage, and equation of state. Future versions of the Matprop database and access library will include the ability to read and write material descriptions that can be exchanged between codes. It will

  3. Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  4. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  5. Vanadium oxide based materials: Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesh, Samar I.

    In recent years, the demand for gas sensors based on safety and process control requirements has been expanding. The reason for such demand sterns from environmental and safety concerns since the toxic gases released from automobile exhausts and chemical plants can directly or indirectly pollute our environment and affect our health. Among the chemicals studied, nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases are among the most dangerous air pollutants. Transition metal oxide clusters (or polyoxometalates) provide an exciting opportunity for the design and synthesis of a new generation of materials for efficient NOx sensing. Polyoxometalates are an important and fast emerging class of compounds that exhibit many remarkable properties. Chapter 1 provides introduction and background of chemical sensors. It describes the need for gas sensors and the current status of research in the area of NOx gas sensors in particular. A description of polyoxmetalates and their relevance as potential novel gas sensor materials is also given. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis and characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, manganometric titration, bond valence sum calculation, temperature dependent magnetic properties studies, electron paramagnetic resonance, and complete single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of newly prepared vanadium oxide based-systems that have been discovered during the course of this work. First, the system containing arrays of decavanadates networked by extensive hydrogen bonding with cyclic nitrogen bases are described. This is followed by the mixed-valence vanadium oxide cluster, [VV 13VIV3O42(Cl)]-7, containing a hitherto unknown vanadium oxide framework structure. Finally the synthesis of 3D-framework materials is described. These compounds have highly symmetrical closely related three-dimensional framework structures consisting vanadium oxide shells {V18O42(XO4)} linked via heterometallic atoms {M' = Cd, Zn} into three

  6. Elucidating the role of interfacial materials properties in microfluidic packages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thayne L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to discover a method to investigate the properties of interfaces as described by a numerical physical model. The model used was adopted from literature and applied to a commercially available multiphysics software package. By doing this the internal properties of simple structures could be elucidated and then readily applied to more complex structures such as valves and pumps in laminate microfluidic structures. A numerical finite element multi-scale model of a cohesive interface comprised of heterogeneous material properties was used to elucidate irreversible damage from applied strain energy. An unknown internal state variable was applied to characterize the damage process. Using a constrained blister test, this unknown internal state variable could be determined for an adherend/adhesive/adherend body. This is particularly interesting for laminate systems with microfluidic and microstructures contained within the body. A laminate structure was designed and fabricated that could accommodate a variety of binary systems joined using nearly any technique such as adhesive, welding (solvent, laser, ultrasonic, RF, etc.), or thermal. The adhesive method was the most successful and easy to implement but also one of the more difficult to understand, especially over long periods of time. Welding methods are meant to achieve a bond that is similar to bulk properties and so are easier to predict. However, methods of welding often produce defects in the bonds.. Examples of the test structures used to elucidate the internal properties of the model were shown and demonstrated. The real life examples used this research to improve upon current designs and aided in creating complex structures for sensor and other applications.

  7. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  8. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Woo KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3714

  9. Mechanical Properties and Simulated Wear of Provisional Resin Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Scheidel, D; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine flexural properties and erosive wear behavior of provisional resin materials. Three bis-acryl base provisional resins-1) Protemp Plus (PP), 2) Integrity (IG), 3) Luxatemp Automix Plus (LX)-and a conventional poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) resin, UniFast III (UF), were evaluated. A resin composite, Z100 Restorative (Z1), was included as a benchmark material. Six specimens for each of the four materials were used to determine flexural strength and elastic modulus according to ISO Standard 4049. Twelve specimens for each material were used to examine wear using a generalized wear simulation model. The test materials were each subjected to wear challenges of 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles in a Leinfelder-Suzuki (Alabama) wear simulator. The materials were placed in custom cylinder-shaped stainless-steel fixtures, and wear was generated using a cylindrical-shaped flat-ended stainless-steel antagonist in a slurry of nonplasticized PMMA beads. Wear (mean facet depth [μm] and volume loss [mm(3)]) was determined using a noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2100) with Proscan and AnSur 3D software. The laboratory data were evaluated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; factors: 1) material and 2) cycles) followed by Tukey HSD post hoc test (α=0.05). The flexural strength ranged from 68.2 to 150.6 MPa, and the elastic modulus ranged from 2.0 to 15.9 GPa. All of the bis-acryl provisional resins (PP, IG, and LX) demonstrated significantly higher values than the PMMA resin (UF) in flexural strength and elastic modulus (p0.05) in flexural properties among three bis-acryl base provisional resins (PP, IG, and LX). Z1 demonstrated significantly (pmaterials tested. The results for mean facet wear depth (μm) and standard deviations (SD) for 200,000 cycles were as follows: PP, 22.4 (5.0); IG, 51.0 (6.5); LX, 63.7 (4.5); UF, 70.5 (8.0); and Z1, 7.6 (1.2). Volume loss (mm(3)) and SDs for 200,000 cycles were as follows: PP, 0

  10. Electrochromic & magnetic properties of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng-Fei, Guo; Kun, Pan; Xue-Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Progress in electrochromic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed, highlighting advances and possible research directions. Methods for using the LIB electrode materials’ magnetic properties are also described, using several examples. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) film is discussed as an electrochromic material and insertion compound. The opto-electrical properties of the LTO film have been characterized by electrical measurements and UV-Vis spectra. A prototype bi-functional electrochromic LIB, incorporating LTO as both electrochromic layer and anode, has also been characterized by charge- discharge measurements and UV-Vis transmittance. The results show that the bi-functional electrochromic LIB prototype works well. Magnetic measurement has proven to be a powerful tool to evaluate the quality of electrode materials. We introduce briefly the magnetism of solids in general, and then discuss the magnetic characteristics of layered oxides, spinel oxides, olivine phosphate LiFePO4, and Nasicon-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3. We also discuss what kind of impurities can be detected, which will guide us to fabricate high quality films and high performance devices. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  11. Material Properties of Three Candidate Elastomers for Space Seals Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    A next-generation docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support Constellation Space Exploration Missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. A number of investigations were carried out to quantify the properties of candidate elastomer materials for use in the main interface seal of the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This seal forms the gas pressure seal between two mating spacecraft. Three candidate silicone elastomer compounds were examined: Esterline ELA-SA-401, Parker Hannifin S0383-70, and Parker Hannifin S0899-50. All three materials were characterized as low-outgassing compounds, per ASTM E595, so as to minimize the contamination of optical and solar array systems. Important seal properties such as outgas levels, durometer, tensile strength, elongation to failure, glass transition temperature, permeability, compression set, Yeoh strain energy coefficients, coefficients of friction, coefficients of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and are reported herein.

  12. Effects of acido-basic support properties on the catalytic hydrogenation of acetylene on gold nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Abdullah Ahmed

    Metallic gold nanoparticles supported on gamma-Al2O 3 and magnesia-alumina mixed oxide, with different magnesia content have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by different techniques (inductive coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), XRD, BET surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CO2 and NH 3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD), H2 temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and FTIR of adsorbed CO2). Such systems were found to produce catalysts with controllable acidity, varying from catalyst possessing large density of acidic and low density of basic sites, others with acidic and basic sites of equal strength and density, and others with large basic and low acid sites densities, respectively. The catalytic assessment of the generated acidity was carried out using 2-propanol decomposition as a test reaction. The results obtained indicate that the presence of magnesia and reduced gold nanopartilces has imparted the catalysts, 1%Au/4%Mg-Al 2O3 and 1%Au/8%Mg-Al2O3, with significant base-catalytic properties. Acetylene hydrogenation and formation of coke deposits were investigated on a gold catalyst supported on gamma-Al2O3 and gold supported on alumina-magnisia mixed oxide with different gold content; 1%Au/gamma-Al 2O3, 1%Au/15%Mg-Al2O3, 2%Au/15%Mg-Al 2O3 and 4%Au/15%Mg-Al2O3. The effect of the H2/C2H2 ratio was studied over a range of values. The catalytic activity and selectivity towards ethylene and other products were investigated at different reaction temperatures. Acetylene hydrogenation was investigated in the presence and absence of ethylene in stream. It is investigated that the adsorption of the triple bond is preferred over the double bond and during selective catalytic (SCR) of C2H2 the two hydrocarbons do not compete for the same adsorption sites. The deactivation of catalysts was studied by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). Higher content of coke over 1%Au/Al2O3 catalyst was investigated in contrast to

  13. Relationship between Material Properties and Local Formability of DP980 Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Xu, Le; Barlat, Frederic

    2012-04-24

    A noticeable degree of inconsistent forming behaviors has been observed for the 1st generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in production, and they appear to be associated with the inherent microstructural-level inhomogeneities for various AHSS. This indicates that the basic material property requirements and screening methods currently used for the mild steels and high strength low alloys (HSLA) are no longer sufficient for qualifying today’s AHSS. In order to establish more relevant material acceptance criteria for AHSS, the fundamental understandings on key mechanical properties and microstructural features influencing the local formability of AHSS need to be developed. For this purpose, in this study, DP980 was selected as model steels and eight different types of DP980 sheet steels were acquired from various steel suppliers. Various experiments were then performed on the eight different DP980 steels such as chemical composition analysis, static tensile test, hole expansion test, channel forming test. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures of the DP980 steels were also obtained, and image processing tools were then adopted to those SEM pictures in order to quantify their various microstructural features. The results show that all DP980 steels show large discrepancy in their performance and that the tensile properties and hole expansion properties of these steels do not correlate with their local formability. According to the results up to date, it is not possible to correlate the microstructural features alone to the macroscopically measured deformation behaviors. In addition to image analysis, other experiments (i.e., nano-indentation test) are also planned to quantify the individual phase properties of the various DP steels.

  14. ABINIT: First-principles approach to material and nanosystem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, X.; Amadon, B.; Anglade, P.-M.; Beuken, J.-M.; Bottin, F.; Boulanger, P.; Bruneval, F.; Caliste, D.; Caracas, R.; Côté, M.; Deutsch, T.; Genovese, L.; Ghosez, Ph.; Giantomassi, M.; Goedecker, S.; Hamann, D. R.; Hermet, P.; Jollet, F.; Jomard, G.; Leroux, S.; Mancini, M.; Mazevet, S.; Oliveira, M. J. T.; Onida, G.; Pouillon, Y.; Rangel, T.; Rignanese, G.-M.; Sangalli, D.; Shaltaf, R.; Torrent, M.; Verstraete, M. J.; Zerah, G.; Zwanziger, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    ABINIT [ http://www.abinit.org] allows one to study, from first-principles, systems made of electrons and nuclei (e.g. periodic solids, molecules, nanostructures, etc.), on the basis of Density-Functional Theory (DFT) and Many-Body Perturbation Theory. Beyond the computation of the total energy, charge density and electronic structure of such systems, ABINIT also implements many dynamical, dielectric, thermodynamical, mechanical, or electronic properties, at different levels of approximation. The present paper provides an exhaustive account of the capabilities of ABINIT. It should be helpful to scientists that are not familiarized with ABINIT, as well as to already regular users. First, we give a broad overview of ABINIT, including the list of the capabilities and how to access them. Then, we present in more details the recent, advanced, developments of ABINIT, with adequate references to the underlying theory, as well as the relevant input variables, tests and, if available, ABINIT tutorials. Program summaryProgram title: ABINIT Catalogue identifier: AEEU_v1_0 Distribution format: tar.gz Journal reference: Comput. Phys. Comm. Programming language: Fortran95, PERL scripts, Python scripts Computer: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Operating system: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Sequential, or parallel with proven speed-up up to one thousand processors. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to several hundred Gbytes, depending on the input file. Classification: 7.3, 7.8 External routines: (all optional) BigDFT [1], ETSF IO [2], libxc [3], NetCDF [4], MPI [5], Wannier90 [6] Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing accurately material and nanostructure properties: electronic structure, bond lengths, bond angles, primitive cell size, cohesive energy, dielectric properties, vibrational properties, elastic properties, optical properties, magnetic properties, non-linear couplings, electronic and

  15. Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of University of Cornell, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Lampson, M A [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of University of Cornell, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Greathouse, D V [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); II, R E Koeppe [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Andersen, O S [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Medical College of University of Cornell, New York, NY 10021 (United States)

    2006-07-19

    Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)-Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly-alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.

  16. A study of thermoelectric properties of graphene materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twombly, Chris

    Graphene has very beneficial charge transport properties which make it an interesting potential thermoelectric material, but its thermoelectric efficiency is limited by large thermal conductivity. Nanostructuring graphene by incorporating periodic holes in the crystal structure produces graphene nanomesh with reduced thermal conductivity due to increased phonon scattering. The goal of this study was to investigate the thermoelectric properties of graphene nanomeshes and defected graphene using Density Functional Theory and semi-classical Boltzmann Transport Theory. We computed the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and the electrical component of thermal conductivity from first principles. We first developed and verified the accuracy of our techniques using silicon. We then examined the properties of silicon nanowires in order to study systems with more complex geometry and to show that nanostructuring can improve thermoelectric properties. Our results agreed closely with previous experimental and theoretical studies of silicon systems. We then employed this suite of methods to study graphene, graphene nanomeshes, and periodically defected graphene. Our calculations for pristine graphene agreed closely with experimental measurements, proving that our methods work well with 2D systems. Our calculations suggest that there is up to a one order of magnitude increase in Seebeck coefficient for graphene nanomeshes compared to pristine graphene. This increase was found to be strongly dependent on a previously predicted geometrically based semimetal to semiconductor transition. We estimated a maximum ZT of 0.15-0.4 for graphene nanomeshes based on a simple scaling law for the thermal conductivity in these systems. The ZT value is strongly dependent on the purity and the quality of the graphene crystal lattice, which affects the relaxation time of charge carriers in these systems. We then studied defected graphene with partial hydrogen passivation and boron

  17. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  18. Optical properties of (nanometer MCM-41)-(malachite green) composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized materials loaded with organic dyes are of interest with respect to novel optical applications. The optical properties of malachite green (MG) in MCM-41 are considerably influenced by the limited nanoporous channels of nanometer MCM-41. Nanometer MCM-41 was synthesized by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of silica and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) as the template. The liquid-phase grafting method has been employed for incorporation of the malachite green molecules into the channels of nanometer MCM-41. A comparative study has been carried out on the adsorption of the malachite green into modified MCM-41 and unmodified MCM-41. The modified MCM-41 was synthesized using a silylation reagent, trimethychlorosilane (TMSCl), which functionalized the surface of nanometer MCM-41 for proper host-guest interaction. The prepared (nanometer MCM-41)-MG samples have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique at 77 K, Raman spectra and luminescence studies. In the prepared (nanometer MCM-41)-MG composite materials, the frameworks of the host molecular sieve were kept intact and the MG located inside the pores of MCM-41. Compared with the MG, it is found that the prepared composite materials perform a considerable luminescence. The excitation and emission spectra of MG in both modified MCM-41 and unmodified MCM-41 were examined to explore the structural effects on the optical properties of MG. The results of luminescence spectra indicated that the MG molecules existed in monomer form within MCM-41. However, the luminescent intensity of MG incorporated in the modified MCM-41 are higher than that of MG encapsulated in unmodified MCM-41, which may be due to the anchored methyl groups on the channels of the nanometer MCM-41 and the strong host-guest interactions. The steric effect from the pore size of the host materials is significant. Raman

  19. EVALUATION OF SORPTIVE PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CARRIERS AND COATING MATERIALS FOR LIQUISOLID SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle of liquisolid systems formulation lies in the conversion of the drug in a liquid state into an apparently dry, free-flowing and readily compressible powder by its blending (or spraying) with specific carriers and coating materials. The selection of the most suitable carrier and coating material depends especially on their values of flowable liquid retention potential (Φ), which is defined as the maximum mass of liquid that can be retained per unit mass of powder material, while maintaining an acceptable flowability. The presented work focused on the determination of the maximum amount of propylene glycol (PG), which can be retained by several selected carriers and coating materials while maintaining acceptable flow properties of the liquisolid powder blend. Granulated forms of magnesium aluminometasilicates (Neusilin® US2 and Neusilin® NS2N), dibasic calcium phosphate (Fujicalin®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® PH 101) were tested due to their frequent use. Powdered forms of magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin® UFL2) and colloidal silica (Aerosil® 200) were used as common coating materials. From the evaluation of liquisolid mixtures with different amounts of liquid, it could be observed that 1 g of Neusilin® US2, Neusilin® UFL2, Neusilin® NS2N, Aerosil® 200, Fujicalin® and Avicel® PH 101 can retain 1.00, 0.97, 0.54, 0.04, 0.25 and 0.12 g of propylene glycol, respectively, while maintaining acceptable flowing properties for further processing. PMID:26642662

  20. The Effect of Material Properties on Dynamo Generation in Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, Ryan

    2015-10-01

    In this thesis I use a three dimensional numerical dynamo model to explore the effect of novel material properties and core states on magnetic field generation in the planet Mercury, and in rocky extra-solar planets. In the first part of this work I focus on the recent evidence of pressure induced metallisation in materials which commonly comprise planetary mantles. In this scenario the materials which make up the lower mantle of a planet conduct electricity with a conductivity similar to that of iron. I show that a metallised mantle changes the way in which magnetic field is generated by providing a new source of magnetic shear between the fluid outer core and the solid mantle. I then show that this has the effect of making planetary magnetic fields more difficult to observe from Earth. The second and third parts of this work focus on the planet Mercury. First, I incorporate recent evidence of buoyancy sources mid-way through Mercury's liquid core (known as "snow zones") to show that they can explain the weak observed magnetic field of Mercury. In a second project on Mercury I test whether recent evidence of a dense solid layer at the top of Mercury's core, attributed to a solid, electrically conducting layer of FeS, could help explain Mercury's weak magnetic field. I find that the addition of this layer causes the dynamo to generate a strong, dipolar magnetic field, which does not match the observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft.

  1. Mechanical properties of laser welded multi material tailor welded blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, tailor welded blanks(TWB) were formed between high strength steel(SABC1470) and cold rolled steels(SPFH590 and SPFC980) to improve passenger safety and reduce the weight of cars. Multi material TWB specimens were highly strengthened through the heat treatment of SABC1470. The change in tensile strength caused by the stand by time until water cooling after stamping and the deformation behavior of high speed bending in a statically indeterminate condition such as in the center pillar were evaluated. Multi material TWB specimens that were heat treated at the same temperature tended to show a decrease in tensile and yield strength, depending on the stand by time until water cooling. On the other hand, Multi material TWB specimens(SABC1470+SPFH590) that were heat treated at 850.deg.C showed good properties that were suitable for ensuring passenger safety in car accidents. From the viewpoint of passenger safety, it is best to use SABC1470 and SPFH590 in the upper and lower area of the center pillar, respectively

  2. Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composite Material Properties for Impact Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Biniendak, Wieslaw K.; Arnold, William A.; Littell, Justin D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of impact simulations for aircraft components made with triaxial braided carbon fiber composites is currently limited by inadequate material property data and lack of validated material models for analysis. Improvements to standard quasi-static test methods are needed to account for the large unit cell size and localized damage within the unit cell. The deformation and damage of a triaxial braided composite material was examined using standard quasi-static in-plane tension, compression, and shear tests. Some modifications to standard test specimen geometries are suggested, and methods for measuring the local strain at the onset of failure within the braid unit cell are presented. Deformation and damage at higher strain rates is examined using ballistic impact tests on 61- by 61- by 3.2-mm (24- by 24- by 0.125-in.) composite panels. Digital image correlation techniques were used to examine full-field deformation and damage during both quasi-static and impact tests. An impact analysis method is presented that utilizes both local and global deformation and failure information from the quasi-static tests as input for impact simulations. Improvements that are needed in test and analysis methods for better predictive capability are examined.

  3. Pyroelectric Materials for Uncooled Infrared Detectors: Processing, Properties, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, A. K.; Guggilla, P.; Edwards, M. E.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric detectors find applications in diverse and wide areas such as industrial production; automotive; aerospace applications for satellite-borne ozone sensors assembled with an infrared spectrometer; health care; space exploration; imaging systems for ships, cars, and aircraft; and military and security surveillance systems. These detectors are the prime candidates for NASA s thermal infrared detector requirements. In this Technical Memorandum, the physical phenomena underlying the operation and advantages of pyroelectric infrared detectors is introduced. A list and applications of important ferroelectrics is given, which is a subclass of pyroelectrics. The basic concepts of processing of important pyroelectrics in various forms are described: single crystal growth, ceramic processing, polymer-composites preparation, and thin- and thick-film fabrications. The present status of materials and their characteristics and detectors figures-of-merit are presented in detail. In the end, the unique techniques demonstrated for improving/enhancing the performance of pyroelectric detectors are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on recent advances and emerging technologies such as thin-film array devices and novel single crystal sensors.

  4. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  5. Interfacial Properties and Design of Functional Energy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Liang, Liangbo [ORNL; Nicolai, Adrien [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

    2014-01-01

    The vital importance of energy to society continues to demand a relentless pursuit of energy responsive materials that can bridge fundamental chemical structures at the molecular level and achieve improved functionality, such as efficient energy conversion/storage/transmission, over multiple length scales. This demand can potentially be realized by harnessing the power of self-assembly a spontaneous process where molecules or much larger entities form ordered aggregates as a consequence of predominately non-covalent (weak) interactions. Self-assembly is the key to bottom-up design of molecular devices, because the nearly atomic-level control is very difficult to realize in a top-down, e.g., lithographic approach. However, while function (e.g., charge mobility) in simple systems such as single crystals can often be predicted, predicting the function of the great variety of self-assembled molecular architectures is complicated by the lack of understanding and control over nanoscale interactions, mesoscale architectures, and macroscale (long-range) order. To establish a foundation toward delivering practical solutions, it is critical to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms responsible for the self-assembly of molecular and hybrid materials on various substrates. Typically molecular self-assembly involves poorly understood non-covalent intermolecular and substrate-molecule interactions compounded by local and/or collective influences from the substrate atomic lattice (symmetry and/or topological features) and electronic structure. Thus, progress towards unraveling the underlying physicochemical processes that control the structure and macroscopic physical, mechanical, electrical, and transport properties of materials increasingly requires tight integration of theory, modeling and simulation with precision synthesis, advanced experimental characterization, and device measurements. In this mode, theory and simulation can greatly accelerate the

  6. Quantitative property-structural relation modeling on polymeric dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke

    Nowadays, polymeric materials have attracted more and more attention in dielectric applications. But searching for a material with desired properties is still largely based on trial and error. To facilitate the development of new polymeric materials, heuristic models built using the Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) techniques can provide reliable "working solutions". In this thesis, the application of QSPR on polymeric materials is studied from two angles: descriptors and algorithms. A novel set of descriptors, called infinite chain descriptors (ICD), are developed to encode the chemical features of pure polymers. ICD is designed to eliminate the uncertainty of polymer conformations and inconsistency of molecular representation of polymers. Models for the dielectric constant, band gap, dielectric loss tangent and glass transition temperatures of organic polymers are built with high prediction accuracy. Two new algorithms, the physics-enlightened learning method (PELM) and multi-mechanism detection, are designed to deal with two typical challenges in material QSPR. PELM is a meta-algorithm that utilizes the classic physical theory as guidance to construct the candidate learning function. It shows better out-of-domain prediction accuracy compared to the classic machine learning algorithm (support vector machine). Multi-mechanism detection is built based on a cluster-weighted mixing model similar to a Gaussian mixture model. The idea is to separate the data into subsets where each subset can be modeled by a much simpler model. The case study on glass transition temperature shows that this method can provide better overall prediction accuracy even though less data is available for each subset model. In addition, the techniques developed in this work are also applied to polymer nanocomposites (PNC). PNC are new materials with outstanding dielectric properties. As a key factor in determining the dispersion state of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix

  7. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles Having Enhanced Electrical Properties and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites have enhanced electrical properties. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, a host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and a surfactant. In addition to enhanced electrical properties, the composites can have enhanced mechanical and thermal properties.

  8. Extended liner performance for hydrodynamics and material properties experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Over the last few years a new application for high performance pulsed power, the production of high energy density environments for the study of material properties under extreme conditions and hydrodynamics in complex geometries has joined the traditional family of radiation source applications. The newly commissioned Atlas pulsed power system at Los Alamos has replaced its predecessor, Pegasus, and joined the Shiva Star system at AFRL, Albuquerque and a variety of flux compression systems, principally at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) as ultra high current drivers for the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner that is used to create the needed environments. Three families of experiments: the production of ultra strong shocks (>10 Mbar), the production of strongly coupled plasmas by liner compression of an initially dense plasma of a few eV temperature, and the compression of a magnetized plasma for ...

  9. CW laser generated ultrasound techniques for microstructure material properties evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursby, Graham; Culshaw, Brian; Pierce, Gareth; Cleary, Alison; McKee, Campbell; Veres, Istvan

    2009-03-01

    Mechanical properties of materials may be obtained from the inversion of ultrasonic Lamb wave dispersion curves. In order to do this broadband excitation and detection of ultrasound is required. As sample size and, in particular, thickness, are reduced to those of microstructures, ultrasound frequencies in the range of the gigahertz region will be required. We look at two possible cw laser excitation techniques which, having far lower peak powers than the more frequently used Q-switched lasers, therefore give a negligible risk of damaging the sample through ablation. In the first method the modulation frequency of a sinusoidally modulated laser is swept over the required range. In the second, the laser is modulated with a series of square pulses whose timing is given by a PRBS (pseudo random binary sequence) in the form of a modified m-sequence.

  10. Effective properties of a cemented or an injected granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamida, A.; Bouchelaghem, F.; Dumontet, H.

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the macroscopic elastic properties of injected or cemented sands are derived from the characteristics of the constituents and the analysis of the microstructure using a multi-scale modelling approach. Particular interest is given to the choice of the representative elementary volume, by relying on existing microstructural data. The periodic homogenization is adopted and required numerical solutions are performed by the finite element method. An assessment of the validity of the multi-scale approach is achieved through comparison with theoretical and experimental results on cemented and injected granular media reported in the literature. The capabilities of the model are also used to investigate the influence of geometrical and mechanical microscale parameters on the macroscopic behaviour of the treated materials. Copyright

  11. Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roach, Fred [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-05

    The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Cladding and Wrapper Materials for the ASTRID Fast-Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for the cladding and wrapper in ASTRID: – AIM1 cladding material: • AIM1 swelling behavior: the Oliphant 1bis irradiation; • Mechanical properties on fresh material. – EM10 wrapper material: • mechanical properties on irradiated material: BOITIX9; • high temperature mechanical behaviour. Ongoing research on AIM1 and EM10

  13. Synthesis and Properties of Electroconductive Polymeric Composite Material Based on Polypyrrole

    OpenAIRE

    Ilicheva, N. S.; Kitaeva, N. K.; Duflot, V. R.; V. I. Kabanova

    2012-01-01

    A technique is proposed for obtaining electroconductive, mechanically strong, and elastic composite material based on polypyrrole and hydrophilized polyethylene. The relationship is established between the process parameters and properties of the composite material such as electroconductivity and mechanical strength. Several methods are considered in the view of increasing electroconductivity of the material. Physical and mechanical properties of the composite material are investigated.

  14. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo OLOMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concrete samples, tensile strength test on the steel samples and chemical tests involving the assessment of the quantities of cement, sulphates and chloride concentrations in the samples. A redesign of the building elements was also carried out and the results were compared with the existing design. The non-destructive test results indicated compressive strengths as low as 9.9 N/mm2, the tensile strength test indicated a maximum strength of 397.48 N/mm2 and the chemical test indicated chloride contents as high as 0.534 g per gramme of concrete. These properties deviated significantly from standard requirements. Based on these results, it was concluded that the remains of the building should be demolished.

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of mechanical properties of magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankolenski, K.P.; Hua, S.Z.; Yang, D.X.; Hicho, G.E.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Zang, Z.; Chopra, H.D.

    2000-07-01

    A magnetic-based non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method, which employs Barkhausen effect and measurement of the hysteresis loops, is used to correlate the magnetic and mechanical properties of ultra low carbon (ULC) steel. In particular, the NDE method was used to detect small deviations from linearity that occur in the stress-strain curve well below the 0.2% offset strain, and which generally defines the yield point in materials. Results show that three parameters: jumpsum and jumpsum rate (derived from the Barkhausen spectrum), and the relative permeability (derived from the B-H loops) varies sensitively with small permanent strains, and can be related to the plastic deformation in ULC steels. Investigation of micromagnetic structure revealed that plastic deformation leaves a residual stress state in the samples; the associated magneto-elastic energy makes the favorable easy axis of magnetization in a given grain to be the one that lies closest to the tensile axis. The consequence of this realignment of domains is that wall motion becomes intergranular in nature (as opposed to intragranular in unstrained samples). As a result, the more complex grain boundaries instead of dislocations, become the dominant pinning sites for domain walls. These observations provide a microscopic interpretation of the observed changes in the measured magnetic properties.

  16. W-Cu gradient materials - processing, properties and application possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functionally graded material (FGM) of tungsten with its high thermal and mechanical resistance and copper with its very high thermal and electrical conductivity and ductility expands the application fields of this material in the direction of extreme demands such as plasma facing components in fusion reactors. The PM-production of W-Cu-gradients recommends itself because of the possibility to form the gradient by the mixing of powder components, but is also demanding because of the differences in their sintering behavior and thermal expansions. W-Gu-gradient samples of different concentration profiles have been formed in layers by powder stacking in a die and continuously by centrifugal powder forming. The consolidation routes were determined by the concentration areas of the gradients and encompass liquid phase sintering, pressure assisted solid phase sintering and the application of coated Tungsten powder and sintering additives. The microstructure and the concentration profiles of the samples have been investigated metaliographically and by EDX. The influence of processing and the gradient profile of the properties have been characterized by TRS and the investigation of residual thermal stresses by neutron diffraction. (author)

  17. Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances (137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, 106Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137Cs to be calculated

  18. Characterization of electrical and optical properties of silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guobin

    2009-12-04

    In this work, the electrical and luminescence properties of a series of silicon based materials used for photovoltaics, microelectronics and nanoelectronics have been investigated by means of electron beam induced current (EBIC), cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) methods. Photovoltaic materials produced by block casting have been investigated by EBIC on wafers sliced from different parts of the ingot. Various solar cell processings have been compared in parallel wafers by means of EBIC collection efficiency measurements and contrast-temperature C(T) behaviors of the extended defects, i. e. dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs). It was found that the solar cell processing with phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG) followed with a SiN firing greatly reduces the recombination activity of extended defects at room temperature, and improves the bulk property simultaneously. A remaining activity of the dislocations indicates the limitation of the PDG at extended defects. Abnormal behavior of the dislocation activity after certain solar cell processes was also observed in the region with high dislocation density, the dislocations are activated after certain solar cell processings. In order to evaluate the properties of a thin polycrystalline silicon layer prepared by Al-induced layer exchange (Alile) technique, epitaxially layer grown on silicon substrate with different orientations was used as a model system to investigate the impact by the process temperature and the substrates. EBIC energy dependent collection efficiency measurements reveal an improvement of the epilayer quality with increasing substrate temperature during the growth from 450 C to 650 C, and a decrease of epilayer quality at 700 C. PL measurements on the epitaxially grown Si layer on silicon substrates revealed no characteristic dislocation-related luminescence (DRL) lines at room temperature and 77 K, while in the samples prepared by Alile process, intense

  19. Application of sulphoaluminate cement to repair deteriorated concrete members in chloride ion rich environment-A basic experimental investigation of durability properties

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Gaochuang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a basic experimental investigation of the durability properties of Sulphoaluminate cement concrete (SACC) and Portland Cement Concrete (PCC). It is to discuss the potential application of Sulphoaluminate cement towards the repair of deteriorated concrete members in chloride ion-rich environment such as coastal engineering, using a SACC repair layer with higher strength than original damaged concrete. The chloride-related durability properties of SACCs were comprehensively ...

  20. Dielectric properties of pharmaceutical materials relevant to microwave processing: effects of field frequency, material density, and moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Paul W S; Loh, Z H; Liew, Celine V; Lee, C C

    2010-02-01

    The rising popularity of microwaves for drying, material processing and quality sensing has fuelled the need for knowledge concerning dielectric properties of common pharmaceutical materials. This article represents one of the few reports on the density and moisture content dependence of the dielectric properties of primary pharmaceutical materials and their relevance to microwave-assisted processing. Dielectric constants (epsilon') and losses (epsilon'') of 13 pharmaceutical materials were measured over a frequency range of 1 MHz-1 GHz at 23 +/- 1 degrees C using a parallel-electrode measurement system. Effects of field frequency, material density and moisture content on dielectric properties were studied. Material dielectric properties varied considerably with frequency. At microwave frequencies, linear relationships were established between cube-root functions of the dielectric parameters [symbols: see text] and density which enabled dielectric properties of materials at various densities to be estimated by regression. Moisture content was the main factor that contributed to the disparities in dielectric properties and heating capabilities of the materials in a laboratory microwave oven. The effectiveness of a single frequency density-independent dielectric function for moisture sensing applications was explored and found to be suitable within low ranges of moisture contents for a model material. PMID:19708060

  1. 41 CFR 101-42.207 - Transfer of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transfer of hazardous materials and certain categories of property. 101-42.207 Section 101-42.207 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION...

  2. Theoretical Studies on the Electronic Structures and Properties of Complex Ceramic Crystals and Novel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2012-01-14

    This project is a continuation of a long program supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science in the Office of Science of DOE for many years. The final three-year continuation started on November 1, 2005 with additional 1 year extension to October 30, 2009. The project was then granted a two-year No Cost Extension which officially ended on October 30, 2011. This report covers the activities within this six year period with emphasis on the work completed within the last 3 years. A total of 44 papers with acknowledgement to this grant were published or submitted. The overall objectives of this project are as follows. These objectives have been evolved over the six year period: (1) To use the state-of-the-art computational methods to investigate the electronic structures of complex ceramics and other novel crystals. (2) To further investigate the defects, surfaces/interfaces and microstructures in complex materials using large scale modeling. (3) To extend the study on ceramic materials to more complex bioceramic crystals. (4) To initiate the study on soft condensed matters including water and biomolecules. (5) To focus on the spectroscopic studies of different materials especially on the ELNES and XANES spectral calculations and their applications related to experimental techniques. (6) To develop and refine computational methods to be effectively executed on DOE supercomputers. (7) To evaluate mechanical properties of different crystals and those containing defects and relate them to the fundamental electronic structures. (8) To promote and publicize the first-principles OLCAO method developed by the PI (under DOE support for many years) for applications to large complex material systems. (9) To train a new generation of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in modern computational materials science and condensed matter physics. (10) To establish effective international and domestic collaborations with both experimentalists and theorists in materials

  3. Overview literature on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI MS): basics and its applications in characterizing polymeric materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Jagtap; A H Ambre

    2005-10-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI MS) is a technique which allows the measurement of molecular mass > 200,000 Daltons by ionization and vapourization without degradation. This technique is useful for the mass analysis of synthetic polymers, which have very low volatility. The basic principles of and its applications for polymer characterization have been discussed in this paper. In addition, the possibilities of combining MALDI MS with chromatographic and other analytical techniques have also been discussed.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of low-dimensional nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo

    2007-05-01

    Nanometer scale structures represent an exciting and rapidly expanding area of research. Studies on new physical/chemical properties and applications of nanomaterials and nanostructures are possible only when nanostructured materials are made available with desired size, morphology, crystal and microstructure, and composition. Thus, controlled synthesis of nanomaterials is the essential aspect of nanotechnology. This thesis describes the development of simple and versatile solution-based approaches to synthesize low-dimensional nanostructures. The first major goal of this research is to design and fabricate morphology-controlled alpha-Fe 2O3 nanoarchitectures in aqueous solution through a programmed microwave-assisted hydrothermal route, taking advantage of microwave irradiation and hydrothermal effects. Free-standing alpha-Fe2O3 nanorings are prepared by hydrolysis of FeCl3 in the presence of phosphate ions. The as-formed architecture of alpha-Fe2O 3 nanorings is an exciting new member in the family of iron oxide nanostructures. Our preliminary results demonstrate that sensors made of the alpha-Fe 2O3 nanorings exhibit high sensitivity not only for bio-sensing of hydrogen peroxide in a physiological solution but also for gas-sensing of alcohol vapor at room temperature. Moreover, monodisperse alpha-Fe 2O3 nanocrystals with continuous aspect-ratio tuning and fine shape control are achieved by controlling the experimental conditions. The as-formed alpha-Fe2O3 exhibits shape-dependent infrared optical properties. The growth process of colloidal alpha-Fe 2O3 crystals in the presence of phosphate ions is discussed. In addition, through an efficient microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, self-assembled hierarchical alpha-Fe2O3 nanoarchitectures are synthesized on a large scale. The second major goal of this research is to develop convenient microwave-hydrothermal approaches for the fabrication of carbon-based nanocomposites: (1) A one-pot solution-phase route, namely

  5. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density

  6. Status report on severe accident material property measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of selected material properties of molten reactor core material (corium) were made. The corium used was a mixture of UO2, ZrO2 and Zr, with oxygen content being a parameter to reflect different stages of zirconium oxidation. The mixtures used were representative of typical in-vessel melt sequences. For most measurements, the UO2/ZrO2 mass ratio was 1.51, representative of VVER/440 melt compositions and melt compositions of most US BWRs. Measurements were made of the solidus/liquidus temperatures of corium compositions using a Differential Thermal Analysis technique. Observation of the solubility of unoxidized Zr in the oxide phase was made by metallographic analysis of solidus/liquidus melt samples. The results of laminar flow corium spreading tests in one dimension were used to estimate the viscosity of corium compositions. Measured solidus and liquidus temperatures for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% were compared with those obtained form a phase diagram provided by Kurchatov Institute. It was found that experimental measurements agreed well with the phase diagram values at 70% oxidation, but the measured solidus temperatures were higher than those on the phase diagram and the measured liquidus temperatures were lower than those on the phase diagram at 30 and 50% oxidation. From a microstructure examination it was determined that there was no global segregation into distinct metal and oxide phases during the cooldown of a sample in which there was initially 70% Zr oxidation. Therefore it is concluded that Zr metal is soluble in the oxide phase under molten conditions. Viscosity estimates were made for compositions representative of Zr oxidation of 30, 50 and 70% by fitting the results of spreading tests to Huppert's equation. It was found that, at a temperature of 2500 C, the viscosity varied by three orders of magnitude over this range of compositions. 10 refs., 39 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Transport properties of correlated materials from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the optical and transport properties of correlated materials with a combined local density approximation and dynamical mean field theory approach. A new algorithm for projecting the Bloch states from wien2k to a set of maximally localized Wannier functions via wannier90 is realized in the new package wien2wannier. The resulting Wannier orbitals represent an adequate basis set for many-body models. To include local electronic correlations, we define a Hubbard Hamiltonian in the Wannier basis and solve it by means of dynamical mean field theory. The computed self energy of the interacting system is employed to calculate the optical conductivity, the dc-conductivity and the thermopower within the new algorithm woptic, where adaptive k-mesh refinement leads to a minimal integration error. The programs are tested on SrVO3, CeRu4Sn6 and V2O3. SrVO3 is a well-known perovskite, and we compare the full dipole matrix approach to the Peierls approximation for the optical spectra. For CeRu4Sn6, we show the formation of a Kondo peak in the electronic spectrum around 290 K in completely new calculations. The optical data is compared to experiment, indicating a high level of agreement. In the case of the strongly correlated metal V2O3, we present the first projection on maximally localized Wannier functions and discuss the optical results on the basis of various computational approaches. The programs wien2wannier and woptic have already been made freely available and can be applied to any material. (author)

  8. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  9. Employment of rough data for modelling of materials properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sitek

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the method of high - speed steels’ secondary hardness modeling, basing on chemical composition and heat-treatment parameters.Design/methodology/approach: The computer modeling using statistical regression method were carried out basing on results of investigations of newly developed high - speed steels and rough data included in standards containing information about these steels.Findings: The models developed in the work was experimentally verified. The verification procedure consists of the evaluation of the conformity of the computational results with the experimental data. The obtained results indicate good conformity of calculations with experimental results since the error of calculations is c.a. 0.8 HRC.Research limitations/implications: The results presented are valid in the ranges of mass concentrations of alloying elements occurring in analyzed steels group and presented in the paper.Practical implications: The worked out model may be used in computer systems of steels’ designing for cutting tools.Originality/value: The use of rough data for modeling of materials properties.

  10. Accelerated search for materials with targeted properties by adaptive design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dezhen; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Hogden, John; Theiler, James; Xue, Deqing; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    Finding new materials with targeted properties has traditionally been guided by intuition, and trial and error. With increasing chemical complexity, the combinatorial possibilities are too large for an Edisonian approach to be practical. Here we show how an adaptive design strategy, tightly coupled with experiments, can accelerate the discovery process by sequentially identifying the next experiments or calculations, to effectively navigate the complex search space. Our strategy uses inference and global optimization to balance the trade-off between exploitation and exploration of the search space. We demonstrate this by finding very low thermal hysteresis (ΔT) NiTi-based shape memory alloys, with Ti50.0Ni46.7Cu0.8Fe2.3Pd0.2 possessing the smallest ΔT (1.84 K). We synthesize and characterize 36 predicted compositions (9 feedback loops) from a potential space of ~800,000 compositions. Of these, 14 had smaller ΔT than any of the 22 in the original data set.

  11. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  12. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Scott Leib

    2003-05-31

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, H{sub c} in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, M{sub s}, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected from theory and

  13. Structure-property relationships of multiferroic materials: A nano perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feiming

    The integration of sensors, actuators, and control systems is an ongoing process in a wide range of applications covering automotive, medical, military, and consumer electronic markets. Four major families of ceramic and metallic actuators are under development: piezoelectrics, electrostrictors, magnetostrictors, and shape-memory alloys. All of these materials undergo at least two phase transformations with coupled thermodynamic order parameters. These transformations lead to complex domain wall behaviors, which are driven by electric fields (ferroelectrics), magnetic fields (ferromagnetics), or mechanical stress (ferroelastics) as they transform from nonferroic to ferroic states, contributing to the sensing and actuating capabilities. This research focuses on two multiferroic crystals, Pb(Mg1/3Nb 2/3)O3-PbTiO3 and Fe-Ga, which are characterized by the co-existence and coupling of ferroelectric polarization and ferroelastic strain, or ferro-magnetization and ferroelastic strain. These materials break the conventional boundary between piezoelectric and electrostrictors, or magnetostrictors and shape-memory alloys. Upon applying field or in a poled condition, they yield not only a large strain but also a large strain over field ratio, which is desired and much benefits for advanced actuator and sensor applications. In this thesis, particular attention has been given to understand the structure-property relationships of these two types of materials from atomic to the nano/macro scale. X-ray and neutron diffraction were used to obtain the lattice structure and phase transformation characteristics. Piezoresponse and magnetic force microscopy were performed to establish the dependence of domain configurations on composition, thermal history and applied fields. It has been found that polar nano regions (PNRs) make significant contributions to the enhanced electromechanical properties of PMN-x%PT crystals via assisting intermediate phase transformation. With increasing PT

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF BASIC TREATMENT CONDUCTED UNDER A SUNFLOWER ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoveyev A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of researches of the different systems of basic treatment of soil under a sunflower on a closeness, aggregate composition, supplies of productive moisture on regular black soil of the Krasnodar region

  15. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  16. Preliminary study on piezoresistive and piezoelectric properties of a double-layer soft material for tactile sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a double-layer simplified sensor unit based on the interesting electromechanical properties of MWNT mixed by polymer composite and PVDF films, which is envisaged to imitate the distributed tactile receptors of human hands so as to help the disabled to recover the basic tactile perception. This paper shows the fabrication and performance research of such a new piezoelectric-piezoresistive composite material which indicates a promising .application in prosthtic hand.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6454

  17. Electronic Properties of Low-Dimensional Materials Under Periodic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamei, Mehdi

    In the quest for the further miniaturization of electronic devices, numerous fabrication techniques have been developed. The semiconductor industry has been able to manifest miniaturization in highly complex and ultra low-power integrated circuits and devices, transforming almost every aspect of our lives. However, we may have come very close to the end of this trend. While advanced machines and techniques may be able to overcome technological barriers, theoretical and fundamental barriers are inherent to the top-down miniaturization approach and cannot be circumvented. As a result, the need for novel and natural alternatives to replace old materials is valued now more than ever. Fortunately, there exists a large group of materials that essentially has low-dimensional (quasi-one- or quasi-two-dimensional) structures. Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon, which has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, is a perfect example of a prime material from this group. Niobium tri-selenide (NbSe3), from a family of trichalcogenides, has a highly anisotropic structure and electrical conductivity. At sufficiently low temperatures, NbSe3 also exhibits two independent "sliding charge density waves"-- an exciting phenomenon, which could be altered by changing the overall size of the material. In NbSe3 (and Blue Bronze K0.3MoO3 which has a similar structure and electrical behavior), the effect of a periodic potential could be seen in creating a charge density wave (CDW) that is incommensurate to the underlying lattice. The required periodic potential is provided by the crystal ions when ordered in a particular way. The consequence is a peculiar non-linear conductivity behavior, as well as a unique narrow-band noise spectrum. Theoretical and experimental studies have concluded that the dynamic properties of resulting CDW are directly related to the crystal impurity density, and other pinning potentials. Therefore, reducing the overall size of the crystal could

  18. HORIZONTAL 2-D BASIC EQUATIONS AND SIMULATION OF INTERCHANGE BETWEEN SUSPENDED SEDIMENT AND BED MATERIALS IN ALLUVIAL RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A set of new 2-D equations of interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials was serived by theoretical deduction based on the systematic summarization and assessment the previous studies of simulating the interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials in the Lower Yellow River. This model was used to simulate the erosion and deposition processes caused by the interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials in a sketch channel. The results show that these equations are well consistent with the laws of interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials. Furthermore, compared with previous models, it has important practical value not only because of strong theoretical foundation, but also for smaller amount of calculating work and convenient application in practice.

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  2. Backpack Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Backpack Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Backpack Basics Print A ... it can cause back problems or even injury. Backpacks Are Best Backpacks can't be beat for ...

  3. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  4. Some Basic Techniques in Bioimpedance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Ørjan G.

    2004-09-01

    Any physiological or anatomical changes in a biological material will also change its electrical properties. Hence, bioimpedance measurements can be used for diagnosing or classification of tissue. Applications are numerous within medicine, biology, cosmetics, food industry, sports, etc, and different basic approaches for the development of bioimpedance techniques are discussed in this paper.

  5. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hygiene Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Hygiene Basics Print A A A Text Size What's ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  6. Mechanical properties of structural materials for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural materials for high temperature gas cooled reactor should have good properties such as mechanical properties (tensile, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue), microstructural stability, interaction between metal and gas, friction and wear, hydrogen and tritium permeation, irradiation behavior, corrosion by impurity in He. Mechanical properties of major structural materials, such as pressure vessel, heat exchanger, control rod, were investigated. Effect of He and irradiation on these structural materials were investigated

  7. The characterization of uranium and plutonium reference materials by the (100-X) route; basic principle and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and plutonium reference materials are produced to calibrate reagents used in titrimetric methods or to check instrumental techniques like electrochemical methods. For this purpose, the most commonly prepared reference materials are high-purity uranium metal pieces and uranium dioxide pellets, respectively plutonium metal pieces and plutonium dioxide powders. Two different routes can be followed to certify the element content: a direct or an indirect route. With the direct route the main element is assayed using appropriate redox titration methods. The overall uncertainty on the main element is limited by both the precision of the titration methods used and the uncertainty of the reference materials. The indirect route is applicable only for high purity base material. It requires the measurement of the sum of impurities (X) in the material and the substraction of this sum from hundred per cent (100-X). Since the (100-X) route requires the measurement of a large number of elements, a variety of analytical methods has to be used, and a contribution by different specialized laboratories is requested. The uncertainty of the total of impurities is calculated from the respective uncertainties of the determination of each specific element. If the total of impurities is sufficiently small and even if it is determined with a rather large uncertainty, the (100-X) route leads nevertheless to a low uncertainty on the main element content. The application of the (100-X) route is illustrated for the case of uranium dioxide pellets certified as an European Community Nuclear Reference Material. The (100-X) route is recommended as a very accurate one for high purity material characterization and certification purposes

  8. Decree no 2007-1557 from November 2, 2007, relative to basic nuclear facilities and to the nuclear safety control of nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree concerns the enforcement of articles 5, 17 and 36 of the law 2006-686 from June 13, 2006, relative to the transparency and safety in the nuclear domain. A consultative commission of basic nuclear facilities is established. The decree presents the general dispositions relative to basic nuclear facilities, the dispositions relative to their creation and operation, to their shutdown and dismantling. It precises the dispositions in the domain of public utility services, administrative procedures and sanctions. It stipulates also the particular dispositions relative to other facilities located in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, relative to the use of pressure systems, and relative to the transport of radioactive materials. (J.S.)

  9. Liquid metal embrittlement. From basic concepts to recent results related to structural materials for liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, the basic features of LME are recalled (definition, characteristics, embrittling couples), together with classical experimental features and open questions. Then, a review of a few very recent results obtained on classical embrittling couples but using new powerful investigation techniques developed in France is proposed. Second we define LMC. The 'LME-LMC' correlation is postulated. Then we concentrate on the LME-LMC problem related to the build-up of the Liquid Metal Spallation target in the frame of the MEGAPIE project. The Russian expertise on LME is briefly mentioned. Then we present some results obtained in the frame of the Groupement de Recherche' GEDEON, focusing on steel grade T91 in contact with lead and lead-bismuth eutectic, in agreement with Russian literature. (author)

  10. Fibrous random materials: From microstructure to macroscopic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, K.; Luding, S.; A. Yu, R. Yang K. Dong

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous porous materials are involved in a wide range of applications including composite materials, fuel cells, heat exchangers and (biological)filters. Fluid flow through these materials plays an important role in many engineering applications and processes, such as textiles and paper manufacturin

  11. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 16 contributions to the following topics: 1. Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; 2. Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environment under Off-Normal Conditions; 3. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; and 4. Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium. (MM)

  12. Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongxing

    2008-10-31

    Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.

  13. Application for managing model-based material properties for simulation-based engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward L.

    2009-03-03

    An application for generating a property set associated with a constitutive model of a material includes a first program module adapted to receive test data associated with the material and to extract loading conditions from the test data. A material model driver is adapted to receive the loading conditions and a property set and operable in response to the loading conditions and the property set to generate a model response for the material. A numerical optimization module is adapted to receive the test data and the model response and operable in response to the test data and the model response to generate the property set.

  14. Creep property testing of energy power plant component material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep testing of SA213 T12 boiler piping material from fossil plant, Suralaya has been done. The aim of the testing is to know the creep behaviour of SA213 T12 boiler piping material which has been used more than 10 yeas, what is the material still followed ideal creep curve (there are primary stage, secondary stage, and tertiary stage). This possibility could happened because the material which has been used more than 10 years usually will be through ageing process because corrosion. The testing was conducted in 520 0C, with variety load between 4% until 50% maximum allowable load based on strength of the material in 520 0C

  15. Correlation between Composition and Properties of Composite Material Based on Scrap Tires

    OpenAIRE

    Mālers, L; Plēsuma, R; Ločmele, L; Kalniņš, M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present work is to investigate mechanical and insulation properties of the composite material based on scrap tires and polyurethane-type binder in correlation with composition of composite material. The studies of material’s hardness must be considered as an express-method for estimation of the selected mechanical properties (E and ccompressive stress) of the composite material without direct experimental testing of given parameters. It was shown that composite material must be r...

  16. Theoretical Prediction of Dynamic Composite Material Properties for Hypervelocity Impact Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, S; Wicklein, M.; Mouritz, A.; Riedel , W.; Schäfer, F.; Thoma, K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in the description of fibre-reinforced polymer composite material behaviour under extreme loading rates provide a significant extension in capabilities for numerical simulation of hypervelocity impact on composite satellite structures. Given the complexity of the material model, extensive material characterisation is required, however, as the properties of composite materials are commonly tailored for a specific application, experimental characterisation is...

  17. Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Zia Ullah; Bubnova, Olga; Jafari, Mohammad Javad;

    2015-01-01

    PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we st...

  18. Definition of regions of provenance and seed zones for forest basic and moltiplication materials of Abruzzo region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an application of the Directive 1999/105/CE in Abruzzo. Using climatic data for GIS and statistics analysis have been defined nine seed zones grouped in three region of provenances. The obtained map, will be used for the management of forest reproductive materials in Abruzzo.

  19. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to…

  20. Electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide related materials and first-principles theory of electrochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yu

    Tungsten trioxide WO3 is an interesting semiconductor with a wide-range of potential applications. One important property of WO 3 is its electrochromic behavior, which has generated significant research interest. Electrochromic materials exhibit reversible and persistent changes of the optical properties, hence their color, upon applying an electrical pulse. The applications of the electrochromic WO3 range from information display, light shutters, to energy efficient smart windows. Although there are many materials that exhibit electrochromic behavior, tungsten trioxide is one of the most extensively studied ones due to its superior coloration efficiency, short response time and reversibility. Enhanced electrochromic properties in WO3 nanowires have been reported recently. Despite much research effort, a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in this material has not emerged. In this work, we establish a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in NaxWOx, which is also able to explain the electrochromism in WO3. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to electrochromism in WO3 and related materials. In Chapter 2, we summarize the theories and computational methods used in this work including the local density approximation (LDA) within density functional theory (DFT), pseudopotential planewave formalism and the GW approximation. We study the crystal and electronic structures of WO3 in Chapter 3. WO3 has a basic octahedron structure. From -140 ˜ 830°C, the crystal structure changes from monoclinic to triclinic, again monoclicnic, then successively orthorhombic, tetragonal, and again tetragonal. Several groups have investigated the electronic structure of WO3 within DFT, but the band gap is severely underestimated compared with experiment. We have carried out quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. The calculated band gap is much closer to experimental results. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 discuss the optical properties and