WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic health principles

  1. Basic principles of information technology organization in health care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J A

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of information technology (IT) organization within health sciences centers. The paper considers the placement of the leader of the IT effort within the health sciences administrative structure and the organization of the IT unit. A case study of the University of Missouri-Columbia Health Sciences Center demonstrates how a role-based organizational model for IT support can be effective for determining the boundary between centralized and decentralized organizations. The conclusions are that the IT leader needs to be positioned with other institutional leaders who are making strategic decisions, and that the internal IT structure needs to be a role-based hybrid of centralized and decentralized units. The IT leader needs to understand the mission of the organization and actively use change-management techniques.

  2. Nonverbal Communication : Basic Principles and Practical Applications in Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    PATTERSON, Miles L.; 飯塚, 雄一; Miles L., PATTERSON; Yuichi, IIZUKA

    2006-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is a pervasive influence in every life. Furthermore, in most setting, nonverbal communication has a greater impact on interactions than does verbal communication. In this article, we first describe the basic processes involved in nonverbal communication and then briefly examine the factors affecting patterns of nonverbal communication - biology, culture, gender, and personality. Finally, we discuss the role of nonverbal communication in health care settings. Nonverbal ...

  3. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  4. Basic principles and criteria for public health protection in the event of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making criteria for population protection in nuclear accidents are discussed, and in particular the three basic principles: 1) excluding the appearance of nonstostochastic effects that occur in the case of high individual doses; 2) weighing the risks of radiation damage if such measures are not taken; 3) optimization based on comparison of benefit and costs, using the same measures for costs of health injury to affected populations and of the protected measures to be taken. The decision making criteria developed in Bulgaria are based on international recommendations with lowered upper limit of the range for evacuation and specified doses for vulnerable groups, children and pregnant women. The organization and the specific problems of the following individual types of protective measures are described: sheltering; protection of respiratory organs; iodine prophylaxis; evacuation of the public. One major condition for ensuring protection is to provide the public with timely information on the actual situation and the necessary countermeasures. Such information should be released in a manner that allows for understanding the expediency and significance of actions to be taken. An important aspect of emergency planning consists in taking into consideration the conditions actually prevailing in the country. This is well illustrated in the principle designated as 'national level of challenge' taking into account a country's capabilities for introducing intervention levels and permissible dose levels. In the case of Bulgaria this still remains to be done in protective planning for accidents. (author)

  5. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPherson Douglas W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented.

  6. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  7. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  8. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  9. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  10. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  11. Electrodynamics basics and duality principle

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanitckiy, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The given report proposes general and consistent statement of the classical electrodynamics basis using axiomatic and duality principles for its construct. Vector algebra and vector analysis are created by the application of the duality principle. The last fact allows formulating Maxwell equations in strictly symmetric form. It means the statement of electrodynamics postulates (axioms) under a principle of duality. Electrodynamics basis construction begins immediately using its postulates for...

  12. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  13. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  14. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  15. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  16. Basic principles in custody assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, G A

    1978-11-01

    The paper discusses some of the principles of custody assessments in divorce proceedings. It is felt that such assessments should be undertaken only upon the request of the judge or both lawyers. The assessment should be extensive and should include collecting and collating all available data obtained through interviews or letters. The report should include historical material, the formulation, and the reasons for the recommendations. Clinically, the important issue is to decide under whose care the child's growth and development is enhanced. Factors that help in this decision include the emotional ties between the parent and the child, the capacity of each parent to provide physically and emotionally, the preference of the child, and the need for continuity. The psychiatric and moral "fitness" of parents is critically reviewed. It is maintained that no parent should be given an inherent preference in custody rulings. Finally, it is argued that access should be expected after divorce and should be changed or eliminated only under strict conditions.

  17. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  18. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  19. Basic Principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this interactive exercise, the basic principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry are shown. Each step of the voltammetric process is described using simulated animations. This activity illustrates what takes place in the voltammetric cell when this technique is applied to the determination of cadmium as well as to the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium.

  20. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  1. Basic principles simulators - concept training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic Principles Simulators have the purpose of teaching general concepts, demonstrating and displaying the fundamental physical processes of a plant. They are used to illustrate theory to students and also to provide a preliminary training to the operators, to aquaint them with the basic dynamic interactions of the various systems during the normal operation of a plant, and to show the consequences of the most important and common transients and malfunctions. Basic principles simulators may vary in size from small desk cabinets to large panels. They represent with a certain detail the nuclear and thermohydraulic part of the plant. The availability of video displays allows to present detailed information about process parameters which are not shown on the control panels. In general the overall plant behaviour is represented well. Limitations are mostly found in the areas of logic and control. (orig./HP)

  2. Basic principles of bioethics and orthodox ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The galloping progress in genetic and medical technology has led to the birth of the new science of bioethics. Bioethics examines the ethical dimension of problems arising from the application of the discoveries in the fields of biology and genetics and the effects they may have on nature and people in particular, from the aspect of anthropological teaching of the church Fathers.Aim: The aim of this article is: a the delimitation of the scientific field of bioethics and its historical background, b the emergence of the principles of the science of bioethics, c the determination of the principles of orthodox morality though which the issues arising from the application of genetic engineering in human are faced.Material and Method: The method used to collect material for the writing of this article “principles of bioethics and orthodox morality”, was the widespread review of international and Greek bibliography. For the collection of the English bibliography the electronic database CINAHL was used. The keywords used in combination were Bioethics orthodox ethics. Results: The basic principle of bioethics are: a the principle of autonomy, b the principle of equivalence, c the principle of not causing harm and pain, d the principle of utility or beneficence, e the principle of justice. The orthodox approach to the issues arising from the application of genetics human is based on the Orthodox anthropology, as expressed in the Bible and the texts of the Fathers of the Church. The centerpieces of the Biblical and Patristic anthropology are: a that man was created as the exact replica of the Triune God and b that man is a single psychosomatic entity.

  3. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...

  4. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  5. Crown lengthening: basic principles, indications, techniques and clinical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Simon; Andreana, Sebastiano

    2004-11-01

    Sometimes, in order to properly restore teeth, surgical intervention in the form of a crown-lengthening procedure is required. Crown lengthening is a periodontal resective procedure, aimed at removing supporting periodontal structures to gain sound tooth structure above the alveolar crest level. Periodontal health is of paramount importance for all teeth, both sound and restored. For the restorative dentist to utilize crown lengthening, it is important to understand the concept of biologic width, indications, techniques and other principles. This article reviews these basic concepts of clinical crown lengthening and presents four clinical cases utilizing crown lengthening as an integral part of treatments, to restore teeth and their surrounding tissues to health.

  6. Basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoun, John

    2012-01-01

    To maximize office productivity, dentists should focus on performing tasks that only they can perform and not spend office hours performing tasks that can be delegated to non-dentist personnel. An important element of maximizing productivity is to arrange the schedule so that multiple patients are seated simultaneously in different operatories. Doing so allows the dentist to work on one patient in one operatory without needing to wait for local anesthetic to take effect on another patient in another operatory, or for assistants to perform tasks (such as cleaning up, taking radiographs, performing prophylaxis, or transporting and preparing equipment and supplies) in other operatories. Another way to improve productivity is to structure procedures so that fewer steps are needed to set up and implement them. In addition, during procedures, four-handed dental passing methods can be used to provide the dentist with supplies or equipment when needed. This article reviews basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity, based on the author's observations of business logistics used by various dental offices. PMID:22414506

  7. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  8. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

  9. Basic Principles of Forest Fuel Reduction Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Agee, James K; Skinner, Carl N

    2005-01-01

    Successful fire exclusion in the 20th century has created severe fire problems across the West. Not every forest is at risk of uncharacteristically severe wildfire, but drier forests are in need of active management to mitigate fire hazard. We summarize a set of simple principles important to address in fuel reduction treatments: reduction of surface fuels, increasing the height to live crown, decreasing crown density, and retaining large trees of fire-resistant species. Thinning and prescrib...

  10. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  11. Basic principles for occupational radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide sets forth the objectives of an adequate strategy for monitoring internal and external radiation exposures of workers. It covers individual monitoring, and workplace monitoring to the extent required for assessment and control of individual radiation doses. The responsibilities of authorities for organizing the monitoring of radiation workers are discussed, and brief descriptions are given of the rules governing the implementation of monitoring methods. The general principles to be considered in selecting instrumentation and appropriate monitoring techniques are described, as well as calibrating techniques, methods of record keeping and related aspects

  12. Basic principles of applied nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological applications of radioactive isotopes and radiation in South Africa have grown steadily since the first consignment of man-made radioisotopes reached this country in 1948. By the end of 1975 there were 412 authorised non-medical organisations (327 industries) using hundreds of sealed sources as well as their fair share of the thousands of radioisotope consignments, annually either imported or produced locally (mainly for medical purposes). Consequently, it is necessary for South African technologists to understand the principles of radioactivity in order to appreciate the industrial applications of nuclear techniques

  13. [The history of anesthesia apparatus: basic principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawersik, J

    1982-10-01

    The beginnings of modern anesthetic equipment date back to Morton's inhalation flagon in 1846. The numerous devices developed and introduced subsequently can be divided into four groups: 1. Simple ether and chloroform masks for open inhalation anesthesia, from Simpson (1847) to Brown (1928). 2. Vapour inhalators according to the "draw over" principle of Snow (1847) up to the Oxford vaporizer (1941). 3. Closed or half-closed inhalation equipment for ether or chloroform with to and fro breathing, from Clover (1877) to Ombredanne (1908). 4. Equipment for anaesthesia with nitrous oxide. From 1868 onwards this led to the incorporation of gas bottles in anaesthetic equipment and between 1885 and 1890 to the construction of mixing-valves for nitrous oxide and oxygen. In addition, reducing valves, flow meters and vaporizers were developed. The first anaesthetic apparatus with circle system and CO2-absorber was constructed in 1925 by the Dräger factory in Lübeck. Sudeck and Schmidt introduced this technique of anaesthesia in the university hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf between 1920 and 1925. PMID:6758628

  14. Chinese Basic Block - The Structure Designing Principle and Technology of Dong Hua Basic Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-bin; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The principles and the interrelated factors of the basic garment pattern are discussed. Furthermore the regression relation between the different parts of the Chinese female bodies and the application rules of the box pattern are analyzed. Chinese basic block - the DongHua Basic Block is founded theoretically and practically.

  15. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down

  16. Sustainable Economic Development: The Main Principles and the Basic Equation

    OpenAIRE

    DMIRTY CHISTILIN

    2010-01-01

    This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.

  17. Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in 's

  18. [Design principles of the POLIMAG-01 basic model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabishev, V N; Kadyrkov, A P; Makarov, V V; Mikheev, A A; Panin, N I; Solomakha, V N

    2007-01-01

    The design principles and functional capabilities of the basic model of the POLIMAG-01 magnetotherapy apparatus are described. Technical characteristics of the apparatus are specified. Original engineering solutions involved in the apparatus design provide local, distributed, and general magnetotherapy. PMID:18277402

  19. Basic principles and developments of the radioisotope powered voltaic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles and some kinds of voltaic effect type radioisotope batteries are reviewed. This paper is focused on the micro-batteries based on radio-voltaic effect, which are widely used in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs) and cardiac pacemakers. The prospects of such radio-voltaic isotope batteries are also reported. (authors)

  20. Contemporary Value of Marxism’s Basic Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾守旺

    2013-01-01

    Socialist system is incomparably superior in that it jumped off the grafting Grand Canyon that social development have to go through. In socialist China, mode of production is directly brought in line with the more advanced production standards not by capitalism. It is vital for inner-party democracy and social harmony to adhere to the basic principles of Marxism.

  1. Power electronics basics operating principles, design, formulas, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Yuriy; Chaplygin, Evgeny; Voronin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Power Electronics Basics: Operating Principles, Design, Formulas, and Applications provides fundamental knowledge for the analysis and design of modern power electronic devices. This concise and user-friendly resource:Explains the basic concepts and most important terms of power electronicsDescribes the power assemblies, control, and passive components of semiconductor power switchesCovers the control of power electronic devices, from mathematical modeling to the analysis of the electrical processesAddresses pulse-width modulation, power quality control, and multilevel, modular, and multicell

  2. Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

  3. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH IN NEUROEDUCATION STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Nouri

    2016-01-01

    The present paper assembles contributions from the areas of education, psychology, cognitive science, and of course, neuroeducation itself to introduce the basic principles of research in the field of neuroeducation studies. It is particularly important, as such it is a useful way to justify researchers about what neuroeducation as a specific domain do that no other field can do as well or cannot do at all. Based on the literature reviewed, neuroeducational research can be understood as an inte...

  4. Basic Principles of Betavoltaic Elements and Prospects of their Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Davydov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic technical principles and means of increase in betavoltaitic elements effectiveness have been analyzed by comparing with their closest analogue – photoelectric semiconductor converters. The geometric parameters of radiation sources for these elements and their capacities have been estimated. It is shown the radiation source 63Ni foil thickness should not exceed a few micrometers, and maximum energy conversion efficiency can achieve ~ 16 %.

  5. A Review of Some Basic Principles in Fishpond Management

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; C.C. Tawari; E.N. Ezekiel

    2011-01-01

    A review of some basic principles in fishpond management was reviewed to educate fish culturist, private and public sector to effectively manage culture fisheries. Successful pond management requires more than just stocking fish. It is also important to maintain the proper environmental conditions, to monitor fish harvest and growth, check for successful fish reproduction, and to keep out unwanted fish. This is the science of fish management, the solid basis for ensuring good fishing. Good fi...

  6. Basic Theoretical Principles Pertaining to Thermal Protection of Oil Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Shirokov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains formulation of basic theoretical principles pertaining to thermal protection of an oil transformer in accordance with classical theory of relay protection and theory of diagnostics with the purpose of unification of terminological and analytical information which is presently available in respect of this problem. Classification of abnormal thermal modes of an oil transformer and also algorithms and methods for operation of diagnostic thermal protection of a transformer have been proposed.

  7. Theoretical Discussion of Coordinated Fund Management of Basic Public Health and Basic Medical Services Based on the Principle of Labour Voucher%基于工分制原理的基本公共卫生与基本医疗服务经费统筹管理的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 张韬; 王洪兴; 厉勤; 李幼子

    2016-01-01

    While the coordinated management of fund for basic public health and basic medical services provides an opportunity for the integration of content and resources of basic public health and basic medical services,the principle of labour voucher creates technical conditions for this opportunity:the principle of labour voucher has resolved the financial accounting issues,eliminating the following problems of community health services;the building of the mechanism of funds allocation by the principle of labor voucher could ensure the transparency of information and is conducive to the establishment of performance appraisal system for community health service settings and their staffs,effectively guiding supply - side behavior;the fund allocation mechanism could also guide residents′ health seeking behavior indirectly through the supply side,and promote residents and medical staffs to improve their health and save fund together by price leverage and reward allocation. The study is still at theoretical stage,thus the feasibility of the research result needs to be further tested.%基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务经费的统筹管理,为基本公共卫生和基本医疗服务内容整合和资源整合提供了契机,而工分制原理则为这种契机创造了技术条件:工分制原理首先解决了经费核算问题,为社区卫生服务机构解决了后顾之忧;通过工分制原理构建经费分配机制,保证了信息透明性,有利于社区卫生服务机构绩效考核和机构内员工绩效考核机制的建立,从而有效引导供方行为;基于工分制原理构建的经费分配机制,可以通过供方间接引导居民就医行为,也可以通过价格杠杆和分配奖励促使居民与医务人员一起为提高自身健康水平和节约经费努力。本研究尚处于理论阶段,研究成果的可行性还有待实践的检验。

  8. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  9. Basic safety principles of KLT-40C reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KLT-40 NSSS has been developed for a floating power block of a nuclear heat and power station on the basis of ice-breaker-type NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) with application of shipbuilding technologies. Basic reactor plant components are pressurised water reactor, once-through coil-type steam generator, primary coolant pump, emergency protection rod drive mechanisms of compensate group-electromechanical type. Basic RP components are incorporated in a compact steam generating block which is arranged within metal-water shielding tank's caissons. Domestic regulatory documents on safety were used for the NSSS design. IAEA recommendations were also taken into account. Implementation of basic safety principles adopted presently for nuclear power allowed application of the KLT-40C plant for a floating power unit of a nuclear co-generation station. (author)

  10. The Basic Unit System concept and The Principle of Synergy

    CERN Document Server

    Paternina, E

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new proposal to both dualistic and holistic paradigm, by introducing a complex basic unit system mathematical concept in which the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of reality commingle in a unit, and by presenting a new principle, the principle of synergy, we have then a new framework in which the opposites can become complementary. The purpose of the Bus is to establish a complex mathematical unit concept based on Euler relation from which reality, physical reality can be treated and interpreted, starting from more basic principles or just from a unified theoretical point of view. The exact simple pendulum formula and the well-known Schodinger Wave Equation will be the starting point. This approach will mean a departure from the normal evolution of physical western science had taken, but its main advantage will not only be a synthesis of that science but also a unification that will permit validate those great achievements of figures like Galileo, Newton, Amp...

  11. Basic didactic principles in the study of mathematical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testоv Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understanding in the study of basic mathematical concepts in mathematics education has exacerbated during recent years. This is largely due to the fact that the style of thinking of pupils and students thanks to the intensive use of the Web becomes figurative and emotional, less inclined to abstract constructions. Fragments-clip thinking has become more common for most of students. The article deals with the didactic principles to be used in the study of mathematical concepts, which will contribute to achieving understanding.

  12. Basics, principles, techniques and modern methods in paediatric ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of paediatric Radiology. This review aims at revisiting basic US principles, to list specific needs throughout childhood, and to discuss the application of new and modern US methods. The various sections elude to basic US physics, technical requisites and tips for handling, diagnostically valuable applications of modern techniques, and how to properly address hazards, risks and limitations. In conclusion, US holds vast potential throughout childhood in almost all body regions and many childhood specific queries – helping to reduce the need for or to optimize more invasive or irradiating imaging. Make the most of US and offerings a dedicated paediatric US service throughout the day, the week and the year thus is and will stay a major task of Paediatric Radiology.

  13. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  14. Basic Principles of Solar Acoustic Holography - (Invited Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C.; Braun, D. C.

    2000-03-01

    We summarize the basic principles of holographic seismic imaging of the solar interior, drawing on familiar principles in optics and parallels with standard optical holography. Computational seismic holography is accomplished by the phase-coherent wave-mechanical reconstruction of the p-mode acoustic field into the solar interior based on helioseismic observations at the solar surface. It treats the acoustic field at the solar surface in a way broadly analogous to how the eye treats electromagnetic radiation at the surface of the cornea, wave-mechanically refocusing radiation from submerged sources to render stigmatic images that can be sampled over focal surfaces at any desired depth. Holographic diagnostics offer a straight-forward assessment of the informational content of the observed p-mode spectrum independent of prospective physical models of the local interior anomalies that it represents. Computational holography was proposed as the optimum approach whereby to address the severe diffraction effects that confront standard tomography in the solar p-mode environment. It has given us a number of remarkable discoveries in the last two years and now promises a new insight into solar interior structure and dynamics in the local perspective. We compare the diagnostic roles of simple acoustic-power holography and phase-sensitive holography, and anticipate approaches to solar interior modeling based on holographic signatures. We identify simple computational principles that, applied to high-quality helioseismic observations, make it easy for prospective analysts to produce high-quality holographic images for practical applications in local helioseismology.

  15. Self-organization: the basic principle of neural functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágothai, J

    1993-06-01

    Recent neurophysiological observations are giving rise to the expectation that in the near future genuine biological experiments may contribute more than will premature speculations to the understanding of global and cognitive functions. The classical reflex principle--as the basis of neural functions--has to yield to new ideas, like autopoiesis and/or self-organization, as the basic paradigm in the framework of which the essence of the neural can be better understood. Neural activity starts in the very earliest stages of development well before receptors and afferent input become functional. Under suitable conditions, both in nervous tissue cultures and in embryonic tissue recombination experiments, the conditions of such initial autopoietic activity can be studied. This paper tries to generalize this elementary concept for various neural centers, notably for the spinal segmental apparatus and the cerebral cortex. PMID:8236059

  16. PET/TAC: Basic principles, physiological variants and artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about the basic principles, physiologic variants and devices that work in the PET/TAC technique. Next the conclusions obtained in the same one are presented: For a correct evaluation of the PET/TAC images with FDG is necessary the knowledge of the image acquisition technique, as well as of the physiologic distribution of the FDG, variants of the normality, benign causes of captation and more frequent devices. The introduction of this hybrid procedure allows the correct anatomical localization and identification of the deposits of FDG largely avoiding false or doubtful interpretations, but it can also originate not specific devices existent in the conventional PET. The previous knowledge of the possible devices will make possible in certain cases its elimination and in other its identification avoiding incorrect interpretations. (Author)

  17. [Basic principles of comprehensive approach to the development of aerosol inhalation equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liutov, G P

    1994-01-01

    The comprehensive approach to choosing the nomenclature of aerosol inhalers is based on the definition of the basic principles in the development of apparatuses as to the optimization of their consumer qualities, the unification of basic blocks and the enhancement of their reliability. With the use of the approach, two models of fixed inhalers have been put into practice, a portable universal inhaler is brought to a commercial level, and two models of portable heat humid inhalers are under development, which is in full conformity with health care requirements for this medical equipment. PMID:7707891

  18. Basic principles of aggressive rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović Emilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation after ACL (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has drastically changed over the last decade, with the adoption of a more aggressive approach, right from the first day after surgery. Progress in the effectiveness of rehabilitation is based on improvements in operative techniques, as well as on the encouraging results of histological studies regarding graft healing. Despite a huge amount of research papers on this topic, a rehabilitation golden standard still has not been established, due to the complexity of this problem. In this review, we point out the basic principles of rehabilitation after arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction based on actual practices, as well as the importance of specific procedures for the prevention of complications during the postoperative period. The importance of range-of-motion exercises, early weight bearing, an appropriate gait scheme, patella mobilisation, pain and oedema control, as well as stretching and balance exercises is explained. The functional advantages of closed kinetic chain exercises, as well as their influence on the graft are also described, in comparison to open kinetic chain exercises. The fundamentals of returning to sports are revealed and the specific aspects of rehabilitation regarding graft choice are pointed out. While waiting for new clinical investigations, which are expected to enable the establishment of a rehabilitation golden standard, the outlined principles should be followed. The complexity of this injury requires treatment in highly specialised institutions.

  19. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  20. Public health genomics: origins and basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Zimmern

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and technologies arising from the Human Genome Project promise in time to offer new opportunities for the treatment and prevention of disease. The enterprise of public health genomics aims to bridge the gap between advances in basic research and their responsible and effective implementation in clinical services and public health programmes. Public health genomics stresses the importance of understanding how genes and environment act together to influence health; avoiding genetic exceptionalism; appreciating the social and political context of genomic advances; and encouraging critical evaluation of proposed new tests and interventions. New international networks and collaborations are being established to develop public health genomics and further its aims.

  1. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  2. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH IN NEUROEDUCATION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper assembles contributions from the areas of education, psychology, cognitive science, and of course, neuroeducation itself to introduce the basic principles of research in the field of neuroeducation studies. It is particularly important, as such it is a useful way to justify researchers about what neuroeducation as a specific domain do that no other field can do as well or cannot do at all. Based on the literature reviewed, neuroeducational research can be understood as an interdisciplinary endeavor to develop an insightful understanding and holistic picture of problems related to learning and education. It thus epistemologically is based on an integrated methodological pluralism paradigm. This requires researchers to understand multiple methods and methodologies and employ as they formulate their own research projects. Researchers have a critical role to play in providing systematic evidence and conclusions that are scientifically valid and reliable and educationally relevant and usable. One significant implication of this argument is the need to strengthen the quality of the research component in graduate programs of the field and train interested researchers in the identification and formulation of relevant research questions.

  3. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPORT TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martsenyuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Undeveloped infrastructure and the system of public and tourist transport services prevent boom and spread of tourism glory of the country. Therefore, the development of tourist infrastructure and transport communication routes is a priority task. Methodology. Article methodology is based on the use of consequent methodological technique. Findings. Author analyzed the situation of tourism industry in Ukraine, set the basic principles for the tourism development and its priorities. The article contains the author's point of view on the fact that the tourism industry is of paramount importance to the state economics, and the development of this sector of public life should be a priority task for the near future. Originality. According to the author, the development of the inbound tourism is more reasonable, because it provides additional workplaces and exchange earnings. The author insists that the raise of quality level of domestic tourist services to the European standards would accelerate the development of Ukrainian tourism and would attract more holidaymakers from Ukraine and neighbouring countries. Practical value. The rational measures, which were taken regarding the proposed directions for the tourism development, can improve competitiveness of the Ukrainian tourist industry on the European tourist market.

  4. Basic Principles of Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy is a psychotherapy modality that helps the patient recognize the relationship between disruptions in social rhythms and the onset of previous episodes of psychiatric disorders. It uses psychoeducation and behavioral techniques to maintain social rhythm and sleep/wake regularity. It is closely related to and ldquo;social zeitgeber theory and rdquo; that emphasizes the importance that social rhythm regularity may play in synchronization of circadian rhythms in individuals with or at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy have been shown to stabilize social rhythms and enhance course and outcome in bipolar disorder. This review focuses on the theoretical principles and the basic steps of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy as a psychotherapy approach in bipolar disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included interpersonal social rhythm therapy, bipolar, mood disorders. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and randomized controlled trials of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in bipolar disorder selected. These researches also summarized on the final part of this review. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 438-446

  5. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (BECHTEREW'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandor Fedorovich Erdes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the reasons behind the development of modern approaches to its therapy are briefly described. The main tasks and principles of non-pharmacological and drug therapies for ASare briefly reported. The need for therapeutic physical training is emphasized, since its role in maintaining the functional status in this group of patients has been proved. The lecture casts doubt on effectiveness of physiotherapy andother physical techniques because of the poor evidence base. The lecture emphasizes the disease-modifying role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and requirement to receive them constantly for patients with Bechterew's disease. Meanwhile, the basic anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with this disease are reported to play an auxiliary role and to have no effect on disease progression. The pronounced clinical effectiveness of all tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors is emphasized; certain differences in their therapeutical effect are described. The problems of surgical treatment, which deal with correction of disease complications or undesirable effects, are discussed.

  6. Rationing Health Care and the Role of the 'Acute Principle'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rivera-Lopez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In several works, Hartmut Kliemt has developed an original account on the necessity of rationing health care and on how a rationing policy should be carried out. While I agree on several important points of that view, there is one important aspect of his account that I do not find plausible: his claim that the so-called 'acute principle' (a principle that gives absolute preeminence to rescuing identified lives from dying should be one of the basic criteria to carry out a rationing policy in a liberal state. After explaining Kliemt's view on rationing health care and, more specifically, the foundations of the acute principle, I argue that the acute principle is not supported by our basic moral intuitions. I then apply the previous argument to the case of rationing, arguing for the necessity of a compromise among intuitions supporting the acute principle and other moral intuitions. Finally, I try to show that a feasible system of public health care services is conceivable. In doing so, I make use, with some relevant modifications, of Kliemt's own ideas.

  7. The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions

    OpenAIRE

    Martyushev, Leonid M.

    2010-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today.

  8. Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in Ayurvĕda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhose, Varanasi; Srinivas, Pitta; Narayana, Ala

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical is one of the allied branches of science, which is closely associated with Medical science. Today pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognosy are playing important role in treatment for a disease and its prevention. Herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population mostly in the developing countries in the primary health care. There has been an upsurge in demand for the Phyto-pharmaceutical products of Ayurvĕda in western nations, because of the fact that the synthetic drugs are considered to be unsafe. Due to this many national and multinational pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic Phyto-pharmaceutical products. Ayurvĕda is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. The Ayurvĕdic knowledge of the pharmaceutical science is scattered in Ayurvĕdic classical texts. Săranghadhara Samhita, which is written by Săranghadhara, explain systematically about the information of the Ayurvĕdic pharmaceutical science and also updated it. Industrialized manufacturing of Ayurvĕdic dosage forms has brought in new challenges like deviation from basic concepts of medicine preparation. Săranghadhara Samrhită the devout text on pharmaceutics in Ayurvĕda comes handy to solve such problems, as the methods described are very lucid and easy to follow. PMID:17333665

  9. Workplace health education. Principles in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtecky, M A

    1985-01-01

    The application of psychological principles that lead to the acquisition of skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for improving safety and health conditions in the work environment is illustrated by case examples. The emergent pattern of successful occupational health education can be described as a process consisting of instruction, psychological reinforcement, and establishment of new norms of safe behavior for workers. To realize maximum effect from education programs, occupational physicians and other occupational health professionals should upgrade and expand their understanding of health education as well as their health education skills.

  10. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  11. Basic principles of taxation in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    PUZYNYA T.A.; BESKROVNAYA V.A.

    2015-01-01

    The tax system of the Russian Federation based on economic and legal principles, to include economic justice, proportionality, efficiency or effectiveness, to legal same the legitimacy of the establishment, the combination of the interests of taxpayers with state authorities. In addition to the principles of taxation often include organizational rules, which imply a common methodological framework in the calculation of taxes and their exhaustive list.

  12. Coatings in Dentistry—A Review of Some Basic Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Johan M. Söderholm

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different coatings are used in dentistry in an attempt to prevent caries, improve bonding of restorative materials to tooth tissues, and coat implant surfaces in efforts to speed up osseointegration. These are just a few of the many coating applications used in dentistry. The intention of this review is not to cover the entire field of different coatings used in dentistry, because that topic is just too big to be covered in one single paper. Therefore, this review aims to highlight some fundamental coating principles and present these principles to an audience consisting mainly of dentists. To do so, this review will focus on the fundamental principles of coatings, namely surface properties/adhesives in general, since these topics form the foundation for most coating procedures used in dentistry.

  13. Sensitization as a Basic Principle of Vestibular Adaptation to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard R.

    2008-06-01

    The analysis of basic mechanisms of physiological adaptation to weightlessness suffers (1) on the rare flight opportunities, and (2) on the collection of data with a rough time resolution. The comparative approach using data from animal and human research might be helpful to overcome these problems even for human research. The advantage of the comparative approach became obvious for vestibular adaptation to microgravity. Neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, behavioural and psychophysical studies in snails, fish, amphibian, rodents, monkey and men clearly revealed vestibular sensitization as a basic mechanism of adaptation to weightlessness.

  14. [Introduction to palliative care for the oncologist-history and basic principles of palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    The basic principle of palliative care has evolved over time and is the historical origin of the modern hospice. WHO proposed the first definition of palliative care in 1989, and the definition was revised in 2002. These definitions have something in common. Both relieve the pain and suffering to improve QOL. Palliative care is also good for any kind of life-threatening disease, regardless of whether it requires short or long term recuperation. That also need to be able to accept equally all the people of the community. The provision of general palliative care is the responsibility of all medical, nursing, and health professionals for the welfare of all patients with life-threatening disease. Specialist palliative care is based on the basic principles of palliative care, intensive clinical training, and systematic acquisition of knowledge and skills training to support palliative care education, clinical research and training provided by the profession. It has been established by nursing and medical experts in palliative care that palliative care can provide expertise in interdisciplinary teams in different settings. It is necessary that the medical system.

  15. Education and Development: A return to basic principles

    OpenAIRE

    Heyneman, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    As a political strategy, Education-for-All has been a failure. Originally designed to attract education investments over other priorities, the portion of donor resources devoted to education has been stagnant. The strategy has made a fetish out of primary education at the expense of education sector development; generated a donor monopoly over client interests and exaggerated the role of the state in education provision. Stephen P. Heyneman explains why it is crucial now to return to basic pr...

  16. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  17. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-01-01

    It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHEC...

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency (RF ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation.

  19. Optical properties of metallic nanoparticles basic principles and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trügler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fascinating world of plasmonics and physics at the nanoscale, with a focus on simulations and the theoretical aspects of optics and nanotechnology. A research field with numerous applications, plasmonics bridges the gap between the micrometer length scale of light and the secrets of the nanoworld. This is achieved by binding light to charge density oscillations of metallic nanostructures, so-called surface plasmons, which allow electromagnetic radiation to be focussed down to spots as small as a few nanometers. The book is a snapshot of recent and ongoing research and at the same time outlines our present understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles, ranging from the tunability of plasmonic resonances to the ultrafast dynamics of light-matter interaction. Beginning with a gentle introduction that highlights the basics of plasmonic interactions and plasmon imaging, the author then presents a suitable theoretical framework for the description of metallic nanostructu...

  20. Basic Principle of Advanced Oxidation Technology : Hybrid Technology Based on Ozone and Titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of problems in health environment is organic liquid waste from many pollutant resources. Environmental friendly technology for degrading this waste is ozone which produced by plasma discharge technology, but its capability is limited. However, it is needed a new environmental friendly technology which has stronger capability. This new technology is so called advanced oxidation technology. Advanced oxidation technology is a hybrid of ozone, peroxide, UV light and photo catalyst. In this paper, it is introduced basic principle of hybrid of ozone and titania photo catalyst semiconductor. The capability of organic liquid degradation will be stronger because there is new radical which is produced by chemical reaction between electron-hole pair from photo catalyst titania and water or oxygen. This new radical then degrades this organic pollutant. This technology is used to degrade phenol. (author)

  1. Basic principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Khodyreva Viktoriia Andreevna

    2015-01-01

    This research is devoted to general principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises. Development of small-scale enterprises is one of the most important lines of tax policy in Russian Federation. The development of principles of taxation is important while forming a strong state system of taxation. In this work basic principles and some specific are provided. This work is of great scientific interest to law students, graduates, teachers and other persons interested in law and particularly i...

  2. Neutron spin manipulation optics: basic principles and possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of basic elements for neutron spin manipulation optics (NSMO) based on Larmor and non-Larmor (quantum) precessions under reflection are considered. It is concluded that transition to 3D in neutron polarization optics may bring additional instrumental possibilities. New neutron optical devices will include spin turners (particularly, π/2-turners and π- turners, or flippers), spin precessors and antiprecessors, 3D-polarizers, 3D-analyzers, 3D- rotators, spin manipulators, hyper-polarizers. The innovative neutron optics is directly applicable to developing 3D polarization and polarimetry techniques, such as reflectometry with 3D- polarimetry, Neutron optical Spin Echo (NoSE), including compact NoSE and TOF NoSE schemes. A hyper-polarizer is a device which not only separates neutrons with the opposite spins, but also flips the 'wrong' spins. Thus, hyper-polarizers can double the intensity of polarized neutron beams, although a gain in the intensity can be achieved only with the increase either in the angular divergence or in the width of the beam, in full accordance with the Liouville theorem. The tasks to be solved for implementation of the NSMO concepts are discussed.

  3. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  4. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  5. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

  6. Environment, health and safety guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) has taken a leadership role in promoting responsible planning, management and work practices that meet the pipeline industry's environment, health and safety objectives. This brochure contains CEPA's environment, health and safety statement. It lists the guiding principles developed and endorsed by CEPA and its member companies in support of protecting the environment and the health and safety of its employees and the public. The 11 CEPA member companies are: Alberta Natural Gas Company Ltd., ATCO Gas Services Ltd., Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., NOVA Gas Transmission Limited, TransGas Limited, Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company Ltd., Trans-Northern Pipelines Inc., Trans Quebec and Maritimes Pipeline Inc., and Westcoast Energy Inc

  7. On the Basic Principle of Civil Law%民法基本原则研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建国

    2013-01-01

    The basic principle of the civil law embodies the basic concepts of civil law ,which is highly abstract and generalization of the civil law system and has important significance to guide the civil law and helps carry out the civil justice and civil activities smoothly .To study the basic principle of civil law ,first of all ,we should grasp the meaning and characteristics of the basic principles of the civil law to conduct in-depth analysis .Secondly ,we should study the development of the basic principles of the civil law of the world and make a comprehensive analysis of the basic content of the basic principles of civil law . Finally ,by studying the function and role of the basic principles of the civil law ,we can overcome the limits of statute law .We hope that through the in -depth study and analysis of the basic principles of the civil law , we can deepen our understanding of the basic principles of the civil law ,fully exert the function and basic principles of the civil law and serve the socialist civilization of rule by promoting law construction and economic and social development .%  民法基本原则体现着民法的基本理念,是对民事法律制度的高度抽象和概括,对指导民事法律立法、民事司法以及民事活动的顺利进行都具有重要的意义。要研究民法的基本原则,首先,要对民法基本原则的含义和特征进行深入的分析。其次,了解世界范围内民法基本原则的发展历程,全面分析我国民法基本原则的基本内容。最后,通过发挥民法基本原则的功能和作用,来克服我国成文法的局限性。希望能够通过对民法基本原则的深入研究和剖析,加深我们对民法基本原则的认识和理解,充分发挥民法基本原则的功能和作用,为社会主义法治文明建设和经济社会发展服务。

  8. [Sleep disorders: principles, basic diagnostics and elementary measures and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Martin; Sanner, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent. Economic costs and impairment of quality of life can be substantial. Usually, patients suffer from insomnia or hypersomnia. Several effective therapeutic options are available. Sleep disorders appear independently or accompany a multitude of organic and psychiatric diseases. Fatigue has to be distinguished from sleep disorders clearly. For classification, the ICSD-3, published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, is used. Patients should be explicitly asked for their sleep quality, for many do not report actively. Patient's history and clinical examination usually narrow the diagnosis to a large extent. Clinical diagnostics should be carried out according to the diagnostic algorithm by the German Sleep Society (DGSM). An optimal sleep hygiene and if necessary weight reduction are crucial and can prevent chronification and health consequences. In addition, assistive technology, drug therapy, behaviour therapy, and in few cases surgery are available. PMID:26306014

  9. Some basic principles for the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity,in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo,some basic principles in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics can be established systematically. In this paper,an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given,which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation,it is not only possible to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem,but also to systematically derive the complementary functionals for the eleven-field,nine-field and six-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the three-field one in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore,with this approach,the intrinsic relationships among various principles can be explained clearly.

  10. Some basic principles in dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be estab- lished systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of con- volutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systemati- cally the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simpli- fied Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  11. Some basic principles in dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO En; LI WeiHua

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it Is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  12. [The issues and basic principles of training of physicians of clinical laboratory diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, V T; Naumova, E V

    2012-07-01

    The article considers the main positions concerning the clinical laboratory diagnostics as an independent clinical specialty and the principles of professional training and improvement of specialists. The basic issues complicating the training and improvement of personnel to be kept in line with actual needs of laboratory service of public health system are discussed. Among them are the availability of laboratory academic sub disciplines demanding a profound special theoretical education and technical skills; the need to account in the process of professional training the variety of forms, sizes and types of laboratory structures in different medical institutions; the need of special training programs for numerous specialists with non-medical basic education. The combination of the present system of postgraduate training of specialists on chairs of state educational organizations with initiative involvement of specialists in various public forms of permanent professional improvement (professional scientific societies meetings, research conferences, internet seminars, etc.) is supported Along with a positive appraisal of the existing system of training in the state educational institutions and corresponding regulation documents, a critique is expressed regarding certain actual documents which improperly limit the administrative functions of physicians of clinical laboratory diagnostics and complicate training of bacteriologists for clinical laboratories.

  13. Knowledge of health principles among professionals in Slovenian kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabe, Damjan; Fink, Rok; Kvas, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Preschool children have significant health issues. From the relevant legislation and regulations, it can be seen that kindergarten teachers (KTs) and kindergarten teacher assistants (KTAs) are expected to be familiarwith the basic hygienic measures and steps for preventing injuries and illnesses, to recognize infectious diseases, and to know how to give the first aid. To gain these skills, a continuous life-long learning is necessary, because the characteristics of diseases are changing. Study design: original research. Methods 45 kindergartens in Slovenia were randomly selected and a questionnaire with 17 questions on health themes was sent. An analysis was performed via SPSS 17.0, using descriptive methods and nonparametric χ2 tests. Results There were 774 participants, of whom 56% were KTs and 44% KTAs. The share of KTs and KTAs who consider their knowledge of health principles to be very good or excellent is 67%. Their estimation of first aid knowledge is lower. They are also well aware of the importance of health knowledge in their work; a total of 87% strongly agree with this. The results also show that they are familiar with hygiene principles. The χ2 test showed there are certain statistically characteristic connections between the age of teachers and their assistants, occupation and work experiences. Conclusions Because children are a particularly vulnerable group, teachers can encounter injuries and sudden illnesses at their work. Supplementary education is necessary among skilled workers in educational institutions, including kindergartens. PMID:27703538

  14. Basic requirements and principles of creation onboard diagnostic systems of locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, YE. B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Justification of the basic principles of construction on-board diagnostic systems locomotive and choose from high-performance and reliable interface for the exchange of information on-board diagnostic systems. Methodology. Problem of getting correct and adequate information about the technical state of the technical object is solved with the use and compliance of the fundamental principles of modern computers. Findings. High-performance and reliable interface to exchange messages bet...

  15. Nahj al-Balagha in The Axis of Basic Principles of Islamic Law of War

    OpenAIRE

    NARGÜL, Veysel

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the information about war in Nahj al-Balagha, which contains many views of Hz Ali on many subjects, is considered in the light of basic principles of Islamic law of war. After the brief information of the understanding the war in Islam, the information in the Nahj al-Balagha about war is expressed in the light of basic principles of Islamic law of war, beneath three headlines as before war, during and after war. In the final analysis, it is emphasized that whether the informati...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A to Part 272—Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic... investments as a portfolio, with assessments of program success based on aggregate returns. There should be...

  17. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND SEQUENCE OF MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING IN SUBSTANTIATING THE ENTERPRISES'' REAL INVESTMENTS EXPEDIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Kukhta, P.

    2012-01-01

    There were revealed the basic principles of evaluating the real investments effectiveness, compliance with which will ensure the economic feasibility of projects, simplification of the evaluation process and rational behaviour of economic entities in their implementation. Sequence of forming the components of the systematic approach to the approval of management decisions was defined.

  18. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  19. Design principles in the development of (public) health information infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, Roderick

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author outlines the key issues in the development of a regional health information infrastructure suitable for public health data collections. A set of 10 basic design and development principles as used and validated in the development of the successful New Zealand National Health Information Infrastructure in 1993 are put forward as a basis for future developments. The article emphasises the importance of securing clinical input into any health data that is collected, and suggests strategies whereby this may be achieved, including creating an information economy alongside the care economy. It is suggested that the role of government in such developments is to demonstrate leadership, to work with the sector to develop data, messaging and security standards, to establish key online indexes, to develop data warehouses and to create financial incentives for adoption of the infrastructure and the services it delivers to users. However experience suggests that government should refrain from getting involved in local care services data infrastructure, technology and management issues.

  20. Embarrassment as a key to understanding cultural differences. Basic principles of cultural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    I introduce here the principles I use in my investigation of intercultural marketing and management. I explain how I discovered them, and show how they spring from a theoretical understanding of the dynamic of cultural differences. One of the basic methodological principles for my analysis...... of culture is a focusing on cultural misunderstanding; and the way to obtain relevant material on such misunderstanding is, according to me, to get people to talk about things that surprised them, that the embarassed about, or simply gor irritated withm int heir meeting with foreign cultures. I also point...

  1. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  2. Basic versus supplementary health insurance : Moral hazard and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  3. Basic Versus Supplementary Health Insurance : Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  4. Examining the Ethical Dilemmas in Terminating the Pregnancy Through the Basic Ethical Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Kurt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Termination of pregnancy is an event that takes place at the request of expectant parents or due to reasons beyond their desire. However, in the presence of appropriate indications, there is no need for abortion debate. In this case, it is important to terminate the pregnancy with the request of expectant parents. Even if cessation of the pregnancy is performed within a legal framework, basic ethical principles, such as autonomy, do no harm, being useful and fairness should be applied. Precisely the problem for physicians already emerges at this point and the physicians can fall in a dilemma about how to behave with the mother or the fetus. In this article, ethical dilemmas that may arise in termination of pregnancy will be discussed briefly in accordance with the basic ethical principles.

  5. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  6. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfus...

  7. An assessment of adherence to basic ecological principles by payments for ecosystem service projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, C M; Varga, A; Olmsted, P; Ingram, J C; Cattau, M; Freund, C; Wynn-Grant, R; Naeem, S

    2016-08-01

    Programs and projects employing payments for ecosystem service (PES) interventions achieve their objectives by linking buyers and sellers of ecosystem services. Although PES projects are popular conservation and development interventions, little is known about their adherence to basic ecological principles. We conducted a quantitative assessment of the degree to which a global set of PES projects adhered to four ecological principles that are basic scientific considerations for any project focused on ecosystem management: collection of baseline data, identification of threats to an ecosystem service, monitoring, and attention to ecosystem dynamics or the formation of an adaptive management plan. We evaluated 118 PES projects in three markets-biodiversity, carbon, and water-compiled using websites of major conservation organizations; ecology, economic, and climate-change databases; and three scholarly databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). To assess adherence to ecological principles, we constructed two scientific indices (one additive [ASI] and one multiplicative [MSI]) based on our four ecological criteria and analyzed index scores by relevant project characteristics (e.g., sector, buyer, seller). Carbon-sector projects had higher ASI values (P water-sector projects and marginally higher ASI scores (P budget. These findings suggest, at this critical phase in the rapid growth of PES projects, that fundamental ecological principles should be considered more carefully in PES project design and implementation in an effort to ensure PES project viability and sustainability. PMID:26502915

  8. Ethical principles in health care research

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Chapter topics • The history of the evolving recognition of the need to regulate research involving human subjects • Consideration of some key ethical principles relevant to the research process • Applying ethical understanding in the practice of research

  9. Six principles to enhance health workforce flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes approaches to break down the boundaries that reduce the ability of the health workforce to respond to population needs, or workforce flexibility. Accessible health services require sufficient numbers and types of skilled workers to meet population needs. However, there are several reasons that the health workforce cannot or does not meet population needs. These primarily stem from workforce shortages. However, the health workforce can also be prevented from respon...

  10. BASIC REQUIREMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF CREATION ONBOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS OF LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE. B. Bodnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification of the basic principles of construction on-board diagnostic systems locomotive and choose from high-performance and reliable interface for the exchange of information on-board diagnostic systems. Methodology. Problem of getting correct and adequate information about the technical state of the technical object is solved with the use and compliance of the fundamental principles of modern computers. Findings. High-performance and reliable interface to exchange messages between different units of management systems and on-board diagnostic systems was selected. Properties which are required high data rate, high reliability and low error rate of information transfer. Originality. The main principles of building on-board diagnostic systems which ensure compliance locomotives accumulation of accurate and adequate information about the technical condition which is necessary to organize its maintenance and repair were formulated. Practical value. Diagnostic equipment designed with use of requirements set forth above and principles will affect the technical condition of the engine, increasing the likelihood of uptime, productivity and locomotive repair teams. The introduction of on-board diagnostic systems and stationary locomotives will significantly improve the system and optimize their maintenance costs of maintenance and repairs. Besides, information about diagnostic parameters changing accumulated with the aim of airborne systems will be used in order to create mathematical models that, in turn, will organize a system of maintenance and predict the technical condition of locomotives

  11. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅴ)-POLAR THERMOMECHANICAL CONTINUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish rather complete basic balance equations and boundary conditions for polar thermomechanical continua based on the restudy of the traditional theories of micropolar thermoelasticity and thermopiezoelectricity. The equations of motion and the local balance equation of energy rate for micropolar thermoelasticity are derived from the rather complete principle of virtual power. The equations of motion, the balance equation of entropy and all boundary conditions are derived from the rather complete Hamilton principle. The new balance equations of momentum and energy rate which are essentially different from the existing results are presented. The corresponding results of micromorphic thermoelasticity and couple stress elastodynamics may be naturally obtained by the transition and the reduction from the micropolar case, respectively. Finally, the results of micropolar thermopiezoelectricity are directly given.

  12. Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations. PMID:23382349

  13. Discussion on the Five Basic Syndrome Patterns and Their Corresponding Treating Principles and Prescriptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the theory of latency system and dominance system and the analytical methods of the four forms and five stages in the development of a disease, this article is to explore the regularity of the five basic patterns of a syndrome to explain the mechanism of its occurrence and development. Different patterns of a syndrome suggest different areas affected and symptoms of a disease. Therefore, different treating principles and prescriptions should be adopted, I.e., 'treating the same syndrome with different methods'.

  14. MRI of brain disease in veterinary patients part 1: Basic principles and congenital brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in veterinary patients and is quickly becoming the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of brain and intracranial disease. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of MRI, a description of sequences and their applications in brain imaging, and an approach to interpretation of brain MRI. A detailed discussion of imaging findings in general intracranial disorders including hydrocephalus, vasogenic edema, brain herniation, and seizure-associated changes, and the MR diagnosis of congenital brain disorders is provided. MRI evaluation of acquired brain disorders is described in a second companion article.

  15. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  16. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dedi Afandi; Yuli Budiningsih; Oktavinda Safitry; Agus Purwadianto; Dwi Novitasari; Ivan R. Widjaja

    2009-01-01

    Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with pa...

  17. MAPPING A BASIC HEALTH UNIT: AN EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Carvalho Malheiros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: This study is an experience report on the construction of a map of a Basic Health Unit (BHU. The objective was to understand the relevance and/or importance of mapping a BHU and acquire more knowledge on the health-disease status of the registered population and identify the importance of cartography as a working tool. Case description: After reading some texts, evaluating information systems and on-site visits, it was possible to identify the health status of the population of the neighborhoods. The proposed objectives were considered to be achieved, considering the mapping of the assessed population’s health-disease situation with a closer-to-reality viewpoint, identifying the number of individuals, the diseases, living situation and health care. Conclusion: The mapping approach is a powerful working tool for allowing the planning of strategic interventions that enables the development of assistance activities, aiming to promote health and disease prevention. KEYWORDS: Mapping; Basic Health Unit; Health Planning.

  18. 基于工分制原理的基本公共卫生服务所需工作量的社区实践%Community Practice for Workload Required in Basic Public Health Services Based on the Principle of Labour Voucher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韬; 李明; 盖红梅; 万龙珍; 倪茂昌

    2016-01-01

    目的:基于工分制原理对基本公共卫生服务项目进行工作量核算,以期为基层医疗机构绩效考核工作提供借鉴。方法依据健康维护对象和执行事件发生率的不同,将基本公共卫生服务划分为2大类、4小类,并结合上海市浦东新区惠南镇数据,运用工分制原理对惠南镇2014年所需四类服务的工作量进行实际演算。结果232项基本公共卫生服务中,分别获得面向个人开展的服务137项(其中必然性服务有69项,偶然性服务有68项),面向群体开展的服务95项(其中必然性服务有79项,偶然性服务有16项)。工作量演算结果显示,2014年上海市浦东新区惠南镇所需面向个人提供的服务工作量占总工作量的23.03%(4166404.24/18093257.88),面向群体提供的服务工作量占总工作量的76.97%(13926853.64/18093257.88),且两者中的必然性服务工作量分别占总工作量的17.04%(3083587.13/18093257.88)和76.78%(13892841.20/18093257.88)。结论基本公共卫生服务中所需面向群体提供的服务工作量高于所需面向个人提供的服务工作量,且两者均以必然性服务为主。对基层医疗机构及其员工应以必然性服务为重点、偶然性服务为辅助制定公共卫生服务绩效考核策略。%Objective To calculate the workload of basic public health service items based on the principle of labor voucher,in order to provide references for the performance assessment in primary health care settings. Methods Based on the differences in service objects and incidence rates of events,basic public health services were divided into two groups and four categories. Combined with data from Huinan Town in Pudong New Area of Shanghai,required workloads of the four categories of services in 2014 were calculated by applying the principle of labor voucher. Results Of 232 basic public health services,there were 137 service items for individuals(69

  19. Principles of health infrastructure planning in less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, J P; Criel, B

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes a number of key principles for health infrastructure planning, based on a literature review on the one hand, and on a process of internal deduction on the other. The principles discussed are the following: an integrated health system; a thrifty planning of tiers within that health system; a specificity of tiers; a homogeneity of the tiers' structures; a minimum package of activities; a territorial responsibility and/or an explicit and discrete responsibility for a well-defined population; a necessary and sufficient population basis; a partial separation of administrative and public health planning bases; and, finally, rules for a geographical division and integration of non-governmental organizations. The definition of two strategies, primary health care and district health systems, is also revisited.

  20. Principles of occupational health and hygiene an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tillman, Cherilyn

    2007-01-01

    Today's workplaces are full of materials and processes which are potentially hazardous to our health. Industry depends on a large range of naturally occurring and synthetic materials, many of which can adversely affect the health of the workers. Even some non-industrial workplaces can contain hazardous materials or cause exposure to physical or biological agents that can be harmful to health. Principles of Occupational Health and Hygiene offers a systematic and comprehensive overview of occupational health hazards and hazardous environments encountered in a range of industries and organisatio

  1. ELT and Citizenship: Basic Principles to Raise Social Awareness Through Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rojas Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I delve into the concept of citizenship in connection with the teaching of English as an auxiliary channel for increasing social awareness and understanding among teachers and students. Taking into consideration current global realities and the local contexts in which English is acquired and used, I feel that foreign language classrooms become an important space in which students can identify with the social structures of different cultures as well as the roles they play in their own society. Thus, I will address basic concepts and principles for developing citizenship awareness and ELT instruction from perspectives as diverse as educational background, curriculum development, methodologies and student and teacher roles, among others.

  2. Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

  3. Introduction of measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics: Basic principles and recent trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Ebihara, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Measurement — the act of measuring physical properties that we perform — has the potential to contribute to the successful advancement of sciences and society. To open doors in physics and other sciences, various measurement methods and related applications have been developed, and ultrasound has remained a useful probe, power source, and interesting measurement object for the past two centuries. In this paper, we first summarize the basic principles of ultrasound from the viewpoint of measurement techniques for readers who just have started studying or are interested in the field of ultrasonic electronics. Moreover, we also introduce recent studies — ultrasonic properties of materials, measurement techniques, piezoelectric devices, nonlinear acoustics, biomedical ultrasound, and ocean acoustics — and their trends related to measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics to provide some ideas for related applications.

  4. The RITME method: Basic principles and overview of the LOGARITME concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the basic principles of the RITME method of 3-dimensional reactor core flux and power calculations, and briefly describes the LOGARITME development environment for implementing and managing applications based on the RITME method. RITME is a nodal method for solving the neutron transport equation; it obtains an integral solution in which the fluxes are related to the source terms by precalculated Green functions. The mean flux value per mesh and point flux values are calculated using a library of Green functions computed once and for all by a reference transport code. The carrier and microscopic power distributions can be determined from these flux values. LOGARITME is a computerized environment based on software case (object-oriented analysis aid software utilities) and ADA language. It provides a consistent framework for applications using the RITME method. The general specifications of this environment are described, and potential applications are noted. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  5. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. PMID:26803656

  6. Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases.   This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice.   The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...

  7. Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fakhri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from

  8. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer

  9. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  10. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the physical structure of Basic Health Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Silva Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the infrastructure of basic health units, as the adaptation to the standards recommended by theMinistry of Health. Methods: descriptive study with a quantitative approach, carried in 18 basic health units. For datacollection, we used a checklist built based on Ministerial Decree 2,226/09. Data analysis was performed using the StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences and a scoring scale (0-10 was used for the classification of health facilities. Results: 16.6% of theanalyzed units received the average score of 3.5; 16.6% received 3.0; 5.5%, 2.5; 16.6% received grade 2.0; 11.1%, 1.5; 11.1%,1.0; and 22.2% received 0.5 and, therefore, all units had inadequate physical structure. Conclusion: the city does not offerthe public a service that addresses the ideals standards in its structure in most of the inspected units.

  12. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  13. Contactless inductive flow tomography: basic principles and first applications in the experimental modelling of continuous casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Ratajczak, M.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.

    2016-07-01

    Contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the flow structure of a liquid metal from the magnetic fields measured at various positions outside the fluid body which are induced by the flow under the influence of one or multiple applied magnetic fields. We recap the basic mathematical principles of CIFT and the results of an experiment in which the propeller-driven three-dimensional flow in a cylindrical had been reconstructed. We also summarize the recent activities to utilize CIFT in various problems connected with the experimental simulation of the continuous casting process. These include flow reconstructions in single-phase and two-phase flow problems in the Mini-LIMMCAST model of slab-casting, studies of the specific effects of an electromagnetic stirrer attached to the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), as well as first successful applications of CIFT on the background of a strong electromagnetic brake field. We conclude by discussing some remaining obstacles for the deployment of CIFT in a real caster.

  14. Determination of Contact Potential Difference by the Kelvin Probe (Part I) I. Basic Principles of Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitis, O.; Rutkis, M.; Busenberg, J.; Merkulov, D.

    2016-04-01

    Determination of electric potential difference using the Kelvin probe, i.e. vibrating capacitor technique, is one of the most sensitive measuring procedures in surface physics. Periodic modulation of distance between electrodes leads to changes in capacitance, thereby causing current to flow through the external circuit. The procedure of contactless, non-destructive determination of contact potential difference between an electrically conductive vibrating reference electrode and an electrically conductive sample is based on precise control measurement of Kelvin current flowing through a capacitor. The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system to determine potential difference in real time and at high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of a reference probe, the Kelvin method leads to both the indirect measurement of an electronic work function, or a contact potential of sample, and of a surface potential for insulator type samples. In the article, the first part of the research, i.e., the basic principles and prerequisites for establishment of such a measurement system are considered.

  15. On a new formulation of microphenomena: Basic principles, stationary fields and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afshin Shafiee

    2011-06-01

    In a series of essays, beginning with this article, we are going to develop a new formulation of microphenomena based on the principles of reality and causality. The new theory provides us with a new depiction of microphenomena assuming a unified concept of information, matter and energy. So, we suppose that in a definite microphysical context (including other interacting particles), each particle is enfolded by a probability field whose existence is contingent on the existence of the particle, but it can locally affect the physical status of the particle in a context-dependent manner. The dynamics of the whole particle-field system obeys deterministic equations in a manner such that when the particle is subjected to a conservative force, the field also experiences a conservative complex force, the form of which is determined by the dynamics of the particle. So, the field is endowed with a given amount of energy, but its value is contingent on the physical conditions the particle is subjected to. Based on the energy balance of the particle and its associated field, we argue why the field has a probabilistic objective nature. The basic elements of this new formulation, its application for some stationary states and its nonlinear generalization for conservative systems are discussed here.

  16. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅷ)-PRINCIPLE OF TOTAL WORK AND ENERGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tian-min

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical incompleteness of the existing conservation laws of energy for polar continuum mechanics is further clarified. For completeness, the principles of total work and energy and of total work and energy of incremental rate type are postulated. Via total variations of the former and the latter of them, the principles of virtual displacement and microrotation & stress and couple stress as well as virtual velocity and angular velocity &stress rate and couple stress rate are immediately obtained, respectively. From these principles all balance equations and boundary conditions for micropolar mechanics are naturally and simultaneously deduced. The essential differences between the nontraditional results obtained in this paper and the existing conservation laws of energy are expounded.

  17. Maquila Workers’ Health: Basic Issues, What is Known, and a Pilot Study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Blanco R.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health issues identified in maquilas include respiratory, musculoskeletal, psychological problems, and accidents. This study identifies the basic health issues, as well as the sources and investigational methods needed for drafting health standards for maquilas. It sets out conceptual guidelines, suggesting general methodological strategies appropriate for studies of workers’ health and its determinants in the maquiladora sector. The conceptual-methodological model is based on 1 a review of relevant studies, 2 a mixed methods pilot feasibility study within the community of workers and social actors of a textile maquila in Nicaragua, and 3 the conceptual-methodological integration of a literature review with the results of the pilot study. The main issues identified are the organization of work, health, governmental regulation, family and gender, infrastructure and environment. Methodological recommendations focus on the principle of triangulation; the use of anonymous questionnaires and focus groups to examine specific issues; individual interviews with management personnel and members of the community; and the value of family members as key informers on the impact on family, environment and community. Observation of actual work procedures is ideal but not always possible. A joint health and safety committee and a health services unit would be key instruments in the prevention of accidents and illness and in health promotion and care.

  18. Basic Principles of Organization of the Medium and Thinking Process of the Human in its Conceptual Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Belov, Yuriy; Rabinovich, Zinoviy

    2008-01-01

    Given in the report conceptual presentation of the main principles of fractal-complexity Ration of the media and thinking processes of the human was formulated on the bases of the cybernetic interpretation of scientific information (basically from neurophysiology and neuropsychology, containing the interpretation giving the best fit to the authors point of view) and plausible hypothesis's, filling the lack of knowledge.

  19. Some aspects of metallurgical assessment of boiler tubes-Basic principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic principles behind remaining life assessment of service exposed components and also a few case studies related to failure of a reheater tube of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel, a carbon steel tube and final superheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and remaining creep life assessment of service exposed but unfailed platen superheater and reheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Sticking of fly ash particles causing reduction in effective tube wall thickness is responsible for failure of reheater tubes. Decarburised metal containing intergranular cracks at the inner surface of the carbon steel tube exhibiting a brittle window fracture is an indicative of hydrogen embrittlement responsible for this failure. In contrast, final superheater tube showed that the failure took place due to short-term overheating. The influence of prolong service revealed that unfailed reheater tubes exhibit higher tensile properties than that of platen superheater tubes. In contrast both the tubes at 50 MPa meet the minimum creep rupture properties when compared with NRIM data. The remaining creep life of platen superheater tube as estimated at 50 MPa and 570 deg. C (1058 oF) is more than 10 years and that of reheater tube at 50 MPa and 580 deg. C (1076 oF) is 9 years

  20. Does team training work? Principles for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; DiazGranados, Deborah; Weaver, Sallie J; King, Heidi

    2008-11-01

    Teamwork is integral to a working environment conducive to patient safety and care. Team training is one methodology designed to equip team members with the competencies necessary for optimizing teamwork. There is evidence of team training's effectiveness in highly complex and dynamic work environments, such as aviation and health care. However, most quantitative evaluations of training do not offer any insight into the actual reasons why, how, and when team training is effective. To address this gap in understanding, and to provide guidance for members of the health care community interested in implementing team training programs, this article presents both quantitative results and a specific qualitative review and content analysis of team training implemented in health care. Based on this review, we offer eight evidence-based principles for effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of team training programs specific to health care.

  1. Children's Health in Brazil: orienting basic network to Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Simone Soares; Nóbrega, Vanessa Medeiros da; Coutinho, Simone Elizabeth Duarte; Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Toso, Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira; Collet, Neusa

    2016-09-01

    This is an integrative literature review that analyzed the scientific knowledge produced on the orientation of Brazilian basic care services to primary health care focusing on child health. Searches were carried out in SciELO, Lilacs and Medline databases using descriptors "primary health care", "family health program", "child health" and "evaluation of health services". Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish between 2000 and 2013 were selected. A total of 32 studies were chosen and characterized in relation to the features of primary health care, region of the country, type of study and authors' practice area. A thematic review of studies was conducted and resulted in two categories: child care in the context of Brazilian primary health care and primary health care features: limitations to child care. It can be understood that Brazilian primary health care services are heterogeneous regarding the presence and scope of essential child care characteristics. There is a lack of structural and process changes in the services to substantially plan child care actions in basic care.

  2. Neutrons in studies of phospholipid bilayers and bilayer–drug interaction. I. Basic principles and neutron diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Belička M.; Devínsky F.; Balgavý P.

    2014-01-01

    In our paper, we demonstrate several possibilities of using neutrons in pharmaceutical research with the help of examples of scientific results achieved at our University. In this first part, basic properties of neutrons and elementary principles of elastic scattering of thermal neutrons are described. Results of contrast variation neutron diffraction on oriented phospholipid bilayers with intercalated local anaesthetic or cholesterol demonstrate the potential of this method at determination ...

  3. Technology insight: metabonomics in gastroenterology-basic principles and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Nielsen, Ole H; Wang, Yulan L;

    2008-01-01

    Metabonomics-the study of metabolic changes in an integrated biologic system-is an emerging field. This discipline joins the other 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics) to give rise to a comprehensive, systems-biology approach to the evaluation of holistic in vivo function. Metabonom...... metabonomics in basic and clinical research, with emphasis on applications in the field of gastroenterology....

  4. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

  5. Principles for decisions involving environmental and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of genotoxic chemicals in the environment. The topics include synoptic vs. incrementalistic approaches to decision making, health hazards from radiation and genotoxic chemicals, value judgments in decision making, definitions of low risks, risk comparisons, and principles for decision making when risks are involved. (author) 47 refs

  6. [The Surveillance in Health Basic: perspectives to reach the Surveillance in Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Liliam Saldanha; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2010-09-01

    The Surveillance in Health is constituted as an Assistance Model with potential to reorganize the working processes. This study was developed to identify and analyze surveillance practices in the Primary Health Care field, in a region of São Paulo City-Brazil. Interviews were performed with 14 individual, from February to April 2006: health workers and administrators who had been operating in the Epidemiologic Surveillance area of health basic units. The speeches were analyzed based on the social theory of the health-disease process and by the materialistic interpretation of the labor process. It was verified that their work was fragmented. The precariousness of the working structure, the lack of professional qualification and of management-political support, besides the lack of participation from the population were all identified as barriers that limit health surveillance practices. It was concluded that, in a local level, there is a potential to change the organization of the working process in health and meet the health needs of the population through a Health Surveillance Model. PMID:20964059

  7. Zebrafish Housing Systems: A Review of Basic Operating Principles and Considerations for Design and Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that ...

  8. Translating molecular medicine into clinical tools: doomed to fail by neglecting basic preanalytical principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannello Ferdinando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary discusses a study on measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 in serum of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients recently published in Journal of Molecular Medicine. This study can be considered the typical "obstacle" to effective translational medicine as previously documented in JTM journal. Although serum has been frequently proven as inappropriate sample for determining numerous circulating MMPs, among them MMP-9, there are over and over again studies, as in this case, that measure MMP-9 in serum. Comparative measurements in serum and plasma samples demonstrated higher concentrations for MMP-9 in serum due to the additional release from leukocytes and platelets following the coagulation/fibrinolysis process. From this example it can be concluded that translating basic research discoveries into clinical tools needs a more intensive exchange between basic biomedical research and clinical scientists already in an early stage. Otherwise a lost of translation, as discussed in JTM journal, seems to be inevitable.

  9. Neutrons in studies of phospholipid bilayers and bilayer–drug interaction. I. Basic principles and neutron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belička M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper, we demonstrate several possibilities of using neutrons in pharmaceutical research with the help of examples of scientific results achieved at our University. In this first part, basic properties of neutrons and elementary principles of elastic scattering of thermal neutrons are described. Results of contrast variation neutron diffraction on oriented phospholipid bilayers with intercalated local anaesthetic or cholesterol demonstrate the potential of this method at determination of their position in bilayers. Diffraction experiments with alkan-1-ols located in the bilayers revealed their influence on bilayer thickness as a function of their alkyl chain length.

  10. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and “static” properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement… can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the “vacuum rest frame”, VRF. But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a “grand unification” view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  11. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles : Do Planck units really make sense ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2013-01-01

    International audience It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4 x 10E19 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a...

  12. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  13. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅰ)-MICROPOLAR CONTINUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    Based on the restudies of existing polar continuum theories rather completesystems of basic balance laws and equations for micropolar continuum theory are presented.In these new systems not only the additional angular momentum, surface moment and bodymoment produced by the linear momentum, surface force and body force, respectively, butalso the additional velocity produced by the angular velocity are considered. The newcoupled balance laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy arereestablished. From them the new coupled local and nonlocal balance equatiors arenaturally derived. Via contrast it can be clearly seen that the new results are believed to berather general and complete.

  14. The principles of burying radioactive waste: basic physical and thermomechanical properties of geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the various types of radioactive wastes (short and long lives), the principles of radioactive waste storage in geologic structures are detailed: water is the main vector of migration so radionuclides are buried at depth within a medium of very low permeability and hydraulic gradient; the geological medium must retain its integrity during all the duration of their activity; its very age is obviously the guarantee of its future, but tectonic movements, erosion, climate must not deteriorate it in any way nor break down its structure. The thermomechanical effects are examined for each host medium such as plastic media (salt, clay) and brittle media (granite, shale) with an estimation of the long term and very long term rheological properties. 4 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs

  15. Basic safety principles of INSAG and their application in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) has, in INSAG-11, attempted to show what safety principles are common to all applications of all sources of radiation. It has been considered that these general principles should apply to all industrial activities. A comparison of INSAG-11 with Article 11 of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) shows that the management of radioactive waste is but a special case of industrial activity and follows the same safety rules. The importance of the Joint Convention comes, however, from the fact that it is a politically important document, requiring ratification by the parliaments of the contracting parties. The safe management of radioactive waste implies that five types of issue must be taken into consideration, not only technical and ethical ones, but also socio-political, economic and ecological ones. By comparison, sustainable development in its three dimensions (temporal, spatial and sectorial) has five components (ecology, economics, ethics, socio-politics and technology), just like the safe management of radioactive waste. The consequence of this is that if management is treated as a particular case of sustainable development, it will not be accepted by society. The conclusions are that technology alone can not ensure the safety of radioactive waste management and that society will always give priority to socio-political issues over technological ones. Furthermore, it is crucial that people involved in the management of radioactive waste learn to communicate better and to listen more attentively. Their efforts will only succeed when they incorporate all the components that determine the fabric of our society. (author)

  16. [Right to health litigations: a discussion on the observance of the principles of Brazil's Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiola Sulpino

    2008-04-01

    The paper reflects upon the legal interpretations of the right to health and its consequences. In order to exemplify the complexity of the theme and its emotional appeal, it analyzes the Supreme Court's decision in a public litigation against the State of Alagoas demanding that medication be supplied. Different interpretations, by both judges and health professionals, of the notion of integral health care, one of the principles of Brazil's Health System, are examined. It is held that scarcity of resources must be taken into consideration when drawing up public policies that aim to allocate funding efficiently and in a manner that is compatible with the principals of the health system. Finally, the impact of judicial decisions concerning medication not offered by the system and the behavior of the Brazilian judiciary with this respect are discussed.

  17. The assessment and measurement of adult life stress: Basic premises, operational principles, and design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L; Monroe, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    Life stress is a central factor in the onset and course of a wide range of medical and psychiatric conditions. Determining the precise etiological and pathological consequences of stress, though, has been hindered by weaknesses in prevailing definitional and measurement practices. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the primary strategies for defining and measuring major and minor acute life events, chronic stressors, and daily hassles as informed by 3 basic scientific premises. The first premise concerns the manner in which stress is conceptualized and operationally defined, and specifically we assert that stress measures must not conflate the stress exposure with the stress response. The second premise concerns how stress exposures are measured, and we provide guidelines for optimizing standardized and sensitive indicators of life stress. The third premise addresses the consequences of variations in the procedures for life event measurement with regard to the validity of the research designs employed. We show that life stress measures are susceptible to several sources of bias, and if these potential sources of bias are not controlled in the design of the research, spurious findings may result. Our goal is to provide a useful guide for researchers who consider life stress to be an important factor in their theoretical models of disease, wish to incorporate measures of life stress in their research, and seek to avoid the common pitfalls of past measurement practices. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27254487

  18. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2014-04-01

    It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR

  19. Innovation-marketing enterprise development of innovation-market orientation: basic principles and modelling aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Dubnytsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The study is devoted to the solution of the urgent scientific and other problems the development of enterprises in the global economy and the development of the theoretical and methodological aspects of innovative management and marketing of the enterprise development innovation and market orientation on the basis of formation of the system principles of innovative development, marketing management within the processes of globalization. The results of the analysis. It is revealed that one of the main problems for modern Ukrainian enterprises is the preservation of competitiveness and the maintenance of business activity in the conditions of the external environment which is continuously changing. It is shown that the economy of the country which wants to develop in the conditions of innovative orientation and increase of the level of motivation in organizational innovation are the main reason to secure enterprises the conditions for the implementation of innovation-marketing orientation, especially in the framework of international commodity markets. It is proved that the company has the influence on the nonlinear nature for the development of the components of open socio-economic systems. It is revealed that in its activity the enterprise has a high degree of dynamism and variability of the external environment, which contributes to the emergence of new laws for the development and control of nonlinear dissipative media. Also, in the global economy within the geo-space there is a place for ‘the presence of co-evolutional effects”. In the study we have got the characteristic of cases within the framework of the need for innovation-marketing development of the enterprise. The substantive aspects of the strategic approach, which are specified in the principles system of the innovative development management of the enterprise-marketing orientation in the global economy are considered. It is found that formation of the

  20. Goal Commitments and the Content of Thoughts and Dreams: Basic Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eKlinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1 An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2 Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3 When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4 When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5 Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and

  1. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  2. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅵ)-CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND INERTIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the coupled conservation laws, the local conservation equations and the jump conditions of mass and inertia for polar continuum theories. In this connection the new material derivatives of the deformation gradient, the line element, the surface element and the volume element were derived and the generalized Reynolds transport theorem was presented. Combining these conservation laws of mass and inertia with the balance laws of momentum, angular momentum and energy derived in our previous papers of this series, a rather complete system of coupled basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories is constituted on the whole. From this system the coupled nonlocal balance equations of mass, inertia, momentum, angular momentum and energy may be obtained by the usual localization.

  3. PET/TAC: Basic principles, physiological variants and artifacts; PET/TAC: Generalidades, variantes fisiologicas y artefactos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, A.M. [Especialista en Medicina Nuclear, Profa. Depto. Radiologia de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation is about the basic principles, physiologic variants and devices that work in the PET/TAC technique. Next the conclusions obtained in the same one are presented: For a correct evaluation of the PET/TAC images with FDG is necessary the knowledge of the image acquisition technique, as well as of the physiologic distribution of the FDG, variants of the normality, benign causes of captation and more frequent devices. The introduction of this hybrid procedure allows the correct anatomical localization and identification of the deposits of FDG largely avoiding false or doubtful interpretations, but it can also originate not specific devices existent in the conventional PET. The previous knowledge of the possible devices will make possible in certain cases its elimination and in other its identification avoiding incorrect interpretations. (Author)

  4. Basic topical problems on health hazards from ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of this research contract, a number of important questions have been considered which have been of basic interest in radiological protection against low doses of ionizing radiation. In particular, research concentrated on the various statistical concepts for the evaluation of epidemiological data for the purpose of radiation risk analysis, derivation of dose-time-effect-relationships for certain somatic effects, time dependence of selected dose-conversion factors, radiation hazards of carbon-14, tritium, and of radon daughter products. The essential results have been reported in separate publications, and therefore will only be shortly summarized here. (orig./HP)

  5. Consensus drug resistance mutations for epidemiological surveillance: basic principles and potential controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Robert W; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Bennett, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    Programmes that monitor local, national and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programmes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a global programme for genotypic surveillance of HIV-1 drug resistance and has recommended the adoption of a consensus definition of genotypic drug resistance. Such a definition is necessary to accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographical regions and time periods. HIV-1 diversity and the large number of mutations associated with antiretroviral drug resistance complicate the development of a consensus definition for genotypic drug resistance. This paper reviews the data that must be considered to determine which of the many HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are likely to be both sensitive and specific indicators of transmitted drug resistance. The process used to create a previously published list of drug resistance mutations for HIV-1 surveillance is reviewed and alternative approaches to this process are discussed. PMID:18575192

  6. The Basic Principles of Comprehensive Rule by Law%全面依法治国的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方乐

    2015-01-01

    全面依法治国的基本原则,指的是要坚持中国共产党的领导、坚持人民主体地位、坚持法律面前人人平等、坚持依法治国和以德治国相结合、坚持从中国实际出发等五项内容. 这五项基本原则是一个有机整体,其主体内容与精神实质紧密相关,知识立场与功能预期密切相连,行动指向与制度需求相辅相成. 厘清并坚持全面推进依法治国的五项基本原则,有利于统一思想、凝聚全党全国各族人民在法治问题上的共识,保障依法治国沿着正确的方向前进.%Basic principles of comprehensive governing the country by law refer to the five elements :adhere to the leadership of the Communist Party of China , adhere to the dominant position of the people , adhere to equality before the law , adhere to the rule of law and the rule of virtue , and adhere to the national situation of China .These five basic principles are an organic integri-ty, whose main content is closely related to the spiritual substance , the knowledge position and functional prediction are closely associated , the action direction and the system requirements complement each other .It is conducive to the unity of thinking , the cohesion of the consensus of the whole party and ethnic groups in the rule of law , to guarantee the correct advancing direction of governing the country by law .

  7. Health Related Quality Management Values and Key Principles of Communicative Leadership - Are They the Same?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingela Backstrom; Pernilla Ingelsson; Catrin Johansson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare health related values within Quality Management with Key Principles of Communicative Leadership in order to see if Communicative leaders also promote healthy co-workers.  A literature review was conducted within the area of Communicative Leadership and within the values of health related Quality Management. The principles within Communicative leadership were compared with the underlying dimensions within the health related values ‘Leadership Commitment’...

  8. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways.

  9. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways. PMID:26681794

  10. Basic Economic Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  11. Basic Principles of MLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rambla-Alegre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC is an efficient alternative to conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography with hydro-organic mobile phases. Almost three decades of experience have resulted in an increasing production of analytical applications. Current concern about the environment also reveals MLC as an interesting technique for “green” chemistry because it uses mobile phases containing 90% or more water. These micellar mobile phases have a low toxicity and are not producing hazardous wastes. The stationary phase is modified with an approximately constant amount of surfactant monomers, and the solubilising capability of the mobile phase is altered by the presence of micelles, giving rise to a great variety of interactions (hydrophobic, ionic, and steric with major implications in retention and selectivity. From its beginnings in 1980, the technique has evolved up to becoming in a real alternative in some instances (and a complement in others to classical RPLC with aqueous-organic mixtures, owing to its peculiar features and unique advantages. The addition of an organic solvent to the mobile phase was, however, soon suggested in order to enhance the low efficiencies and weak elution strength associated with the mobile phases that contained only micelles.

  12. Stem cells: basic research on health, from ethics to panacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though stem cell therapies are still under experimentation, the media has represented them as a panacea that would cure all diseases. This fact secured the authorization for using human embryos as research material. Therapies include manipulation of human material in tissue bioengineering, suggesting a representation of the body as a factory. This article describes stem cell research projects being carried out in the health sciences center of a higher education institution, focusing on field organization and on the system of values underlying scientific activity. Researchers at different levels were interviewed about perspectives on, and implications of, their research in order to analyze the discourse of the projects' participants. Experiments with adult stem cells enjoyed wide support, while the use of human embryos was disputed. The foundations of those arguments were sought in their relation both to the structure of the scientific field and to the researchers' religious background.

  13. Applying principles of health system strengthening to eye care

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Blanchet; Daksha Patel

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to...

  14. Adult Basic Education and Health Literacy: Program Efforts and Perceived Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…

  15. The enhancement of nuclear safety: Basic principles and approaches to ensure the operation safety of NPP's in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety of NPPs should receive the highest priority concerns in any mode of operation because various operational transients can develop into an accident of serious consequence. In most nuclear countries, two-tier approach is commonly adopted to assure the operational safety; (1) various operational and maintenance activities by the utility which has the primary responsibility for the safety of the facility, (2) surveillance and inspection by the government authority which officially confirms the nuclear safety to protect the public from the radiation hazards. The utility has to improve the economy of the plant operation and at the same time has to enhance the safety through the achievement of high quality and reliability in operation and maintenance. The regulatory body, in the meantime, confirms the operational safety through the safety review and inspection activities in the form of preoperational inspection, periodical inspection, daily inspection, special inspection, etc. This paper reviews the basic principles for operation and maintenance of NPP, and the fundamental framework of the roles and responsibilities of the utility and the regulatory body with a view to achieving the operational safety. Also discussed is the regulatory effort in Korea to verify the adequacy of the plant management

  16. The stem-cell application in ischemic heart disease: Basic principles, specifics and practical experience from clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Longer life duration, different clinical presentations of coronary disease, as well as high incidence of comorbidity in patients with ischemic heart disease have led to an increase in the incidence of ischemic heart failure. Despite numerous and new treatment methods that act on different pathophysiological mechanisms that cause heart failure, and whose aim is to slowdown or stop the progression of this devastating disease, morbidity and mortality in these patients remain high. These facts have firstly led to the introduction of the experimental, and then clinical studies with the application of stem cells in patients with ischemic heart disease. Previous studies have shown that the application of stem cells is a feasible and safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, but the efficacy of these methods in both of the abovementioned clinical syndromes has yet to be established. This review paper outlines the basic principles of treatment of ischemic heart disease with stem cells, as well as the experience and knowledge gained in previous clinical studies.

  17. Health Related Quality Management Values and Key Principles of Communicative Leadership - Are They the Same?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingela Backstrom

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare health related values within Quality Management with Key Principles of Communicative Leadership in order to see if Communicative leaders also promote healthy co-workers.  A literature review was conducted within the area of Communicative Leadership and within the values of health related Quality Management. The principles within Communicative leadership were compared with the underlying dimensions within the health related values ‘Leadership Commitment’ and Participation of everybody’. The analysis shows that the underlying dimensions within both of the health related Quality Management values ‘Participation of everybody’ and ‘Leadership commitment’ were related to some of the Key Principles of Communicative Leadership. The results can help Communicative Leaders to emphasize the Key Principles that also promote healthy co-workers. The results can also help leaders that already have healthy co-workers to increase leaders’ communication competence within organizations.

  18. The search for underlying principles of health impact assessment: progress and prospects: Comment on "Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment"

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Jürg Utzinger

    2014-01-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Is...

  19. Careers in Virology: Public Health Opportunities for Early-Career Basic Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Kilianski, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral scientists trained as virologists can play critical roles in public health, such as in health science policy, epidemiology, and national defense. Despite a need for basic science backgrounds within these fields, finding entry-level careers can be challenging. Volunteer opportunities are a great way for scientists to experience public health careers while still in school, and this article describes volunteering with the Medical Reserve Corps and outlin...

  20. Applying principles of health system strengthening to eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Blanchet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to health care. Eye care interventions particularly in developing countries have generally been vertically implemented (e.g. trachoma, cataract surgeries often with parallel organizational structures or specialised disease specific services. With the emergence of health system strengthening in health strategies and in the service delivery of interventions there is a need to clarify and examine inputs in terms governance, financing and management. This present paper aims to clarify key concepts in health system strengthening and describe the various components of the framework as applied in eye care interventions.

  1. Discussion on the Development and Perfection of Our Civil Law Basic Principles%议我国民法基本原则的发展及完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海泳

    2011-01-01

    《法国民法典》确立了近代民法的基本原则,而《德国民法典》又将近代民法基本原则发展。民法的基本原则随时间和社会发展不断在调整和完善。中国1986年的《民法通则》所规范的基本原则有局限性和滞后性,应进一步发展和完善。%France civil law gives us the basic principles of the civil law in modern times,German civil law made them better.The basic principles of the civil law is becoming better day by day.In China,the civil law ’s basic principles have many weaknesses.The article discusses the development and perfection of the civil law ’s basic principles these years.

  2. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION OF ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF PROGNOSTICATION AND RAPID REACTING ARE ON EVENT OF «OFFENSIVE OF CRISIS»

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmakova, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the article an author proves that the mechanism of prognostication and rapid reacting is needed on an event «offensive of krizisna», which will be instrumental in the proof functioning of enterprise structures in the period of krizisna. Basic principles over of postoeniya of such mechanism are brought in the article.

  3. Role of AYUSH workforce, therapeutics, and principles in health care delivery with special reference to National Rural Health Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    Decades back AYUSH systems of medicine were limited to their own field with few exceptions in some states as health in India is a state issue. This took a reverse turn after the initiation of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005 which brought the concept of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and Revitalization of Local Health Traditions” utilizing the untapped AYUSH workforces, therapeutics and principles for the management of community health problems. As on 31/03/2012 AYUSH facilities were co-...

  4. Principles for communicating with aging health-care consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, C D; Spotts, H E

    1990-01-01

    The health-care marketplace is aging by leaps and bounds and bringing with it new and different medical needs. As costs soar and public assistance programs dwindle in impact, health-care providers will need better marketing strategies to bring treatments to patients/consumers. This article looks at the research findings of behavioral scientists and offers guidelines for effective communication with aging audiences. Health-care providers can use these findings to design more effective advertising, promotional brochures, newsletters, and a host of other communication tools targeted at an older market. Health-care managers and other professionals should find the guidelines useful in their daily interactions with patients and colleagues. PMID:10107270

  5. Control of multiscale systems with constraints. 1. Basic principles of the concept of evolution of systems with varying constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, S; Novikov, V

    2013-01-01

    Physical fundamentals of the self-organizing theory for the system with varying constraints are considered. A variation principle, specifically the principle of dynamic harmonization as a generalization of the Gauss-Hertz principle for the systems with varying internal structure is formulated. In compliance with this principle the system evolves through dynamics of the processes leading to harmonization of the internal multiscale structure of the system and its connections with external actions as a result of minimizing the dynamic harmonization function. Main principles of the shell model of self-organization under the action of the dominating entropic disturbance are formulated.

  6. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  7. Safety and health: Principles and practices in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignorance, carelessness or improper practices in the laboratory or the improper handling of hazardous or toxic materials may lead to work accidents and work-related ill-health. Laboratory users and administrators cannot afford to overlook these possible consequences due to the misconduct of laboratory practices and should decide how best to manage the health and safety aspects in the laboratory. This book has been written for safety representatives of colleges and universities, for lectures, teachers and students, and for researchers working in laboratories. It is also for everyone responsible for laboratory safety, laboratory accidents and their consequences. The emphasis is on hazards to health and safety, with the focus on the general hazards in the laboratory, how they arise and how to prevent, how to eliminate and control them. Special hazards will also be discussed such as radiation hazards and human factors. This book also provides information on governmental and non-governmental agencies and authorities, emergency contact numbers of relevant authorities, a list of Malaysia occupational safety and health related legislation and some useful occupational safety and health web sites. Readers will find that the information contained in this book will serve as the foundation for laboratory users safety policy. A set of Laboratory Safety Forms for a typical laboratory is also available in the appendix for reference. Laboratory users can use and adapt these forms for their own laboratory requirements. (author)

  8. Reflections on the concept of basic needs and primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenum, C A

    1981-01-01

    The notion or concept of need has different meanings according to the individual groups or ages to which it is applied. A need is something which man subjectively feels an urge to satisfy. Basic or primary needs are the minimum vital requirements which must be met to ensure dignified human existence. Basic needs relate both to individuals and communities. Although the needs of individuals and communities are contingent, they are not necessarily in harmony. One of the principal goals of socioeconomic development in general and health care development in particular is the satisfaction of the basic needs of the greatest number of people. Growth-oriented strategies have so far failed to reduce inequalities and physical, mental, and social destitution. Development strategies focusing on basic needs must: 1) eliminate social inequalities; 2) include coherent programs of activities relating to basic needs; and 3) undergo radical structural changes (a social revolution in community health). Promotion of health care for the most underprivileged segments of society necessitate: 1) production of goods necessary for the satisfaction of basic needs such as building materials or essential medicines; 2) construction of country roads; and 3) development of programs of rural health, water supply, literacy, and housing. Primary health care is essential care which is fundamental to basic needs. Policies, strategies, and plans of action should be formulated in order to develop primary health care. An excellent means of implementing primary health care is the choice of appropriate technology for health care. Choosing the appropriate technology for development entails finding the right balance between labor-intensive and capital-intensive technology; it should be the result of combining knowledge and practices which help improve the physical, mental, and social well-being of individuals, families, and communities. In most rural populations of the world, infections and epidemic and

  9. Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals.

  10. Applying Lean principles and Kaizen rapid improvement events in public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Poteat-Godwin, Annah; Harrison, Lisa Macon; Randolph, Greg D

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes a local home health and hospice agency's effort to implement Lean principles and Kaizen methodology as a rapid improvement approach to quality improvement. The agency created a cross-functional team, followed Lean Kaizen methodology, and made significant improvements in scheduling time for home health nurses that resulted in reduced operational costs, improved working conditions, and multiple organizational efficiencies.

  11. BARRIERS TO THE USE OF BASIC HEALTH SERVICES AMONG WOMEN IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study examined potential demand-side barriers to women’s use of basic health services in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire were carried out on 205 currently-married women, inquiring about their use of health facilities: regular antenatal care (ANC) during the last pregnancy and medical treatment services when they suffered from common illness. Questions about their perceptions of barriers to the use of hea...

  12. Precautionary principle in health protection policies regarding Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast development of new technologies with application of electromagnetic fields (EMF), their ubiquity and uncertainties about possible health risks pose a big challenge for corresponding protection policies. There is a common consent that the uncertainty considering development and health risks should be covered by precautionary measures, but the questions are what measures are appropriate, how to implement them in the existing legislation and what changes in protection policies and philosophies are needed in order to reach optimal solutions. This paper gives some reflections, analysis, proposals and examples relating to these questions. Different possibilities for precautionary measures in the fields of environmental protection, consumer products and occupational exposure are discussed as well as their implementation in the corresponding protection policies and legislation. The special roles of research and information are illustrated and some examples from Switzerland are given. (author)

  13. The ethical basis of the precautionary principle in health care decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article explores the relation between the precautionary and health care decision making. Decision making in medical practice as well as health policy is characterized by uncertainty. On the level of clinical practice for example, one never knows in advance whether one has made the right diagnosis or has opted for the right treatment. Though medical decisions have a risk on serious harms and burdens, the precautionary principle is not applicable to health care. This principle holds that one should not act when there is no scientific proof that no harms will result from a medical act or a policy decision. However, in clinical practice there is a duty to act. Physicians have an obligation to do good to their patients and have to weigh the benefits against possible harms and burdens. The basis virtue of medical decision making is not avoidance of risks, as stated in the precautionary principle, but the prudent assessment of benefits, burdens, and harms, in relation to other ethical principles like respect for autonomy and justice. The precautionary principle does play a role in health care, but it should never rule medical decision making as an absolute principle. This is not only true for clinical decision making, but also for the area of health policy. Physicians and other health care decision makers need to have knowledge about the possible effects of treatments or the precision of diagnostic procedures in order to reduce harm and promote well-being. Evidence-based medicine may contribute to the wisdom of health care decision makers, but this evidence-based wisdom should always be applied under the guidance of prudence, which is the central virtue of health care decision making

  14. Principles of justice as a basis for conceptualizing a health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J H

    1977-01-01

    This paper opens with a concern for the causes of the maldistribution of health care throughout most of the world. It then explores briefly the question of entitlement to health care, focusing on the appropriateness of expressing that entitlement in terms of social justice. Some principles of justice as related to health care are formulated, drawing on the thinking of John Rawls and his Theory of Justice, and the ideas of distributive justice that have been set forth by Nicholas Rescher. These principles are then used as a basis for planning a theoretical health care system in the setting of a less-developed country. This theoretical health care system is intended to reflect a just distribution of health care under conditions of varying limitations of resources, including those in which resources are not adequate to provide care for all of the people. Some of the technical, social, and political implications of such a system are discussed.

  15. 核损害赔偿的基本原则%The Basic Principles of Nuclear Damage Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘风景; 郑建保

    2014-01-01

    核能的和平发展和利用,是20世纪人类最重大的科技成就之一。核电站于上世纪50年代左右开始起步,到本世纪已经达到了商业化发展的水平,成为一种具有吸引力的能源。但是,核能的和平利用在给人类社会带来巨大好处的同时,也伴随着巨大的风险。随着前苏联切尔诺贝利和日本福岛等重大核事故的不断发生,核安全特别是核损害赔偿问题日益引起国际社会的广泛关注。通过对与核损害赔偿有关的国际公约和各国国内法进行系统整理,总结出核损害赔偿的基本原则,可为我国制定《核安全法》提供有益的经验。%Utilizing and developing nuclear energy peacefully is a great scientiifc achievement for human in 20th Century. For instance, nuclear energy station, which launched in the last 50 years of 20th Century. has reached a common application in business this century and utilizing of nuclear energy beneifts human a lot. however, it also brings great risks. With the serious nuclear accidents happened in Chernobyl, the former Soviet Union and Fukushima, Japan, nuclear security, especially nuclear damage compensation continually arouses more attention from international community. In view of this, it is necessary to summarize the basic principles of nuclear damage compensation, which will contribute to the making of the Nuclear security law of China.

  16. A Basic Strategy to Manage Global Health with Reference to Livestock Production in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to global health. We argue that for effective management of global health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health management. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to global health management is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the management of global health.

  17. Renewal of basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories (Ⅺ)——consistency problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tian-min

    2007-01-01

    Some consistency problems existing in continuum field theories are briefly reviewed. Three arts of consistency problems are clarified based on the renewed basic laws for polar continua. The first art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for polar continua. The second art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for polar continua and for other nonpolar continua. The third art discusses the consistency problems between the basic laws for micropolar continuum theories and the dynamical equations for rigid body. The results presented here can help us to get a deeper understanding the structure of the basic laws for various continuum theories and the interrelations between them. In the meantime, these results obtained show clearly that the consistency problems could not be solved in the framework of traditional basic laws for continuum field theories.

  18. The Theoretical Basis and Basic Principles of Knowledge Network Linking%知识网络链接的理论基础与基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永常

    2012-01-01

    知识网络链接是进行动态知识构建的本质要求,有助于泛在知识服务的实现。本文从理论基础和基本原则揭示了知识网络链接的原理。%Knowledge network linkage (KNL) is the essence of dynamic knowledge architecture, and is helpful realizes the ubiquitous knowledge service. To promulgate the basic principle of KNL, author explores its theoretical foundation and basic rules.

  19. Health care priority setting: principles, practice and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Cam

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health organizations the world over are required to set priorities and allocate resources within the constraint of limited funding. However, decision makers may not be well equipped to make explicit rationing decisions and as such often rely on historical or political resource allocation processes. One economic approach to priority setting which has gained momentum in practice over the last three decades is program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA. Methods This paper presents a detailed step by step guide for carrying out a priority setting process based on the PBMA framework. This guide is based on the authors' experience in using this approach primarily in the UK and Canada, but as well draws on a growing literature of PBMA studies in various countries. Results At the core of the PBMA approach is an advisory panel charged with making recommendations for resource re-allocation. The process can be supported by a range of 'hard' and 'soft' evidence, and requires that decision making criteria are defined and weighted in an explicit manner. Evaluating the process of PBMA using an ethical framework, and noting important challenges to such activity including that of organizational behavior, are shown to be important aspects of developing a comprehensive approach to priority setting in health care. Conclusion Although not without challenges, international experience with PBMA over the last three decades would indicate that this approach has the potential to make substantial improvement on commonly relied upon historical and political decision making processes. In setting out a step by step guide for PBMA, as is done in this paper, implementation by decision makers should be facilitated.

  20. Basic principles of renewal of sportsmen with myofascial by a pain syndrome taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko G.D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine and learn the fundamentals of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome, taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation. Material: the data analyzed and summarized the scientific and methodological literature; sites on the internet. Results: the analysis of specialized literature on development features myofascial pain syndrome in athletes. Myofascial pain syndrome is widespread in sports practice. It is characterized by muscle spasms and trigger points, palpation of which there is a growing pain. The basic principles of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome. The questions of the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, taking into account the influence of psychological factors on the recovery of athletes. Conclusions: the presented strategy is comprehensive physical rehabilitation. Recommended keeping the basic principles of the recovery of athletes and the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation.

  1. Perspectives for Developing New Tuberculosis Vaccines Derived from the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: I. Basic Principles, II. Preclinical Testing, and III. Clinical Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bappaditya Dey; Dannenberg, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I. Basic Principles. TB vaccines cannot prevent establishment of the infection. They can only prevent an early pulmonary tubercle from developing into clinical disease. A more effective new vaccine should optimize both cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) better than any existing vaccine. The rabbit is the only laboratory animal in which all aspects of the human disease can be reproduced: namely, the prevention of most primary tubercles, the arrestment of ...

  2. VOICING, PAPER AND BRUSH TO CHILDREN IN BASIC HEALTH UNIT: A REPORT OF EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélem Soares de Meneses

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the experience of Supervised Internship in Community Social Psychology from the State University of Piauí (UESPI performed in a Basic Health Unit of Teresina, Piauí. The objectives of the internship were: insert themselves in everyday community, collect and interpret data from this reality, rise possible demands of work and develop intervention activities aimed at education and health promotion. There were home visits, counseling, referrals and especially playful activities with children in the waiting room. The creation of educational and preventive spaces in the community through popular education contributed to improving the quality of services and allowed a holistic and differentiated children who attend this service attention. Health promotion that subjects provided an opportunity to express their own perceptions of reality, with the prospect of linking health and living conditions, sharing the cultural, economic, psychological, social and environmental situations that have a serious impact on the health- disease process.

  3. [Groups in basic health attention in Porto Alegre: uses and forms of therapeutic intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffacciolli, Rosana; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with groups as an assistential modality used by the services of basic health attention. Workshops, health education groups, as well as, lectures are different activities done in relation to other traditional attendances. The study that is behind this discussion had as its main aim to know the profile of assistance, under groups' organization, offered in the Units which make part of the Basic Health Network in Porto Alegre. Within a total of 124 health services, 116 professionals were approached, among them, 96 developed groups. We could verify that the groups have therapeutic relevance because they favor the sharing of information and the learning about aspects which are related to the topic health-sickness. They constitute inclusive practices, which are able to create a link with the users and the service, as well as, to reformulate the existing assistential model. Therefore, it was verified that the understanding of these practices reflects on its dimension of the group assistance qualification and also the strategic dimension of compensation in the attendance of the increasing demand of health.

  4. [Production of data for the pre-natal information system in basic health units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aline Pinto de; Corrêa, Aurea Christina de Paula

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the process of data production for Information System Prenatal and Birth (SISPRENATAL) in Basic Health Units of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. This qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was developed in eight units of Basic Health Coordination, through semi-structured interviews with professionals who worked with SISPRENATAL (nurses, physicians, managers and data entry) and comparative document analysis between system data and the written patient records. Data analysis revealed a lack of definition of the team's participation in the production of data and different modes of completing forms within the system. Professionals' knowledge about many aspects of the formswas divergent, completion of the forms was inadequate, and flaws in the computerized system were identified. Measures such as professional training, the review of the system and its forms are indispensible for the production of reliable information about prenatal care in the municipality.

  5. Measuring and managing progress in the establishment of basic health services: the Afghanistan health sector balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter M; Peters, David H; Niayesh, Haseebullah; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Dwivedi, Vikas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) of Afghanistan has adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a tool to measure and manage performance in delivery of a Basic Package of Health Services. Based on results from the 2004 baseline round, the MOPH identified eight of the 29 indicators on the BSC as priority areas for improvement. Like the 2004 round, the 2005 and 2006 BSCs involved a random selection of more than 600 health facilities, 1700 health workers and 5800 patient-provider interactions. The 2005 and 2006 BSCs demonstrated substantial improvements in all eight of the priority areas compared to 2004 baseline levels, with increases in median provincial scores for presence of active village health councils, availability of essential drugs, functional laboratories, provider knowledge, health worker training, use of clinical guidelines, monitoring of tuberculosis treatment, and provision of delivery care. For three of the priority indicators-drug availability, health worker training and provider knowledge-scores remained unchanged or decreased between 2005 and 2006. This highlights the need to ensure that early gains achieved in establishment of health services in Afghanistan are maintained over time. The use of a coherent and balanced monitoring framework to identify priority areas for improvement and measure performance over time reflects an objectives-based approach to management of health services that is proving to be effective in a difficult environment.

  6. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  7. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... diagnostic services, treatment services and x-ray services, for patients who are ambulatory and may be... paragraph (a)(4) of this section; (3) Cosmetic surgery, unless medically necessary; (4) Prescribed drugs...

  8. Applying Lean principles and Kaizen rapid improvement events in public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Poteat-Godwin, Annah; Harrison, Lisa Macon; Randolph, Greg D

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes a local home health and hospice agency's effort to implement Lean principles and Kaizen methodology as a rapid improvement approach to quality improvement. The agency created a cross-functional team, followed Lean Kaizen methodology, and made significant improvements in scheduling time for home health nurses that resulted in reduced operational costs, improved working conditions, and multiple organizational efficiencies. PMID:22139310

  9. Towards Establishing Fiscal Legitimacy Through Settled Fiscal Principles in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Attiya; Latif, Laila Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Scholarship on international health law is currently pushing the boundaries while taking stock of achievements made over the past few decades. However despite the forward thinking approach of scholars working in the field of global health one area remains a stumbling block in the path to achieving the right to health universally: the financing of heath. This paper uses the book Global Health Law by Larry Gostin to reflect and take stock of the fiscal support provided to the right to health from both a global and an African perspective. It then sets out the key fiscal challenges facing global and African health and proposes an innovative solution for consideration: use of the domestic principles of tax to design the global health financing system.

  10. Towards Establishing Fiscal Legitimacy Through Settled Fiscal Principles in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Attiya; Latif, Laila Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Scholarship on international health law is currently pushing the boundaries while taking stock of achievements made over the past few decades. However despite the forward thinking approach of scholars working in the field of global health one area remains a stumbling block in the path to achieving the right to health universally: the financing of heath. This paper uses the book Global Health Law by Larry Gostin to reflect and take stock of the fiscal support provided to the right to health from both a global and an African perspective. It then sets out the key fiscal challenges facing global and African health and proposes an innovative solution for consideration: use of the domestic principles of tax to design the global health financing system. PMID:26337764

  11. Ontogeny of taste preferences: basic biology and implications for health12345

    OpenAIRE

    Mennella, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Health initiatives address childhood obesity in part by encouraging good nutrition early in life. This review highlights the science that shows that children naturally prefer higher levels of sweet and salty tastes and reject lower levels of bitter tastes than do adults. Thus, their basic biology does not predispose them to favor the recommended low-sugar, low-sodium, vegetable-rich diets and makes them especially vulnerable to our current food environment of foods high in salt and refined su...

  12. Benefit distribution of social health insurance: evidence from china's urban resident basic medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Tian, Sen; Zhou, Qin; Han, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Equity is one of the essential objectives of the social health insurance. This article evaluates the benefit distribution of the China's Urban Residents' Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 300 million urban populations. Using the URBMI Household Survey data fielded between 2007 and 2011, we estimate the benefit distribution by the two-part model, and find that the URBMI beneficiaries from lower income groups benefited less than that of higher income groups. In other words, government subsidy that was supposed to promote the universal coverage of health care flew more to the rich. Our study provides new evidence on China's health insurance system reform, and it bears meaningful policy implication for other developing countries facing similar challenges on the way to universal coverage of health insurance. PMID:26936094

  13. Basic principles of economic law reflected in Tsunzi’s thought%荀子思想所体现的经济法基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩卫平

    2011-01-01

    Some theories in Tsunzi's thought are to a certain extent consistent with basic principles of modern economic law.The thought of "all fairness means no fairness" embodies fairness principle,"both interest and justice"the society-oriented principle,"value on ritual and law"the appropriate government intervention principle,and"reasonable measurement and distribution"the sustainable devel-opment principle of economic law.%荀子思想中的有关理论与中国现代经济法所体现的基本原则有相当的一致性:其"维齐非齐"的思想体现了经济法的平原则,其"义利两有"思想体现了经济法的社会本位原则,其"隆礼重法"思想体现了经济法的国家适度干预原则,其"度量分界"思想体现了经济法的可持续发展原则。

  14. The role of basic data registers in cross-border interconnection of eHealth solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregar, Mirjana; Marčun, Tomaž; Dovžan, Irma; Cehovin, Lojzka

    2011-01-01

    The increasingly closer international business cooperation in the areas of production, trade, transport and activities such as tourism and education is promoting the mobility of people. This increases the need for the provision of health care services across borders. In order to provide increasingly safer and effective treatment that is of ever higher quality in these cases as well, it is necessary to ensure that data accompanies patients even when they travel to other regions, countries or continents. eHealth solutions are one of the key tools for achieving such objectives. When building these solutions, it is necessary to take into account the different aspects and limitations brought about by the differences in the environments where such a treatment of a patient takes place. In the debates on the various types of cross-border interoperability of eHealth solutions, it is necessary to bring to attention the necessity of suitable management and interconnection of data registers that form the basis of every information system: data on patients, health care service providers and basic code tables. It is necessary to promote well-arranged and quality data in the patient's domestic environment and the best possible options for transferring and using those data in the foreign environment where the patient is receiving medical care at a particular moment. Many of the discussions dealing with conditions for the interoperability of health care information systems actually start with questions of how to ensure the interconnectivity of basic data registers.

  15. The role of basic data registers in cross-border interconnection of eHealth solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregar, Mirjana; Marčun, Tomaž; Dovžan, Irma; Cehovin, Lojzka

    2011-01-01

    The increasingly closer international business cooperation in the areas of production, trade, transport and activities such as tourism and education is promoting the mobility of people. This increases the need for the provision of health care services across borders. In order to provide increasingly safer and effective treatment that is of ever higher quality in these cases as well, it is necessary to ensure that data accompanies patients even when they travel to other regions, countries or continents. eHealth solutions are one of the key tools for achieving such objectives. When building these solutions, it is necessary to take into account the different aspects and limitations brought about by the differences in the environments where such a treatment of a patient takes place. In the debates on the various types of cross-border interoperability of eHealth solutions, it is necessary to bring to attention the necessity of suitable management and interconnection of data registers that form the basis of every information system: data on patients, health care service providers and basic code tables. It is necessary to promote well-arranged and quality data in the patient's domestic environment and the best possible options for transferring and using those data in the foreign environment where the patient is receiving medical care at a particular moment. Many of the discussions dealing with conditions for the interoperability of health care information systems actually start with questions of how to ensure the interconnectivity of basic data registers. PMID:21685602

  16. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  17. Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

  18. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions. PMID:24986104

  19. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions.

  20. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms.

  1. The principles of the Brazilian Unified Health System, studied based on similitude analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Munhen de Pontes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze and compare the incorporation of the ethical-doctrinal and organizational principles into the social representations of the Unified Health System (SUS among health professionals. METHOD: a study grounded in Social Representations Theory, undertaken with 125 subjects, in eight health institutions in Rio de Janeiro. The free word association technique was applied to the induction term "SUS", the words evoked being analyzed using the techniques of the Vergès matrix and similitude analysis. RESULTS: it was identified that the professionals' social representations vary depending on their level of education, and that those with higher education represent a subgroup responsible for the process of representational change identified. This result was confirmed through similitude analysis. CONCLUSION: a process of representational change is ongoing, in which it was ascertained that the professionals incorporated the principles of the SUS into their symbolic constructions. The similitude analysis was shown to be a fruitful technique for research in nursing.

  2. Basic webliography on health promotion and disease prevention - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p217

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To introduce a basic webliography to access highly qualified evidence-based material on health promotion and disease prevention, aiming at the continuing education of health professionals. Methods: By means of Google® browser, applying the descriptors in sequence to progressively refine the search on Internet and key concepts to be learned, all previously defined by the authors themselves, we proceeded a qualitative analyses of the 20 first listed links for each searched issue and the final selection of the most scientifically relevant ones. Results: The 34 selected links are presented in 4 groups: 23 portals, 5 guides and recommendations, 4 scientific journals and 3 blogs that allow free access to health promotion and disease prevention related subjects, such as: concepts; national and international public policies; epidemiology, statistics and health indicators; diseases screening and prophylaxis; counseling for behavior change of health related habits; and interdisciplinary work. Among the selected links 10 (29% are written in English while the others are in Portuguese. Conclusions: The identification of reading materials on health promotion and disease prevention available on Internet, many in Portuguese, allowed us to select relevant scientifically qualified literature and turn it accessible to health professionals, enabling the acquisition of new knowledge or quick update.

  3. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eVITAL group

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related Habits (HrH are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy. Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  4. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  5. Backpack Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Backpack Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Backpack Basics Print A ... it can cause back problems or even injury. Backpacks Are Best Backpacks can't be beat for ...

  6. The rights of shareholders – basic principle of corporate governance by means of case-specific jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Doru BÎGIOI; Cristina Elena DUMITRU

    2016-01-01

    Respecting shareholders’ rights represents one of the fundamental principles of corporate governance, underpinning the establishment of economic entities, as a form of association of individuals and / or legal entities in order to carry out profit-oriented activities. However, there are situations in which the management, the other shareholders, or even the authorities, do not respect certain shareholders’ rights, leading to a number of negative effects, such as the closing of companies. Bas...

  7. TU-A-18A-01: Basic Principles of PET/CT, Calibration Methods and Contrast Recovery Across Multiple Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappadath, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Nye, J [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    This continuing education session will discuss the physical principles of PET/CT imaging and characterization of contrast recovery using accreditation phantoms. A detailed overview will be given on the physical principles of PET including positron decay physics, 2D and 3D data acquisition, time-of-flight, scatter correction, CT attenuation correction, and image reconstruction. Instrument quality control and calibration procedures will be discussed. Technical challenges, common image artifacts and strategies to mitigate these issues will also be discussed. Data will be presented on acquisition techniques and reconstruction parameters affecting contrast recovery. The discussion will emphasize the minimization of reconstruction differences in quantification metrics such as SUV and contrast recovery coefficients for the NEMA and ACR clinical trial phantoms. Data from new and older generation scanners will be shown including comparison of contrast recovery measurements to their analytical solutions. The goal of this session is to update attendees on the quality control and calibration of PET/CT scanners, on methods to establish a common calibration for PET/CT scanners to control for instrument variance across multiple sites. Learning Objectives: Review the physical principles of PET/CT, quality control and calibration Gain further understanding on how to apply techniques for improving quantitative agreement across multiple cameras Describe the differences between measured and expected contrast recovery for the NEMA and ACR PET phantoms.

  8. Evaluation of strategic actions in the health of the elderly in Basic Health Units of Teresina-PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Almondes da Luz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Each year, about 650,000 elderly people are incorporated to the population, raising the necessity to reorganize, primarily, the social models in order to meet decent health care standards for the aging population. These models seek to recover, maintain and promote autonomy and independence, directing individual and collective health measures to this end. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the strategic actions in the health care of the elderly in Basic Health Units (BHU in Teresina, State of Piaui. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out through questionnaires of the ‘Modified Assessment to Improve the Quality of Family Health Strategy - Self-assessment brochures 4 and 5 - Family Health Team - Part II - HEALTH OF THE ELDERLY’ applied to the 20 BHU executive board members in Teresina, after signing the term of consent, according to resolution 196/96. It was possible to observe that 70% of the units develop collective actions, 60% develop educational activities, 100% have updated registration of elderly patients, 95% monitor vaccination to date, 50% have a complete oral examination as a routine activity, 70% are not monitored by the Dental Health Team; 70% develop examination of the body surface as a routine, 60% are involved in the training of home care workers, 65% are involved in early detection of dementia, 80% of the professionals know the National Health Policy for the Elderly (PNSPI, 80% refuse training for action development at the PNSPI, 65% do not work at the identification of disabilities. It was possible to conclude, through the evaluation of the strategic actions in health care for the elderly, that there are deficits related to the internal professional practice at the UBS system in Teresina.

  9. Basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with the effects due to the Pauli principle and the phonon ground state correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon model is obtained for energies and a structure of excited states described by the wave functions containing one- and two-phonon components. The effects due to the Pauli principle for two-phonon components and the phonon ground state correlations of a spherical nucleus are taken here into account. The quantitative estimations of these effects are given by a simplified scheme. The relation between these equations with the results from other theoretical approaches is discussed

  10. Basic Guiding Principles of Courseware Facture for%职业院校教学课件制作的基本指导原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙军

    2014-01-01

    多媒体课件制作是职业技术院校课程改革中的重要内容,本文阐述了在职业技术教育中多媒体课件制作的基本指导原则,这些原则来自于现代教育理论,教育心理学和教学实践。%This article discusses some basic principles followed in courseware facture under the environment of innovation education based on modern educational theory ,educational psychology.

  11. [Health and social inequality in Europe: changes of the basic conditions for municipal health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, E U

    1998-11-01

    Good health is not distributed equally, neither in life conditions--including the individual ability to act--nor according to the supply grid. These interrelations, shown in several empirical investigations, assume more importance in view of the groving tendency to social polarisation in the countries of Europe, different in fact in the single countries, but clear in respect of tendency: social exclusion does not only mean to have less financial resources but also social disadvantages in other realms of living, especially in health. Migration, not only from East to West, but also inside and between the countries of the European Union and inside of Eastern Europe too, is only an especially dear expression that social problems have their origin in international problems and casualities, but become visible in local and regional structures and thus in the responsibility of the municipalities. Globalisation, Europe etc., terms mostly connected with positive connotations, have not only a positive side, but also another one, namely, the re-regionalisation of social problems especially in the municipalities. Normally the municipalities have to counterbalance and to regulate the negative consequences of these European--and moreover international--changes of the structures, although their financial means are declining. The municipal health service is integrated in this contradictory constellation. To prevent irrational social and/or political developments, the reasons and possible strategies of reform policy will have to be discussed carefully. PMID:9889465

  12. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2014-04-01

    With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  13. Basic principles and applications of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners.

  14. To Explore the Co-ordination Method of Basic Health Service and Basic Medical as a Whole in Primary Health Institu-tions---the Introduction of the Method base on Labour Voucher Priciple%基层医疗机构内基本公共卫生服务与基本医疗统筹办法探索--一种基于工分制原理的解决方式介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韬; 龚幼龙; 王洪兴

    2014-01-01

    To explore the expenditure calculation and settlement of the basic medical service and basic public health service in primary health care institutions. By comparing the performance appraisal methods characteristics of basic public health services between China and foreign countries,to analyze its advantages and disadvantages. The difficulty in the performance as-sessment of basic public health service in China is how to approve the value of the service project. Based on the view of basic health care and basic public health services' integrated management,and try to put forward " labour voucher" performance ap-praisal principle to guide its expenditure calculation and settlement of in primary health care institutions.%本文从基本医疗和基本公共卫生服务统筹管理角度出发,尝试提出“工分制”绩效考核原理,指导基层医疗机构经费测算与结算。通过比较国内外基本公共卫生服务绩效考核方法特点,分析优势及不足,得出我国基层公共卫生绩效考核难点在于对服务项目价值的核定,从而制约其经费测算与结算。

  15. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅱ)-MICROMORPHIC CONTINUUM THEORY AND COUPLE STRESS THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.

  16. Towards a new welfare state: the social sustainability principle and health care strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Ferrer, Jorge; Ródenas Rigla, Francisco; Vicente SANJOSÉ LÓPEZ

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a social and health care model that offers alternatives to three problems arising in converging European welfare states, particularly in the southern nations: the rise in demand for services and features linked to the ageing process, the increase in dependency and the crisis of informal support. Development of the principles of social sustainability implies re-formulation of the regulatory, care, economic, administrative, cultural, and axiological framework enabling a...

  17. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D

    2011-03-01

    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  18. uSIMPK. An Excel for Windows-based simulation program for instruction of basic pharmacokinetics principles to pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Dion R

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom.

  19. Oncology. Pt. 1. General part, epidemiology - pathogenesis - basic principles of therapy. 2. upd. ed.; Die Onkologie. T. 1. Allgemeiner Teil, Epidemiologie - Pathogenese - Grundprinzipien der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiddemann, Wolfgang [Muenchen Univ. Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany). Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III; Bartram Claus R. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Humangenetik

    2010-07-01

    The book Oncology is aimed to communicate the compiled knowledge on tumor development and cancer: fundamental knowledge base, practice related know-how for diagnostics and therapy. Part 1 includes the following chapters: epidemiology and pathogenesis, basic principles of diagnostics, basic principles of therapy, complication of malign growth, tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, female genital carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract carcinomas, respiratory tract and lung carcinomas, carcinomas in the head - neck area, bone and soft tissue carcinomas, pediatric tumors, hematological neoplasm, other carcinomas. The book can be used as reference for clinical work. [German] Die gesamte Onkologie - verlaessliches Wissen fuer Ihre Kompetenz. ''Die Onkologie'' stellt sich der Herausforderung, das staendig wachsende Wissen ueber Tumorerkrankungen in seiner Gesamtheit zu vermitteln. Sowohl inhaltlich als auch didaktisch auf hoechsten Niveau: Fundiertes Grundlagenwissen zum umfassenden Nachschlagen Praxisrelevantes Know-how fuer Diagnostik und Therapie Systematischer Aufbau fuer das Verstaendnis der komplexen Zusammenhaenge Die Onkologie - eine Enzyklopaedie der modernen klinischen Tumorlehre. Angesehene Experten aus Klinik, Forschung und Praxis liefern Ihnen in Teil1 klinisches Grundlagenwissen zu den Grundprinzipien der Therapie, Epidemiologie, Aetiologie und Pathogenese, sowie zu Komplikationen des malignen Wachstums. Zum Nachschlagen und Anwenden: finden Sie alle Optionen - auch fuer Ihren schwierigsten Fall. Der uebersichtliche Aufbau und die exzellenten Abbildungen erleichtern Ihnen das schnelle Auffinden und Verstaendnis der gesuchten Informationen. Fuer den Alltag onkologisch taetiger Aerzte ist Die Onkologie ein unentbehrlicher Meilenstein. (orig.)

  20. Basic principles and applications of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omami, Galal [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis and Polyclinics, Faculty of Dentistry, The Hong Kong University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Tamimi, Dania [BeamReaders Inc., Orlando (United States); Branstette, Barton F. [Dept. of Otolaryngology and Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) and computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners.

  1. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  2. Community Physicians' Knowledge on Basic Health Care for Elderly Persons in Israel: Comparing Findings from 2006 to 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubart, Emily; Segal, Refael; Mishiev, Ruth; Buchman, Ruth; Leibovitz, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Community physicians should be knowledgeable of basic geriatrics to cope with the challenges posed by the growing number of older patients and their complex needs. A survey of knowledge in basic health care for elderly persons, carried out by our team in 1996, revealed that it was insufficient. The authors repeated this survey in 2006, by using…

  3. Basic principles and application to shape children’s good behavior%塑造儿童良好行为的基本原理及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷玉

    2013-01-01

    中国正处于二代独生子女时代,儿童良好行为塑造成为家长关注热点,行为受多种因素的影响,与气质、认知局限性、自我为中心思维方式、语言发育、父母的行为及家庭环境、甚至当地的文化等有很大的关系。应用行为改变的基本原理及技术,用较多的实例讲述了条件反射与操作性条件反射原理及应用,介绍了实际生活中塑造儿童行为的两个基本原则及应用实例,希望对儿科医生指导家长有所裨益。%China is in the era of second generation of one-child. How to shape children’s good behavior becomes the hot issue of parents’ concern. Behavior is influenced by a variety of factors , such as temperament , cognitive limita-tions, self-centered thinking, language development, parent behavior, family environment, and local culture. This paper adopts basic principles and technology of behavior change to illustrate the principle and application of conditioned reflex and operant conditioning reflection. It also introduces two basic principles and application examples for shaping children’s behavior in real life to provide guidance for pediatricians and parents.

  4. Developing a curriculum framework for global health in family medicine: emerging principles, competencies, and educational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Briana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. Methods A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes for Canadian Family Medicine training. Results The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. Conclusions The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the

  5. Allocation of basic health units based on the multicriteria approach: a proposition for a mediumsized city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ferreira de Negreiros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basic Health Units (UBSs are responsible for the treatment of diseases in their initial phase. It is possible to observe that there is an investment by the Brazilian government into this kind of strategy in health policies. These kinds of actions aim to reduce the number of patients being sent to hospitals, because the low and medium priority problems can be treated at a UBS. The UBSs are related to the Family Health Program (PSF with the objective of serving the poorest population. The government must allocate these units efficiently, to improve the services and serve more people. However, this kind of decision is made by the empirical knowledge of municipal managers. This paper proposes a model to rationalize this decision process using the multiple criteria decision aid approach to allocate these units in a city in the west region of Rio Grande do Norte State, in Brazil. We can conclude that the model developed prioritizes the neighborhoods with the greatest need for healthcare, using the value system of the city’s health department.

  6. [Psychology and basic attention: experiences of trainees in Family Health Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Valdemar Donizeti; Cury, Vera Engler

    2009-10-01

    This study shows a qualitative research based on a humanist theory in relation to the experiences of trainees from the psychology course of PUC-Campinas, that are participating in family health teams in the areas of Health/Clinic and basic attention in public health. The participants were six trainees in the last year of the course and located in two Health-School Centers in the Northwest region of Campinas. The methodology used was an ethnographic view. The processes of data composition were produced in two different moments: a) by weekly register on the trainee's personal diary during five months; b) semi-directed individual interviews at the end of the term. These data were analyzed according to a phenomenological reading. It was found evolutive stages in the process of the trainee formation. Initially, the experience was lived with surprise and strangeness, resulting in contradictory feelings of innapropriation to their inexperience to work in teams. On the other hand, because they were well received by the group, there was a personal transformation considered to be very enriching, symbolized as a single felling of belonging, motivating efforts to a creative and integrating clinic practice. PMID:19750352

  7. Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-08-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  8. Basic personality traits and coping strategies in relation to health and burnout among members of Slovenian Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Davorina; Rus-Makovec, Maja; SELIČ, Polona; Serec, Maša

    2015-01-01

    Problem: The study addresses basic personality traits with soldiers who reportlower bio-psycho-social-wellbeing and burnout and therefore perform poorer working effectiveness and motivation. Perception of one''s health and physical well-being may be used as a measure of one''s health condition and consequently a predictor of higher mortality and greater need for health services. Used diagnostic strategy conceptualizes health as a bio-psycho-social well-being and provides broader insight on in...

  9. The rights of shareholders – basic principle of corporate governance by means of case-specific jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Doru BÎGIOI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Respecting shareholders’ rights represents one of the fundamental principles of corporate governance, underpinning the establishment of economic entities, as a form of association of individuals and / or legal entities in order to carry out profit-oriented activities. However, there are situations in which the management, the other shareholders, or even the authorities, do not respect certain shareholders’ rights, leading to a number of negative effects, such as the closing of companies. Based on these considerations, in this paper, we set as research objective to analyze the circumstances, which may affect shareholders’ rights. To meet the research objectives, we analyzed the case-specific jurisprudence published by the courts of law till 31st of December 2015. The results of the study show that the shareholders’ rights, which are not respected, include: the property right, the right to receive dividends, the right to participate and vote in the general assemblies of shareholders, the right to be elected in the governing bodies, and not the least, the most important one in accounting terms, the right to be informed.

  10. [Conditions and work process in the daily of the Family Health Program: coherency with health humanization principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Leny Alves Bomfim; Rocha, Ana Angélica Ribeiro de Meneses E

    2011-03-01

    This study analyzes humanization at work in the context of the Family Health Program (FHP), inquiring: what is the role that infrastructure assumes in the construction of humanized work in the FHP? Does the course of staff work reveal coherency with health humanization principles? In order to find out answers to these questions, it was explored the perception of FHP' professionals about their work routine, considering concrete conditions whereby it occurs besides involved relationships, practices and products. It is a multiple case study, both qualitative and quantitative (with primacy of the first approach), developed through questionnaires and focal-groups with FHP' teams of selected areas. The results indicate that infrastructure fragilities and low investment in training of staffs are factors that contribute for the persistence of work conditions and practices that are far away from health humanization principles. Despite of the difficulties, it was evidenced, by the staffs, in general way, great engagement to their work and great sensibility to population needs and problems. PMID:21519685

  11. Basic real immunization coverage for the first year of life in a Family Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Magalhães Villela Carneiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate basic immunization coverage for the first year of life in a family health unit in Maceio, Alagoas, Brazil. Methods: it was a cross-sectional study. Sixty six children from 12 to 24 months old were included. All parents or answerable persons for the children undergone to an interview. Additional data were collected from immunization cards for each child. Basic immunization coverage was considered complete when children received immunization on adequate age and intervals. Categorical variables were disposed in proportions. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for numeral variables. Differences between appropriate and inappropriate vacinal coverage groups were measured through Pearson’s qui-square (p < 0.05. Results: We obtained a sample of 66 children, of whom 24,2% (n = 16 completed the basic immunization schedule. The average number of residents was 4,7 ± 1,8, while the averege number of siblngs was 1,0 ± 1,0. It was found that 75,8% (n = 50 of children were part of the C2 or D. The average age of the person responsible was 30,53 ± 11 ranging from 16 to 62 years. Conclusion: The coverage for each of vaccines was always greater than the coverage for theentire scheme. It was found that a significant portion of children in this research did not receive all recommended doses, at ages appropriate and corret intervals. Therefore, the init needs to improve it’s technical procedures, and administrative in order to ensure full immunization coverage in due course.

  12. Health, wealth and fairness based on gender: the support for ethical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Lundberg, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Sex differences in health, and the reality of a gender system, are well-known, but we know little about how this connects to opinions on fairness and desired change. This study aims to explore two principal questions: how to compare the position of women and men within-state and how to choose between-states, where a state is defined as a situation in which individuals have a particular set of resources, rights and duties, and if components in the set are altered, a new state for the same individuals appears. Based on various normative rules (monistic view or separate spheres, equity as choice or ethics of care, equity by attainment or shortfall; variants of welfarism, feminism and conservatism), a survey among Swedish public health workers was carried out. The results demonstrate a major rejection of the idea of compensation between health, power, influence and resources, and of considering past processes when judging fairness as to women and men. Moreover, most respondents believe that a biologically based difference in health is fair and reject health maximization as a guiding principle. The support for gender equality is strong when contrasted with the conservative goal, and subsists when contrasted against the Pareto criterion and trading-off health/income as well. Results that call for additional research and exchange of views include that common notions in research and policy-making are rejected by a majority, and that females and males differ considerably when judging change from a societal perspective. PMID:16332405

  13. JERM model of care: an in-principle model for dental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are the most prevalent conditions in the community. Their economic burden is high and their impact on quality of life is profound. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that oral diseases have wider implications beyond the confines of the mouth. The importance of oral health has not been unnoticed by the government. The Commonwealth (Federal) government under the Howard-led Coalition in 2004 had broken tradition by placing dentistry in its universal health insurance scheme, Medicare. Known as the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme (CDDS), the program aimed to manage patients with chronic conditions as part of the Enhanced Primary Care initiative. This scheme was a landmark policy for several reasons. Besides being the first major dental policy under Medicare, the program proved to be the most expensive and controversial. Unfortunately, cost containment and problems with service provision led to its cessation in 2012 by the Gillard Labor Government. Despite being seen as a failure, the CDDS provided a unique opportunity to assess national policy in practice. By analysing the policy-relevant effects of the CDDS, important lessons can be learnt for policy development. This paper discusses these lessons and has formulated a set of principles recommended for effective oral health policy. The JERM model represents the principles of a justified, economical and research-based model of care. PMID:23927886

  14. Application of the Principles of Social Demand Approach (SDA in the Implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE In Nigeria: A Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. IBIA E. IBIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Basic Education (UBE was launch in 1999 to replace the failed Universal Primary Education (UPE of the 1970s. The focus of UBE is to take education to the doorsteps of all Nigerians. Inspired by the relative tag on Nigeria as a country where nothing work, the study was carried out with much reliance on secondary sources of data and observation pivoted by Robert Merton’s version of the functional theory. We assert that although the ideals of UBE are lofty, it could fail as the previous UPE programme. To stem the tide, we suggests the application of the principles of Social Demand Approach (SDA which exposes the essential conditions that must be met before a high level of success of UBE can be guaranteed. We recommend accurate demographic data, proper funding, stiff penalty against destructive elements and assurance of quality among others. We conclude that educational problems are artificial and in man lies the solution.

  15. Propensity scores as a basis for equating groups: basic principles and application in clinical treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G; Cham, Heining; Thoemmes, Felix; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Julian; Weiler, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A propensity score is the probability that a participant is assigned to the treatment group based on a set of baseline covariates. Propensity scores provide an excellent basis for equating treatment groups on a large set of covariates when randomization is not possible. This article provides a nontechnical introduction to propensity scores for clinical researchers. If all important covariates are measured, then methods that equate on propensity scores can achieve balance on a large set of covariates that mimics that achieved by a randomized experiment. We present an illustration of the steps in the construction and checking of propensity scores in a study of the effectiveness of a health coach versus treatment as usual on the well-being of seriously ill individuals. We then consider alternative methods of equating groups on propensity scores and estimating treatment effects including matching, stratification, weighting, and analysis of covariance. We illustrate a sensitivity analysis that can probe for the potential effects of omitted covariates on the estimate of the causal effect. Finally, we briefly consider several practical and theoretical issues in the use of propensity scores in applied settings. Propensity score methods have advantages over alternative approaches to equating groups particularly when the treatment and control groups do not fully overlap, and there are nonlinear relationships between covariates and the outcome.

  16. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa’s health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas.Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa.Method: A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.Results: Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, healthworker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions.Conclusion: The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcareservices and increasing the doctors’ hours.

  17. Discussion on the Basic Principle of Food Safety Risk Management%食品安全风险管理基本理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为军; 魏益民; 郭波莉; 魏帅

    2011-01-01

    本文就食品安全风险管理的概念、原则和实施框架等基本理论问题进行了探讨.食品安全风险管理是风险分析体系的重要组成部分,是在风险评估结果基础上的政策选择过程,包括选择实施适当的控制理念以及法规管理措施.食品安全风险管理包括风险评价、选择评估、执行评估、监控和回顾4个要素.%This paper discussed the basic principle of food safety risk management, which includes the concept, principles and implement framework. Risk management is one of the important components of risk analysis. Risk management is defined as the process of weighing policy alternatives in the light of the results of risk assessment and selecting and implementing appropriate control options, including regulatory measures. The framework includes 4 elements: risk evaluation, risk management option assessment, implementation of management decision, and monitoring and review.

  18. Molecular imaging of apoptosis and necrosis - basic principles of cell biology and use in oncology; Molekulare Bildgebung von Apoptose und Nekrose - Zellbiologische Grundlagen und Einsatz in der Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, I.; Traeber, F.; Block, W.; Schild, H. [Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Soon molecular imaging techniques will play a prominent role in basic scientific research and clinical approaches. In particular, important aspects of medicine such as apoptosis and gene- and stem-cell therapy will play a pivotal role in radiology too. This review presents the basic principles of apoptosis, recent results and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a precisely regulated, complex cascade of molecular events to eliminate individual cells. Disturbances may lead to diseases like malignancies and neurodegenerative diseases that are of clinical relevance. Several therapeutic strategies in oncology are based on apoptosis induction; conversely, resistance to therapy is indicative of decreased apoptosis induction. Whereas up to now the clinician had to depend exclusively on biopsy specimens to detect apoptosis, the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of this cell-biological phenomenon in vivo opens up new horizons in future. This review focuses on different modifications of this imaging technique, with and without the use of molecular probes (e.g. annexin V, synaptotagmin I), in vitro and in vivo using the various detector systems (like MRI, flow cytometry) currently available. Future perspectives are also addressed. (orig.)

  19. On-site Basic Health Screening and Brief Health Counseling of Chronic Medical Conditions for Veterans in Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Ayman; Musselman, Dominique; Byrd-Sellers, Johnita; Vayalapalli, Sreedevi; Casarella, Jennifer; Drexler, Karen; Phillips, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to improve the delivery of health services for chronic medical conditions in our methadone clinic, we added an onsite health screening and brief health counseling to the treatment plans for patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC). We then conducted a follow up retrospective chart review to assess whether this intervention improved health outcome for those patients. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of one hundred and two patients who received treatment at Atlanta VAMC methadone clinic between 2002 and 2008. We sought to determine whether our increased health education and screening intervention was associated with improved: 1) Improved drug addiction outcome (as measured by comparing percentage of opiate and cocaine positive drug screens from admission to most recent). 2) Basic health screening, (as measured by the patient's compliance with primary care physicians (PCP) appointments and current smoking status). 3) Management of co-occurring medical conditions (as measured by levels of LDL cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). 4) Presence of QTc prolongation (difference in QTc between baseline and most recent EKG). RESULTS: Illicit drug use (opiate and cocaine) markedly decreased in patients overall. The effect was more robust for those successfully "retained" (n=55, pCompliance with PCP appointments was high (82% and 88% before and after the onsite intervention, respectively) for "retained" patients. LDL cholesterol level was within normal range for all patients. A1c improved by 40% after the onsite intervention as reflected by the decreased percentage of patients with A1c > 7 % from before to after the intervention (90% vs. 50%, p=0.05). However, the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension did not significantly improve after the onsite intervention (38% vs. 28%, p=0.34). As might be expected with MMT, the prevalence of QTc prolongation actually increased

  20. A practical guide to applying lean tools and management principles to health care improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ross W; Canacari, Elena G

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing organizations have used Lean management principles for years to help eliminate waste, streamline processes, and cut costs. This pragmatic approach to structured problem solving can be applied to health care process improvement projects. Health care leaders can use a step-by-step approach to document processes and then identify problems and opportunities for improvement using a value stream process map. Leaders can help a team identify problems and root causes and consider additional problems associated with methods, materials, manpower, machinery, and the environment by using a cause-and-effect diagram. The team then can organize the problems identified into logical groups and prioritize the groups by impact and difficulty. Leaders must manage action items carefully to instill a sense of accountability in those tasked to complete the work. Finally, the team leaders must ensure that a plan is in place to hold the gains.

  1. Discussion on the Basic Principles of Credit Information Collection and Application%信用信息收集和使用的基本原则探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志伟

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle for credit information collection and application is not only for the need of protecting the rights and interests of information subjects, but also for the need of standardizing related agencies’ business in credit industry.The principles for protecting personal privacy and guaranteeing fairness are the most fundamental;these require that the information referring to individual privacy and affecting fair credit-granting cannot be collected at random, and further more cannot be used as a variable for personal credit evaluation models.The principle of evi-dence will normalize the behavior of agencies that collect and preserve personal credit information, and prevent the arbitrary collection of personal information.The principle of right-to-know is the guarantee for the information sub-jects to know which credit information is collected.The principle of negative-behavior-noticing is aimed at more neg-ative sensitive information.The principle of right-to-objection is the necessity to maintain the accuracy of credit in-formation.The implementation of the principles needs the cooperation of institutions that collect and preserve infor-mation with credit-granting institutions, and should be their legal obligations.%信用信息收集和使用的基本原则既是保护信息主体权益的需要,也是规范信用行业相关机构业务的需要。保护个人隐私和保障公平的原则最为根本,该原则要求那些纳入个人隐私和影响公平授信的信息不能随意被搜集,更不能作为个人信用评估模型的变量。证据原则能规范搜集与保存个人信用信息的机构行为,防止任意搜集个人信息。知情权原则是对信息主体了解那些信用信息被搜集的保障。不利行为通知原则针对的是更为敏感的负面信息。异议权原则是维护信用信息准确性之必需。这些原则的贯彻更需要搜集和保存信用信息专业机构、授信

  2. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  3. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug. PMID:27347372

  4. Pharmacist contributions for basic care from the perspective of professionals of familial health care teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecioni Loch-Neckel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the social representations of professionals included in the team of Family Health Strategy (physicians, nurses and dentists respecting the action possibilities and contributions of the pharmacist for the basic care, and based on social psychology and, particularly, on the theory of social representations. The epistemological basis of the research is qualitative, and the data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews, which were submitted to analysis of categorical thematic content. Apparently, the majority of professionals already inserted in the team know and recognize the importance of professional pharmacists in the basic care, as well as their potential contribution to this topic. The representations were constructed according to the following parameters: a the study object and the intervention area, b the individual practice of every professional and c his/her action in specific cases. The quality of the professional or personal experience concerning the action of these professionals has contributed for the knowledge about the possibilities of pharmacists' intervention in basic care.Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar as representações sociais dos profissionais incluídos na equipe de Estratégia em Saúde da Família (médico, enfermeiro e odontólogo, sobre as possibilidades de atuação e as contribuições do farmacêutico na atenção básica, tendo por fundamento a psicologia social e, particularmente, a teoria das representações sociais. A base epistemológica da pesquisa é qualitativa, sendo os dados coletados por meio de entrevistas individuais semi-estruturadas e analisados por meio de análise de conteúdo categorial temático. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais já inseridos na equipe conhece e reconhece a importância do profissional farmacêutico na atenção básica e as suas possibilidades de contribuição. As representações foram construídas a

  5. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  6. Researcher-decision-maker partnerships in health services research: Practical challenges, guiding principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmeyer Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”. Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data. Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research.

  7. The Health Monitoring Method of Concrete Dams Based on Ambient Vibration Testing and Kernel Principle Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambient vibration testing (AVT measurement of concrete dams on full-scale can show the practical dynamic properties of structure in the operation state. For most current researches, the AVT data is generally analyzed to identify the structural vibration characteristics, that is, modal parameters. The identified modal parameters, which can provide the global damage information or the damage location information of structure, can be used as the basis of structure health monitoring. Therefore, in this paper, the health monitoring method of concrete dams based on the AVT is studied. The kernel principle analysis (KPCA based method is adopted to eliminate the effect of environmental variables and monitor the health of dam under varying environments. By taking full advantage of the AVT data obtained from vibration observation system of dam, the identification capabilities and the warning capabilities of structural damage can be improved. With the simulated AVT data of the numerical model of a concrete gravity dam and the measured AVT data of a practical engineering, the performance of the dam health monitoring method proposed in this paper is verified.

  8. Using Professional Organizations to Prepare the Behavioral Health Workforce to Respond to the Needs of Pediatric Populations Impacted by Health-Related Disasters: Guiding Principles and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Silman, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral health professional organizations are in the unique role of aggregating and disseminating information to their membership before, during, and after health-related disasters to promote the integration of behavioral health services into the public health disaster response plan. This article provides a set of 5 principles to direct this undertaking that are based on the current literature and previous evaluation of the online guidance provided by 6 prominent behavioral health professional organizations. These principles use a strengths-based approach to prioritize resilience; underscore the importance of context, collaboration, and coordination; recognize the unique needs of pediatric populations; and guide ongoing training and content development in the area of biopsychosocial responses to health-related disasters. Recognizing important innovations and strides made by the behavioral health organizations noted in a previous study, this article recommends additional areas in which behavioral health professional organizations can contribute to overall pandemic disaster preparedness and response efforts.

  9. Portuguese intermunicipal organization - Basic principles

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Rui

    2004-01-01

    Portuguese territorial organization has two levels of territorial decision support legitimated: central and local/municipal government (municipalities). The lack an intermediate level of support decision between those levels is a central problem on territorial decision support system. Intermunicipal organization level can it play an important role as an intermediate level of decision-making process. After rejection of the regionalization process in 1998, trough popular referendum, Portuguese ...

  10. The Basic Principle of Calculus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

  11. A Research on the Basic Principles and Principle Innovation in Modern, Chinese Economics%现代中国经济学基本原理及学科形态创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵复斌

    2012-01-01

    近代至现代时期,国际国内已发生了两个“社会转型”的根本性变化。以此为新的社会背景和历史条件,现代中国经济学基础理论及学科形态开始面临两大课题:一是处于源头上的马克思经济学如何“坚持与创新”的前提问题,二是我们的学科模式怎样“改革与开放”的衔接问题。探索并解决此类基本问题,将会让我们获得某个“杠杆支点”或“开放出口”,这既利于满足现代社会主义的物化实践需要,又利于推动中国经济学走向世界的步伐。本文根据两个“社会转型”的客观实际,推导、论证《资本论》的商品两因素分析将发生重大变化并获得相应进展,由此深化马克思经济学的分析基本点。建筑其上的现代中国经济学及政治经济学的系列概念、原理、规律及学科形态也将发生微妙变化,它们涉及对价值、剩余价值、使用价值、交换价值、质量价值、数量价值等的重新定位,和对资本本原、本质、构成及过程的扩大化认识与论证。%From modern to contemporary eras, two fundamental " social transformations" have taken place in both international and domestic contexts. The basic theories and principle construction modes in modern Chinese economies are accordingly faced up with two fundamental problems, against these new social backgrounds and historical conditions. The first one is the premise that how Marxist economics, as the source theory, carries out "adherence and innovation". The second one is how to make our principle modes in conformity with the " Reform and Opening - up" policy. Explorations and solutions to these fundamental problems offer us a "lever support point" or an "open outlaying". This satisfies the physical practice needs of modern socialism, and pushes Chinese economics forward onto the world stage. Based on the objective situations of the two " social transformations" , this

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  15. [Endocrine disruption agents: environment, health, public policies, and the precautionary principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelac, L

    2000-01-01

    The already substantial body of evidence and growing web of suspicions as to the scale and severity of the cascade effects of endocrine disrupters (related to persistent organic pollutants or POPs) on the health of ecosystems and humans have sparked such concern that in June 1998, representatives of 94 countries meeting in Montreal under the aegis of UNEP signed a draft international agreement to phase out the most harmful POPs. Related to particular persistent organic pollutants--toxic semi-volatile and persistent chemical compounds now found everywhere in the environment, such as BPCs, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, that build up in the bodies of organisms that consume other contaminated organisms along the food chain--endocrine disrupters are strongly suspected of affecting the health of animals and adversely impacting the health, fertility and even intellectual faculties of humans. For example, very low-level exposure to some POPs is associated with some hormone-dependent cancers, damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, impaired immune system function, reproductive disorders and developmental disruptions in newborns and infants, who can be affected in utero or through breast-feeding. Considering the extreme complexity of the scientific and socio-economic effects of POP-related endocrine disrupters, there are those who, advocate a wait-and-see approach, claiming that there is not enough formal scientific proof. There are others who use the available evidence to advance the research, press for bans on incriminated substances and look for global, integrated and viable alternatives. And there are other still who, with careless disregard for the Precautionary Principle, are quite prepared to talk about the perverse effects of POPs in order to justify the increased use of artificial means of reproduction or the replacement of chemical pesticides by pest-resistant genetically modified organisms (GMOs), thereby opening the door to

  16. [The federal politics of basic sanitation and the initiatives of participation, mobilization, social control, health and environmental education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisés, Márcia; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Monteiro, Sandra Conceição Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to accomplish a critical analysis of two governmental important programs in health and environmental education - Health Education and Social Mobilization Program (PESMS) and Environmental Education and Sanitation Social Mobilization Program (PEAMSS), aiming at stimulate participative educational actions and social mobilization in sanitation projects. The methodology was based on reading and analysis of documents and observation in Workshops, Meetings, Seminars, Conventions, Congresses and Interviews. The authors describe the process of Program creation - PESMS and PEAMSS. They promoted a reflection and thought about Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education. They also made considerations about the difficulties, facilities, advances and challenges in the implantation and implementation of PESMS and PEAMSS in the fundament for the realization of the public services of basic sanitation. They conclude that the creation of conditions by means of initiatives of Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education become necessary for the development of Federal Policies of Basic Sanitation. PMID:20802890

  17. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  18. Less noise, more hacking: how to deploy principles from MIT's hacking medicine to accelerate health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, Jacqueline W; Carroll, Ryan; Ippolito, Andrea; Yost, Allison; Santorino, Data; Chu, Zen; Olson, Kristian R

    2014-07-01

    Medical technology offers enormous potential for scalable medicine--to improve the quality and access in health care while simultaneously reducing cost. However, current medical device innovation within companies often only offers incremental advances on existing products, or originates from engineers with limited knowledge of the clinical complexities. We describe how the Hacking Medicine Initiative, based at Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed an innovative "healthcare hackathon" approach, bringing diverse teams together to rapidly validate clinical needs and develop solutions. Hackathons are based on three core principles; emphasis on a problem-based approach, cross-pollination of disciplines, and "pivoting" on or rapidly iterating on ideas. Hackathons also offer enormous potential for innovation in global health by focusing on local needs and resources as well as addressing feasibility and cultural contextualization. Although relatively new, the success of this approach is clear, as evidenced by the development of successful startup companies, pioneering product design, and the incorporation of creative people from outside traditional life science backgrounds who are working with clinicians and other scientists to create transformative innovation in health care.

  19. Less noise, more hacking: how to deploy principles from MIT's hacking medicine to accelerate health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, Jacqueline W; Carroll, Ryan; Ippolito, Andrea; Yost, Allison; Santorino, Data; Chu, Zen; Olson, Kristian R

    2014-07-01

    Medical technology offers enormous potential for scalable medicine--to improve the quality and access in health care while simultaneously reducing cost. However, current medical device innovation within companies often only offers incremental advances on existing products, or originates from engineers with limited knowledge of the clinical complexities. We describe how the Hacking Medicine Initiative, based at Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed an innovative "healthcare hackathon" approach, bringing diverse teams together to rapidly validate clinical needs and develop solutions. Hackathons are based on three core principles; emphasis on a problem-based approach, cross-pollination of disciplines, and "pivoting" on or rapidly iterating on ideas. Hackathons also offer enormous potential for innovation in global health by focusing on local needs and resources as well as addressing feasibility and cultural contextualization. Although relatively new, the success of this approach is clear, as evidenced by the development of successful startup companies, pioneering product design, and the incorporation of creative people from outside traditional life science backgrounds who are working with clinicians and other scientists to create transformative innovation in health care. PMID:25096225

  20. Towards a new welfare state: the social sustainability principle and health care strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Jorge; Ródenas, Francisco; Sanjosé, Vicente

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we propose a social and health care model that offers alternatives to three problems arising in converging European welfare states, particularly in the southern nations: the rise in demand for services and features linked to the ageing process, the increase in dependency and the crisis of informal support. Development of the principles of social sustainability implies re-formulation of the regulatory, care, economic, administrative, cultural, and axiological framework enabling a response to the needs of long term care without compromising the welfare of future generations. Together with this principle, quality of life elevated to a subjective right directs attention towards the sphere closest to citizens, eliminating all barriers, which hamper exercise of this right. All of the above produces economic and social costs which must be accepted from a viewpoint of social co-responsibility, which brings with it the supply of welfare individually, without detriment to the exercise of state responsibility in guaranteeing a social protection system of a universal nature. PMID:12941489

  1. Application of quality assurance human factors and reliability principles to the prevention of major environment, safety, and health incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, C.A. Jr.; Ellingson, A.C.; Farr, D.E.; Jercinovic, L.M.

    1978-12-01

    The study described in this report is part of a program to investigate how proven principles and techniques from the disciplines of quality assurance, reliability, and human factors might be used, or modified, to support environment, health, and safety programs. This report describes a study undertaken to determine whether there appears to be genuine, potential benefit from the use or modification of such principles or techniques in accident prevention. Results are based on a hindsight analysis of major accidents which have occurred.

  2. The effect of urban basic medical insurance on health service utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: a comparison of two schemes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. RESULTS: Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p0.10. It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. CONCLUSION: Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services.

  3. Collaborative Family Healthcare Association commentary on the "joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Christine; Khatri, Parinda

    2014-06-01

    The Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) welcomes the opportunity to comment on the complementary set of Joint Principles underscoring the Integration of Behavioral Health Care Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home (The Working Party Group on Integrated Behavioral Healthcare et al., 2014). CFHA is an organization that promotes comprehensive and cost-effective models of health care delivery that integrate mind and body, individual and family, patients, providers, and communities. CFHA appreciates that the Joint Principles do not explicitly endorse any single model of collaboration between behavioral health and medical practice. Rather, they broadly emphasize integration, affirming the only way to have a whole person orientation is to adopt a biopsychosocial-spiritual perspective. This commentary will highlight areas of notable strength within the Joint Principles, as well as challenge the language, if not perspective, on a few critical elements. PMID:24955686

  4. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Low

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in

  5. What must be the Pillars of Iran’s Health System in 2025? Values and Principles of Health System Reform Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Rajabi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparing long term reformatory plan for the health system, like other macro plans, requires guiding principles which is according to the values, and as a bridge, connect the ideals and values to the goals. This study was designed with the purpose of explaining the values and principles of health system, and as a pre-requisite to compilation of Iran’s health system reform plan at 2025.Method: The document of values and principles of health system reform plan for 2025 was developed by reviewing the literature and receiving the opinions of senior experts of health system, and was criticized in focus group discussion sessions of experts and decision makers.Results: The values of Iran are: dignity of human, the right to maximum attainable level of health, comprehensive health, equity and social cohesion. The principles of this health system include: institutionalizing the ethical values, responsiveness and accountability, equitable access (utilization, prevention and health promotion, community participation, inter-sectoral collaboration, integrated stewardship, benefit from innovation and desired technology, human resources promotion and excellence and harmony.Conclusion: Based on the perception of cultural and religious teachings in Iran, protecting of human dignity and human prosperity are the ultimate social goal. In this sense, health and healthy humans, in its holistic concept (physical, mental, social health and spiritual are the center and development in any form should lead to the human prosperity in a way that each of the individuals could enjoy the maximum attainable level of health in its holistic meaning and in a faire manner.

  6. Basic principles of knowledge management and its application to the industrial company in tactical operations of maintenance and operational exploitation: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although knowledge and its management is, and has been, studied in depth, particularly since the 90’s decade of the past century, especially for the strategic management, innovation, trade, or business administration, there are still many questions on how it articulates or transfers and the barriers to its management, especially when we talk about internal tactical activities that affect staff that we could call "offices", such as maintenance and industrial assembly or exploitation and conduction of the facilities. Because of the peculiarities normally seen in this kind of activity in the industrial companies, the knowledge of these people is strongly based on their experience (strong tacit component, difficult to measure and articulate, and on many occasions, however, this rupture of information-knowledge, can represent a high cost for the company (often assumed to be something inevitable due to the increase in production and service downtime, loss of efficiency, or tuning time of new staff to these areas.Design/methodology/approach: After a description of the State of the art and the basic principles of knowledge management, a qualitative study in an industrial company has been carried out, within the areas of operation and maintenance, in order to know the barriers and facilitators that such involved personnel finds in order to achieve an adequate transmission and use of that knowledge.Findings and Originality/value: Learn about barriers, facilitators and impact that offers the knowledge management in the areas of industrial maintenance, especially among professionals in offices which operate with a high degree of tacit knowledge and with a heavy dependence on the company on these professionals.Research limitations/implications: Those characteristics of a qualitative study in a particular area and within a geographical area, although it can be extrapolated to other types of companies and regional areas.Practical implications: Learn

  7. Identifying organisational principles and management practices important to the quality of health care services for chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The quality of health care services offered to people suffering from chronic diseases often fails to meet standards in Denmark or internationally. The population consisting of people with chronic diseases is large and accounts for about 70% of total health care expenses. Given that resources...... are limited, it is necessary to identify efficient methods to improve the quality of care. Comparing health care systems is a well-known method for identifying new knowledge regarding, for instance, organisational methods and principles. Kaiser Permanente (KP), an integrated health care delivery system...

  8. Phase contrast imaging of the breast. Basic principles and steps towards clinical implementation; Phasenkontrastbildgebung der Brust. Grundlagen und Schritte zur klinischen Implementierbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, S.; Sztrokay-Gaul, A.; Auweter, S.D.; Hellerhoff, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Mammography is the only imaging technique approved for nationwide breast cancer screening. Digital full field mammography has improved mammographic image quality. Nevertheless, mammography has a low positive predictive value and a low sensitivity especially in mammographically dense breasts. One of the major limitations is the inherently low contrast between healthy breast parenchyma and breast cancer. Phase contrast imaging is based on the phase shift that occurs when X-rays encounter a change in refractive index between different materials. The improved soft tissue contrast makes the technology particularly promising for breast diagnostics. The studies presented here suggest that phase contrast imaging provides additional diagnostic information both using phase contrast mammography and phase contrast computed tomography (CT). This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of the phase contrast imaging and describes recent developments towards in vivo and ex vivo phase contrast imaging of the breast. (orig.) [German] Brustkrebs ist weltweit die haeufigste Tumorerkrankung und die haeufigste Krebstodesursache der Frau. Die Mammographie ist die einzige zugelassene bildgebende Methode zur Brustkrebsfrueherkennung im Rahmen flaechendeckender Screeningprogramme. Trotz Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet und der Befundungsperformance durch die Einfuehrung der digitalen Vollfeldmammographie sind der positiv-praediktive Wert und die Sensitivitaet der Mammographie insbesondere bei mammographisch dichtem Druesenkoerper eingeschraenkt. Dies ist u. a. auf die geringen Dichteunterschiede zwischen gesundem Brustdruesengewebe und intramammaeren Malignomen zurueckzufuehren. Die Phasenkontrastbildgebung macht sich die Phasenverschiebung von Roentgenstrahlen zunutze, die an Materialgrenzen mit unterschiedlichen Brechungsindizes entsteht. Die Technik bietet einen potenziell

  9. Refugees: do not forget the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malé, S

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the main challenges faced by relief workers in meeting the needs of refugees in terms of their health and nutritional status. The main causes of refugee deaths in "emergencies" have been documented and identified. This has allowed the definition of technical principles for health interventions in refugee settings: a multi-sectoral approach; involving the refugees; meeting specific needs of refugee children and women; instituting a simple and reliable health information system; and ensuring proper management and coordination among all partners. Two examples selected from UNHCR field operations illustrate how important it is to adhere to the basic technical principles. Finally, the article also emphasizes that health assistance in refugee situations takes place in a context which is complex and comprises many variables. In addition to their qualifications and experience, health professionals must also be aware of the global dynamics of a conflict situation. Their leading principle should be that all human beings have the right to appropriate health care.

  10. Survey of social health insurance structure in selected countries; providing framework for basic health insurance in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Effat; Raissi, Ahmad Reza; Barooni, Mohsen; Ferdoosi, Massoud; Nuhi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Health system reforms are the most strategic issue that has been seriously considered in healthcare systems in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency and effectiveness. The costs of health system finance in our country, lack of universal coverage in health insurance, and related issues necessitate reforms in our health system financing. The aim of this research was to prepare a structure of framework for social health insurance in Iran and conducting a comp...

  11. Follow-up of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Basic Health Survey 2007 in Jakarta in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Mihardja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu (TGT atau Pre Diabetes merupakan keadaan yang belum termasuk kategori diabetes tetapi glukosa darah lebih tinggi dari normal. TGT merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM, penyakit jantung koroner, stroke. Metode: Dilakukan penelitian follow up responden TGT Riskesdas 2007 pada tahun 2009 untuk mengetahui status hiperglikemianya apakah telah menjadi DM, tetap TGT atau Normal. Hasil:Didapatkan setelah 2 tahun 7,2% telah menjadi DM, 47,8% tetap TGT, 4,3% berubah menjadi gangguan glukosa puasa dan 40,7% menjadi normal toleransi glukosa. Kebiasaan perilaku, keadaan biologis seperti indeks massa tubuh, obesitas sentral, dislipidemia tidak berbeda signifikan antara tahun 2009 dibandingkan 2007. Dari analisis didapatkan pada kelompok TGT yang menjadi DM lingkar pinggang meningkat tapi tidak signifikan dan Homa IR (resistensi insulin lebih tinggi (p < 0,05 dibandingkan kelompok lainnya. Saran:Disarankan agar pembuat program melakukan intervensi pada kelompok TGT agar tidak menjadi DM dan mencegah timbulnya komplikasi penyakit degeneratif.Kata kunci: Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu, obesitas sentral, DKI JakartaABSTRACTBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or pre diabetes is not categorized as diabetes yet but blood glucose level is more than normal. IGT is the risk factor for diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and stroke. Methods: In 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in DKI Jakarta to follow up 78 subjects identified as IGT in Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007. It aimed to assess the hyperglycemia status of the IGT subjects, whether developing into diabetes mellitus or becoming normal glucose tolerance or just remained IGT. Results: We found over two years for IGT subjects, 7.2% progressed to diabetes mellitus, 47.8% remained impaired glucose tolerance, 4.3% changed to impaired fasting glucose and 40.7% reverted to normal glucose tolerance. Life style and biological factors

  12. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Ehiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Methods: PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014 with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Results: Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania, Central America (Belize, and Asia (Myanmar were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Conclusion: Although

  13. The Principle of Non-Discrimination : An Empty Promise for the Preventive Health Care of Asylum Seekers and Undocumented Migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The principle of non-discrimination in Article 2 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) holds that its rights are equally applicable to ‘everyone’. Nevertheless, evidence from the national context suggests that access to health care for asylum seekers and undo

  14. Structure, function and five basic needs of the global health research system

    OpenAIRE

    Rudan, Igor; Sridhar, Devi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two major initiatives that were set up to support and co-ordinate global health research efforts have been largely discontinued in recent years: the Global Forum for Health Research and World Health Organization's Department for Research Policy and Cooperation. These developments provide an interesting case study into the factors that contribute to the sustainability of initiatives to support and co-ordinate global health research in the 21st century.METHODS: We reviewed the histo...

  15. Principios bioéticos en salud pública: limitaciones y propuestas Bioethical principles in public health: limitations and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta caracterizar la especificidad de los problemas morales en salud pública y analizar la aplicabilidad del modelo principialista como padrón para dirimir sus conflictos. Aunque considerado pertinente para la bioética clínica, este modelo no es aplicable sin más a los dilemas en salud pública, puesto que se fundamenta en la moral de las interrelaciones médico-paciente. Se analiza la pertinencia de los principios de "solidaridad", de "responsabilidad óntica" según Jonas, y de "responsabilidad diacónica" según Lévinas, destacando la inaplicabilidad del primero y la posible adaptación de los otros dos a la salud pública. A ese respecto se discute la posibilidad de vincular la preocupación ontológica de Jonas y la trascendental de Lévinas, proponiendo un principio de protección que sería más adecuado a los propósitos de una ética de la salud pública, permitiendo identificar claramente los objetivos y los actores implicados en una implementación de políticas públicas moralmente correctas y pragmáticamente efectivas.We propose to analyze the specificity of ethical problems in public health issues and to elucidate the applicability of principlism as a problem-solving strategy in this realm. Although well-established in clinical ethics, principlism is not an adequate model to be used in public health, since it is basically intended to serve as a moral guide in the physician-patient encounter. We discuss the possible adequacy of principles like "solidarity", "ontic responsibility" (as proposed by Jonas, and "caring or diaconal responsibility" as presented by Lévinas. Solidarity appears to be insufficiently specified, whereas the other two perspectives may be adapted to public health issues by bringing together Jonas´ ontological and Lévinas´ transcendental concerns to form a principle of protection that might better serve the purposes of such an ethics. This principle would help to identify more clearly

  16. Why not private health insurance? 2. Actuarial principles meet provider dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deber, R; Gildiner, A; Baranek, P

    1999-09-01

    What do insurers and employers feel about proposals to expand Canadian health care financing through private insurance, in either a parallel stream or a supplementary tier? The authors conducted 10 semistructured, open-ended interviews in the autumn and early winter of 1996 with representatives of the insurance industry and benefits managers working with large employers; respondents were identified using a snowball sampling technique. The respondents felt that proposals for parallel private plans within a competitive market are incompatible with insurance principles, as long as a well-functioning and relatively comprehensive public system continues to exist; the maintenance of a strong public system was both socially and economically desirable. With the exception of serving the niche market for the private management of return-to-work strategies, respondents showed little interest in providing parallel coverage. They were receptive to a larger role for supplementary insurance but cautioned that they are not willing to cover all delisted services. As business executives they stated that they are willing to insure only services and clients that will be profitable. PMID:10497614

  17. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life. PMID:25647691

  18. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life.

  19. related Factors of complete basic Immunization on children and Vaccine Management at Primary Health care and Health Post in X Subdistrict Depok city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Afriani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background:Immunization is an effective primary prevention against infectious diseases on children. The purpose of this study was to determine the related factors to the completeness of basic immunization on children and vaccine management at primary health care and posyandu in X Subdistric, Depok City. Methods:The study used a cross-sectional design with a sample of 140 mothers of children aged at least 11 months, and qualitatif study about vaccines management. Mother and child data collection using questionnaires and child health card (Kartu Menuju Sehat in December 2012–May 2013. Vaccine management data was collected at 2 primary health care and 2 posyandu with interview and observation. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square test. result:The largest percentage of mothers who have children under the age of at least 11 months of age <30 years, at least graduated from junior high school education, no work, have a low knowledge about immunization. Vaccine management in clinics and neighborhood health center for storage after use of vaccines in posyandu not be returned to the community health center, recording and reporting is not done on the book of the records so that the possibility of scattered or lost, and the person in charge of managing the vaccine instead of pharmacy personnel. Residual use of the vaccine in posyandu not directly returned to the health center. Recording the use of vaccines in posyandu not carried on the books, so it is probable scattered or lost. Manager vaccine at primary health care should a technical pharmacy in accordance with Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009 conclusion: Completeness of basic immunization of children under one years old (82,9%, incomplete biggest measles immunization (15,0%. Factors parental characteristics (age, education, occupation, knowledge and the availability of the vaccine were not significantly associated with children complete basic immunization. recommendation: Improving health

  20. The Precautionary Principle, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Decision Theory in Public Health Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alastair J; Ghelardi, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The precautionary principle (PP) has been used in the evaluation of the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent future harms in a range of activities, particularly in the area of the environment. Here, we provide details of circumstances under which the PP can be applied to the topic of harm reduction in Public Health. The definition of PP that we use says that the PP reverses the onus of proof of effectiveness between an intervention and its comparator when the intervention has been designed to reduce harm. We first describe the two frameworks used for health-care evaluation: evidence-based medicine (EBM) and decision theory (DT). EBM is usually used in treatment effectiveness evaluation, while either EBM or DT may be used in evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention of illness. For cost-effectiveness, DT is always used. The expectation in Public Health is that interventions employed to reduce harm will not actually increase harm, where "harm" in this context does not include opportunity cost. That implies that an intervention's effectiveness can often be assumed. Attention should therefore focus on its cost-effectiveness. This view is consistent with the conclusions of DT. It is also very close to the PP notion of reversing the onus of proof, but is not consistent with EBM as normally practiced, where the onus is on showing a new practice to be superior to usual practice with a sufficiently high degree of certainty. Under our definitions, we show that where DT and the PP differ in their evaluation is in cost-effectiveness, but only for decisions that involve potential catastrophic circumstances, where the nation-state will act as if it is risk-averse. In those cases, it is likely that the state will pay more, and possibly much more, than DT would allow, in an attempt to mitigate impending disaster. That is, the rules that until now have governed all cost-effectiveness analyses are shown not to apply to catastrophic

  1. The Precautionary Principle, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Decision Theory in Public Health Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alastair J.; Ghelardi, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The precautionary principle (PP) has been used in the evaluation of the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent future harms in a range of activities, particularly in the area of the environment. Here, we provide details of circumstances under which the PP can be applied to the topic of harm reduction in Public Health. The definition of PP that we use says that the PP reverses the onus of proof of effectiveness between an intervention and its comparator when the intervention has been designed to reduce harm. We first describe the two frameworks used for health-care evaluation: evidence-based medicine (EBM) and decision theory (DT). EBM is usually used in treatment effectiveness evaluation, while either EBM or DT may be used in evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention of illness. For cost-effectiveness, DT is always used. The expectation in Public Health is that interventions employed to reduce harm will not actually increase harm, where “harm” in this context does not include opportunity cost. That implies that an intervention’s effectiveness can often be assumed. Attention should therefore focus on its cost-effectiveness. This view is consistent with the conclusions of DT. It is also very close to the PP notion of reversing the onus of proof, but is not consistent with EBM as normally practiced, where the onus is on showing a new practice to be superior to usual practice with a sufficiently high degree of certainty. Under our definitions, we show that where DT and the PP differ in their evaluation is in cost-effectiveness, but only for decisions that involve potential catastrophic circumstances, where the nation-state will act as if it is risk-averse. In those cases, it is likely that the state will pay more, and possibly much more, than DT would allow, in an attempt to mitigate impending disaster. That is, the rules that until now have governed all cost-effectiveness analyses are shown not to apply to catastrophic

  2. Basic Needs, Stress and the Effects of Tailored Health Communication in Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Erika R.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia; Thompson, Tess

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether unmet basic needs (food, housing, personal and neighborhood safety, money for necessities) and perceived stress affect recall of and response to a tailored print intervention one month later. Participants (N = 372) were adults who had called 2-1-1 Missouri between June 2010 and June 2012. A series of path analyses using…

  3. Basic versus Supplementary Health Insurance : The Role of Cost Effectiveness and Prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    In a model where patients face budget constraints that make some treatments unaffordable, we ask which treatments should be covered by universal basic insurance and which by private voluntary insurance. We argue that both cost effectiveness and prevalence are important if the government wants to max

  4. 城市公共空间格局基本原理探析%Analysis on Basic Principles of Urban Public Space Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁

    2016-01-01

    Urban public space, which is equaly important as urban transport system, is the basic organization and also the dominant element for a city. The research into the pattern of urban public space mainly focuses on the alocation and mechanism of public space, as wel as relfecting the relationship among spatial elements and the relationship between spatial elements and urban context. It is an important fundamental research for grasping the morphological composition of the urban space and its evolution. Based on the theoretical frontiers of urban public space, with a large number of ifeld researches, environmental behavior and morphological quantitative analysis, the paper analyses the general principles of regularities folowed by relatively more successful patterns of urban public space at home and abroad, such as structure adaptation, sites consolidation, hierarchy and continuation, interface constraints etc.%城市公共空间是与城市交通系统同等重要的城市基础性组织及全局性控制要素。城市公共空间格局研究主要关注公共空间的配置及其机理,对把握城市物质空间形态构成及其演进规律是一项重要的基础研究。在长期关注城市公共空间理论前沿的基础上,结合大量田野调查、环境行为实证研究和形态学量化分析,探析了国内外较为成功的城市公共空间格局所遵循的普遍规律性原则,即结构适配、场所固结、层级连续和界面约束原理:好的城市公共空间格局总是与城市结构相适配;有若干独特地点从整个连续系统中凸显出来;形成层级连续系统;并具有明确的限定约束界面。

  5. Strengthening Faculty Recruitment for Health Professions Training in Basic Sciences in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-01-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health (HRH), with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools—two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and envir...

  6. Role of Logic and Mentality as the Basics of Wittgenstein's Picture Theory of Language and Extracting Educational Principles and Methods According to This Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Nasrabadi, Hassanali Bakhtiyar

    2016-01-01

    The present paper attempts to recognize principles and methods of education based on Wittgenstein's picture theory of language. This qualitative research utilized inferential analytical approach to review the related literature and extracted a set of principles and methods from his theory on picture language. Findings revealed that Wittgenstein…

  7. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  8. El muestreo en investigación cualitativa: principios básicos y algunas controversias Sampling in qualitative research: basic principles and some controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez-Salgado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos de la elección de los participantes en una investigación cualitativa, en contraste con los que rigen al muestreo probabilístico en la investigación epidemiológica. Se proponen los conceptos de generalizabilidad nomotética e ideográfica, y los de transferibilidad y reflexividad, para una mejor comprensión de las diferencias. Se mencionan los fundamentos de los principales tipos de muestreo que suelen utilizarse en investigación cualitativa, el significado del concepto de saturación y algunos de sus cuestionamientos. Por último, se plantean algunas reflexiones en torno a las controversias suscitadas en los últimos años sobre las diversas perspectivas paradigmáticas desde las cuales se puede efectuar hoy día la investigación cualitativa, sus posibilidades de combinación con la investigación epidemiológica, y algunas implicaciones para el estudio de los problemas de salud.This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.

  9. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  10. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Social Influence and Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses social influence and social cognition's effect on health and social well-being, and examines the efficacy of public health campaigns, the effects of negative stereotyping, and why some teenagers resist drug use and others do not as part of the social problems addressed by behavioral science research. Future directions for research on…

  11. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe;

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  12. [A discussion on basic content and evaluation index system of agroecosystem health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia'en; Luo, Shiming

    2004-08-01

    Agroecosystem health is the fundament of food security and human health, and becoming one of the hot spots and frontier fields in agricultural ecology study with more and more international concerns, which can be interpreted as a sustainable state and a dynamic process involving good eco-environment, healthy agricultural organisms, rational spatial and temporal structure, clean production pattern, optimal biodiversity and high productivity. Agroecosystem is a kind of typical artificial and natural compound ecosystem. Its health is strongly influenced and controlled by human activities, and usually linked with agro-products quality, food security and biological security. A series of indices including biological, environmental and eco-economic indicators could be integrated to assess the situation and level of agroecosystem health, and some methods including comprehensive index assessment, eco-toxicological assessment and ecological risk assessment could be used for the evaluation of agroecosystem health.

  13. Efficiency Analysis of Basic Health Units: A Comparison of Developed and Deprived Regions in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Razzaq

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to measure the efficiency of primary health care units completed in health sector of rural Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK and to compare it across developed and deprived regions.Operational efficiency and beneficiary efficiency of a total of 32 Basic Health Units (BHUs were measured through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA by using different input and output variables. Independent sample T-test was applied to compare these efficiencies across developed and deprived regions.The study could find no significant difference of operational efficiency across developed and deprived regions, however a significant difference was found across regions from beneficiary perspective (P= 0.044.The study concludes that BHUs of deprived region are more efficient from beneficiary perspective, however there is no significant difference of operational efficiency across the regions.

  14. The value of public health research and the division between basic vs. applied science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Filho Naomar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We question the movement towards exclusion of population and social health research from the field of science. The background under analysis is contemporary Brazil, where the scientific field that hosts this kind of research is known as Collective Health. First, the problem is formalized on logical grounds, evaluating the pertinence of considering unscientific the many objects and methods of public health research. Secondly, the cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and external causes are brought in as illustrations of the kind of scientific problem faced in health research today. The logical and epistemological basis of different forms of "scientific segregation" based on biomedical reductionism is analyzed, departing from three theses: (i the ethics of the general application of science; (ii the inappropriateness of monopolies for objectivity in the sciences; (iii the specificity of scientific fields. In the current panorama of health research in Brazil, a residual hegemonic position that defends a narrow and specific definition of the object of knowledge was found. The denial of validity and specificity to objects, methods and research techniques that constitute social and population research in health is linked to elements of irrationality in reductionism approaches. Nevertheless, efforts should be directed to overcome this scientific division, in order to develop a pluralist and interdisciplinary national science, committed to the health care realities of our country.

  15. 农作物总DNA提取的基本原理和主要方法概述%Basic Principle and Main Method of Crop Total DNA Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮

    2011-01-01

    概述了农作物DNA提取的基本原理,总结了DNA提取各步骤的操作经验,并介绍了几种常用的DNA提取方法.%The paper summarizes the basic principle of crop DNA extraction and the operation experience of each DNA extraction step,and introduces several commonly used DNA extraction method.

  16. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Papadopoulou; Stavroula Tsitsifli; Vasilis Kanakoudis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing ...

  17. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård;

    2008-01-01

    women is not. An increase by one percentage point in dual-earner support lowers infant mortality by 0.04 deaths per 1000 births. Generosity in basic security type of pensions is linked to lower old-age excess mortality, whereas the generosity of earnings-related income security pensions is not....... An increase by one percentage point in basic security pensions is associated with a decrease in the old age excess mortality by 0.02 for men as well as for women. INTERPRETATION: The ways in which social policies are designed, as well as their generosity, are important for health because of the increase...

  18. The Caux Round Table principles for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L L

    1996-02-01

    In 1994, the Caux Round Table in Switzerland developed what is believed to be the first international code of business ethics. Business leaders from Japan, Europe and the United States collaborated to create a set of principles rooted in two basic ideals: kyosei and human dignity. Because of its importance and its applicability to the conduct of today's health care businesses, this entire column is devoted to reprinting these "Principles for Business." PMID:8632875

  19. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants for users of two basic health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Florêncio Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at verifying the knowledge and use of medicinal plants among users of two Family Health Units. This was a quantitative survey carried out between June and August 2010 at Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We used a structured interview guide, attended by 302 people of both sexes, which indicated that 77 plants are used for the treatment of several diseases, only 7.67% did not use medicinal plants. However, we described the 10 most reported plants, the part used for each form and its preparation. Only 0.9% of the population interviewed acquired information about such plants with health professionals. It is necessary to invest in initiatives that promote greater integration of the use of medicinal plants within the programs developed at Family Health Units, as well as a greater training of these professionals, by incorporating content that include herbal medicine in undergraduate courses.

  20. The Basic Principles and Methods of Lightning Protection Design of Gas Pipeline%燃气管道防雷设计的基本原则和方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶平; 隋晓峰; 吴经尊; 林世祺; 熊芳瑜

    2012-01-01

    本文首先分析了燃气管道可能遭受雷击的主要通道,然后提出了堵塞这些主要危害通道的基本思路和基本技术要求,并对燃气管道防雷设计的基本原则和方法作了详尽的论述,为燃气管道的防雷设计提供了实践依据.%This paper analyzes the main channel may be struck by lightning of gas pipeline, and then proposes the basic ideas and basic technical requirements to plug these major hazards channel, and makes a detailed exposition of the basic principles and methods of lightning protection design of the gas pipeline, providing a practical basis.

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  2. [Evaluation of the capacity for governance of a State Health Department in monitoring and evaluation of basic health care provision--lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Juliana; de Carvalho, Eduardo Maia Freese; Pereira, Gladys Fernanda Coelho; de Mello, Fernanda Maria Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    The decentralization of the SUS requires state health departments to assume new powers as the monitoring and evaluation of Basic Care. This article aims to evaluate the "capacity for governance" of a State Health Northeastern Brazilian Department in monitoring and evaluation of Basic Care. From the technical cooperation held via component III of Proesf, key health care managers were interviewed, strategical documents were analyzed, and participatory observation of activities was carried out at a training centre, with a "contend analysis" procedure. Among the results, are: absence of "government project", problems of physical infrastructure, human resources and material, with low professional qualification in the use of information systems, monitoring and evaluation, and strategic planning, promoting and fragile bureaucratic work use of epidemiological data. In 2006, the Department used federal resources to strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of primary care by expanding its physical infrastructure, acquiring equipment and training for staff, without investing its own resource. To conclude, the Health Department has experienced difficulties in adjusting to decentralization, with the introduction of new working procedures into the institution. PMID:21180835

  3. Impact on the Performance of Health Workers Adopted Performance-Related Contracts in the Provision of Basic Public Health Service At Village and Township Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, Yaojun; HUO, Zhen’ang; WU, Jian; XIE, Shuangbao; ZHANG, Liang; FENG, Zhanchun

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper focus on the impact on the performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of a government stipulated package of basic public health service, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode. Methods: The concept of balanced scorecard was adopted and developed to gather the 11 evaluation indicators distributed in four quadrants. These were implemented using on-site questionnaire and interview design. Four thousand and twenty-one respondents at 30 administrative villages including 2674 respondents at 20 pilot villages and 1347 at 10 control villages were investigated. Meanwhile, 62 administration officials from three counties and nine townships were interviewed. Results: Eight of 11 evaluation indicators were obviously better in pilot counties than in Control County, The remaining three indicators respectively represented that equal, inferior to control county, and could not clear judge. Conclusion: The performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of basic public health service in pilot counties, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode, is better than before and control county. PMID:23785674

  4. Prevalence of nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding in the mother-infant dyad in basic health unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ocilia Maria Costa Carvalho; Karolina Rodrigues Silva; Lívia Zulmyra Cintra Andrade; Viviane Martins da Silva; Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study conducted with 28 mother-infant dyads, users of a Family Health Center of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, that aimed to identify the nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding, their frequency of occurrence, defining characteristics, and the value of maternal confidence based on the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale. Data collection happened during September and October 2010, using interviews, anamnesis, and physical examination of the dyad. The most prevalent diagnosis was Eff...

  5. Cost Benefit Analysis with Applications to Animal Health Programmes: Basics of CBA

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper is one of a series of six papers which brings together both cost-benefit analysis methodology and the problems and issues in evaluation of regional and national animal health programs. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a powerful economic technique for evaluating public sector investments, evaluating proposed research projects and programs, estimating the economic impact of new regulations, predicting the economic impacts of resource exploitation and conservation programs, ...

  6. Implementing the precautionary principle: incorporating science, technology, fairness and accountability in environmental, health and safety decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashford, N.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The precautionary principle is in sharp political focus today because firstly the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing, and secondly there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on allegedly more ''rational'' schemes, such as cost-benefit analysis and quantitative risk assessment. The precautionary principle has been criticised as being both too vague and too arbitrary to form a basis for rational decision making. Contesting that view, this paper makes explicit the rational tenets of the precautionary principle within an analytical framework as rigorous as uncertainties permit, and one that mirrors democratic values embodied in regulatory, compensatory, and common law, based on equity and justice, to replace the economic paradigm of utilitarian cost-benefit analysis. (author)

  7. [Empowerment in prevention and health promotion--a critical conceptual evaluation of basic understanding, dimensions and assessment problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, T; Kröger, G

    2008-12-01

    Empowerment is an important concept in health care, but despite its prevalence it seems to be more of a buzz word. Thus, a conceptual review on empowerment in prevention and health promotion was carried out. 62 German and international theoretical contributions, reviews and studies were incorporated, covering the fields of prevention, care and therapy, rehabilitation, health-care research, nursing and work-related stress. The analysis revealed eight main dimensions of empowerment: (1) shared decision-making, (2) self-efficacy, (3) social support and social capital, (4) skills and competences, (5) health care utilisation, (6) goal setting and attainment, (7) reflexive thought and (8) innovation. Their empirical assessment can be carried out on a micro-, meso-, or macro-level. Three distinct basic conceptual notions emerged from the analysis, each applying its own specific research questions and measurement instruments: clinical, organizational-professional and political understanding of "empowerment". Therefore, these three specific conceptual notions should each be developed and tested separately, in particular in reviews, and empirical studies should embrace all eight subdimensions. PMID:19085666

  8. Basic health indicators in the province of Granma (Cuba in the period 2007-2011: retrospective and descriptive observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurieth Gallardo Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The province of Granma in Cuba is not exempt from the changes that have been occurring in the country in recent years, resulting in an improved quality of life of its inhabitants. This study looks into basic health indicators of Granma as a result of a systemic and team approach of its human resources inserted in the provincial health system. Methods. An observational retrospective descriptive study was conducted to describe the results of the provincial health system based on demographic and morbidity indicators during the five years from 2007 to 2011. Results. A gradual increase in births and of the population older than 60 was found. Child mortality rates did not vary significantly. Direct maternal mortality decreased. Mortality from non communicable diseases was due mainly to heart conditions and malignancies. Mortality from stroke and accidents was reduced. Among the communicable diseases, there was an increase in chickenpox, gonorrhea, syphilis, and pulmonary tuberculosis, while viral hepatitis and meningoencephalitis decreased. Discussion. Morbidity and mortality studies are used to measure and indirectly assess the health status of a population, which in turn helps to plan the provision of services and scientific and technical development. Birth rates are increasing and deaths are decreasing, but there is no information on the quality of life of the aging population. Conclusion. The study found a predominance of older population. The most striking rates were those related to death from heart disease, malignancies and stroke. There was a greater morbidity from tuberculosis, chickenpox and gonorrhea.

  9. Basic principles of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation——remain essentially the same despite all apparent changes%论心肺复苏的核心原理——万变不离其宗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆义

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the basic principles of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The main points include the Venturi - effect in the mouth - to - mouth ventilation, the key points of chest compression analyzed with the Newton's laws of mechanics and law of energy conservation, and the development of electrical defibrillator with the Joule - Lenz law in the physics and principle of negation of negation in the philosophy. To master the basic principles of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation was the basis for studying and expanding the technique competence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.%本文对心肺复苏(CPR)的一些核心原理进行了论述,主要内容有口对口人工呼吸与文丘里效应,用牛顿力学三大定律和能量守恒定律等原理解析胸部按压的操作要点,物理学的焦耳-楞次定律和哲学的否定之否定规律与体外电除颤技术的发展等;还提出掌握CPR的核心原理是发展和学习CPR技术的基础.

  10. Basic biochemical, hematological and hormonal parameters for monitoring the health and nutritional status in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sporting competitions are becoming more demanding in terms of intensity of effort, and this means controlling all aspects that affect athletic performance. Food, hydration and supplementation, before, during and after training or competition directly affect health, body composition, performance and recovery of the athlete. The assessment of nutritional status is required for proper advising of the athlete, through blood tests to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this paper is to provide practical tools for dietitiansnutritionists to control the health and nutritional status of athletes, as well as monitoring their adaptation to workloads and competition periods. Performing analytical tests to control of protein metabolism, lipid profile, ions, blood tests and iron metabolism, in addition to review some hormonal parameters, may be of interest in order to observe the potential existence of overtraining states. The correct understanding and interpretation of laboratory tests (under sports doctor’s supervision will be most important and useful for dietitiansnutritionists, performing dietary and nutritional advice to athletes, because it will determine the status of the athlete and propose different individual feeding strategies depending on the training phase and response.

  11. Curricular contribution of the subject Health and Philosophy to the educational process of Basic General Doctors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Rosa Garcés Garcés

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The curriculum of Philosophy and Health discipline is an important tool in the formative process of General Comprehensive Doctors if the educative and instructive goals, as well as the content of each subject are linked to the educative work necessities and the future fields of Health Professionals. Objectives: To determine the curricular contribution of this discipline to the formative process of General Comprehensive Doctors regarding human values development, skills and preparation for their future working fields during courses 2000-2001, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004. Methods: An anonym survey was performed to students, in the conformation of the final report different methods were used: analysis, synthesis, historical-logical method. Results: Values such responsibility, discipline, justice, humanism, solidarity, honesty, anti-imperialism, equality and creativity were more popular among students and the least popular were simplicity and unconditional behavior. Conclusion: This experience allowed us to verify that this discipline has contributed to human values development of first year students and that they acknowledge their professor's work.

  12. Identifying organisational principles and management practices important to the quality of health care services for chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne

    2012-01-01

    are limited, it is necessary to identify efficient methods to improve the quality of care. Comparing health care systems is a well-known method for identifying new knowledge regarding, for instance, organisational methods and principles. Kaiser Permanente (KP), an integrated health care delivery system...... in the U.S., is recognized as providing high-quality chronic care; to some extent, this is due to KP's implementation of the chronic care model (CCM). This model recommends a range of evidence-based management practices that support the implementation of evidence-based medicine. However, it is not clear...... which management practices in the CCM are most efficient and in what combinations. In addition, financial incentives and public reporting of performance are often considered effective at improving the quality of health care services, but this has not yet been definitively proved....

  13. Ukrainian state service of the united time and standard frequencies: structure and basic principles for providing the country with high-precision time and frequency information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, O. M.; Safronov, Yu. I.; Klejman, O. S.; Solovjov, V. S.; Tkachuk, A. A.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    The organization structure and main problems of the Ukrainian state service of the united time and standard frequencies are considered. Its present state and the role of its basic divisions in providing various fields of the Ukrainian economics, including the space science and its applications, with the time and frequency information are presented.

  14. Basic Principles of Seam Design for Pattern Design in Garment Industry%服装工业版型缝份设计的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正春; 潘力

    2012-01-01

      This article explained the concepts and principles of seam design, emphasizing its importance in pattern design in garment industry.%  本文介绍了服装工业用版型的缝份设计的概念、原则,强调了缝份设计在服装版型设计中的重要性。

  15. The Principle of Administrative Emergency Basic Philosophy Consideration%行政应急性原则的基础理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莘

    2012-01-01

    Based on the principle of administrative emergency research and conceptual controversy carding, this article defines the administration emergency principle value orientation is to protect the order, embody the administrative power of concentration and expansion of public attention, priority, benefit, efficiency and fairness. It summed up the ultimate goal of the principle administrative emergency, namely the administration emergency principle and ultimately to translate into how rational allocation of administrative power and protect rights of relative person. For balance between public interests and individual interests, public order and freedom of citizens, proper institutional arrangement will be done. Finally, in emergency situations, public power should have an internal balance.%本文通过对行政应急性原则的研究现状及概念争议的梳理,界定行政应急性原则的价值取向为秩序保护,体现为行政权的集中与扩张,公益优先、兼顾私益,效率优先兼顾公平三个方面,进而总结行政应急原则的终极目标,即行政应急性原则最终还是要转化为如何合理配置行政权与保护相对人权利这一经典问题。在兼顾公共利益和个人利益,兼顾公共秩序与公民自由的基础上,进行恰当的制度安排。最后,在应急状态下,公权力要有一种内部的平衡。

  16. 公平互利原则:国际经济法基本原则选择--兼与平等互利原则比较%Fairness and Mutual Benefit:The Basic Principle of International Economic Law:A Comparative Study with the Principle of Equality and Mutual Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强蔷

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of the international economic law find expression in each of its specifications and practices. The principle of fairness and mutual benefit, as one of the basic principles of international economic law reflects the basic value orientation of the theory of international economic law and can provide a correct driec-tion for international economic activities. However, the principle of fairness and mutual benefit has been under controversy among international economic law circles, and some scholars think that the principle of equality and mutual benefit should be applied. The former emphasizes fairness while the latter emphasizes equality. In the in-ternational economic activities, the principle of fairness and mutual benefit is more applicable than the value of e-quality and mutual benefit so that the former is more suitable as a basic principle of international economic law.%国际经济法的每一项制度或具体实践都能体现其基本原则,其中公平互利原则作为国际经济法的基本原则之一主要体现了国际经济法理论的基本价值取向,并在国际经济活动中能够提供正确的方向指导。然而学界对于公平互利原则一直存在争议,部分学者认为国际经济法应该适用平等互利原则,前者强调公平,后者强调平等。在具体国际经济交往活动中,公平互利比平等互利更具有普适价值,公平互利原则作为国际经济法的基本原则更合适。

  17. Leadership Principles for Developing a Statewide Public Health and Clinical Laboratory System

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Steven A.; Brokopp, Charles D.; Size, Tim

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation established the national Laboratory Response Network (LRN) for bioterrorism readiness. A more broad application of the LRN is the National Laboratory System (NLS), an effort to promote the 10 Essential Public Health Services and the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories (hereafter, Core Functions). State publ...

  18. 理论联系实际:马克思主义理论课教学的基本原则%Integrating Theory with Real Situations:the Basic Principle in Marxist Theory Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪凌

    2011-01-01

    理论联系实际是马克思主义理论课教学的基本原则。坚持这一原则是加强和改进马克思主义理论课教学,增强教学实效性的必然要求。正确掌握马克思主义理论是理论联系实际的首要条件,全面把握社会实际和学生特点是理论联系实际的必要条件。深入贯彻这一原则应立足于教学目的的实现,选取典型性的材料,运用社会实践等多种教学方式和坚持实事求是的态度,把理论和实际有机结合。%Integrating theory with real situations is the basic principle in Marxist theory teaching.It is compulsory to adhere to this principle in order to improve the teaching of Marxist theory.The precondition of implementing this principle is to well command Marxist theory;and the necessary condition is to well understand the social realities and the students.The application of the teaching principle should be oriented towards the achievement of teaching goals.

  19. Application of HACCP principles to control visitor health threats on dairy farms open to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes. PMID:18947047

  20. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  1. Possibilities in Anaemia Prevention during Pregnancy through the Basic Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karácsony Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In case of pregnancies, one of the most common pathological conditions in internal medicine is aneamia with iron-deficiency. Furthermore, iron deficiency may also affect the mother and the fetus negatively. We wanted to find out which group of expectant mothers are mostly affected, which factors influence the development of aneamia. It was also observable in the case of those living at higher living standards that they take fetus-protecting vitamins with a significantly higher frequency before the pregnancy than those living at lower living standards. According to our research data, 67% of the sample developed aneamia. In our research the risk group consisted of young, vegetarian expectant mothers with low education and the multiparas. After conception, the timing of gynaecological consultation was appropriate and the majority of the sample had a clear idea of the ways of preventing aneamia. However, prevention was only realized in practice - based on the criteria - only with a frequency of 12%. It would be important to consciously plan pregnancy. After taking expectant mothers into care, they should - as soon as possible - be screened for the deficiency and in need, supplements should be started. Risk groups should be given greater attention. In their case, a routine supplement of iron would be desirable even before the development of a deficiency. During pregnancy care, awareness must be raised and an iron-rich diet should be established at the beginning. Beyond these, general practitioner, health visitors have the opportunity - through the close relationship with the expectant mothers - to control laboratory tests, provide appropriate information, recommend vitamin preparations as well as check taken medications.

  2. A Review on the Basic Principles Involved in Animal Training%动物行为训练的理论基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赫

    2014-01-01

    本文阐述了动物行为训练的生物学背景和相应的心理学和神经生理学原理,论述了动物四种学习方式以及动物训练的两种方法:强化和惩罚。%A wide range of background and relative principles of psychology and neurophysiology are reviewed for animal training. This paper discussed four different styles on animal learning. Two methods of animal training are presented by reinforcement and punishment.

  3. Implementing the Precautionary Principle: incorporating science, technology, fairness, and accountability in environmental, health, and safety decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Nicholas A

    2004-01-01

    The Precautionary Principle is in sharp political focus today because: 1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing, and 2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on more "rational" schemes, such as cost-benefit analysis and quantitative risk assessment, the former being an embodiment of "rational choice theory" promoted by the Chicago School of Law and Economics. The Precautionary Principle has been criticized as being both too vague and too arbitrary to form a basis for rational decision making. The assumption underlying this criticism is that any scheme not based on cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment is both irrational and without secure foundation in either science or economics. This paper contests that view and makes explicit the rational tenets of the Precautionary Principle within an analytical framework as rigorous as uncertainties permit, and one that mirrors democratic values embodied in regulatory, compensatory, and common law. Unlike other formulations that reject risk assessment, this paper argues that risk assessment can be used within the formalism of tradeoff analysis--a more appropriate alternative to traditional cost-benefit analysis and one that satisfies the need for well-grounded public policy decision making. This paper will argue that the precautionary approach is the most appropriate basis for policy, even when large uncertainties do not exist, especially where the fairness of the distributions of costs and benefits of hazardous activities and products are a concern. Furthermore, it will offer an approach to making decisions within an analytic framework, based on equity and justice, to replace the economic paradigm of utilitarian cost-benefit analysis.

  4. Redefining leadership education in graduate public health programs: prioritization, focus, and guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Oxendine, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Public health program graduates need leadership skills to be effective in the complex, changing public health environment. We propose a new paradigm for schools of public health in which technical and leadership skills have equal priority as core competencies for graduate students. Leadership education should focus on the foundational skills necessary to effect change independent of formal authority, with activities offered at varying levels of intensity to engage different students. Leadership development initiatives should be practice based, process focused, interdisciplinary, diversity based, adaptive, experimental, innovative, and empowering, and they should encourage authenticity. Leadership training in graduate programs will help lay the groundwork for public health professionals to have an immediate impact in the workforce and to prioritize continuous leadership development throughout their careers.

  5. International survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA: does practice meet the principles proposed for good research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Stephens,1 Bonnie Handke,2 Jalpa A Doshi3 On behalf of the HTA Principles Working Group, part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR HTA Special Interest Group (SIG1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Evidence-Based Practice and Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To describe research methods used internationally in health technology assessment (HTA and health-care reimbursement policies; compare the survey findings on research methods and processes to published HTA principles; and discuss important issues/trends reported by HTA bodies related to current research methods and applications of the HTA process.Methods: Representatives from HTA bodies worldwide were recruited to complete an online survey consisting of 47 items within four topics: (1 organizational information and process, (2 primary HTA methodologies and importance of attributes, (3 HTA application and dissemination, and (4 quality of HTA, including key issues. Results were presented as a comparison of current HTA practices and research methods to published HTA principles.Results: The survey was completed by 30 respondents representing 16 countries in five major regions, Australia (n = 3, Canada (n = 2, Europe (n = 17, Latin America (n = 2, and the United States (n = 6. The most common methodologies used were systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic modeling. The most common attributes evaluated were effectiveness (more commonly than efficacy, cost-effectiveness, safety, and quality of life. The attributes assessed, relative importance of the attributes, and conformance with HTA principles varied by region/country. Key issues and trends facing HTA bodies included standardizing methods for economic evaluations and grading of evidence, lack of evidence

  6. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Promoting the Mental Health of Stressful Adolescents Using Principles of Problem Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  7. [The provision of population of the Russian Federation with basic personnel resource of public health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepin, V O

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of complex scientific analysis of number and structure of physicians and paramedical personnel of public and municipal health care system of the Russian Federation. The provision of country population, its federal okrugs and federation subjects with physicians and paramedical personnel of various specialties are analyzed too, including ratio of physicians and paramedical personnel and territorial differentiation of provision of population with basic medical personnel. The study results demonstrate that in 2012 provision of population (per 10 000 of population) with physicians increased from 43.9 to 44.7. At the same time provision with paramedical personnel decreased from 92.3 to 90.8. in the Russian Federation are preserved significant territorial disproportions of provision of population with medical personnel resource. The provision of population with physicians and paramedical personnel is 4.3 times and 1.9 times higher in cities than in rural area. The differences between extreme indicators of provision of population of the Russian Federation with physicians and paramedical personnel are 2.9 and 2.4 times correspondingly. The differences between indicators of provision with physicians of clinical specialties are 2.6 times. The average ratio between physician and paramedical personnel is 1:2.03. The structure of medical manpower corresponds to the need of population in medical care in incomplete measure. The materials substantiate necessity to continue modernization, optimization and development of manpower support of public health care system in the Russian Federation.

  8. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  9. Insights in Public Health: Systems Thinking: Basic Constructs, Application Challenges, Misuse in Health, and How Public Health Leaders Can Pave the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Canyon, Deon V.

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. To meet these complex needs, the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health, the World He...

  10. Rating Health Web sites using the principles of Citation Analysis: A Bibliometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Lei

    1999-01-01

    The rapid growth in the number of health care related web sites necessitates that medical librarians be able to evaluate the quality of the web sites. By analysing the linked sources medical libraries web pages of nineteen of the top U.S. medical schools, this study used the citation analysis method. What was found with this bibliometric approach was a set of 78 most highly cited WWW sites out of thousands of cited links. The identification of the current, core section of health sciences rela...

  11. Building capacity in health facility management: guiding principles for skills transfer in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahn Bernice T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management training is fundamental to developing human resources for health. Particularly as Liberia revives its health delivery system, facility and county health team managers are central to progress. Nevertheless, such management skills are rarely prioritized in health training, and sustained capacity building in this area is limited. We describe a health management delivery program in which a north and south institution collaborated to integrate classroom and field-based training in health management and to transfer the capacity for sustained management development in Liberia. Methods We developed and implemented a 6-month training program in health management skills (i.e. strategic problem solving, financial management, human resource management and leadership delivered by Yale University and Mother Patern College from Liberia, with support from the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Over three 6-month cycles, responsibility for course instruction was transferred from the north institution to the south institution. A self-administered survey was conducted of all participants completing the course to measure changes in self-rated management skills, the degree to which the course was helpful and met its stated objectives, and faculty members' responsiveness to participant needs as the transfer process occurred. Results Respondents (n = 93, response rate 95.9% reported substantial improvement in self-reported management skills, and rated the helpfulness of the course and the degree to which the course met its objectives highly. Levels of improvement and course ratings were similar over the three cohorts as the course was transferred to the south institution. We suggest a framework of five elements for implementing successful management training programs that can be transferred and sustained in resource-limited settings, including: 1 use a short-course format focusing on four key skill areas with practical tools; 2 include

  12. Powerful flaring configurations in solar active regions: magnetic topology via special features of delta-structure phenomenon. I. Basic principles of topological model

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, R N; Marushin, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The close connection of magnetic field structure on the one hand and observable features of complex ARs with high flare efficiency on the other one is investigated in frames of so-called dynamic classification of flaring magnetic configurations (FMC) and the simple topological model of interacting magnetic complexes (IMC) suggested by Ikhsanov (1982). The primary objective of the present work is to expose general statements of the specified model and classification, the secondary one assumes the critical analysis and logical generalization of several important regularities being frequently observable in evolution stages of a typical complex AR with powerful flares including proton ones. Those cases are basically examined where the development of photospheric situation was marked by the formation of delta-configuration phenomenon described by Kunzel (1960) as one of the most impressive precursors of high flare activity. Without trying to use any additional assumptions and alternative hypotheses, the qualitativ...

  13. Why common carrier and network neutrality principles apply to the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Mark; Lenert, Leslie; Wilson, Kristin D; Bradner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Office of the National Coordinator will be defining the architecture of the Nationwide Health Information Network (NWHIN) together with the proposed HealtheWay public/private partnership as a development and funding strategy. There are a number of open questions--for example, what is the best way to realize the benefits of health information exchange? How valuable are regional health information organizations in comparison with a more direct approach? What is the role of the carriers in delivering this service? The NWHIN is to exist for the public good, and thus shares many traits of the common law notion of 'common carriage' or 'public calling,' the modern term for which is network neutrality. Recent policy debates in Congress and resulting potential regulation have implications for key stakeholders within healthcare that use or provide services, and for those who exchange information. To date, there has been little policy debate or discussion about the implications of a neutral NWHIN. This paper frames the discussion for future policy debate in healthcare by providing a brief education and summary of the modern version of common carriage, of the key stakeholder positions in healthcare, and of the potential implications of the network neutrality debate within healthcare.

  14. Principles and Practices of Occupational Safety and Health: Student Manual: Booklet Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    The manual is the fifth of six student manuals for use in a course on occupational health and safety for supervisory personnel. The manual contains lessons 14 and 15 of the 15 consecutively-numbered lessons, each of which contains study questions (and answers) interwoven with the text and review questions at the end of each section. Lesson 14…

  15. Principles and Practices of Occupational Safety and Health: Student Manual: Booklet One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    The manual is the first of six student manuals for use in a course on occupational health and safety for supervisory personnel. The manual contains lessons 1-3 of the 15 consecutively-numbered lessons, each of which contains study questions (and answers) interwoven with the text and review questions at the end of each section. Lesson 1 (three…

  16. An inquiry into the principles of needs-based allocation of health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hope, Tony; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Hasman, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    an account of how degree of need for an intervention is to be determined and a prioritization rule that clarifies how degree of need and the cost of the intervention interact in determining the relative priority of the intervention. Three common features of health care interventions must be accommodated...

  17. Rethinking the appropriateness of health education messages: Problems, principles and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike J Smit

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the media are playing an increasingly powerful role at all levels of health education in developing and developed countries alike.

    Opsomming
    Die media vervul deesdae 'n toenemend kragtige rol op alle vlakke van gesondheidsopvoeding jn beide ontwikkelde en ontwikkelende lande. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  18. Translating Policy Principles into Practice to Improve Health Care Access for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Research Review of the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Glora L.; Drum, Charles, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article extracts principles from two Surgeon General reports, "Closing the Gap: A National Blueprint to Improve the Health of Persons with Mental Retardation" (2002) and "Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities" (2005), and combines them with the Objectives from "Chapter 6 of Healthy People 2010" to…

  19. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  20. The utilization of the seven principles for good practices of full-time and adjunct faculty in teaching health & science in community colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaitif, Linda M.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. A second purpose was to compare degree of utilization for gender and class size. Methodology. This is a quantitative study wherein there exists a systematic and mathematical assessment of data gathered through the use of a Likert scale survey to process and determine the mathematical model of the use of the principles by the target population of both full-time and adjunct faculty of health/science programs of community colleges in Southern California. Findings. Examination of the data revealed that both full-time and adjunct faculty members of Southern California community colleges perceive themselves a high degree of utilization of the seven principles of good practice. There was no statistically significant data to suggest a discrepancy between full-time and adjunct professors' perceptions among the utilization of the seven principles. Overall, male faculty members perceived themselves as utilizing the principles to a greater degree than female faculty. Data suggest that faculty with class size 60 or larger showed to utilize the seven principles more frequently than the professors with smaller class sizes. Conclusions. Full-time and adjunct professors of the health and sciences in Southern California community colleges perceive themselves as utilizing the seven principles of good practice to a high degree. Recommendations. This study suggests many recommendations for future research, including the degree to which negative economic factors such as budget cuts and demands affect the utilization of the seven principles. Also recommended is a study comparing students' perceptions of faculty's utilization of the seven

  1. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Understanding Infertility - The Basics A series of patient ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...

  2. SUMMARY OF BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ACOUSTIC THEORY = POLUIÇÃO SONORA: SÍNTESE DE PRINCÍPIOS FUNDAMENTAIS DA TEORIA ACÚSTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bressane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies are reported on noise pollution literature, with many different approaches. However, there are evident in such publications fundamentals of acoustic theory, aiming at a more appropriate characterization of sound phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an alternative source of consultation for those faced with the fragmented and too much information, sometimes an obstacle to understanding main physical aspects of noise pollution. This paper to present and discuss concepts concerning the sound properties, principles of sound propagation and related phenomena. = Inúmeros são os trabalhos reportados na literatura sobre poluição sonora, com as mais diversas ênfases e enfoques. Todavia, tais publicações não evidenciam os fundamentos da teoria acústica, visando uma caracterização mais apropriada do fenômeno sonoro. O presente trabalho tem por finalidade proporcionar uma fonte alternativa de consulta para aqueles que deparam com a fragmentada e demasiada quantidade de informações, por vezes obstáculo para compreensão física dos principais aspetos da poluição sonora. Aqui são discutidos e apresentados os principais conceitos relacionados às propriedades do som, princípios de propagação e fenômenos sonoros correlatos.

  3. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Text Size Did you ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  4. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy—in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources—is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world’s natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  5. Revamping occupational safety and health training: Integrating andragogical principles for the adult learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Albert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite attempts to improve safety performance, the construction industry continues to account for a disproportionate rate of injuries. A large proportion of these injuries occur because workers are unable to recognize and respond to hazards in dynamic and unpredictable environments. Unrecognized hazards expose workers to unanticipated risks and can lead to catastrophic accidents. In order to enhance hazard recognition skills, employers often put new and experienced workers through formal hazard recognition training programs. Unfortunately, current training programs primarily rely on instructor-centric pedagogical approaches, which are insensitive to the adult learning process. In order to ensure effective adult learning, training programs must integrate learner-centric andragogical principles to improve engagement and retention in adult trainees. This paper aims to discuss training program elements that can potentially accelerate the adult learning process while improving safety knowledge retention. To this end, the researchers reviewed relevant literature on the cognitive processes of adult learning, essential components of effectual training programs and developed a reliable framework for the training and transfer of safety knowledge. A case example of successfully using the framework is also presented. The results of the study will provide safety trainers and construction professionals with valuable information on developing effective hazard recognition and receptor training programs, with the goal of improving construction safety performance.

  6. WNA's policy document - Sustaining global best practices in uranium mining and processing, principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide community of uranium mining and processing recognizes that managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment is paramount. Such responsible management applies at all stages of planning and activities. Today we are acting to ensure that all parties directly involved in uranium mining and processing strive to achieve the highest levels of excellence in these fields. We are doing so by sustaining a strong safety culture based on a commitment to common, internationally shared principles. This paper sets out principles for the management of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment applicable to sites throughout the world. In national and regional settings where nuclear fuel cycle activities are well developed, these principles already serve as the underpinning for 'Codes of Practice' that govern uranium mining and processing. In any given setting, a Code of Practice is needed to guide practical implementation of these principles according to the regional, national or site-specific context. We publish these principles in the belief that they hold special relevance for emerging uranium producing countries that do not yet have fully developed regulations for the control of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment associated with uranium mining and processing. The principles are equally relevant for operators, contractors, and regulators newly engaged in uranium mining and processing. Once national regulations are fully developed, they can be expected to embody these principles. Each principle affirmed here will not apply to the same extent for each party. Ultimately, the precise allocation of responsibilities must be set at the national and local levels. This document holds the status of a policy and ethical declaration by the full WNA membership, which the global nuclear industry. The principles affirmed here are supported by key relevant international organizations, including the IAEA and the global mining

  7. WNA's Policy Document : sustaining global best practices in uranium, mining and processing, principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide community of uranium mining and processing recognizes that managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment is paramount. Such responsible management applies at all stages of planning and activities. Today we are acting to ensure that all parties directly involved in uranium mining and processing strive to achieve the highest levels of excellence in these fields. We are doing so by sustaining a strong safety culture based on a commitment to common, internationally shared principles. This paper sets out principles for the management of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment applicable to sites throughout the world. In national and regional settings where nuclear fuel cycle activities are well developed, these principles already serve as the underpinning for 'Codes of Practice' that govern uranium mining and processing. In any given setting, a Code of Practice is needed to guide practical implementation of these principles according to the regional, national or site-specific context. These principles are published in the belief that they hold special relevance for emerging uranium producing countries that do not yet have fully developed regulations for the control of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment associated with uranium mining and processing. The principles are equally relevant for operators, contractors, and regulators newly engaged in uranium mining and processing. Once national regulations are fully developed, they can be expected to embody these principles. Each principle affirmed here will not apply to the same extent for each party. Ultimately, the precise allocation of responsibilities must be set at the national and local levels. This document holds the status of a policy and ethical declaration by the full WNA membership, which the global nuclear industry. The principles affirmed here are supported by key relevant international organizations, including the IAEA and the global mining

  8. 试论中国卫生基本法的制定%Study on the Establishment of Basic Health Law of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽莎

    2013-01-01

    The health law legislation and judicial practice experience both prove that it is feasible to make the basic health law. Through "extraction common factor" method, the health law system should be cleaned up to research the specific systems, abstract its convergence, and formulate "general rules" of the basic health law.%卫生法立法和司法实践经验均证明,卫生法作为独立的部门法,具有制定基本法的可行性.利用“提取公因式”的方法,将卫生法体系进行梳理,对各项具体制度进行深入的研究,抽象出其共通性,制定“通则”形式的一般意义的卫生基本法.

  9. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C A; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy ("Pre-RT-MRI examination") and at the time of BT ("BT MRI examination") with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  10. Técnicas básicas de electroencefalografía: principios y aplicaciones clínicas Basic techniques of electroencephalography: principles and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramos-Argüelles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El electroencefalograma es una técnica de exploración funcional del sistema nervioso central (SNC, de relativa antigüedad, pero que aún hoy día sigue siendo una herramienta de gran ayuda para el clínico en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de algunas patologías, como pueden ser la epilepsia, las encefalopatías, alteraciones del estado de conciencia, infecciones del SNC, etc. Es, por otro lado, una herramienta diagnóstica con aplicaciones que están en plena expansión, en combinación con otras técnicas neurofisiológicas, como es en el campo del estudio y diagnóstico de la patología de sueño (polisomnografía, test de latencias múltiples del sueño... y la monitorización intraoperatoria junto con los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales. Se describen en este trabajo cuáles son los fundamentos técnicos de la electroencefalografía, haciendo especial hincapié en sus principales aplicaciones clínicas y en las perspectivas del futuro.The electroencephalogram is a technique for the functional exploration of the central nervous system (CNS. It is a relatively old technique but even today it continues to be a tool of great assistance to the clinician in diagnosing and treating certain pathologies, such as epilepsy, encephalopathies, alterations to the state of consciousness, CNS infections, etc. On the other hand, it is a diagnostic tool whose applications are expanding in combination with other neurophysiological techniques, such as in the field of the study and diagnosis of sleep pathology (polysomnography, multiple sleep latency test... and in intraoperative monitoring together with somasensory evoked potentials. This article describes the basic techniques of electroencephalography, with special emphasis on its main clinical applications and on future perspectives

  11. Research on the Goals, Principles and Approaches of Mental Health Education in Primary and Middle Schools%中小学心理健康教育目标、原则及途径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    经卫国; 姚本先

    2012-01-01

    中小学心理健康教育是一项复杂而又系统的育人工程,关注中小学心理健康,体现了我国社会制度以人为本、追求社会和谐统一发展的核心价值观。中小学心理健康教育的目标分解为终极目标、发展目标和基础目标三个层次,基本原则分为辩证原则、人本原则、法制原则、本土原则、整合原则,途径分为中心系统、自助系统和边缘系统。%School mental health education is a complex and systematic programme.Focuses on school mental health education reflects the core values of pursuing people oriented and the harmonious and unified development of society in our social system. The goals of mental health education in schools are divided into three gradations, which are fundamental,developmental and ulllmate goals. Moreover, basic principles are divided into dialectical, people oriented, jural, indigenous and integrated principles. Approaches contain core system, self- service system, and border system.

  12. "马克思主义基本原理概论"探究式教学法运用%Inquiry-based Teaching Method in the Teaching of Introduction to the Basic Principle of Marxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司强

    2016-01-01

    在"马克思主义基本原理概论"的教学中,适度运用探究式的教学法,有利于引导学生主动学习,激发学习热情,培养问题意识,增强教学效果.同时也应该注意,探究式教学在具体的教学运用中也有一定的局限性.%This essay aims to study the application of the inquiry-based teaching method in the course of Introduction to the Basic Principle of Marxism and its limitations. It argues that the proper application is helpful to motivate students' autonomous learning, arouse their learning enthusiasm, cultivate the problem-solving consciousness, and enhance the teaching effect. It is also be noted that inquiry-based teaching also has some limitations in the specific teaching.

  13. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  14. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists

    OpenAIRE

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists’ motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning ...

  15. Lifelong brain health is a lifelong challenge: from evolutionary principles to empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P

    2015-03-01

    Although the human brain is exceptional in size and information processing capabilities, it is similar to other mammals with regard to the factors that promote its optimal performance. Three such factors are the challenges of physical exercise, food deprivation/fasting, and social/intellectual engagement. Because it evolved, in part, for success in seeking and acquiring food, the brain functions best when the individual is hungry and physically active, as typified by the hungry lion stalking and chasing its prey. Indeed, studies of animal models and human subjects demonstrate robust beneficial effects of regular exercise and intermittent energy restriction/fasting on cognitive function and mood, particularly in the contexts of aging and associated neurodegenerative disorders. Unfortunately, the agricultural revolution and the invention of effort-sparing technologies have resulted in a dramatic reduction or elimination of vigorous exercise and fasting, leaving only intellectual challenges to bolster brain function. In addition to disengaging beneficial adaptive responses in the brain, sedentary overindulgent lifestyles promote obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all of which may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. It is therefore important to embrace the reality of the requirements for exercise, intermittent fasting and critical thinking for optimal brain health throughout life, and to recognize the dire consequences for our aging population of failing to implement such brain-healthy lifestyles. PMID:25576651

  16. 艺术创作或鉴赏中形式美把握的基本途径%The Basic Principle for Artistic Creation and Formal Beauty in Appreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀雄

    2013-01-01

      As for the feelings of artworks or products, there are two categories, one is appreciation, and the other is judgment. Most people only reach the point of appreciation, and could not able to step into the period of judgment. According to teaching prac-tice experience for many years, the author is to sum up twelve basic principles for artistic creation and formal beauty in appreciation. If you comprehend and master these principles, there will be possible to improve judgment ability for artworks and expand your cultur-al view as well.%  就艺术品或产品感受的观点来说,可分为两个层次,一为欣赏,二为鉴赏。大部分人都只停留在欣赏的阶段,无法达到鉴赏的层次。笔者根据多年的教学实践经验,归纳提出了艺术创作或鉴赏中形式美表达的12种基本方法。领悟和掌握这些方法,有望在短时间内提高对艺术品的鉴赏能力,拓展人的文化视野。

  17. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  18. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  19. Radiation protection in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

  20. 重申马克思主义基本原理的方法论价值--以2013版《马克思主义基本原理概论》教材修订为例%Restating the Methodology Value of the Basic Principles of Marxism---From the Perspective of Textbook Revision of The Basic Principles of Marxism Published in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡

    2014-01-01

    马克思主义哲学既是科学的世界观也是科学的方法论。方法论问题是马克思主义基本原理中的根本性问题之一。在马克思主义理论研究和教学工作中,应重视马克思主义方法论的价值,使其能够为中国特色社会主义事业的发展提供强大的思维工具和方法。加强对马克思主义方法论的研究,构筑马克思主义方法论的新形态,重申马克思主义基本原理的方法论价值,是马克思主义理论工作者义不容辞的责任和使命。%Marxist philosophy is both a scientific world outlook and also scientific methodology. Methodology is one of the fundamental problems in the field of basic principles of Marxism. During the researches and teaching works of Marxist theory, the value of Marxist methodology should be paid more at-tention to for it could be provided as powerful thinking tools and methods for academic researches in the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is the obligatory responsibility and mission of Marxist theoretical workers to strengthen researches of Marxism methodology, and construct the new form of Marxism methodology, and reaffirm the methodological value of Marxist basic principles.

  1. 重申马克思主义基本原理的方法论价值--以2013版《马克思主义基本原理概论》教材修订为例%Restating the Methodology Value of the Basic Principles of Marxism---From the Perspective of Textbook Revision of The Basic Principles of Marxism Published in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡

    2014-01-01

    Marxist philosophy is both a scientific world outlook and also scientific methodology. Methodology is one of the fundamental problems in the field of basic principles of Marxism. During the researches and teaching works of Marxist theory, the value of Marxist methodology should be paid more at-tention to for it could be provided as powerful thinking tools and methods for academic researches in the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is the obligatory responsibility and mission of Marxist theoretical workers to strengthen researches of Marxism methodology, and construct the new form of Marxism methodology, and reaffirm the methodological value of Marxist basic principles.%马克思主义哲学既是科学的世界观也是科学的方法论。方法论问题是马克思主义基本原理中的根本性问题之一。在马克思主义理论研究和教学工作中,应重视马克思主义方法论的价值,使其能够为中国特色社会主义事业的发展提供强大的思维工具和方法。加强对马克思主义方法论的研究,构筑马克思主义方法论的新形态,重申马克思主义基本原理的方法论价值,是马克思主义理论工作者义不容辞的责任和使命。

  2. Reflections on the Teaching of “Introduction to the Basic Principles of Marxism”Course%关于“马克思主义基本原理概论”课程教学的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军华

    2014-01-01

    "Introduction to the Basic Principles of Marxism"course is a basic course in the system of ideological and political theory course in colleges and universities, but at present, there are some problems in the teaching of"Introduction to the Basic Principles of Marxism"course:the teaching idea of the teaching subject is obsolete, unable to comprehensively grasp the teaching materials; the teaching objects lack interest and initiative in learning;the teaching media are relatively simple, and the class-room teaching supervision mechanism becomes a mere formality. In view of the problems in the process of teaching, this paper puts forward some countermeasures to solve the problems. The teach-ing subject should update the educational concept, improve the professional quality, while the teaching object should be good at playing a subjective initiative, change from passive to active, op-timize the teaching media, and purify the teaching environment, so as to ensure the effectiveness of teaching.%“马克思主义基本原理概论”课在高校思想政治理论课程体系中是一门基础课,当前在“马克思主义基本原理概论”课程教学中存在一些问题:在教学过程中教学主体教学理念较陈旧,不能从整体上全面把握教材;教学客体缺乏学习兴趣,学习主动性不强;教学介体相对简陋,课堂教学监督机制流于形式。本文针对在教学中存在的问题,提出了解决问题的对策。教学主体要更新教育理念,提高专业素质,教学客体要善于发挥主观能动性,变被动为主动,优化教学中介,净化教学环境,保证教学效果。

  3. Basics of Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Vedral, Vlatko; Martin B. Plenio

    1998-01-01

    Quantum computers require quantum logic, something fundamentally different to classical Boolean logic. This difference leads to a greater efficiency of quantum computation over its classical counter-part. In this review we explain the basic principles of quantum computation, including the construction of basic gates, and networks. We illustrate the power of quantum algorithms using the simple problem of Deutsch, and explain, again in very simple terms, the well known algorithm of Shor for fac...

  4. 中国基本卫生医疗服务及效率分析%On China's Basic Health & Medical Service and Efficiency Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天伟; 陈凤; 段文清

    2012-01-01

    基本卫生和医疗服务是人民群众最关心、最直接、最现实的利益问题,是最为重要的民生问题之一。我国基本医疗卫生服务及效率存在患者承担的卫生费用增长过快、医疗卫生资源城乡分布不合理、政府财政投入严重不足、政府对医疗卫生服务监管缺位等问题。解决这些问题需要有效配置我国卫生资源,提高基本卫生与医疗服务的效率。%The basic health and medical service is the most direct and practical interest issue that people are most concerned about,is one of the most important livelihood issues.At present,there are many problems in China's basic medical and health service and efficiency,such as rapid growth of health costs assumed by patients,unreasonable distribution of medical and health resources in urban and rural areas,serious shortage of government financial input,absence of government's supervision to medical and health services,etc.Solving these problems requires effective allocation of China's health resources and increase of efficiency of basic health and medical services.

  5. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  6. Basic principles of ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N K Rai; A Y Lakshmanna; V V Namboodiri; S Umapathy

    2012-01-01

    When a light beam passes through any medium, the effects of interaction of light with the material depend on the field intensity. At low light intensities the response of materials remain linear to the amplitude of the applied electromagnetic field. But for sufficiently high intensities, the optical properties of materials are no longer linear to the amplitude of applied electromagnetic field. In such cases, the interaction of light waves with matter can result in the generation of new frequencies due to nonlinear processes such as higher harmonic generation and mixing of incident fields. One such nonlinear process, namely, the third order nonlinear spectroscopy has become a popular tool to study molecular structure. Thus, the spectroscopy based on the third order optical nonlinearity called stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a tool to extract the structural and dynamical information about a molecular system. Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) is analogous to SRS but is more sensitive than SRS. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis of SRS (URLS) techniques which have been developed in our laboratory.

  7. Software Defined Radio: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a review of the SDR (Software Defined Radio technology, including hardware schemes and application fields. A low performance device is presented and several tests are executed with it using free software. With the acquired experience, SDR employment opportunities are identified for low-cost solutions that can solve significant problems. In addition, a list of the most important frameworks related to the technology developed in the last years is offered, recommending the use of three of them.

  8. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determining hours of work in excess of 8 hours in a day under this part, agencies shall credit hours of work... Standards Act, agencies shall credit hours of work under § 410.402 of this chapter, part 532 of this...

  9. 卫生法学的概念及基本范畴辨析%The Basic Framework of the Concept of Health Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱永

    2011-01-01

    Health Law is a legal science that study the health law (normative law ),and the phenomenon of the law (law of life )and its related issues. Through the phenomenon of the health law ,we can find that pursuing human health is the best interest of the health law, the essence of the health law views social welfare as the legal interest, and its essence is to make health service more equitable. Building the basic law that regards the health right as the core is the top priority of health law.%卫生法学是研究卫生法、卫生法的现象及其与卫生法相关问题的一门法律科学.透过卫生法现象不难发现,卫生法以追求人的生命健康为最大利益,卫生法的本质是以社会公益为法益的法律,其实质就是让卫生服务更加公平.制定以健康权为核心的卫生基本法是卫生法学的重中之重.

  10. Basic bioreactor design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't K.; Tramper, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a graduate course in biochemical engineering, provides the basic knowledge needed for the efficient design of bioreactors and the relevant principles and data for practical process engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. Includes exercises.

  11. 团队项目教学法在全科医学概论教学中的应用与探讨%Application of Team Project Teaching Method in the Teaching of Basic Principles of General Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱舜; 张昊; 汪小玉

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the application of team project teaching method in the teaching of the basic principles of general practice. Methods A questionnaire - based survey was performed in 98 medical students majoring in clinical medicine who had experienced the team project teaching method in the learning of basic principles of general practice. Results Of the 98 students, 80 ( 81. 6% ) took an active part in the project, 63 ( 64. 3% ) were equal to team roles, 90 ( 91. 8% ) could take the initiative to communicate with others, 59 ( 60. 2% ) thought the team leader did well in project planning and team management, 81 ( 82. 1% ) believed that the project could satisfy the teaching goals, 89 ( 90. 8% ) believed the teacher had provided necessary guidance. Conclusion Team project teaching method improves medical students'career aspiration to becoming a general practitioner and their professional quality, and promotes teachers' professional competence and standard of teaching%目的 了解团队项目教学法在全科医学概论教学中对医学生全科医疗职业能力培养的影响.方法 对2010级、2011级临床医学专业2个班共98名学生进行全科医学概论团队项目教学的尝试,并采用问卷进行调查.结果 有81.6%(80/98)的学生积极参与团队项目教学;64.3%(63/98)的学生认为自己能够胜任团队角色,91.8%(90/98)的学生能主动相互交流,60.2%(59/98)的学生认为团队长在项目策划与团队管理方面做得较好;82.7%(81/98)的学生认为项目内容符合教学需要;90.8%(89/98)的学生认为教师起到了指导作用.结论 团队项目教学法有助于医学生全科医生职业志向及职业素质的培养,有助于提高教师的专业能力与教学水平.

  12. Prevent and Avoid the Conflicts of Interests: Basic Principles and Supervisory Mechanisms%利益冲突防范与回避:基本原则与监督机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅铭晨

    2012-01-01

    腐败与权力主体在利益冲突中不中立、甚至直接成为利益冲突的一方有密切关系。由于非公共利益的驱动,权力必然会千方百计地摆脱监督和规范,从而形成腐败的温床。防范利益冲突,避免政府直接成为利益冲突的一方。应当坚持服从公共利益、维护社会利益、尊重私人利益三项基本原则。回避利益冲突,确保政府在各方利益冲突中保持中立,应当坚持依法处置、公平公正、公开透明三项基本原则。应当积极构建权力阳光运行机制、加强党纪政纪监督、强化人大监督、严肃行政诉讼制度,建立健全利益冲突防范与回避的监督机制。%Corruption doesn't stand in a neutral position when having conflicts with the power possessors. Conversely, it is even closely related to one side in the conflicts of interests. Driven by non-public interests, power possessors will try every means to avoid being supervised and restrained, which consequently breeds corruption. In order to avoid the conflicts of interests and prevent the government from becoming one party in the conflicts, three basic principles must be emphasized. We should firmly adhere to public interests, safeguard social interests and respect personal interests. For the purpose of avoiding the conflicts of interests and ensure the neutrality of our government, we should cling to three basic principles which include penalty in accor- dance with the law, equality and justice, and openness and transparency. Meanwhile, we should actively establish a system to run power transparently, enhance the supervision over disciplines in the Party and the government, strengthen the supervision by the National People's Congress, standardize the administrative prosecution system, and establish and complete the supervi- sory mechanisms to prevent and avoid the conflicts of interests.

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health & Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for ... NIMH Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for ...

  14. 我国行政法基本原则的反思与重述——基于宪法及行政法律规范文本的分析%Reflection and Restatement on the Basic Principles in Chinese Administrative Law——Based on the Analysis on the Text of Constitution and Administrative Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代温世

    2012-01-01

    Most scholars on administrative law determine the basic principles of Chinese administrative law based on the criteria,but there are several problems in this study such as the uncertainness of the criteria.Foreign experience has shown that the establishment of basic principles in administrative law should be based on regulated foundation.Only administration by law can be defined basic principle to build basic principles in Chinese administrative law from the texts researching Chinese constitution and administrative regulations.The principle of law priority,the principle of law reservation and the principle of administrative procedures by law are interpreted from the principle of administrative by law.%行政法学者多是依据标准来确定我国行政法基本原则,但该研究进路存在着标准的不确定性等问题。域外经验表明,行政法基本原则的确立应具有规范依据。考察我国宪法及行政法律规范,从文本出发来构建我国行政法基本原则,能够称其为基本原则的只有依法行政原则。从依法行政原则中能够演绎出法律优位原则、法律保留原则和行政程序法定原则。

  15. Science Translational Medicine - improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, K

    2010-01-01

    Science Translational Medicine 's mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the publisher of Science and Science Signaling . The journal features peer-reviewed researc...

  16. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research art...

  17. EHR/PHR Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR EHR/PHR Basics Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of ... information to it. With an electronic health record (EHR) or electronic medical record (EMR), your doctor (or ...

  18. On the Fundamental Problems of the Legislation of Basic Health Law%论卫生基本法立法的基本问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星星; 丁国武; 杨敬科

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, guided by the basic legal theories, using China's Laws and Regulations on Information Retrieval System, the author reviewed the development of health legislation in China objectively, combed and collected the existing health laws, regulations, and rules systematically, analyzed the problems of health legislation in our country, and discussed several basic issues on legislation of the health law and the construction of health legislation framework.%本文以法学基本理论为指导,利用《中国法律法规信息检索系统》等检索工具,客观地回顾我国卫生立法的发展历程,对现有的卫生法律、法规和条例体系进行系统收集与梳理,研究分析我国卫生立法存在的问题,探讨卫生基本法立法的几个基本问题和对卫生立法的框架构建。

  19. On the Fundamental Problems of the Legislation of Basic Health Law%论卫生基本法立法的基本问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星星; 丁国武; 杨敬科

    2014-01-01

    本文以法学基本理论为指导,利用《中国法律法规信息检索系统》等检索工具,客观地回顾我国卫生立法的发展历程,对现有的卫生法律、法规和条例体系进行系统收集与梳理,研究分析我国卫生立法存在的问题,探讨卫生基本法立法的几个基本问题和对卫生立法的框架构建。%In this paper, guided by the basic legal theories, using China's Laws and Regulations on Information Retrieval System, the author reviewed the development of health legislation in China objectively, combed and collected the existing health laws, regulations, and rules systematically, analyzed the problems of health legislation in our country, and discussed several basic issues on legislation of the health law and the construction of health legislation framework.

  20. Health care for immigrants in Europe: is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devillé, Walter; Greacen, Tim; Bogic, Marija;

    2011-01-01

    and values of professionals working in different health care contexts and in different European countries as to what constitutes good practice in health care for immigrants. Methods: A total of 134 experts in 16 EU Member States participated in a three-round Delphi process. The experts represented four...... care services for immigrants. Conclusions: Experts across Europe asserted the right to culturally sensitive health care for all immigrants. There is a broad consensus among experts about the major principles of good practice that need to be implemented across Europe. However, there also is some...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  3. 试论报纸版面色彩运用应遵循的基本原则%On the Basic Principles of Color Application in Newspaper Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革生

    2012-01-01

    The application of format colors used as an organic part of the editing plays an important role to the effect of the newspaper dissemination. The basic principles followed by the newspaper format colors should be to establish a predominant color, pay attention to the collocation of color harmony, and bring color contrast into full play. The color arrangement should pursue entirety, and the color application should be concise, sprightly and harmonious.%版面色彩运用作为彩报编辑的有机组成部分对于报纸传播效果发挥着重要作用。报纸版面色彩运用应遵循的基本原则是:确定好主色调,注重色彩和谐的搭配;发挥色彩对比组合的功效;色块安排应避零求整;色彩运用追求简洁、明快、和谐。

  4. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Papadopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

  5. 高职院校学生职业技能培训程序及原则%On Students' Vocational Skill Training Program and its Basic Principles in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凤翔; 马良军

    2012-01-01

    Vocational skill training is the primary content for higher vocational education. Besides the emphasis on operational vocational training in training program design, more attention should be paid on the developing of relative cognitive competence. To explore and design the vocational training program and its basic principles for higher vocational colleges as well as the analysis of psychological basis and its formation stage for vocational skills are groundwork. To define vocational training mechanism based on the above procedures, the quality of vocational skill training can be improved.%职业技能培训是高等职业教育的主要内容。在培训程序设计中除强调操作性职业技能训练外,还应更加注意发展与之相关的认知能力。探索并设计高等职业学校学生职业技能培训程序及其基本原则,分析职业技能的心理基础及其形成阶段是基础性工作,在此基础上,明确职业技能训练机理,才能提高学生职业技能培训的质量。

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Home Health & Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach ...

  7. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alice M; Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-11-01

    This Guide seeks to provide insight and resources to actors interested in the development of rights claims around sexuality and sexual health. After engaging with the vexed question of the scope of sexual rights, it explores the rules and principles governing the way in which human rights claims are developed and applied to sexuality and sexual health, and how that development is linked to law and made a matter of state obligation. This understanding is critical to policy and programming in sexual health and rights, as it supports calling on the relevant range of human rights, such as privacy, non-discrimination, health or other universally accepted human rights, as well as demanding the action of states under their international and national law obligations to support sexual health.

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental ... Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental ...

  9. 76 FR 56767 - Request for Information Regarding State Flexibility To Establish a Basic Health Program Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... ways (please choose only one of the ways listed): 1. Electronically. You may submit electronic comments... issuers, trade groups, consumer advocates, employers, and other interested parties. This consultation will... ``standard health plans'' providing at least the essential health benefits described in section 1302(b)...

  10. A framework for studying perceptions of rural healthcare staff and basic ICT support for e-health use: an Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subhagata

    2010-01-01

    Current research observes that electronic healthcare has various advantages, such as easy recording, retrieval, and sharing of patient data anytime and anywhere while providing data privacy. Almost all developed countries currently practice e-health. On the other hand, many developing countries still rely on traditional paper-based healthcare systems that are quite vulnerable to data loss, loss of patients' privacy due to nonsecured data sharing, and mandatory consumption of physical space to store patients' records as stacks of files. India is a developing country that broadly applies a traditional healthcare system. Unfortunately, no studies have been conducted to identify precise reasons why e-health solutions have not been adopted in the Indian primary health centers (PHCs). To fill the research gap, this work is an attempt to propose a complete framework that includes (1) a systematic survey of available resources at the level of healthcare staffs' perceptions toward using e-health and basic information communication technology (ICT) supports at the organizational level and (2) a mathematical model to engineer significant factors for analysis of overall preparedness of the health centers. Healthcare administrators (Block Medical Officer of Health) from each PHC (n = 10) and in total 50 healthcare staff (e.g., doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and midwives) participated in the study. Initially, a systematic survey was conducted to explore the possible factors at the individual (e.g., healthcare personnel) and organizational (e.g., healthcare administration) levels. A questionnaire was generated to capture the data based on the factors identified. The collected data were mathematically modeled to run regressions with significance tests examining the effects of these factors on the level of satisfaction of the end users. The result shows that basic ICT for support at the organizational levels is significantly lacking to implement e-health in these PHCs, although

  11. The West End Revitalization Association (WERA)'s right to basic amenities movement: voice and language of ownership and management of public health solutions in Mebane, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Omega R; Bumpass, Natasha G; Wilson, Omari M; Snipes, Marilyn H

    2008-01-01

    The West End Revitalization Association (WERA) cultivated strategies for assessing environmental hazards, managing stakeholder participation, and implementing corrective actions in three low-income African American communities in Mebane, North Carolina. The community voices evolved into language to drive WERA's "Right to Basic Amenities Movement" as a way to address health, legal, and quality-of-life disparities. The sustainability of this movement depends on communicating a solutions process with funding equity. Disparities are a way of life for impacted residents: dusty dead-end streets, contaminated drinking water, failed backyard septic tanks, and putrid odors. WERA organized on "common knowledge" for effective use of public health statutes and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. WERA's board, staff, and volunteers exercised their voices in the language of government, public health, university research, and legal agencies. WERA's best practices and lessons learned may influence public policy in comparable communities in North Carolina and throughout the nation. PMID:20208201

  12. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  13. Principles of Tendon Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Danielle; Hammert, Warren C

    2016-08-01

    Tendon transfers provide a substitute, either temporary or permanent, when function is lost due to neurologic injury in stroke, cerebral palsy or central nervous system lesions, peripheral nerve injuries, or injuries to the musculotendinous unit itself. This article reviews the basic principles of tendon transfer, which are important when planning surgery and essential for an optimal outcome. In addition, concepts for coapting the tendons during surgery and general principles to be followed during the rehabilitation process are discussed. PMID:27387072

  14. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  15. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  16. 问题、基础与方法:新时期做好群众工作的思考%An Examination of the Mass Work in the New Era:Problems, Basic Principles and Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶淑艳

    2014-01-01

    In the new era when the reform is deepened in an all-round way and the whole nation is striving under the leadership of the Party after the “two centenary goals” and the China dream of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the importance of the masses to the success of the strategic plans developed by the Party Central Committee is self-evident. The paper discusses the main problems in the Party’s mass work under the new situation and presents the basic principles as well as specific methods for solving the problems with the hope that they can be of some reference value to the mass work. As historical materialists, we always believe that the masses are the decisive force to promote social progress and social change.%当前,我们正处在进行全面深化改革,党领导全国人民为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗的新时期,要完成党中央制定的各项战略部署,人民群众的重要性自不待言。本文探讨了新形势下党的群众工作存在的主要问题,并提出了解决问题的基础和具体方法,以期为做好群众工作提供借鉴。

  17. Beyond Medical "Missions" to Impact-Driven Short-Term Experiences in Global Health (STEGHs): Ethical Principles to Optimize Community Benefit and Learner Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Melissa K; Loh, Lawrence C; Evert, Jessica; Prater, Christopher; Lin, Henry; Khan, Omar A

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for global health education in medical training has driven the growth of educational programs predicated on a model of short-term medical service abroad. Almost two-thirds of matriculating medical students expect to participate in a global health experience during medical school, continuing into residency and early careers. Despite positive intent, such short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) may exacerbate global health inequities and even cause harm. Growing out of the "medical missions" tradition, contemporary participation continues to evolve. Ethical concerns and other disciplinary approaches, such as public health and anthropology, can be incorpo rated to increase effectiveness and sustainability, and to shift the culture of STEGHs from focusing on trainees and their home institutions to also considering benefits in host communities and nurtur ing partnerships. The authors propose four core principles to guide ethical development of educational STEGHs: (1) skills building in cross-cultural effective ness and cultural humility, (2) bidirectional participatory relationships, (3) local capacity building, and (4) long-term sustainability. Application of these principles highlights the need for assessment of STEGHs: data collection that allows transparent compar isons, standards of quality, bidirectionality of agreements, defined curricula, and ethics that meet both host and sending countries' standards and needs. To capture the enormous potential of STEGHs, a paradigm shift in the culture of STEGHs is needed to ensure that these experiences balance training level, personal competencies, medical and cross-cultural ethics, and educational objectives to minimize harm and maximize benefits for all involved. PMID:26630608

  18. Beyond Medical "Missions" to Impact-Driven Short-Term Experiences in Global Health (STEGHs): Ethical Principles to Optimize Community Benefit and Learner Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Melissa K; Loh, Lawrence C; Evert, Jessica; Prater, Christopher; Lin, Henry; Khan, Omar A

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for global health education in medical training has driven the growth of educational programs predicated on a model of short-term medical service abroad. Almost two-thirds of matriculating medical students expect to participate in a global health experience during medical school, continuing into residency and early careers. Despite positive intent, such short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) may exacerbate global health inequities and even cause harm. Growing out of the "medical missions" tradition, contemporary participation continues to evolve. Ethical concerns and other disciplinary approaches, such as public health and anthropology, can be incorpo rated to increase effectiveness and sustainability, and to shift the culture of STEGHs from focusing on trainees and their home institutions to also considering benefits in host communities and nurtur ing partnerships. The authors propose four core principles to guide ethical development of educational STEGHs: (1) skills building in cross-cultural effective ness and cultural humility, (2) bidirectional participatory relationships, (3) local capacity building, and (4) long-term sustainability. Application of these principles highlights the need for assessment of STEGHs: data collection that allows transparent compar isons, standards of quality, bidirectionality of agreements, defined curricula, and ethics that meet both host and sending countries' standards and needs. To capture the enormous potential of STEGHs, a paradigm shift in the culture of STEGHs is needed to ensure that these experiences balance training level, personal competencies, medical and cross-cultural ethics, and educational objectives to minimize harm and maximize benefits for all involved.

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Upcoming Events NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Updates Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Home Health & Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Outreach Home Public Involvement Outreach Partners ...

  4. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  5. Structural health monitoring with fiber optic sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.ANSARI

    2009-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have been successfully implemented in aeronautics, mechanical systems, and medical applications. Civil structures pose further challenges in monitoring mainly due to their large dimensions, diversity and heterogeneity of materials involved, and hostile construction environment. This article provides a summary of basic principles pertaining to practical health monitoring of civil engineering structures with optical fiber sensors. The issues discussed include basic sensor principles, strain transfer mechanism, sensor packaging, sensor placement in construction environment, and reliability and survivability of the sensors.

  6. Behaviour and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study between a Basic Teaching School and a Professional School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vitor; Carvalho, Amâncio; Carvalho, Graça

    2007-01-01

    The feeding habits acquired during childhood and adolescence have important implications on the health state of individuals, and their physical and emotional well-being. According to WHO (1993), one of the most serious problems that young people face is the excessive consumption of certain types of food that are less healthy. On the other side,…

  7. Biomedical Social Science, Unit I: Health and Society. Basic Social Science Inquiry Into Health-Related Problems. Instructor's Manual. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This guide presents lesson plans to accompany the lessons presented in the associated student text. The lessons are designed to teach social science concepts that enhance the prospective health care practitioner's ability to interact effectively with people and to anticipate the demands of health care delivery situations. An introduction to the…

  8. The role of the nurse on health promotion and health maintenance of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgun, Gülümser; İnal, Sevil; Uğurlu, Figen

    2011-01-01

    Nurses have an indispensable role in maintenance and promotion of adolescens rsquo; health Nurses must know the basic principles of appropriate approach to adolescents should be able to guide the adolescent and family in the promotion and maintenance of health In this article general observation principles of adolescent and family the appropriate nursing approach to the major adolescent health issues how to evaluate gathered data about adolescent rsquo;s such as nutrition physical activity me...

  9. Supply sensitive services in Swiss ambulatory care: An analysis of basic health insurance records for 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swiss ambulatory care is characterized by independent, and primarily practice-based, physicians, receiving fee for service reimbursement. This study analyses supply sensitive services using ambulatory care claims data from mandatory health insurance. A first research question was aimed at the hypothesis that physicians with large patient lists decrease their intensity of services and bill less per patient to health insurance, and vice versa: physicians with smaller patient lists compensate for the lack of patients with additional visits and services. A second research question relates to the fact that several cantons are allowing physicians to directly dispense drugs to patients ('self-dispensation' whereas other cantons restrict such direct sales to emergencies only. This second question was based on the assumption that patterns of rescheduling patients for consultations may differ across channels of dispensing prescription drugs and therefore the hypothesis of different consultation costs in this context was investigated. Methods Complete claims data paid for by mandatory health insurance of all Swiss physicians in own practices were analyzed for the years 2003-2007. Medical specialties were pooled into six main provider types in ambulatory care: primary care, pediatrics, gynecology & obstetrics, psychiatrists, invasive and non-invasive specialists. For each provider type, regression models at the physician level were used to analyze the relationship between the number of patients treated and the total sum of treatment cost reimbursed by mandatory health insurance. Results The results show non-proportional relationships between patient numbers and total sum of treatment cost for all provider types involved implying that treatment costs per patient increase with higher practice size. The related additional costs to the health system are substantial. Regions with self-dispensation had lowest treatment cost for primary care

  10. Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Commission of the European Communities. Luxembourg

    Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  14. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  16. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, ... Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET Recovery Month September 2016 National ...

  19. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  4. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  6. Adaptation level as the basic health status characteristics: possibilitics of its assessment and forecasting of desadaptation violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochyna I.L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comprehensive survey with integrative assessment of health state (medical history data, physical examination, anthropometry, battery of psychological tests (Eysenck, Shmishek’s Personality Inventory (teen version, tapping - test by E.P. Ilyin, children's questionnaire of neuroses; test for rapid assessment of health, activity and mood, anxiety diagnosis by Spielberg - Khanin; Luscher test, color relations test level of adaptation was defined in 236 children from orphanages aged from 4 to 18 years. The manifestations of maladjustment were registered both on psychological level (neuroticism, high anxiety, decreased performance, activity and psychological endurance, sleep disturbance, presence of accentuation and neurotic disorders and somatic level (recurrent acute respiratory infections, poor physical development, exacerbation of chronic foci of infection and burdened biological history; this summarizes conclusions on a low level of health status of children in orphanages. The author has developed mathematical models of adaptation assessment and prediction of desadaptation, which allowed to identify children at risk for the development of adaptation disorders and children with maladjustment; according to the level and severity of maladaptive disorders correction programs are designed.

  7. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  8. 自然灾害动态风险分析基本原理的探讨%Exploration on the Basic Principles of Dynamic Risk Analysis in Natural Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇福

    2015-01-01

    随着自然环境的变化和人类社会的发展,自然灾害的风险必然发生变化。变化着的风险,称为动态风险。该文概述了动态风险研究的现状,指出更新算法和趋势预测法只适于研究惯性型动态风险,没有触及动态风险的本质,进而界定随着综合环境和内在属性的变化而变化的风险才是动态风险。人们所能研究的仅仅是认知动态风险。提出了以“研究综合环境和内在属性变化对风险源和风险承受体的影响”为核心,并对风险源和风险承受体进行耦合的自然灾害动态风险分析基本原理。%With the changes in the natural environment and the development of human society, the risk of natural disasters will inevitably change.A changing risk is called as a dynamic risk.This article outlines the re-search status of dynamic risks and points out that the update algorithms and trend forecasting methods are only suit-able to study the dynamic risks due to inertia, which do not touch the nature of dynamic risks, and we define the dynamic risks with the changes in integrated environmental and intrinsic properties.People can study only the per-ceived dynamic risk.The basic principles of dynamic risk analysis are proposed.The key tasks are to study the effects of the changes in integrated environmental and intrinsic properties on risk sources and risk-bearing bodies, and how coupling of risk sources and risk-bearing bodies.

  9. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF PRESCRIBERS ADHERENCE TO THE BASIC STANDARDS OF PRESCRIPTION ORDER WRITING IN SERBO AND ASSENDABO HEALTH CENTERS, JIMMA ZONE, SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Sisay et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since prescribing is the first and foremost component in the process of using drugs, it is a vital element in rational drug use. The concept of rational prescribing requires that the prescriber follows correct and complete prescription writing.Objective: To assess prescribers adherence to the basic standards of prescription order writing in Serbo and Assendao health centers.Methodology: In this retrospective study, a total of 424 prescriptions were selected as a sample from the two health centers using systematic random sampling technique and data was collected using pre-tested format from January 3 to 28,2007.Result: In 3.3%, 4.7%, 70.8%, and 4.7%, 18.9%, 82.1% of the prescriptions, respectively, Age, Sex and card no of patients were not recorded. In 24.5%, 33% and 55.2%, 93.9% of the prescriptions date and signature of the prescriber were omitted, respectively. In 85% of the prescriptions, address of the patient was omitted in Serbo health center, but none of the prescriptions contained address of the patient in Assendabo health center. Out of the prescribed drugs, 43.4%, 39.8%, 14.3% and 33%, 47.8%, 10.3% of the drugs respectively, didn’t indicate the strength, dosage form and doses. In 20.7%, 38.6%, 4.8%and 15.6%, 32.7%, 5.3% of the prescribed drugs, frequency of administration, route of administration, and total quantity of drugs or length of treatment course were omitted, respectively. Out of the prescribed drugs 64.3% and 61.2% were written in Generic names.8% and 3.8% of the prescriptions were found to be illegible, and in both health centers, no prescription had special advice or warning.Conclusion: The finding of this study showed that, in General, there is poor adherence to the basic standards of prescription order writing in both health centers. In order to improve adherence, various educational, managerial and regulatory interventions should be designed and implemented by the concerned technical and administrative

  11. 正念干预的临床应用价值、原理及基本实践技巧%The clinical value, principle, and basic pracitcal technique of mindfulness interveniton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 吴城瀚; 范晓舵

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness intervention is a psychotherapy based on the Buddhist practice of meditation, combining the theories and methodology of contemporary psychology. The empirical research in recent years has indicated that mindfulness interveniton yields favorable results including reduciton of depression relapse, alleviation of the symptoms of depression and anxiety, reduction of substance abuse, relief of pain, blood pressure management, enhancement of immunity, and improvement of sleep. Currently, mindfulness therapy has become the mainstream of psychotherapy in the realm of European and American psychotherapy. The fields of psychology and psychotherapy in China have also begun to introduce mindfulness intervention in recent years. However, there is a lack of relevant practice and research in the field of clinical mental health. This article will briefly introduce the concept of mindfulness, the basic mechanism of the interveniton, and the basic skills and guidelines in clinical pracitce.%正念干预是基于佛教修行的冥想,结合当代心理学理论和方法所发展的一种心理疗法。近年来的实证研究表明正念干预在降低抑郁复发,缓解抑郁、焦虑症状,减少物质滥用,减轻疼痛,血压管理,提高免疫力,改善睡眠等方面的应用均产生了良好的效果。当前,正念疗法在欧美心理治疗界中已成为心理治疗的主流。近几年我国心理学界和心理治疗领域也开始对正念治疗进行介绍,但在临床精神健康领域却缺乏相关的实践和研究。本文将对正念的概念,干预的基本机制,临床实践中的基本技能和指导原则简要介绍。

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News Designer analgesic optimizes specificity Early Life Experience ... NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News Crowd-Sourcing Powers Genomics Discovery An Asian ... NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News NIMH Grantees Named Recipients of Prestigious Kavli ... NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News Connectome Re-Maps Human Cortex ECT Lifts ... NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News Webinar: Analyzing and Using RDoC Data Can ... NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us ...

  18. Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > The Basics ... such as treating health problems. What Is a Gene? To understand how genes work, let's review some ...

  19. Introducing competition principles into health care through EU law and policy: a case study of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Gronden, Johan; Szyszczak, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A national health care service is one of the central pillars of the welfare state in Europe. Recent moves to modernise health care, alongside introducing efficiencies through competition have resulted in experimentation and a re-organisation of national health care systems. The experimental nature of the reforms has brought health care into the focus, but uncertain territory, of EU economic law, especially competition law. Added to these pressures, the new EU fiscal measures oblige Member States to avoid excessive budgets and macro-economic imbalances. One constraint on an EU-based system of competition in health care is the effect of decentralisation, resulting in variations at the national level. Thus a case study is taken of the experience in The Netherlands. From this case study, we argue that a new form of Euro-national competition law is emerging for the health care sector with national authorities taking the lead in shaping the contours of this law. PMID:24841529

  20. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  2. How can a basic income be defended?

    OpenAIRE

    Allegre, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Following the submission of 125,000 signatures collected by organizations (including BIEN Suisse) supporting the establishment of a basic income, Swiss citizens will vote in a referendum on a popular initiative to include the principle of an unconditional basic income in the Swiss Federal Constitution. While a basic income, which is defended by Vanderborght and Van Parijs (2005) under the term "universal allocation", can take many forms, its principles are that it is paid (1) on a universal b...

  3. Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

  4. Health care for immigrants in Europe: Is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Joaquim JF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European Member States are facing a challenge to provide accessible and effective health care services for immigrants. It remains unclear how best to achieve this and what characterises good practice in increasingly multicultural societies across Europe. This study assessed the views and values of professionals working in different health care contexts and in different European countries as to what constitutes good practice in health care for immigrants. Methods A total of 134 experts in 16 EU Member States participated in a three-round Delphi process. The experts represented four different fields: academia, Non-Governmental Organisations, policy-making and health care practice. For each country, the process aimed to produce a national consensus list of the most important factors characterising good practice in health care for migrants. Results The scoring procedures resulted in 10 to 16 factors being identified as the most important for each participating country. All 186 factors were aggregated into 9 themes: (1 easy and equal access to health care, (2 empowerment of migrants, (3 culturally sensitive health care services, (4 quality of care, (5 patient/health care provider communication, (6 respect towards migrants, (7 networking in and outside health services, (8 targeted outreach activities, and (9 availability of data about specificities in migrant health care and prevention. Although local political debate, level of immigration and the nature of local health care systems influenced the selection and rating of factors within each country, there was a broad European consensus on most factors. Yet, discordance remained both within countries, e.g. on the need for prioritising cultural differences, and between countries, e.g. on the need for more consistent governance of health care services for immigrants. Conclusions Experts across Europe asserted the right to culturally sensitive health care for all immigrants. There is a

  5. Basic Backwardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  8. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  9. Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

  10. Рђn improvement of process of organization of pedagogical practice is priority condition of forming of professional competence of future teachers the basics of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara S.Р†.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improving the organization of teaching practice as one of the primary conditions of formation professional competence of future teachers of basic health. Highlighted that the improvement of the process of organizing teaching practice can be done by improving the content of the students during the teaching practice, the organization of joint work of all supervisors (teachers of higher educational institutions and teachers of general educational institutions, compliance with the uniform requirements supervisors to an evaluation of the student's performance. It is noted that purposeful pedagogical guidance and to improve the content of the students during the teaching practice creates the conditions for the formation of all the components of professional competence of future teachers.

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Upcoming Events NIMH Conference on Mental Health Services Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, ... Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to ...

  12. Basic Principle of Molecular Dynamics and Application in The Filed of Biologic Molecules Simulation%分子动力学模拟及在生物大分子模拟领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冠辰

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了分子动力学的发展历史、基本理论、基本步骤以及其作为基本研究手段来进行生物大分子模拟领域的应用。%This article briefly describes the molecular dynamics of development history,basic theory,basic steps and basic research as a means to carry out simulation in the field of application of biological macromolecules.

  13. Introduction to health economics for the medical practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Kernick, D

    2003-01-01

    Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, health economics is exerting an influence on decision making at all levels of health care. Health economics seeks to facilitate decision making by offering an explicit decision making framework based on the principle of efficiency. It is not the only consideration but it is an important one and practitioners will need to have an understanding of its basic principles and how it can impact on clinical decision making. This article...

  14. Even small interventions can improve oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Lina; Carberry, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    When resources are scarce, authors of articles appearing in health publications have questioned the effectiveness of traditional interventions as a means of improving oral health. The experience in Delicias, Honduras, indicates that the principles of BPOC (Basic Package of Oral Care) may provide quicker and better results. PMID:24027899

  15. Biological Energy Based on the Principles of Photosynthesis from Basic Theory to Energy Application%基于光合作用的生物能源从基础研究到应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春虹; 常文瑞

    2011-01-01

    The global climate and environmental problems caused by increasing consumption of fossil fuels have greatly accelerated the development of new technologies for clean and sustainable energy based on solar energy. How to harness solar energy and transform it efficiently to energy forms which can be used directly by the mankind has long been the most basic scientific problem of global concern. In the history of science and technology; it is common that imitating the nature often inspires new technologies. For example; inspired by imitating the flight of birds; the mankind has created the aeroplanes within less than a century. The most effective process of harnessing solar energy is the photosynthesis; which has reached its perfection in nature after over 3.5 billion years evolution. Photosynthesis is the most effective process to harness; transport and convert solar energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis happens in chloroplast where occur a serious of activities; e.g.; harnessing solar energy; splitting water and produce oxygen and carbohydrates. This observation has caused the inspiration that it is possible for the mankind to imitate photosynthesis and to harness and transform solar energy effectively. The article has introduced the principles of how to solve the energy and environmental problems through artificial photosynthesis. Based on these observations; it has discussed the perspective of using the principle of photosynthesis to collect solar energy by means of imitating the process of photosynthesis to produce clean and sustainable energy.%化石能源的大量消耗,以及由此带来的全球气候和环境问题,推动了以太阳能为基础的新型清洁能源的研究.长期以来,如何有效地捕获太阳能,并将其高效率地转化成人类可以直接利用的能源,一直是太阳能利用中最基础的科学问题,得到了全世界的广泛关注.科学技术的发展史说明,人类从认识自然、模仿自然规律开始,已经创

  16. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  17. Principles of the ecological-safety land use functioning in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    I.V. Vlasenko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with basic principles on which the conceptual basis for the formation of ecologically safe land use in agriculture are based, namely: health, ecology, fairness, caring. The economic-ecological mechanism of ecologically safe agricultural land use has been proved.

  18. Nursing and justice as a basic human need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that justice is a basic human need akin to those famously depicted in Maslow's hierarchy of human needs and, as such, warrants recognition as a core element in representative ideas about nursing. Early nurse theorists positioned the principles and practice of nursing as having their origins in 'universal human needs'. The principle of deriving nursing care from human needs was thought to provide a guide not only for promoting health, but for preventing disease and illness. The nursing profession has had a longstanding commitment to social justice as a core professional value and ideal, obligating nurses to address the social conditions that undermine people's health. The idea of justice as a universal human need per se and its possible relationship to people's health outcomes has, however, not been considered. One reason for this is that justice in nursing discourse has more commonly been associated with law and ethics, and the legal and ethical responsibilities of nurses in relation to individualized patient care and, more recently, changing systems of care to improve health and health outcomes. Although this association is not incorrect, it is incomplete. A key aim of this paper is to redress this oversight and to encourage a broader conceptualization of justice as necessary for human survival, health and development, not merely as a professional value, or legal or ethical principle for guiding human conduct.

  19. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  20. Integrating the Principles of Evidence Based Medicine and Evidence Based Public Health: Impact on the Quality of Patient Care and Hospital Readmission Rates in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Alyahya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital readmissions impose not only an extra burden on health care systems but impact patient health outcomes. Identifying modifiable behavioural risk factors that are possible causes of potentially avoidable readmissions can lower readmission rates and healthcare costs. Methods: Using the core principles of evidence based medicine and public health, the purpose of this study was to develop a heuristic guide that could identify what behavioural risk factors influence hospital readmissions through adopting various methods of analysis including regression models, t-tests, data mining, and logistic regression. This study was a retrospective cohort review of internal medicine patients admitted between December 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 at King Abdullah University Hospital, in Jordan. Results: 29% of all hospitalized patients were readmitted during the study period. Among all readmissions, 44% were identified as potentially avoidable. Behavioural factors including smoking, unclear follow-up and discharge planning, and being non-compliant with treatment regimen as well as discharge against medical advice were all associated with increased risk of avoidable readmissions. Conclusion: Implementing evidence based health programs that focus on modifiable behavioural risk factors for both patients and clinicians would yield a higher response in terms of reducing potentially avoidable readmissions, and could reduce direct medical costs.

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting to NIMH National Institutes of ... & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... NIMH Strategic Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET General Health Information ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home Director’s Blog Budget Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory ... & Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting to NIMH National Institutes of Health ... from the National Library of Medicine Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research: Harnessing Science to Strengthen the Public Health Impact Bethesda, MD, August 1-3, 2016 Webinar: Mental ... NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social ... Health Impact Bethesda, MD, August 1-3, 2016 Webinar: Mental ...

  9. College Students' Alcohol Use and Their Adherence to Health Principles: Optimism, Values, Self-Care, Relationships, Community, Nature, and Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, April

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of high-risk use of alcohol by college students has been studied for over 20 years. Most prevention methodology has focused on reducing supply to students rather than addressing the root causes that students use alcohol in self-abusive manner. One holistic health approach that addresses the root causes of alcohol abuse promotes the…

  10. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  11. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  12. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  13. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr

  14. Who Should Receive Life Support During a Public Health Emergency? Using Ethical Principles to Improve Allocation Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    White, Douglas B.; Katz, Mitchell H.; Luce, John M.; Lo, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A public health emergency such as an influenza pandemic will lead to shortages of mechanical ventilators, critical care beds, and other potentially life saving treatments. This will raise difficult decisions about who will and will not receive these scarce resources. Existing recommendations reflect a narrow utilitarian perspective in which allocation decisions are based primarily on patients' chances of survival to hospital discharge. Certain patient groups, such as the elderly and those wit...

  15. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Pugsley, M. K.; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. Thi...

  16. "Sexual Health Assessment" for Mental Health and Medical Practitioners: Teaching Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barnaby B.; Rand, Marsha A.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of including sexual health assessment (SHA) within the biopsychosocial evaluations of mental health and medical practice is discussed, and various protocols available in the extant literature are reviewed. Six principles for SHA are presented as well as a model protocol consisting of six basic lines of questioning with specific…

  17. The research of the resources board for the basic public health services in the practice of state's basic public health services%国家基本公共卫生服务实践中基层社区卫生服务机构存在的资源短板研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐佳恩; 张鹭鹭

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the resources board for the basic public health services in the practice of state's basic public health services, and provide a reference for the effective implementation of the basic public health policy and improve service efficiency and level of the grass-roots community health services. METHODS The existing personnel equipped clinic facilities and equipment, types of drugs, the filing number, and leadership resources for 11 grass-roots community service agencies were taken for investigation, and analyzed the main factors that restricted its service capabilities and service level. RESULTS The survey results showed that: the staffing of nine grass-roots community health service institutions was difficult to complete the requirements of the national grass-roots community health services, the top leaders of the 10 institutions were from clinical or other institutions exchange, six organizations of income were difficult to maintain its basic overhead, the facilities and equipment of the four institutions can not meet the needs of their daily work and area residents filing rate didn't exceed 10%. CONCULSION In this area, the grass-roots community health services manpower is the short resources board that restricts its service capacity and service level. Take the appropriate policies and strengthen the human, strive to be able to provoke , retain and enhance professional skills training. Make it to be the key measures to improve the ability and level of the grass-roots community health services for the qualified general practitioner.%目的 探讨基本公共卫生服务实践中基层社区卫生服务机构存在的资源短板,为有效贯彻国家基本公共卫生政策,提高基层社区卫生服务机构服务效率及水平提供参考.方法 对某地区11个基层社区服务机构进行现存人员配备、诊疗设施设备、药品种类、建档人数、领导能力等资源进行调查,分析制约其服务能力和服务水

  18. Relationship between health literacy and utilization of basic public health services among diabetics%糖尿病患者健康素养与基本公共卫生服务利用的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温秀芹; 韩; 赵洁; 曾庆奇; 郑韵婷; 常春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand status of health literacy among diabetics and their utilization of basic public health services,and explore the relationship between health literacy and utilization of basic public health service.Methods In this cross-sectional study,a two-staged cluster systematic sampling method was used to investigate 534 diabetics in Desheng Community of Beijing.Chi-square test and Pearson Correlation were adopted to analyze the relationship between health literacy and utilization of essential public health service.Results Among those participants,the average age was (67.60 ±9.17), 47.80% of them were male,27.40% of them obtained bachelor degree or above,28.50% of them had essential health litera-cy.Chivsquare test found that diabetics with essential health literacy utilized more services of health archive,health education, free physical examination,free influenza vaccine,lifestyle guidance and the family doctor service than those with inadequate health literacy (P <0.05).Result of Pearson correlation indicated that health literacy was positively correlated with health ar-chive (r =0.185,P =0.000),health education (r =0.089,P =0.040),free physical examination (r =0.250,P =0.000),lifestyle guidance (r =0.277,P =0.000),free influenza vaccine (r =0.145,P =0.006)and the family doctor service (r =0.175,P =0.000 ).Moreover,health literacy was significantly correlated with self-management behav-iors.Health literacy was positively correlated with taking anti-blood glucose medication regularly (r =0.146,P =0.001), food intake controlling (r =0.295,P =0.000)and monitoring blood glucose on their own (r =0.256,P =0.000).Conclu-sion Health literacy was positively correlated with utilization of basic public health services.More activity should be carried out to improve the health literacy of diabetics,and to increase the utilization of essential public health services.%目的:了解社区糖尿病患者健康素养与基本公共卫生服务利用的情况,探

  19. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, which causes inflamed and infected gums n Bruxism, which occurs when a person clenches his or ... each of which can be made worse by bruxism and malocclusion. Dental care and MS symptoms There ...

  20. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...