WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic exploratory research

  1. Exploratory basic energy research conducted at Standord University in the period September, 1979-August, 1983. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    In September, 1978, the Department of Energy awarded a contract to Stanford for Exploratory Basic Research. Projects to be supported were to be chosen by Stanford, with emphasis being placed on exploratory research likely to lead to full-scale research programs under support of appropriate agencies. Funding was provided for three years, as follows: FY 1979, $150K; FY 1980, 200K; and FY 1981, 250K for a total of $600K. The DOE funds provided through this contract were used, in combination with the IES industrial funds, to support exploratory basic energy research in three ways: (1) Funding of faculty members for the initial phases of research. Most of the funding was used in this manner. (2) Support of the Energy Information Center, a small special document center that holds information pertinent to energy research, both as related to energy policy and energy technology and to the supporting basic sciences. Approximately 12% of the funding was used in this manner. (3) Through support for seminars, occasional visitors, and program administration. Approximately 6% of the funding was used for this general support of the energy ambiance at Stanford.

  2. Exploratory research and development FY90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.; Clements, W.; Donohue, M.L.; Francke, A.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Shaw, G. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    In general, the Exploratory Research and Development (ER D) Program supports research projects considered too basic or long-range to be funded by other Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. This Program is managed for the Laboratory Director by a special assistant who chairs the LLNL's IR D Review Committee. Membership in the Review Committee comprises senior LLNL scientists, engineers, and managers whose areas of expertise span the range of scientific disciplines pursued at the Laboratory. The research supported by the Program falls into three categories: Exploratory Research in the Disciplines, Director's Initiatives, and Laboratory-Wide Competition. The first two, Exploratory Research and Director's Initiatives, promote pioneering work in the various scientific disciplines and programmatic areas. Laboratory departments and divisions propose and manage projects in the Exploratory Research category. The Laboratory Director, with the advice of the Review Committee, selects several larger projects to fund as Director's Initiative. These projects, which are proposed and managed by the responsible associate director, are intended to enhance the scope of existing programs or establish new technical directions and programs for the Laboratory. All FY90 projects are described in detail in this report. Other publications on ER D projects are included in the Publications List at the back of this report.

  3. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  4. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  5. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  6. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  7. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  8. Champion teachers : stories of exploratory action research

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013 the British Council / Ministry of Education Chile Champion Teachers programme has been helping secondary school teachers engage in exploratory action research projects. This book provides nine easily accessible examples of such projects and highlights the achievements gained in spite of teachers' difficult working conditions.

  9. [Basic research in pulmonology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the articles dealing with basic science published in recent issues of Archivos de Bronconeumología. Of particular interest with regard to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were an article on extrapulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress and another on bronchial remodeling. The articles relating to asthma included a review on the use of drugs that block free immunoglobulin-E and an article about the contribution of experimental models to our knowledge of this disease. Two of the most interesting articles on the topic of lung cancer dealt with gene therapy and resistance to chemotherapy. Also notable were 2 studies that investigated ischemia-reperfusion injury. One evaluated tissue resistance to injury while the other analyzed the role played by interleukin-8 in this process. On the topic of pulmonary fibrosis, an article focused on potential biomarkers of progression and prognosis; others dealt with the contribution of experimental models to our understanding of this disorder and the fibrogenic role of transforming growth factor b. In the context of both sleep apnea syndrome and pulmonary infection, studies investigating the role of oxidative stress were published. Finally, 2 studies analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and other pulmonary infections.

  10. Basic Research in Microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    Lopez Dr. WeiDong Zhu Saint Peter’s College - Applied Science and Technology 2641 Kennedy Boulevard, Gannon Hall Jersey City, NJ 07306 AFOSR / RSE 875...North Randolph Street, Suit 325 | Room 3112 Arlington, Virginia 22203-1768 AFOSR / RSE 1) DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...John W. Luginsland, RSE (Program Manager) 703.588.1775 AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2012-0932 FINAL REPORT Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant

  11. Basic Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Dpuy ndr ecetryo Defense ~ ~ (Si c an TehooyP sadPorm) a h otoln fiedsg natedI in Do Ditibto Stte en C, heeyas3uhrzsisrees iitiso Defense~ ~ ~ ~ ofalNT n...arsenide GaN gallium nitride GaSb gallium antimonide Ge germanium GEO geosynchronous earth orbit GHz gigahertz GICR Government/Industry Cooperative... silicon Si3N4 silicon nitride SiC silicon carbide SNR signal-to-noise ratio SPG Scientific Planning Group SRO Strategic Research Objectives STM scanning

  12. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  14. Basic research in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, E.; Rathmell, W.K.; Junker, K.; Brannon, A.R.; Pouliot, F.; Finley, D.S.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kirkali, Z.; Uemura, H.; Belldegrun, A.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

  15. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  16. Distinguishing between exploratory and confirmatory preclinical research will improve translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Jonathan; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical researchers confront two overarching agendas related to drug development: selecting interventions amid a vast field of candidates, and producing rigorous evidence of clinical promise for a small number of interventions. We suggest that each challenge is best met by two different, complementary modes of investigation. In the first (exploratory investigation), researchers should aim at generating robust pathophysiological theories of disease. In the second (confirmatory investigation), researchers should aim at demonstrating strong and reproducible treatment effects in relevant animal models. Each mode entails different study designs, confronts different validity threats, and supports different kinds of inferences. Research policies should seek to disentangle the two modes and leverage their complementarity. In particular, policies should discourage the common use of exploratory studies to support confirmatory inferences, promote a greater volume of confirmatory investigation, and customize design and reporting guidelines for each mode.

  17. Action Research: Some basic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research.......The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research....

  18. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37.1240 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts... practical application of that knowledge and understanding. It typically is funded within...

  19. Exploratory research into pathogen surface interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Lane, Todd W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Jones, Howland D. T.; Rebeil, Roberto; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Kaiser, Julie (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McGrath, Lucas K.; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2006-02-01

    In this short-duration project the research team was able to achieve growth of both drinking water biofilms and monospecific biofilms of Legionella pneurnophila. Preliminary comparative proteomic analyses were carried out on planktonic and biofilm-associated Legionella. After delay for completion of permitting and review by the director of the National Institutes for Allergy and Infectious Disease, the Utah 112 strain of Francisella novicida was obtained and preliminary culture and comparative proteomic analyses were carried out. Comprehensive literature searches and data mining were carried out on all research topics.

  20. Defending basic research in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    « Research without a budget means a Europe without a future » On Wednesday 25th August 2010, 871 of you signed the Staff Council petition which carried this message. This is a resounding success for a month of August. Staff members and pensioners, you showed by your presence your mass support for our appeal to defend research budgets in Europe. The participation and messages of support from our colleagues in other European scientific organizations is confirmation that budget cuts in research are common practice far beyond the confines of CERN. If research had benefited from the promises made by the European Union in 2000 to increase investment in research and development (R&D) from 1.8% to 3% of GDP by 2010, the scientific community would more readily accept the current cuts. However, we are now in 2010 and the rate of 1.8% has remained the same. So, we have been hit twice: not only have we not had the good weather we were promised, we now find ourselves in the middl...

  1. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  2. FY99 Basic Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    commitment to 6.1 research, utilizing the expertise of faculty, reearch staff, and students in collaborative efforts. Publishing in archival journals and...and recorded. The power spectrums of these results revealed no patterns of harmonics rising above the noise floor for the cracked beams; the...imaging and chemical identification using the NFAR microscope. We expect to study biopolymers and their interactions by Fall 1999. PUBLICATIONS L.T

  3. Basic research in solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    heated at a 'basal' rate that is also found in the centers of solar supergranules, and using the Doppler-imaging technique to measure the position, size, and brightness of stellar active regions. We are computing multi-component models for solar and stellar atmospheres, and models for coronal loops and for the transition-region down flows. The study of solar and stellar flares permits us to assess the role of turbulent energy transport, to pinpoint the mechanism behind Type I radio bursts, to determine whether plasma radiation or cyclotron maser is responsible for microwave flares on M dwarfs, and to extend our knowledge of the basic physics pertinent to cyclotron-maser processes operating on the Sun.

  4. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  5. Basic Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Philip

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

  6. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2014 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,200 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2014 at some 200 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  7. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2011 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts for more than 1,300 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2011 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  8. Basic Energy Sciences FY 2012 Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a collection of research abstracts and highlights for more than 1,400 research projects funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in Fiscal Year 2012 at some 180 institutions across the U.S. This volume is organized along the three BES Divisions: Materials Sciences and Engineering; Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences; and Scientific User Facilities.

  9. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  10. Basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-ren; SUN Yan-qiu; ZHAO Qing-fu; DENG Cun-bao; DENG Han-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Discussed latest research results of basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion in detail, with quantum chemical theory and method and experiment systematically studied chemical structure of coal molecule, adsorption mechanism of coal surface to oxygen molecule and chemical reaction mechanism and process of spontaneous combustion of organic macromolecule and low molecular weight compound in coal from microcosmic view, and established complete theoretical system of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion.

  11. The multiple intelligences in civil engineering students: an exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Roque Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The profession of Civil Engineer requires beyond what you think of good courses and studies, it requires its employees to act with all the intensity of their intelligence and skills. This study aimed to analyze the profile of Civil Engineering students of a college in the state of São Paulo, and its specific purpose was to identify the logical-mathematical and spatial intelligences among them in their respective semesters. Therefore chose to research qualitative and inductive nature and exploratory. It was applied in the classroom a semi-structured questionnaire where your respondents were students enrolled from first to tenth semester during the second half of 2015, and this sample was separated randomly 20% of its total. The results showed that the profile of these students still needs to be worked professionally since the requirement lies with calculations and space notions.

  12. Basic and Applied Research on Environmental Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2006-12-01

    Societal use of well-understood physical or biological science generally involves social processes, including dissemination of the knowledge across society and modification of public policy and of group and individual behavior. The social processes are often poorly understood, from the standpoint of social science; thus, questions in applied natural science often give rise to fundamental questions within social science. For example, problems concerning communication of uncertain scientific information give rise to basic research about how conceptual frameworks (of both the recipients and the providers of such information) change, over the course of repeated attempts at communication. Our Center has been exposed to such communication problems, in several field projects, and this exposure has suggested fruitful new directions for our laboratory research on decision making. For example, we noted (as others have) that communication is often more effective when presented to a group of peers gathered in a familiar setting than to individuals. Among other observations, Orlove and his collaborators noted that Ugandan villagers gather in groups to hear radio broadcasts of climate forecasts together. What behavioral processes lead to more effective communication to groups? Does the social setting enhance individual learning? Does the group frame decision problems differently from the average individual member? Are individual goals modified by the group setting? All three of these processes may be important; we have results concerning each from our current laboratory experiments. I argue that these ideas also require major modification of current theories of decision making, and so are particularly fruitful for basic research in the Decision Sciences. Our experience has led us to emphasize the very close relation between basic and applied social research. We also believe that social-science students need much stronger education in natural sciences and/or engineering, in order

  13. Basic Skills in the Workplace: A Research Review. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, John

    This report analyzes recent English-language research on basic skills in the workplace. Part A, a thematic guide to the field, includes detailed references to publications listed in Part B. Section A1 indicates the scope. It defines basic skills and underlines the importance of other terms, especially key skills, information and communications…

  14. Planning & Priority Setting for Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    Metamaterials – Integrated Computational Material Sciences – Nano-Manufacturing • Counter IED Sciences O F F I C E O F...Biologically-inspired Intelligent Metamaterials – Computing with Natural Language – The Micro-physics of a Liquid-Solid-Gas Interaction – Acoustical...Science Examples of cutting-edge Basic Research at ONR (PE 0601153N) • Code 31: Fast Multipole Methods Reversible Hydrogenation of Graphene • Code 32

  15. Denmark lacks coherent policy on basic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibba, Michael; Bentin, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Sir: Recent months have seen a lively, and at times bitter, debate in the Danish media on the future direction of scientific research. Much has been made by the government of the need to shift towards more applied research to maximize the short-term benefits of public investment. However, we would...... suggest that more critical problems exist that must be addressed immediately to ensure the long-term health of Danish science. Chief among these are a poorly funded and misdirected policy on basic research funding, and conditions of employment that restrict the research opportunities of young scientists...... teaching load and no support for scientific staff. Young scientists cannot improve their situation by writing grant applications, since the funding available to the research councils allows little, if any, support for salary components. Such restrictions are making assistant professorships increasingly...

  16. Basic methodological preconditions for high quality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers basic methodological preconditions for the qualitative oriented research, in other words, the approaches which in the study of social phenomena rely on theoretical and methodological as well as epistemological premises of a new scientific paradigm. The paper draws special attention to the discussion of criteria of verifiability in qualitative research, which are significantly different from the criteria of positivist approaches. Interpretative research paradigms in social studies have a long history and numerous sources and the very concept of "interpretative shift" consists of a number of different research approaches unified under the name of qualitative methodology. The aim of the paper is not to prove that traditional and new paradigms and quantitative and qualitative research approaches based on them are incompatible in the process of discovering pedagogical reality. The intention is to demonstrate that the complexity of social phenomena requires a complex methodology meaning a complementary use of methods and techniques from both research approaches. The study of qualitative methodological approaches and their application in research, discovery and change of pedagogical reality are particularly important because they may provide new insights into pedagogical reality and a new view of old problems. .

  17. Basic human values in a young group: advances in exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Daset Carreto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a wide area of Study, developed since 1998 and focused on Childhood and Adolescence. At first, the aim was to research the psychopathological profile of adolescents, with sociodemographic variables. Further on Competence, Coping and Values were added for an approach from the Positive Psychology (Dahlsgaard, Peterson & Seligman, 2005. This article presents the preliminar results of a youth sample of secondary level students (n=152, aged 12 to 18, male and female, belonging to a medium socioeconomical status. The instrument used for the study is the Basic Values Questionnaire, developed by Valdiney V. Gouveia (1998, based on the studies of S. Schwartz and W. Bilsky (1987, 1990, 2004. Once the performance of this instrument was tested with our Spanish speaking population, some linguistic adaptations were implemented. To obtain the profile of the interviewed adolescents, descriptive statistic is used. The results show to statistically significant difference between girls and boys in Experimenting and Realization Values (Personnel Values Group; as well in Existence (Central Category Value and in Normative (Social Value, with bigger M quantity in Suprapersonnel Value (Central Value and Interaction (Social Category Value. In response to open questions about the most and the least important values, subjects have chosen Interaction (Social Value and Existence Values (Central Value as the most important ones, and Realization Values (Personal Value and the Normative Values (Central Value Category, as the least important ones. The study shows the importance of some groups of Values, what would require an analysis in relation to the behaviours with those that are expressed and their cultural relevance. The conclusions open the debate, from the own expression of the value and their relationship with the psychopathology and on the other hand with the well-being. 

  18. Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Butt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost webcam usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

  19. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  20. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  1. [Basic research overview in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease with a prevalence of 0.5-1.0% worldwide. Although advances in understanding the pathogenesis of RA have led to new therapeutics with good outcomes, the real cause of the disease is still unknown. RA is characterized by synovial inflammation and hyperplasia, which erodes cartilage and bone, and autoantibody production (rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)). There are many critical questions on the mechanism of the disease onset and progression: How genetic and environmental factors interact with each other? Why does the inflammatory response localize in joints? What are the key players to perpetuate synovial inflammation? In this review, we summarize pathogenetic advances in these issues especially from the point of view of basic research.

  2. The symbiosis between basic and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H W

    1996-04-01

    To illustrate the interdependence between the solution of practical problems and the search for fundamental mechanisms, their relationship within the contexts of the history of night myopia and the problem of nighttime traffic accidents is discussed. Night myopia, or nearsightedness at night, which has been a problem since the late 18th century, was shown to be the result of a recently discovered oculomotor mechanism, the intermediate resting position of accommodation. With this knowledge, the handicap of nearsightedness at night ( a major problem in nighttime viewing such as driving and military operations) is readily amenable to solution. Recent developments in our knowledge of the functional significance of the nervous system has led to an increased understanding of the cause and to amelioration of nighttime traffic accidents. These developments illustrate the symbiotic relationship between basic and applied research and the benefits to be gained by consideration of both objectives.

  3. Basic research challenges in crystalline silicon photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, J.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    Silicon is abundant, non-toxic and has an ideal band gap for photovoltaic energy conversion. Experimental world record cells of 24 % conversion efficiency with around 300 {mu}m thickness are only 4 % (absolute) efficiency points below the theoretical Auger recombination-limit of around 28 %. Compared with other photovoltaic materials, crystalline silicon has only very few disadvantages. The handicap of weak light absorbance may be mastered by clever optical designs. Single crystalline cells of only 48 {mu}m thickness showed 17.3 % efficiency even without backside reflectors. A technology of solar cells from polycrystalline Si films on foreign substrates arises at the horizon. However, the disadvantageous, strong activity of grain boundaries in Si could be an insurmountable hurdle for a cost-effective, terrestrial photovoltaics based on polycrystalline Si on foreign substrates. This talk discusses some basic research challenges related to a Si based photovoltaics.

  4. Basic Research in Atkins Library. A Research Guide and Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noate, Judith

    This workbook is designed to help students at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte acquire basic research skills in using a university library. The workbook is divided into 10 sections: (1) Finding Books in Atkins Library; (2) Library of Congress Subject Headings; (3) Searching ALADDIN (the online catalog); (4) Searching a Subject; (5) Call…

  5. Researching Primary Engineering Education: UK Perspectives, an Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of…

  6. Independent Research and Independent Exploratory Development FY 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    complexity and cerebral sensory interaction. Personality and Individual Differences , 6(2), 253-261. Federico, P-A (1985). Individual differences in concept...learning and brain event-related potentials. Personality and Individual Differences , 6(2), 243-252. INDEPENDENT EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS

  7. Exploratory and basic fluidized-bed combustion studies. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, I.; Myles, K.M.; Swift, W.M.

    1980-12-01

    This work supports development studies for both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion. Laboratory and process development studies are aimed at providing needed information on limestone utilization, removal of particulates and alkali metal compounds from the flue gas, control of SO/sub 2/ and trace pollutants emissions, and other aspects of fluidized-bed combustion. This report presents information on: (1) the development of a limestone utilization predictive methodology, (2) studies of particle breakup and elutriation, (3) basic studies on limestone sulfation enhancement by hydration, (4) studies of the kinetics of the hydration process, and (5) an investigation of various hydration process concepts.

  8. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 8, Issue D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Learning disabilities is the theme of the latest issue of "Focus on Basics," the World Education publication that brings together research, policy, and practice in adult basic education. Starting with an update on research on neurobiology and dyslexia, this issue also examines how the adult basic education system supports students with…

  9. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  10. Basic research in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This overview paper points out that one of the problems impeding further development of remote sensing is that not much attention has been paid to basic research.Key contents of basic research in remote sensing,including modeling,inversion,scaling and scientific experiments,are reviewed.Significance of basic research is demonstrated through summarizing the intentions and progress of the project "Quantitative Remote Sensing Research on Land Surface Energy Exchange".

  11. Basic research in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冠华

    2000-01-01

    This overview paper points out that one of the problems impeding further development of remote sensing is that not much attention has been paid to basic research. Key contents of basic research in remote sensing, including modeling, inversion, scaling and scientific experiments, are reviewed. Significance of basic research is demonstrated through summarizing the intentions and progress of the project "Quantitative Remote Sensing Research on Land Surface Energy Exchange".

  12. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990. Report on Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R&D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R&D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  13. Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable?

    OpenAIRE

    Greek Ray; Greek Jean

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Animals can be used in many ways in science and scientific research. Given that society values sentient animals and that basic research is not goal oriented, the question is raised: "Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable?" We explore this in the context of funding issues, outcomes from basic research, and the position of society as a whole on using sentient animals in research that is not goal oriented. We conclude that the use of sentient animals in basic rese...

  14. Research on Standardization of Basic Meteorological Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chunhu

    2011-01-01

    Current Development of National Meteorological Information Network The national meteorological information network (NMIN) is one of the most important information systems in China's basic meteorological business.Through the construction and development for more than 60 years,the national meteorological information network is beginning to take shape now.The core network in national level has been basically formed,which combines ground wideband network with aerospace satellite communications network all over the country,and the local networks of meteorological departments in different levels have also been developed.

  15. Getting Back to the Basics of Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Because surveys now can be implemented with relative ease and little cost, many researchers are overlooking the basic principles of survey research. This chapter discusses sources of error that researchers should consider when conducting a survey, and gives readers basic suggestions for reducing error. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  16. Safety research basic plan of JNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) formally succeeded to Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) on October, 1 1998. This report describes the basic plan for major program of JNC which consists of two parts: management philosophy of the new institute and the latest revised medium term program. In the first part, the primary mission of JNC is to perform its R and D concentrating on fast breeder reactor and its fuel cycle, and treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, while at the same time giving special consideration to safety. In the second, individual programs in the new basic plan are discussed in detail. The outline and schedule of each program are also attached in the table form. (H. Itami)

  17. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  18. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of basic research. 272.3 Section 272...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 272.3 Definition of... processes or products in mind. It includes all scientific study and experimentation directed...

  19. China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Under the joint auspices of the Ministry of Sciences & Technology (MOST) and China Association for Science & Technology, more than 1,600 Chinese scholars including CAS and CAE members, chief scientists of the National Basic Research Program (dubbed 973 Program) and directors of national key labs, have voted for China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007.

  20. COBRE and the Dilemmas of Basic Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    1974-01-01

    Evaluates the activities of the Committee on Basic Research in Education (COBRE), pointing out that its work was based on the premises that basic research is oriented to the academic disciplines, that its outcomes are scientific knowledge as opposed to products or solutions, and that its outcomes are unpredictable. (Author/JM)

  1. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobin Jennifer A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges.

  2. Basic Research Methods for Librarians, Fifth Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-nine percent of the respondents to a 2000 survey reported that their master's programs had not adequately prepared them to conduct research, something that has not changed much in the ensuing decade. Yet, many library and information services (LIS) practitioners are routinely called upon to conducted job-related research. Where can they turn for the guidance they need?

  3. Researchers warn of neglect to basic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Russia is losing its standing as a scientific powerhouse and its science is in a state of decline, according to a new report by the information-services provider Thomson Reuters. Entitled "The New Geography of Science: Research and Collaboration in Russia", the report warns that the country's research base "has a problem, and it shows little sign of a solution".

  4. Ten Years of Support for Basic Scientific Research by CONACYT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Fabila Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of ten years of support for basic scientific research by the CONACYT. The paper identifies the strongest areas of knowledge in basic science in Mexico and concludes that the institutions where basic science is done are mainly public higher education institutions, followed by also public research centers, while private institutions of higher education and companies carry out almost no research in basic science. Findings show that research on basic science in state universities has grown impressively in recent years, reaching the level of the institutions of higher education of the Federal District. Finally, the implications of these findings as well as the public policies through which support has been granted are discussed.

  5. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities.

  6. Basic research on cermet nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Hiroshi; Sto, Seichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, Masahide; Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kosaku

    1998-01-01

    Production of cermet nuclear fuel having fine uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) particles dispersed in matrix metal requires basic property data on the compatibility of matrix metal with fission product compounds. It is thermodynamically suggested that, as burnup increases, cesium in oxide fuel reacts with the fuel, other fission products or cladding pipe and produces cesium uranates, cesium molybdate, or cesium chromate in stainless steel cladding pipe. Attempt was made to measure the thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of cesium uranates (Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7}), cesium molybdate (Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and cesium chromate (Cs{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}). Thermal expansion was measured by X-ray diffraction and determined by Cohen`s method. Thermal conductivity was obtained by measuring thermal diffusion by laser flash method. The thermal expansion of Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} is as low as 1.2% for the former and 1.0% for the latter, up to 1000K. The thermal expansion of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is as high as that of Cs{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, 2.1% for the former and 2.5% for the latter at temperatures from room temperature to 873K. Average thermal expansion in this temperature range is 4.4 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} for Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and 4.2 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}. The thermal expansion of Cs{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} is four times higher than that of UO{sub 2} and five times higher than that of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The thermal conductivity of Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 4} is nearly equal to that of Cs{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} in absolute value and temperature dependency. Cs{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7}, having different thermal conductivity between {alpha} and {beta} phases, shows higher conductivity with {beta} than with {alpha}, about 1/4 of that of UO{sub 2} at 1000K. The thermal conductivity of Cs{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} is nearly equal to that of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} in absolute value and temperature dependency. (N.H.)

  7. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  8. A subjunctive exploratory search interface to support media studies researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, M.; van Gorp, J.; Nack, F.; de Rijke, M.; Vishneuski, A.; de Leeuw, S.

    2012-01-01

    Media studies concerns the study of production, content, and/or reception of various types of media. Today's continuous production and storage of media is changing the way media studies researchers work and requires the development of new search models and tools. We investigate the research cycle of

  9. Research on Internationalisation in Higher Education--Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Sagie, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Research on internationalisation in higher education has dramatically expanded over the last several decades. This study aims to provide an overview of the research developments undertaken between 1980 and 2014, on internationalisation in higher education. Explorative, systematic literature screening and analysis were undertaken, encompassing over…

  10. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight.

  11. [Basic research on BSE transmission to people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemer, W; Kaup, F J

    2002-08-01

    Prion diseases of animal and man belong to neurological diseases with amyloidal deposition of the respective proteins. As to prion disease, the cellular prionprotein is in its abnormal isoform(s) an essential component of prionprotein aggregates found in affected tissue. In contrast to all neurodegenerative diseases like Morbus Alzheimer or Huntington's disease, prion diseases are transmissible. Therefore, prion diseases were designated Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The diseases are well known since decades. Scrapie was first described around 1750, a BSE case was reported in the 1850, most likely a misdiagnosis, and in 1920/1930 the human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) had been described. Transmission of CJD i.e. Kuru had been suspected in the early 1950s and erronously classified as slow virus disease. The CJD transmission posed a problem to humans when transplants from CJD cases were used for treatment. Fortunately, these iatrogenic transmissions remained limited. But with the advent of BSE and appearance of variant CJD cases in the UK and some places in Europe scientists suspected that transmission from cattle to man could have happened. From animal models we know of successful transmission via several routes. Species barriers do not completely prevent transmission. Rather transmission barriers might exist controlling individual susceptibility against prions. Modes of transmission, susceptibility for transmission, identification of receptor molecules as well as molecular mechanisms of the transmission process are intensely investigated. Current knowledge let us to assume that inapparent stages of prion infection pretend a (not existing) species barrier. This inapparent infection preceeds overt disease and, thus, most re-search focuses on the development of highly sensitive assay systems for detection of minute amounts of pathological prionprotein in suspected cases. Inapparence also should warn us to underestimate BSE or human vCJD cases; at

  12. Young People's Images of Old Age in Chile: Exploratory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold-Cathalifaud, Marcelo; Thumala, Daniela; Urquiza, Anahi; Ojeda, Alejandra

    2008-01-01

    According to gerontological thought, an important part of senior citizens' disabilities are products of their social exclusion rather than factors associated with their physical or mental health. How these exclusions come about was the purpose of the research reported in this article. The study was conducted among 682 Chilean university students…

  13. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  14. The rat in basic therapeutic research in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, R; Clausen, J; Albrecht, H

    2009-10-01

    The Similia Principle, the basis of homeopathy, implies that substances initiating symptoms when applied to healthy biological systems can be utilized as remedies to treat a diseased system with similar symptoms. Depending whether the remedy substance was of the same type as the etiologic agent, treatment is classified as either homologous or heterologous. The intact rat is the biological system most utilized in basic science homeopathic research. The Homeopathy Basic Research experiments (HomBRex) database (about 1300 experiments on model biological systems in homeopathic research) was analyzed for homologous and heterologous treatments of disease states of intact rats. The relationship between the Similia Principle and hormesis is discussed.

  15. Basic Research on Ten Years’ Sandplay Therapy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yue-yue; LU Zhi-bo

    2016-01-01

    Sandplay therapy research has been further developed and remarkable achievements have been made in the recent ten years in our country. Basic research focus on the character analysis of different people groups when it is the first sandplay by the player. Diagnostic group characteristics can be deduced from how they use sand toys and space as well as different theme presentations.

  16. 基于模型组合的探索性分析方法研究%Research on Exploratory Analysis Based on Model Combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟涛; 刘小江; 王俐莉

    2012-01-01

    研究对复杂系统正确建模问题,在运用探索性分析方法解决复杂系统不确定性问题的过程中,探索性分析建模是重点和难点.为了提高探索性分析建模的效率,在分析相关方法的基础上,提出了模型组合的探索性分析方法的基本理论,设计了关于模型组合的探索性分析框架,确定了探索性分析框架的工作流程,给出了探索性分析模型表示及描述,设计了模型库的结构,实现了模型组合功能,并通过要素敏感性分析得到不确定性因素对系统整体的影响程度.提高了探索性分析建模的有效性和适应性,对复杂系统的研究具有一定的借鉴意义.%When Exploratory Analysis is applied to resolve the uncertain problems of complex systems, exploratory analysis modeling is very important and difficult as well. In order to enhance the efficiency of exploratory analysis modeling, based on the analysis of related methods, the basic theory of exploratory analysis based on model combination was proposed, the frame of exploratory analysis based on model combination was designed, the work flow of the frame of exploratory analysis was confirmed, the expression and description to exploratory analysis model was given, the structure of the model base was designed, the function of model combination was realized, and the influencing degree of uncertain factors for the whole system was acquired through factors sensitive analysis. The effectiveness and adaptability of exploratory analysis modeling were enhanced, which has referential significance for research on complex systems.

  17. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report fr 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The ETR Program is divided into three major program elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each program element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area.

  18. Geographical and temporal distribution of basic research experiments in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; van Wijk, Roeland; Albrecht, Henning

    2014-07-01

    The database HomBRex (Homeopathy Basic Research experiments) was established in 2002 to provide an overview of the basic research already done on homeopathy (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/hombrex). By this means, it facilitates the exploration of the Similia Principle and the working mechanism of homeopathy. Since 2002, the total number of experiments listed has almost doubled. The current review reports the history of basic research in homeopathy as evidenced by publication dates and origin of publications. In July 2013, the database held 1868 entries. Most publications were reported from France (n = 267), followed by Germany (n = 246) and India (n = 237). In the last ten years, the number of publications from Brazil dramatically increased from n = 13 (before 2004) to n = 164 (compared to n = 251 published in France before 2004, and n = 16 between 2004 and 2013). The oldest database entry was from Germany (1832).

  19. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EVs). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL`s Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR Program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR Program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. The ETR Program consists of three major elements: Exploratory Research; Applied Science Research; and Air Systems Research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed in the following sections, which also include technical summaries that relate to the individual programs. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described in the Executive Summary.

  20. A basic introduction to research: how not to do research

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    In this didactic paper, I review some prevalent “myths” about clinical research: anyone can do research; you can learn how to do research from a book or journal articles; all you need to do statistics is the right software (although Excel will also do); you can do good quality research at your kitchen sink; what is important is that you did your best. These myths appear particularly prevalent in the complementary and alternative medicine communities. They are based on a clear double standard:...

  1. Basic introduction to research: how not to do research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In this didactic article, I review some prevalent "myths" about clinical research: anyone can do research; you can learn how to do research from a book or journal articles; all you need to do statistics is the right software (although Excel will also do); you can do good-quality research at your kitchen sink; and what is important is that you did your best. These myths appear to be particularly prevalent in the complementary and alternative medicine communities. They are based on a clear double standard: most clinicians would express shock and horror at the very thought that someone without appropriate clinical training and qualifications might treat a patient; meanwhile, many clinicians do research with no research qualifications whatsoever. But clinical research can guide clinical decisions that affect the health and well-being of millions of people: it is therefore arguable that poorly conducted research is potentially far more harmful than poor medical practice. As such, it is doubly important that clinical research is conducted by those with appropriate training, statistical help, and institutional support.

  2. Basic research needed for the development of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, R.L.; Riecker, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Basic research needed to facilitate development of geothermal energy is identified. An attempt has been made to make the report representative of the ideas of productive workers in the field. The present state of knowledge of geothermal energy is presented and then specific recommendations for further research, with status and priorities, are listed. Discussion is limited to a small number of applicable concepts, namely: origin of geothermal flux; transport of geothermal energy; geothermal reservoirs; rock-water interactions, and geophysical and geochemical exploration.

  3. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  4. Geoengineering:Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Long; GAO Chao-Chao; ZHAO Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Geoengineering (also called climate engineering), which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geo-engineering can be broadly divided into two categories:solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM), which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues:1) climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2) climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep under-standing of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  5. Geoengineering: Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  6. Assuring both quality and creativity in basic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1990-04-12

    How does one assure that both quality and creativity are obtained in basic research environments QA theoreticians have attempted to develop workable definitions of quality, but in more reflective moments, these definitions often fail to capture the deeper essence of the idea of quality.'' This paper asserts that creativity (as a product of the human mind) is a concrete interface between perfunctory definitions of quality (conformance to specifications) and more philosophical speculations about the nature of quality- related ultimates'' like elegance or beauty. In addition, we describe the distinction between creative ideas and creative acts and highlight one of the major inhibitors of creativity, fear. Finally we show that highly creative people often have an irreverent attitude toward boundaries and established authority, and discuss how one can allow for this when designing a QA program in a basic research environment.

  7. Basic and clinical researches of parasitosis in China revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ci-peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two years ago, an editorial regarding basic or clinical studies of several parasitosis in China was published.1 As is known to all, some parasitic diseases, especially schistosomiasis and echino-coccosis, are still prevalent in the south and west of China, respectively. Therefore, it is significant to review a few research papers in the field of medical parasitology and write another editorial.

  8. Trends in basic immunology research - 2001 and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Dipankar; Sarin, Apurva

    2001-01-01

    The immune system is primarily involved in protection against pathogens and opportunistic organisms. Similar to a nations defence organization, the immune system involves different components. This diversity allows the immune system to defend against different types of attacks by microbes. The past century has witnessed tremendous progress in understanding the components and mechanisms involved in the immune response. This article attempts to highlight areas of active research in basic immuno...

  9. Basic Design of the Cold Neutron Research Facility in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. K. (and others)

    2005-09-15

    The HANARO Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) Project has been embarked in July 2003. The CNRF project has selected as one of the radiation technology development project by National Science and Technology Committee in June 2002. In this report, the output of the second project year is summarized as a basic design of cold neutron source and related systems, neutron guide, and neutron scattering instruments.

  10. Basic research in computer science and software engineering at SKLCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; Xueyang ZHU; Wenhui ZHANG; Naijun ZHAN; Yidong SHEN; Haiming CHEN; Yunquan ZHANG; Yongji WANG; Enhua WU; Hongan WANG

    2008-01-01

    The State Key Laboratory of Computer Science (SKLCS) is committed to basic research in computer sci-ence and software engineering. The research topics of the laboratory include: concurrency theory, theory and algorithms for real-time systems, formal specifications based on context-free grammars, semantics of program-ming languages, model checking, automated reasoning, logic programming, software testing, software process improvement, middleware technology, parallel algo-rithms and parallel software, computer graphics and human-computer interaction. This paper describes these topics in some detail and summarizes some results obtained in recent years.

  11. Basic Energy Research. Final Report; Grunnleggende energiforskning. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the final report of a research programme that covered the need for long-term basic research in Norway within the main fields of new renewable energy sources and hydroelectric power. For the hydropower part, emphasis was placed on the environmental consequences and several projects have been done, with different approaches. Other aspects of hydropower have also been supported, such as dam safety and flow in water paths connected to turbines. Within the field of renewable energies, priority was given to solar energy and bio energy. Research on hydrogen as an energy carrier has also been supported; the programme mainly targeted universities and the research institutes, and the education of PhD's has been a priority. The programme was funded through the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the budget was 33 million NOK for the period 1997 - 2000.

  12. Test Research for Basic Mechanics Performance of Inorganic Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the basic mechanics properties (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio and splitting tensile strength of inorganic polymer concrete whose mix proportion is ripe recipe and try to provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for application of inorganic polymer concrete in the practical engineering. In this study, the basic mechanics properties of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied by test. At the same time, the same tests researches are made for the common Portland cement concrete for comparison. Through the comparison research, it can be found that the compressive bearing capacity of inorganic polymer concrete is stronger and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio is slightly bigger than those of common concrete and that the splitting tensile strength is as poor as those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. In order to investigate its long-term performance, the shrinkage and creep tests of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied as well. The change rules of shrinkage and creep in inorganic polymer concrete with time are obtained. It is that initial deformation is bigger and late deformation gradually becomes small and stable. These rules are basic similar as common Portland cement concrete.

  13. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  14. The benefits of basic research: advances in reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    At the Population Council's Center for Biomedical Research basic research is being conducted on the reproductive system with a view to develop new contraceptive and reproductive health technologies. Research in the Reproductive Physiology Program at the Center is carried out by reproductive endocrinologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists working in eight laboratories. In several of the laboratories the function of hormones that regulate spermatogenesis is studied. Scientists in Milan Bagchi's laboratory have developed a model system, composed of cellular components in a test tube, that allows them to study the full sequence of events involved in signal transduction. In James Catterall's laboratory, scientists study how androgens regulate sexual development at the molecular level. The steroid hormones cortisol and corticosterone play critical roles in mammalian fetal development. Scientists in several laboratories study the function of two specialized testicular cells: the Leydig and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cell synthesizes and secretes testosterone, an androgen that regulates spermatogenesis. The Sertoli cell maintains the environment in which spermatogenesis occurs. Researchers in Glen Gunsalus's laboratory study an androgen-binding protein secreted by the Sertoli cell. In collaboration with scientists at the Shanghai Research Center of Biotechnology, they used advanced genetic techniques to create a biologically active form of the protein in silk worm larvae. Scientists in Patricia Morris's laboratory recently identified molecular signals that control the interactions between developing sperm and Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the laboratory of David Phillips, scientists are investigating how the HIV virus penetrates the outer layer of cells in the genital tract and infects underlying cells. In 1994 a vaginally applied microbicide was developed that may inhibit infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Applications of basic research such

  15. Basic Nuclear Physics Research Needs for Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tony

    2008-10-01

    Basic nuclear physics research will play a central role in the development of the future nuclear facilities. Federal requirements for higher efficiencies, lower operating and construction costs, and advanced safeguards can all be impacted by the quality of nuclear data used in the fuel cycle calculations for design and licensing. Uncertainties in the underlying nuclear data propagate to uncertainties in integral and operational parameters, which drive margins and cost. Department of Energy (DOE) programs are underway to help develop the necessary nuclear research infrastructure. The Nuclear Energy office of DOE leads the development of new nuclear energy generation technologies to meet energy and climate change goals and advanced, proliferation resistant nuclear fuel technologies that maximize energy from nuclear fuel, while maintaining and enhancing the national nuclear infrastructure. These activities build on important work started over the last three years to deploy new nuclear plants in the United States by early in the next decade, and to develop advanced, next-generation nuclear technology. In this talk, I will discuss some of the foreseen opportunities and needs for basic nuclear research in nuclear energy.

  16. The Romanian Consumer And Online Marketing – An Exploratory Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea Carmen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers’ exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.

  17. Research and Analysis of Exploratory Software Testing%探索性软件测试解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军锋; 栾静

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory testing is a new software test technology which is totally different from traditional software test methods. Exploratory Testing is defined as concurrent product exploration test design and test execution, and it claims to embrace change. Since the exploratory testing can find software Bugs with high efficiency, it is widely researched. This paper from the shortage of the traditional software test method model theories, carried on overall researching and analysis to the exploratory testing's definition, model,method, merit and shortcoming etc. The researching shows that exploratory testing method is to the very good complement of the theories of the traditional software test, making use of exploratory testing rationally, can enhance the software testing efficiency evidently.%探索性测试是一种完全不同于传统测试方法的测试技术,它提出将学习被测系统、设计测试用例、执行测试同时进行的策略,以及拥抱变化的口号.探索性测试由于其高效的发现软件缺陷的能力而越来越受到人们的重视.文章由传统软件测试方法模型理论的不足,引出探索性软件测试这种前沿的软件测试理论,对其定义、模型方法及优缺点等进行了全面的研究分析.研究表明探索性软件测试方法是对传统软件测试理论的很好补充,合理的利用探索性测试,能够显著提高软件的测试效率.

  18. Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert C; Goddard, Katrina A B; Jarvik, Gail P; Amendola, Laura M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Berg, Jonathan S; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biswas, Sawona; Blout, Carrie L; Bowling, Kevin M; Brothers, Kyle B; Burke, Wylie; Caga-Anan, Charlisse F; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Chung, Wendy K; Clayton, Ellen W; Cooper, Gregory M; East, Kelly; Evans, James P; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Garraway, Levi A; Garrett, Jeremy R; Gray, Stacy W; Henderson, Gail E; Hindorff, Lucia A; Holm, Ingrid A; Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Hutter, Carolyn M; Janne, Pasi A; Joffe, Steven; Kaufman, David; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Krantz, Ian D; Manolio, Teri A; McCullough, Laurence; McEwen, Jean; McGuire, Amy; Muzny, Donna; Myers, Richard M; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ou, Jeffrey; Parsons, Donald W; Petersen, Gloria M; Plon, Sharon E; Rehm, Heidi L; Roberts, J Scott; Robinson, Dan; Salama, Joseph S; Scollon, Sarah; Sharp, Richard R; Shirts, Brian; Spinner, Nancy B; Tabor, Holly K; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Veenstra, David L; Wagle, Nikhil; Weck, Karen; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wolf, Susan M; Wynn, Julia; Yu, Joon-Ho

    2016-06-02

    Despite rapid technical progress and demonstrable effectiveness for some types of diagnosis and therapy, much remains to be learned about clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) and its role within the practice of medicine. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium includes 18 extramural research projects, one National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project, and a coordinating center funded by the NHGRI and National Cancer Institute. The consortium is exploring analytic and clinical validity and utility, as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of sequencing via multidisciplinary approaches; it has thus far recruited 5,577 participants across a spectrum of symptomatic and healthy children and adults by utilizing both germline and cancer sequencing. The CSER consortium is analyzing data and creating publically available procedures and tools related to participant preferences and consent, variant classification, disclosure and management of primary and secondary findings, health outcomes, and integration with electronic health records. Future research directions will refine measures of clinical utility of CGES in both germline and somatic testing, evaluate the use of CGES for screening in healthy individuals, explore the penetrance of pathogenic variants through extensive phenotyping, reduce discordances in public databases of genes and variants, examine social and ethnic disparities in the provision of genomics services, explore regulatory issues, and estimate the value and downstream costs of sequencing. The CSER consortium has established a shared community of research sites by using diverse approaches to pursue the evidence-based development of best practices in genomic medicine.

  19. A Social Approach to Decision-Making Capacity: Exploratory Research with People with Experience of Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, Shari; Delaney, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on exploratory, qualitative research conducted with eight people with experience of mental health treatment about their understanding of decision-making capacity. While acknowledging that there are times when mental or emotional distress can interfere with the capacity to make decisions, participants described how their capacity…

  20. Social Competency Development in Multicultural Children, Aged 6-13. Final Report of Exploratory Research on Hispanic-Background Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, H. Ned; Wasilewski, Jacqueline Howell

    This report examines the results of an exploratory research study of the social competency development among multicultural students who attended an after school program administered by the Spanish Education Development Center in Washington, D.C. Three main questions were probed: (1) What social competencies are needed by multicultural children to…

  1. Using exploratory factor analysis in personality research: Best-practice recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Laher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Exploratory factor analysis is the method of choice with objective personality instruments, particularly to establish the construct validity and construct equivalence of trait-based instruments.Research purpose: This article presents more objective methods to determine the number of factors, most notably parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP. The benefits of rotation are also discussed. The article argues for more consistent use of Procrustes rotation and congruence coefficients in factor analytic studies.Motivation for the study: Exploratory factor analysis is often criticised for not being rigorous and objective enough in terms of the methods used to determine the number of factors, the rotations to be used and ultimately the validity of the factor structure.Research design, approach and method: The article adopts a theoretical stance to discuss the best-practice recommendations for factor analytic research in the field of psychology. Following this, an example located within personality assessment and using the NEO-PI-R specifically is presented. A total of 425 students at the University of the Witwatersrand completed the NEO-PI-R. These responses were subjected to a principal components analysis using varimax rotation. The rotated solution was subjected to a Procrustes rotation with Costa and McCrae’s (1992 matrix as the target matrix. Congruence coefficients were also computed.Main findings: The example indicates the use of the methods recommended in the article and demonstrates an objective way of determining the number of factors. It also provides an example of Procrustes rotation with coefficients of agreement as an indication of how factor analytic results may be presented more rigorously in local research.Practical/managerial implications: It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will have best-practice implications for both researchers and practitioners in the field who employ factor

  2. Basic statistical tools in research and data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical methods involved in carrying out a study include planning, designing, collecting data, analysing, drawing meaningful interpretation and reporting of the research findings. The statistical analysis gives meaning to the meaningless numbers, thereby breathing life into a lifeless data. The results and inferences are precise only if proper statistical tests are used. This article will try to acquaint the reader with the basic research tools that are utilised while conducting various studies. The article covers a brief outline of the variables, an understanding of quantitative and qualitative variables and the measures of central tendency. An idea of the sample size estimation, power analysis and the statistical errors is given. Finally, there is a summary of parametric and non-parametric tests used for data analysis.

  3. Basic statistical tools in research and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Bhaskar, S Bala

    2016-01-01

    Statistical methods involved in carrying out a study include planning, designing, collecting data, analysing, drawing meaningful interpretation and reporting of the research findings. The statistical analysis gives meaning to the meaningless numbers, thereby breathing life into a lifeless data. The results and inferences are precise only if proper statistical tests are used. This article will try to acquaint the reader with the basic research tools that are utilised while conducting various studies. The article covers a brief outline of the variables, an understanding of quantitative and qualitative variables and the measures of central tendency. An idea of the sample size estimation, power analysis and the statistical errors is given. Finally, there is a summary of parametric and non-parametric tests used for data analysis.

  4. Basic to industrial research on neutron platform in Japan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yasuhiko Fujii

    2008-10-01

    The co-location of reactor- and accelerator-based neutron sources offers a great opportunity for complementary use of steady and pulsed neutron beams in a wide variety of neutron science and technology areas ranging from basic research to industrial applications. In Japan, such a balance of two kinds of neutron sources has a long tradition and now we are entering into a new era with the commissioning of the world’s most intense pulsed neutron beams at JSNS/J-PARC plus the existing JRR-3 reactor both co-located within 1 km of each other in Tokai. The joint operation of these neutron facilities in close proximity under a program called `neutron platform', will allow neutron beam access not only to professional users, familiar with both pulsed and steady state techniques but also to first-time academics and industrial researchers to neutron scattering.

  5. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  6. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage - Annual Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. (editor)

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies conducts research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. Efforts are focused on advanced batteries that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. DOE battery R and D supports two major programs: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), which develops advanced batteries for EVS, and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a fuel economy equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. This report describes the activities of the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program, managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and PNGV Programs, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1998. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Program Summary.

  7. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pietraß, Tanja [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-22

    From beneath the surface of the earth, we currently obtain about 80-percent of the energy our nation consumes each year. In the future we have the potential to generate billions of watts of electrical power from clean, green, geothermal energy sources. Our planet’s subsurface can also serve as a reservoir for storing energy produced from intermittent sources such as wind and solar, and it could provide safe, long-term storage of excess carbon dioxide, energy waste products and other hazardous materials. However, it is impossible to underestimate the complexities of the subsurface world. These complexities challenge our ability to acquire the scientific knowledge needed for the efficient and safe exploitation of its resources. To more effectively harness subsurface resources while mitigating the impacts of developing and using these resources, the U.S. Department of Energy established SubTER – the Subsurface Technology and Engineering RD&D Crosscut team. This DOE multi-office team engaged scientists and engineers from the national laboratories to assess and make recommendations for improving energy-related subsurface engineering. The SubTER team produced a plan with the overall objective of “adaptive control of subsurface fractures and fluid flow.”This plan revolved around four core technological pillars—Intelligent Wellbore Systems that sustain the integrity of the wellbore environment; Subsurface Stress and Induced Seismicity programs that guide and optimize sustainable energy strategies while reducing the risks associated with subsurface injections; Permeability Manipulation studies that improve methods of enhancing, impeding and eliminating fluid flow; and New Subsurface Signals that transform our ability to see into and characterize subsurface systems. The SubTER team developed an extensive R&D plan for advancing technologies within these four core pillars and also identified several areas where new technologies would require additional basic research

  8. Undergraduate Student Researchers, Preferred Learning Styles, and Basic Science Research: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeste, Lori A.; Barham, Beverly J.

    2007-01-01

    In basic science research, student researchers are often challenged with not only the technical portion of the research design but also the team dynamic. Understanding how a student prefers to learn can provide an advantage for mentors to better meet these challenges. In this article, the authors describe the experience of working with student…

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A to Part 272—Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an investment. The DoD Components are to view and manage basic...

  10. Ethical Responsibility of Neuromarketing Companies in Harnessing the Market Research – a Global Exploratory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Al. Pop

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the 21st century is identifying how to satisfy consumers’ needs in the best manner possible, whilst ensuring companies’ financial profitability. Scientists play a major role in achieving this goal, as research methods, techniques and tools have continuously evolved. In the last two decades, the development of these instruments has seen an important boost, as neuromarketing methods and techniques added depth and accuracy to traditional studies. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the role and importance of neuromarketing research techniques in the evolution of neurosciences and to explain how these techniques are used in market research. One of the most important challenges for companies who offer neuromarketing services is to stick to ethical principles when performing the investigations. This is an obligation they have both towards the beneficiaries – the companies providing products or services – and towards their consumers as well. This challenge has always been a subject of dispute between the advocates and critics of neuromarketing. Thus, this paper deals with this and other controversial topics. It starts with analysing a traditional persuasion model that has inherently been influenced by the neuromarketing research features. Then, it addresses the positive and negative aspects that subjects might have to face throughout neuromarketing studies, always bearing in mind the current Ethical Code of Conduct issued by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association (NMSBA. An exploratory online research helped the authors test several hypotheses on ethical issues that neuromarketing companies have to handle. The research was performed on 67 neuromarketing companies from around the world that are members of the NMSBA. The findings are relevant both to researchers and neuromarketing companies, even the Romanian ones, who can use them used as insights.

  11. Research on basic characteristics of complex system brittleness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong-zhang; GUO Jian; WEI Qi; LIN De-ming; LI Qi

    2004-01-01

    Tbe goal of this paper is to research one new characteristic of complex system. Brittleness, which is one new characteritic of complex system, is presented in this paper. The linguistic and qualitative descriptions of complex system are also given in this paper.Otherwise, the qualitative description of complex system is presented at first. On the basis of analyzing the existing brittleness problems, linguistic description and mathematic description of brittleness are given as well. Three kinds of phenomena to judge brittleness of complex system are also given, based on catastrophe theory. Basic characteristics of brittleness are given on the basis of its mathematic description. Two critical point sets are defined by using catastrophe theory. The definition of brittleness and its related theory can serve the control of complex system, and provide theoretical basis for the design and control of complex system.

  12. Polymer materials basic research needs for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknight, W.J.; Baer, E.; Nelson, R.D. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    The larger field covered in the workshop consists of (1) synthesis and characterization, (2) physical chemistry, (3) physics, and (4) engineering. Polymeric materials are properly regarded as new materials in their own right, not as replacements for existing materials. As such they need to be studied to understand the properties which are unique to them by virtue of their particular molecular structures. Technological applications will rationally follow from such studies. It is the objective of this report to point out basic research needs in polymer materials related to energy. The development of sophisticated instrumentation makes the task of molecular characterization possible on a level hitherto unattainable. Many of these instruments because of their size and complexity must of necessity be located at the DOE National Laboratories. The importance of personnel trained in the polymer field located at these facilities is emphasized. In the past there has been relatively little concerted polymer research within the energy community. This report attempts to describe the present situation and point out some needs and future research directions. (GHT)

  13. Science Serving the Nation: The Impact of Basic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-01-01

    Impacts: The BES program supports basic research that underpins a broad range of energy technologies. Research in materials sciences and engineering leads to the development of materials that improve the efficiency, economy, environmental acceptability, and safety of energy generation, conversion, transmission, storage, and use. For example, advances in superconductivity have been introduced commercially in a number of demonstration projects around the country. Improvements in alloy design for high temperature applications are used in commercial furnaces and in green technologies such as lead-free solder. Research in chemistry has led to advances such as efficient combustion systems with reduced emissions of pollutants; new solar photoconversion processes; improved catalysts for the production of fuels and chemicals; and better separations and analytical methods for applications in energy processes, environmental remediation, and waste management. Research in geosciences results in advanced monitoring and measurement techniques for reservoir definition and an understanding of the fluid dynamics of complex fluids through porous and fractured subsurface rock. Research in the molecular and biochemical nature of photosynthesis aids the development of solar photo-energy conversion. The BES program also plays a major role in enabling the nanoscale revolution. The importance of nanoscience to future energy technologies is clearly reflected by the fact that all of the elementary steps of energy conversion (e.g., charge transfer, molecular rearrangement, and chemical reactions) take place on the nanoscale. The development of new nanoscale materials, as well as the methods to characterize, manipulate, and assemble them, create an entirely new paradigm for developing new and revolutionary energy technologies.

  14. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pietraß, Tanja [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-22

    From beneath the surface of the earth, we currently obtain about 80-percent of the energy our nation consumes each year. In the future we have the potential to generate billions of watts of electrical power from clean, green, geothermal energy sources. Our planet’s subsurface can also serve as a reservoir for storing energy produced from intermittent sources such as wind and solar, and it could provide safe, long-term storage of excess carbon dioxide, energy waste products and other hazardous materials. However, it is impossible to underestimate the complexities of the subsurface world. These complexities challenge our ability to acquire the scientific knowledge needed for the efficient and safe exploitation of its resources. To more effectively harness subsurface resources while mitigating the impacts of developing and using these resources, the U.S. Department of Energy established SubTER – the Subsurface Technology and Engineering RD&D Crosscut team. This DOE multi-office team engaged scientists and engineers from the national laboratories to assess and make recommendations for improving energy-related subsurface engineering. The SubTER team produced a plan with the overall objective of “adaptive control of subsurface fractures and fluid flow.”This plan revolved around four core technological pillars—Intelligent Wellbore Systems that sustain the integrity of the wellbore environment; Subsurface Stress and Induced Seismicity programs that guide and optimize sustainable energy strategies while reducing the risks associated with subsurface injections; Permeability Manipulation studies that improve methods of enhancing, impeding and eliminating fluid flow; and New Subsurface Signals that transform our ability to see into and characterize subsurface systems. The SubTER team developed an extensive R&D plan for advancing technologies within these four core pillars and also identified several areas where new technologies would require additional basic research

  15. Religiosity As An Antecedent Of Attitude Towards Green Products: An Exploratory Research On Young Malaysian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Teck Chai

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Religion has long been acknowledged as an important social force that influences human behavior but yet in the secular society its influence on consumer behavior appears to be underestimated. Of the sporadic research conducted, findings indicated that religion can be a significant factor in relation to consumption patterns, innovativeness, media usage, family decision-making, purchase risk aversion and selected store patronage behavior. The current research is exploratory in nature and attempts to investigate the influence of religiosity on attitudes towards green products especially among young Malaysian consumers. Religiosity, the independent variable, was measured by the intrinsic/ extrinsic religious orientation scale adopted from Allport and Ross (1967. The dependent variable was derived from a study on attitudes towards green product (Mostafa, 2007. The questionnaires were distributed to students in a large private university located in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Reliability analysis and multiple linear regressions were conducted. The results from the multiple linear regression analysis indicate that intrinsic religiosity has a significant relationship on consumer’s attitude towards green product. However, in the case of extrinsic religiosity, there is no significant relationship on consumer’s attitude towards green product.

  16. Why Companies Do Not Renew Their EMAS Registration? An Exploratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Preziosi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS is the official Environmental Management System (EMS issued by the European Union (EU. Italy is the country where EMAS is most widespread, accounting for over 1000 registered organizations. Since entry into the force of the Regulation in 1997, the number of registrations has constantly grown until 2008, when the figures started to drop. The phenomena are due to both the decrease of the annual registration rate and the lack of renewals. According to the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA, in recent years, an increasing number of organizations decided to withdraw from EMAS registration. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the reasons of this negative trend. The first step consisted of a literature review concerning the main barriers, difficulties, and costs incurred by EMAS-registered organizations. Subsequently, this information was integrated with data about the evolution of EMAS registrations and the results of a previous survey, which involved the entire population of registered firms. The present exploratory research highlighted economic and operational domains concerning the cancellation trends that deserve a deeper investigation, which will be conducted through a questionnaire addressed to Italian firms that did not renew the registration in the last lustrum. The intended output will allow us to identify stakeholders’ priority intervention areas in order to suggest an operative strategy to reduce EMAS cancellation rates, addressed to Member States (MS Competent Bodies.

  17. The Romanian Ombudsman and It's Interraction with the Courts- An Exploratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacian DRAGOŞ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the institution of the Ombudsman and its relations with other institutions/ powers of the state. The least explored interaction, at least in the Romanian literature, is the interaction between the Ombudsman and the courts (both the Constitutional Court and the ordinary ones, in the context of the need for Ombudsman institutions to develop the so called ‘Ombudsnorms’ of good administration. There are no empirical studies trying to explore this interaction and how it actually works in practice. The first part of the article offers an analysis of the existing literature on the interaction between the Ombudsman institution and the courts in various legal systems. The second part of the article consists of an exploratory empirical research of the interaction between the Romanian Ombudsman and the courts. The methodology of the research is qualitative – analysis of the Ombudsman’s annual reports and structured interviews with judges and the representative of the Romanian Ombudsman institution. The main conclusion of the study is that until now the interaction is rather limited and that there seems to be no ‘desire’ on behalf of both the courts and the Ombudsman to explore the possibilities for more cooperation/interaction, the main reason given being the independence of justice.

  18. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Annual report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  19. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1992-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles. The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development (EVABS) Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on several candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the US automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scaleup. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1991.

  20. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1997-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The USABC, a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for EVs. In addition, DOE is actively involved in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) Program which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a range equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the PNGV Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1996. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary.

  1. Basic Research Needs for Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alivisatos, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buchanan, Michelle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-03-04

    This report is based on a SC/FE workshop on Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020, held March 4–5, 2010, to assess the basic research needed to address the current technical bottlenecks in carbon capture processes and to identify key research priority directions that will provide the foundations for future carbon capture technologies. The problem of thermodynamically efficient and scalable carbon capture stands as one of the greatest challenges for modern energy researchers. The vast majority of US and global energy use derives from fossil fuels, the combustion of which results in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. These anthropogenic emissions are now altering the climate. Although many alternatives to combustion are being considered, the fact is that combustion will remain a principal component of the global energy system for decades to come. Today’s carbon capture technologies are expensive and cumbersome and energy intensive. If scientists could develop practical and cost-effective methods to capture carbon, those methods would at once alter the future of the largest industry in the world and provide a technical solution to one of the most vexing problems facing humanity. The carbon capture problem is a true grand challenge for today’s scientists. Postcombustion CO2 capture requires major new developments in disciplines spanning fundamental theoretical and experimental physical chemistry, materials design and synthesis, and chemical engineering. To start with, the CO2 molecule itself is thermodynamically stable and binding to it requires a distortion of the molecule away from its linear and symmetric arrangement. This binding of the gas molecule cannot be too strong, however; the sheer quantity of CO2 that must be captured ultimately dictates that the capture medium must be recycled over and over. Hence the CO2 once bound, must be released with relatively little energy input. Further, the CO2 must be rapidly and selectively pulled out of a mixture

  2. Final Project Report: "Exploratory Research: Mercury Stable Isotopes as Indicators of the Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    This is the final project report for award DE-SC0005351, which supported the research project "Exploratory Research: Mercury Stable Isotopes as Indicators of the Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury. "This exploratory project investigated the use of mercury (Hg) stable isotope measurements as a new approach to study how Hg moves and changes its chemical form in environmental systems, with particular focus on the East Fork of Poplar Creek (EFPC) near the DOE Y-12 plant (a Hg contamination source). This study developed analytical methods and collected pilot data that have set the stage for more detailed studies and have begun to provide insights into Hg movement and chemical changes. The overall Hg stable isotope approach was effective. The Hg isotope analysis methods yielded high-precision measurements of the sediment, water, and fish samples analyzed; quality control measures demonstrated the precision. The pilot data show that the 202Hg/198Hg, 199Hg/198Hg, and 201Hg/198Hg isotope ratios vary in this system. 202Hg/198Hg ratios of the Hg released from the Y-12 plant are relatively high, and those of the regional Hg background in soils and river sediments are significantly lower. Unfortunately, 202Hg/198Hg differences that might have been useful to distinguish early Hg releases from later releases were not observed. However, 202Hg/198Hg ratios in sediments do provide insights into chemical transformations that may occur as Hg moves through the system. Furthermore, 199Hg/198Hg and 201Hg/198Hg ratio analyses of fish tissues indicate that the effects of sunlight-driven chemical reactions on the Hg that eventually ends up in EFPC fish are measureable, but small. These results provide a starting point for a more detailed study (already begun at Univ. of Michigan) that will continue Hg isotope ratio work aimed at improving understanding of how Hg moves, changes chemically, and does or does not take on more highly toxic forms in the Oak Ridge area. This work also benefits

  3. Protecting the Purity of Pure Research: Organizational Boundary-Work at an Institute of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Adi

    2017-01-01

    Research institutions and universities are positioned in a state of inherent struggle to reconcile the pressures and demands of the external environment with those of the scientific community. This paper is focused on one contested area, the division between basic and applied research, and explores how universities work to balance organizational…

  4. Basic Requirements for Systems Software Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszmaul, Chris; Nitzberg, Bill

    1996-01-01

    Our success over the past ten years evaluating and developing advanced computing technologies has been due to a simple research and development (R/D) model. Our model has three phases: (a) evaluating the state-of-the-art, (b) identifying problems and creating innovations, and (c) developing solutions, improving the state- of-the-art. This cycle has four basic requirements: a large production testbed with real users, a diverse collection of state-of-the-art hardware, facilities for evalua- tion of emerging technologies and development of innovations, and control over system management on these testbeds. Future research will be irrelevant and future products will not work if any of these requirements is eliminated. In order to retain our effectiveness, the numerical aerospace simulator (NAS) must replace out-of-date production testbeds in as timely a fashion as possible, and cannot afford to ignore innovative designs such as new distributed shared memory machines, clustered commodity-based computers, and multi-threaded architectures.

  5. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim [ed.

    1996-06-01

    The US DOE Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV`s)and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life- cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The role of the ETR program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the Sandia Laboratories (SNL) Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/of cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR program in CY 1995. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed in this report.The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of fuel cell technology for transportation applications.

  6. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage, annual report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R and D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1997. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary. The general R and D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, and establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs.

  7. Basic Research Needs for Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alivisatos, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buchanan, Michelle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-03-04

    This report is based on a SC/FE workshop on Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020, held March 4–5, 2010, to assess the basic research needed to address the current technical bottlenecks in carbon capture processes and to identify key research priority directions that will provide the foundations for future carbon capture technologies. The problem of thermodynamically efficient and scalable carbon capture stands as one of the greatest challenges for modern energy researchers. The vast majority of US and global energy use derives from fossil fuels, the combustion of which results in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. These anthropogenic emissions are now altering the climate. Although many alternatives to combustion are being considered, the fact is that combustion will remain a principal component of the global energy system for decades to come. Today’s carbon capture technologies are expensive and cumbersome and energy intensive. If scientists could develop practical and cost-effective methods to capture carbon, those methods would at once alter the future of the largest industry in the world and provide a technical solution to one of the most vexing problems facing humanity. The carbon capture problem is a true grand challenge for today’s scientists. Postcombustion CO2 capture requires major new developments in disciplines spanning fundamental theoretical and experimental physical chemistry, materials design and synthesis, and chemical engineering. To start with, the CO2 molecule itself is thermodynamically stable and binding to it requires a distortion of the molecule away from its linear and symmetric arrangement. This binding of the gas molecule cannot be too strong, however; the sheer quantity of CO2 that must be captured ultimately dictates that the capture medium must be recycled over and over. Hence the CO2 once bound, must be released with relatively little energy input. Further, the CO2 must be rapidly and selectively pulled out of a mixture

  8. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  9. Exploratory Analysis of the Social Network of Researchers in Inductive Logic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrač, Nada; Grčar, Miha; Fortuna, Blaž; Velardi, Paola

    In this chapter, we present selected techniques for social network analysis and text mining and interpret the results of exploratory analysis of the social network of researchers in inductive logic programming (ILP), based on the ILP scientific publications database collected within the ILPnet2 project. Part of the analysis was performed with the Pajek software for large (social) network analyses, where the central entity of the analysis was the author, related to other authors by coauthorship links, weighted by the number of his or her publications registered in the ILPnet2 database. The chapter presents also a novel methodology for topic ontology learning from text documents. The proposed methodology, named OntoTermExtraction (Term Extraction for Ontology learning), is based on OntoGen, a semiautomated tool for topic ontology construction, upgraded by using an advanced terminology extraction tool in an iterative, semiautomated ontology construction process. The approach was successfully used for generating the ontology of topics in Inductive Logic Programming, learned semiautomatically from papers indexed in the ILPnet2 publications database.

  10. Neurostimulation in Alzheimer's disease: from basic research to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Tezzon, Frediano; Christova, Monica; Schwenker, Kerstin; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The development of different methods of brain stimulation provides a promising therapeutic tool with potentially beneficial effects on subjects with impaired cognitive functions. We performed a systematic review of the studies published in the field of neurostimulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), from basic research to clinical applications. The main methods of non-invasive brain stimulation are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Preliminary findings have suggested that both techniques can enhance performances on several cognitive functions impaired in AD. Another non-invasive emerging neuromodulatory approach, the transcranial electromagnetic treatment, was found to reverse cognitive impairment in AD transgenic mice and even improves cognitive performance in normal mice. Experimental studies suggest that high-frequency electromagnetic fields may be critically important in AD prevention and treatment through their action at mitochondrial level. Finally, the application of a widely known invasive technique, the deep brain stimulation (DBS), has increasingly been considered as a therapeutic option also for patients with AD; it has been demonstrated that DBS of fornix/hypothalamus and nucleus basalis of Meynert might improve or at least stabilize cognitive functioning in AD. Initial encouraging results provide support for continuing to investigate non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation approaches as an adjuvant treatment for AD patients.

  11. Forest Bio-disaster Status and its Basic Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Ruisheng; Yu Zhenliang; Du Shengming

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the characteristics and developmental trends of forest bio-disasters ( including disease, insect and rodent pests ) of recent years in China, summarizes the achievements of the basic researches supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, defines the main drawbacks, and proposes some important issues to be highlighted in the basic research in the future in order to integrate research resources, concentrate research objectives and toaccelerate the development of forest bio-disaster basic research in China.

  12. AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH OVER THE CHINESE PRODUCTS ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Roxana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the influence on the Asian products over the consumer decision making. We observed that because of the economic crisis most of the people are buying products made in China, although they now that the quality and the price are lower. The factors that change the habits and the consumer behavior decision making are: the lower wage, the small number of work places and the prices of the products. Regarding the low price of Chinese products quality, some times arouses suspicions. Romania is a parts of the European Union and on the market there are various products made in European countries but also products made in China. People with low wages from the last step of social classes are prone to buy lower prices products. Other consumers on the contrary became more sensitive and they prefer to pay more than to buy products made in China. The quality prevails over the price and sometimes over the quantity although the money to spend are dwindled. The crisis affected consumer behavior, consumers have become more attentive to the country of origin and the disposable income for shopping. In order to validate some of the ideas the authors undertook a quantitative online research. The research had as purpose to identify the main influences of the decision making when the consumer buys Chinese products. The chosen investigation was the selective survey, the research technique was the exploratory interrogation and the research instrument – structured in online questionnaire. After research we found that the economic crisis caused consumer behavior change as a result of diminishing the income buyers, the consumer is placed in a position to buy products of questionable quality at low prices, mostly from China. Lower purchase price often makes Chinese goods represent an attractive option for consumers. On the other hand, the quality of Chinese products has proven to not comply with the quality expectations of the consumers, based on

  13. Some remarks on the relevance of basic research in nursing inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Ullaliina; Ohlén, Joakim; Asplund, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to illuminate the issue of basic research in nursing and to problematize its relevance for our discipline. First, we asked leading nursing scholars in the Nordic countries to share their views on basic research in nursing. Thereafter, the ideas, views and suggestions of the scholars were amalgamated with insights from the literature and from the discussions in our project team. Our two guiding questions were: What role can basic research be assigned? Which, if any, forms of basic research can be identified? We found that basic nursing research may be seen as a necessary basis for applied research, as a contribution to applied research, or that the whole issue is seen as a pseudo-issue. We further found that basic nursing research can be seen as either contextual or general as well as either intradisciplinary or multidisciplinary in form. We conclude by the following three succinct remarks or assertions: that basic nursing research is not to be equated with biomedical conceptions of basic research; that basic nursing research may take place on several theoretical levels; and finally, that an indiscriminate dismissal of basic research in nursing may affect the cognitive autonomy of our discipline.

  14. Single-Subject Research: Basic Designs for Research in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Alan C.; Brusca, Rita M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses five basic single subject research designs used to study special education students: the ABAB (reversal), multiple baseline, multiple probe, changing criterion, and multi-element designs. Examples are provided of each along with information on data evaluation and limitations. (CL)

  15. Preliminary Results From NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, during 1999-2000, NASA has been conducting the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. The goal of the SERT activity has been to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). In pursuing that goal, the SERT: (1) refined and modeled systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging from the near-term (e.g., for space science, exploration and commercial space applications) to the far-term (e.g., SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, architectures, technology, infrastructure (e.g. transportation), and economics; (2) conducted technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both nearer and farther-term applications; and (3) engendered the beginnings of partnerships (nationally and internationally) that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications. Through these efforts, the SERT should allow better informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related technology research and development investments by both NASA and prospective partners, and guide further definition of technology roadmaps - including performance objectives, resources and schedules, as well as "multi-purpose" applications (e.g., commerce, science, and government). This paper

  16. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  17. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.

    2000-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  18. Exploratory Research on the Effect of Autonomous Learners to Team Learning within Healthcare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Patricia R.; Chalofsky, Neal

    2005-01-01

    How does individual learning impact team learning? Through an exploratory case study, data was collected from questionnaires, documentation review, observations, and interviews. Three themes emerged describing how an autonomous learner affected team learning. The results indicated that the autonomous learner influenced team learning through…

  19. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su [and others

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  20. Citation Analysis May Severely Underestimate the Impact of Clinical Research as Compared to Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F. J.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Peul, Wilco C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Citation analysis has become an important tool for research performance assessment in the medical sciences. However, different areas of medical research may have considerably different citation practices, even within the same medical field. Because of this, it is unclear to what extent citation-based bibliometric indicators allow for valid comparisons between research units active in different areas of medical research. Methodology A visualization methodology is introduced that reveals differences in citation practices between medical research areas. The methodology extracts terms from the titles and abstracts of a large collection of publications and uses these terms to visualize the structure of a medical field and to indicate how research areas within this field differ from each other in their average citation impact. Results Visualizations are provided for 32 medical fields, defined based on journal subject categories in the Web of Science database. The analysis focuses on three fields: Cardiac & cardiovascular systems, Clinical neurology, and Surgery. In each of these fields, there turn out to be large differences in citation practices between research areas. Low-impact research areas tend to focus on clinical intervention research, while high-impact research areas are often more oriented on basic and diagnostic research. Conclusions Popular bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index and the impact factor, do not correct for differences in citation practices between medical fields. These indicators therefore cannot be used to make accurate between-field comparisons. More sophisticated bibliometric indicators do correct for field differences but still fail to take into account within-field heterogeneity in citation practices. As a consequence, the citation impact of clinical intervention research may be substantially underestimated in comparison with basic and diagnostic research. PMID:23638064

  1. Citation analysis may severely underestimate the impact of clinical research as compared to basic research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nees Jan van Eck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Citation analysis has become an important tool for research performance assessment in the medical sciences. However, different areas of medical research may have considerably different citation practices, even within the same medical field. Because of this, it is unclear to what extent citation-based bibliometric indicators allow for valid comparisons between research units active in different areas of medical research. METHODOLOGY: A visualization methodology is introduced that reveals differences in citation practices between medical research areas. The methodology extracts terms from the titles and abstracts of a large collection of publications and uses these terms to visualize the structure of a medical field and to indicate how research areas within this field differ from each other in their average citation impact. RESULTS: Visualizations are provided for 32 medical fields, defined based on journal subject categories in the Web of Science database. The analysis focuses on three fields: Cardiac & cardiovascular systems, Clinical neurology, and Surgery. In each of these fields, there turn out to be large differences in citation practices between research areas. Low-impact research areas tend to focus on clinical intervention research, while high-impact research areas are often more oriented on basic and diagnostic research. CONCLUSIONS: Popular bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index and the impact factor, do not correct for differences in citation practices between medical fields. These indicators therefore cannot be used to make accurate between-field comparisons. More sophisticated bibliometric indicators do correct for field differences but still fail to take into account within-field heterogeneity in citation practices. As a consequence, the citation impact of clinical intervention research may be substantially underestimated in comparison with basic and diagnostic research.

  2. A Methodological Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Sexuality Research: Used Practices, Best Practices, and Data Analysis Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaluk, John K; Short, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Sexuality researchers frequently use exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to illuminate the distinguishable theoretical constructs assessed by a set of variables. EFA entails a substantive number of analytic decisions to be made with respect to sample size determination, and how factors are extracted, rotated, and retained. The available analytic options, however, are not all equally empirically rigorous. We discuss the commonly available options for conducting EFA and which options constitute best practices for EFA. We also present the results of a methodological review of the analytic options for EFA used by sexuality researchers in more than 200 EFAs, published in more than 160 articles and chapters from 1974 to 2014, in a sample of sexuality research journals. Our review reveals that best practices for EFA are actually those least frequently used by sexuality researchers. We introduce freely available analytic resources to help make it easier for sexuality researchers to adhere to best practices when conducting EFAs in their own research.

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF BASIC RESEARCH IN INFORMATION SCIENCES TO MACHINE DOCUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information sciences are considered as those basic to the understanding and creation of information systems, i.e. the apparatus or organizations for...carrying out and connecting the steps in the creation of information. Four functional areas to the information sciences are listed: pattern

  4. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  5. Exploring the Forensics Community: The Need for Stronger Basic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, David S.

    This paper surveys forensics research broadly over the last 26 years and argues for research that more comprehensively accounts for forensics in its full range of activity. Forensics research has historically tended to focus on one area of competition. The paper argues for more research that conceptualizes the activity across these practices and…

  6. Researching Historical Problems. An Introduction to Basic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael Stuart

    The Dartmouth College Library has produced this slide/tape individualized instruction module to assist students in researching historical problems. The 79-slide lesson begins with methods of organizing a search and continues through collecting information and analyzing the utility of research strategy. Information sources cited include numerous…

  7. Stem cells: basic research on health, from ethics to panacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though stem cell therapies are still under experimentation, the media has represented them as a panacea that would cure all diseases. This fact secured the authorization for using human embryos as research material. Therapies include manipulation of human material in tissue bioengineering, suggesting a representation of the body as a factory. This article describes stem cell research projects being carried out in the health sciences center of a higher education institution, focusing on field organization and on the system of values underlying scientific activity. Researchers at different levels were interviewed about perspectives on, and implications of, their research in order to analyze the discourse of the projects' participants. Experiments with adult stem cells enjoyed wide support, while the use of human embryos was disputed. The foundations of those arguments were sought in their relation both to the structure of the scientific field and to the researchers' religious background.

  8. An introduction to the partial least squares approach to structural equation modelling: a method for exploratory psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Julien; Guyon, Hervé; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    In psychiatry and psychology, relationship patterns connecting disorders and risk factors are always complex and intricate. Advanced statistical methods have been developed to overcome this issue, the most common being structural equation modelling (SEM). The main approach to SEM (CB-SEM for covariance-based SEM) has been widely used by psychiatry and psychology researchers to test whether a comprehensive theoretical model is compatible with observed data. While the validity of this approach method has been demonstrated, its application is limited in some situations, such as early-stage exploratory studies using small sample sizes. The partial least squares approach to SEM (PLS-SEM) has risen in many scientific fields as an alternative method that is especially useful when sample size restricts the use of CB-SEM. In this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to PLS-SEM intended to CB-SEM users in psychiatric and psychological fields, with an illustration using data on suicidality among prisoners. Researchers in these fields could benefit from PLS-SEM, a promising exploratory technique well adapted to studies on infrequent diseases or specific population subsets. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The application of 10CFR830. 120 in a basic research environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1991-04-01

    In this paper, I describe the process of applying the 10 basic criteria of the proposed 10CFR830.120 to a basic research environment like Fermilab and discuss some of the issues associated with the implementation of such a program. I will also discuss some of the differences and similarities between the 18 basic elements of NQA-1 and the 10 criteria of 10CFR830.120 along with the more philosophical'' issues associated with performance versus process- based approach to quality in basic research.

  10. Basic or clinical research of several parasitoses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋次鹏

    2002-01-01

    @@ In this special issue, a few research papers, in the field of medic al parasitology are related to protozoa (viseral leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, giardiasis), trematode (schistosomiasis), cestode (echinococcosis) and medical in sect (myiasis) from different institutions in China are presented.

  11. Melodic Intonation Therapy: Back to Basics for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eZumbansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a critical review of the literature on Melodic intonation therapy (MIT, one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca’s aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, MIT is a program, not a single speech facilitation technique. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rational is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT’s efficacy do not match MIT’s therapeutic goal and rationale. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of MIT’s main speech facilitation technique (i.e., intoned-speech and the effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this duration factor. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies.

  12. Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies.

  13. Decellularized myocardial matrix hydrogels: In basic research and preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond M; Christman, Karen L

    2016-01-15

    A variety of decellularized materials have been developed that have demonstrated potential for treating cardiovascular diseases and improving our understanding of cardiac development. Of these biomaterials, decellularized myocardial matrix hydrogels have shown great promise for creating cellular microenvironments representative of the native cardiac tissue and treating the heart after a myocardial infarction. Decellularized myocardial matrix hydrogels derived from porcine cardiac tissue form a nanofibrous hydrogel once thermally induced at physiological temperatures. Use of isolated cardiac extracellular matrix in 2D and 3D in vitro platforms has demonstrated the capability to provide tissue specific cues for cardiac cell growth and differentiation. Testing of the myocardial matrix hydrogel as a therapy after myocardial infarction in both small and large animal models has demonstrated improved left ventricular function, increased cardiac muscle, and cellular recruitment into the treated infarct. Based on these results, steps are currently being taken to translate these hydrogels into a clinically used injectable biomaterial therapy. In this review, we will focus on the basic science and preclinical studies that have accelerated the development of decellularized myocardial matrix hydrogels into an emerging novel therapy for treating the heart after a myocardial infarction.

  14. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  15. Basic research needs and opportunities on interfaces in solar materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A. W.; Gottschall, R. J. [eds.

    1981-04-01

    The workshop on research needs and recommended research programs on interfaces in solar energy conversion devices was held June 30-July 3, 1980. The papers deal mainly with solid-solid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces, sometimes involving multilayer solid-solid interfaces. They deal mainly with instrumental techniques of studying these interfaces so they can be optimized, so they can be fabricated with quality control and so changes with time can be forecast. The latter is required because a long lifetime (20 yrs is suggested) is necessary for economic reasons. Fifteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  17. Basic research in crystalline and noncrystalline ceramic systems. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingery, W. D.; Coble, R. L.

    1968-04-01

    Various research subjects on ceramics have been investigated, including heat conduction, surface characteristics, diffusion in oxides, high-temperature kinetic processes, microstructure development, effects of microstructure on properties, structure and properties of noncrystalline ceramics, dissolution kinetics, and solid-vapor reactions. (DLC)

  18. Disrupting Improvised Explosive Device Terror Campaigns: Basic Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    culturally appropriate manner. Advances in a broad variety of fields—such as political communication , viral marketing,1 and marketing science—can...from political communication to viral marketing13 and marketing science—can contribute to this research. Network and Threat Dynamics The

  19. Superconductors at the nanoscale from basic research to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moshchalkov, Victor; Bending, Simon; Tafuri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    By covering theory, design and fabrication of nanostructured superconducting materials, this monograph is an invaluable resource for research and development. Examples are energy saving solutions for industrial applications in the areas of electricity grids, healthcare, and communication technologies. Key ingredients are nanopatterned materials which help to improve the superconducting critical parameters and lead to novel functionalities.

  20. Basic Writing Placement with Holistically Scored Essays: Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Richard N., Jr.; Hoyt, Jeff E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of timed-essay exams has increased, becoming part of the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) in the late 1990s and now being incorporated into The College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) in Spring of 2005 and ACT (American College Testing) test in Fall of 2004. This research evaluates the "value…

  1. Overview of the Basic Research on Vascular Surgery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanZui; DongErdan; ChenDejie; YeXingsheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental research projects on Vascular Surgery supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 1996 to 2000, and presents the experimental results and advances in the aspects of ischemia disease, the formation mechanism and prevention of restenosis, the development of abdominal aorta aneurysm and portal hypertention.

  2. Using Calibrated Peer Review to Teach Basic Research Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Marianne S.; Graveel, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an online tool being used in the class Introduction to Agriculture and Purdue University (AGR 10100) to integrate a writing and research component (http://cpr.molsci.ucla.edu/Home.aspx). Calibrated Peer Review combines the ability to create writing intensive assignments with an introduction to the peer-review…

  3. Basic Research in HIV vaccinology is hampered by reductionist thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H V Van Regenmortel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the structure-based reverse vaccinology approach aimed at developing vaccine immunogens capable of inducing antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1. Some basic principles of protein immunochemistry are reviewed and the implications of the extensive polyspecificity of antibodies for vaccine development are underlined. Although it is natural for investigators to want to know the cause of an effective immunological intervention, the classic notion of causality is shown to have little explanatory value for a system as complex as the immune system, where any observed effect always results from many interactions between a large number of components. Causal explanations are reductive because a single factor is singled out for attention and given undue explanatory weight on its own. Other examples of the negative impact of reductionist thinking on HIV vaccine development are discussed. These include 1 the failure to distinguish between the chemical nature of antigenicity and the biological nature of immunogenicity, 2 the belief that when an HIV-1 epitope is reconstructed by rational design to better fit a neutralizing Mab, this will produce an immunogen able to elicit Abs with the same neutralizing capacity as the Ab used as template for designing the antigen 3 the belief that protection against infection can be analysed at the level of individual molecular interactions although it has meaning only at the level of an entire organism.The numerous unsuccessful strategies that have been used to design HIV-1 vaccine immunogens are described and it is suggested that the convergence of so many negative experimental results, justifies the conclusion that reverse vaccinology is unlikely to lead to the development of a preventive HIV-1 vaccine. Immune correlates of protection in vaccinees have not yet been identified because this will become feasible only retrospectively once an effective vaccine exists.

  4. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  5. Crystallography for university research: some basic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    An overview of commonly available, state-of-the-art diffraction techniques for university research is presented based on some chemical case studies. Examples from the Fribourg crystallography service are presented, aimed at scientists who would like to learn about the principal possibilities that X-ray powder and single-crystal diffraction can offer, how these methods can serve to determine the structure of a given material, and how they can help to identify polymorphs, surface coatings and enantiomers.

  6. Basic Research in Artificial Intelligence and Foundations of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Rover, Proc. 6th Int. Joint Conf. on Artiftial Intelligence, Tokyo, Japan, August 98. McCarthy, John. Ascribing Mental 1979, pp. 589-601. Qualities to...Semantics, Comunicaciones Tecnicas (in Spanish). Blue Series: monographs. Center 1 17. Nevatia, R., T.O. Binford; Structured for Research in Applied...Ron Goldman, AL Users’ Manual. + AIM-326 CS-725 136 pages, January 1979. Cost: 15.50 McCarthy, John, Ascribing Mental Qualities to Machines. This

  7. Research of basic forms of realization of international business

    OpenAIRE

    Сазонець, Ольга Миколаївна; Качан, Олена Іванівна

    2015-01-01

    For the successful functioning of the national economy it is necessary for a state to participate in external economic relations, which draws the increasing of the volume of international business. After determining the nature of relationships and selection of the target market cooperation it is important to choose the form of the international relations. The purpose of this research has been to investigate current forms and ways of international enterprise activity which enabled to specify, ...

  8. Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

  9. Tumor banks: the cornerstone of basic research in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina T. Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Tumor banks have the primary responsibility for collecting, cataloging, storing and disseminating samples of tissues, cells and fluids, which are used by researchers to identify diagnostic molecular markers, prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets. The objective of this review was to describe a simple, reliable and reproducible protocol for obtaining and storing samples of urological tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urogenital tumor tissues were collected by the surgeons from the Urology Division of University of Sao Paulo Medical School. The obtained surgical specimens were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen, dry ice or in a tube containing RNAlater ®, and then stored by cryopreservation (-80°C. A mirror fragment was fixed in 10% formalin processed routinely and embedded in Paraplast®. RESULTS: We developed a protocol for the collection, cataloging, storage, conservation and use of tumor samples. During a period of one year the Urological Tumor Bank of the Urology Division stored 274 samples of prostate, bladder, kidney, penis and testicle tumors of different histological types, 74 urine and 271 serum samples. CONCLUSIONS: Having biological materials characterized and available along with the clinical patient information provides an integrated portrait of the patients and their diseases facilitating advances in molecular biology. It also promotes the development of translational research improving methods of diagnosis and cancer treatment.

  10. Basics of case report form designing in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantala Bellary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report form (CRF is a specialized document in clinical research. It should be study protocol driven, robust in content and have material to collect the study specific data. Though paper CRFs are still used largely, use of electronic CRFs (eCRFS are gaining popularity due to the advantages they offer such as improved data quality, online discrepancy management and faster database lock etc. Main objectives behind CRF development are preserving and maintaining quality and integrity of data. CRF design should be standardized to address the needs of all users such as investigator, site coordinator, study monitor, data entry personnel, medical coder and statistician. Data should be organized in a format that facilitates and simplifies data analysis. Collection of large amount of data will result in wasted resources in collecting and processing it and in many circumstances, will not be utilized for analysis. Apart from that, standard guidelines should be followed while designing the CRF. CRF completion manual should be provided to the site personnel to promote accurate data entry by them. These measures will result in reduced query generations and improved data integrity. It is recommended to establish and maintain a library of templates of standard CRF modules as they are time saving and cost-effective. This article is an attempt to describe the methods of CRF designing in clinical research and discusses the challenges encountered in this process.

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  13. Basic Histopathological Methods and Breast Lesion Types for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Nengtai; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The in situ observation on the tissues, such as histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and in situ hybridization (ISH), is one of the most important methods in the biomedical scientific research. In this chapter we introduce the most often used methods-hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and double IF staining. H&E staining is used for general morphology by which the different pathological types of breast lesions are identified. The double IF staining is often used to study the protein-protein interaction on tissues for signaling mechanisms. This chapter also includes the histopathology of primary or simplified breast lesion types that is essential for applying the above methods and the reclassification of breast cancers by molecular markers.

  14. Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-02-01

    This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the

  15. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  16. New directions for QA in basic research: The Fermilab/DOE-CH experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-09-01

    This paper addresses the underlying problems involved in developing institution-wide QA programs at DOE funded basic research facilities, and suggests concrete ways in which QA professionals and basic researchers can find common ground in describing and analyzing those activities to the satisfaction of both communities. The paper is designed to be a springboard into workshop discussions which can define a path for developing institution-wide QA programs based on the experience gained with DOE-CH and Fermilab.

  17. Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions.

  18. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  19. 包容性领导的探索性研究%Exploratory Research on Inclusive Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段诚; 唐宁玉

    2016-01-01

    It is now a popular topic to research on inclusive leadership,however there is no unified opinion about inclusive leadership in research field.Based on Chinese culture about the understanding of inclusion,this research reviews past research on inclusive leadership,and through exploratory research especially through interview, I make a definition of inclusive leadership and propose some value about inclusive leadership.%包容性领导的概念正在成为研究的热点,目前对包容性领导的定义,学术界没有统一的认识,基于中国文化对包容性概念的理解,梳理包容性相关学术研究、文献,通过探索性访谈研究,对包容性领导的概念进行了定义,并提出包容性领导的价值。

  20. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study.

  1. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Mohr, R; Benbow, M E; Tarone, A M; VanLaerhoven, S

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council issued a report in 2009 that heavily criticized the forensic sciences. The report made several recommendations that if addressed would allow the forensic sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology and forensic entomology hinging on a framework built on basic research concepts in ecology, evolution, and genetics. Unifying both basic and applied research fields under a common umbrella of terminology and structure would facilitate communication in the field and the production of scientific results. It would also help to identify novel research areas leading to a better understanding of principal underpinnings governing ecosystem structure, function, and evolution while increasing the accuracy of and ability to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge can be built between basic and applied decomposition ecology research, culminating in science that could withstand the rigors of emerging legal and cultural expectations.

  2. Legal analysis of information displayed on dental material packages: An exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika Rathore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some of the dental materials possess occupational hazards, preprocedural errors, and patient allergies as suggested by evidence. With due consideration to safety of the patients and dental professionals, it is essential that the trade of these materials is in conformity with the law. Aim: To perform the legal analysis of the information displayed on the packaging of dental materials. Materials and Methods: The Bureau of Indian Standards sets guidelines for packaging and marketing of dental products in India. An exploratory cross-sectional study was performed using various search engines and websites to access the laws and regulations existing pertaining to dental materials packaging. Based on the data obtained, a unique packaging standardization checklist was developed. Dental laboratory and impression plasters, alginates, and endodontic instruments were surveyed for all the available brands. This study considered 16 brands of plasters and alginates and 42 brands of endodontic instruments for legal analysis. Legal analysis was performed using the direct observation checklist. Descriptive statistics were obtained using SPSS version 19. Results: The guidelines set by the Bureau of Indian Standards do exist but are not updated and stand as oblivious guards for marketing standards. Overall compliance to the guidelines was reported to be 18.5% by brands of alginates, 4.1% by plaster of Paris, and 11.11% by endodontic instruments. Wave One™ File reported maximum adherence with the guidelines as 66.7%. Conclusion: This study found lower rate of adherence to the guidelines, thus indicating insufficient information being disclosed to the consumers.

  3. A ProCoS II Project Final Report: ESPRIT Basic Research project 707

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, J. P.; Hoare, C. A. R.; Langmaack, Hans;

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the research and associated activities of the Europeancollaborative ESPRIT Basic Research ProCoS II project (no. 7071) on``Provably Correct Systems'' which ran from 1992 to 1995 is presented.This was a follow-on project to ProCoS (no. 3104) and ran inparallel with the ProCoS Workin...

  4. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  5. CAS Scientists Play an Important Role in National Basic Research Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Of the 39 research projects that kicked off in 2005 with the support from the NationalBasic Research Program (dubbed the 973 Program) across the country, 12 are hosted byCAS scientists (including two under the joint leadership with other departments).

  6. Patenting productivity and intellectual property policies at Research I universities: An exploratory comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mendoza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, the US government encouraged the cooperation of industries with universities in order to bridge funding gaps and cope with global competitive markets through legislations that allow universities to start spin-off businesses and to generate profits from patents. At the turn of the century, university partnerships with the private sector have greatly increased through research grants, licensing patents, and in some cases, the formation of new firms'mainly at research universities and in the hard sciences. In response to these entrepreneurial opportunities, university administrators developed intellectual property policies to facilitate the commercialization of research. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences across IP policies among nine research universities as potential sources of influence on faculty engagement in for-profit research ventures according to existing models of faculty role performance and achievement.

  7. The outline report of advanced basic engineering research in the fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The JNC has initiated the cooperation with universities and research institutes for advanced basic engineering on 1995. The number of research cooperation theme is increasing and satisfactorily improving in the forth year, 1998. The objective of this program is to promote the advanced basic engineering research with universities and research institutes in relation with the JNC's projects. The facilities and equipment of the JNC are mainly provided to the cooperation. The JNC has settled the research cooperation themes. The universities and research institute have applied to the themes with their issues, working plans and personnel. The JNC has selected the issues and personnel, and put into practice the cooperation with accepting guest staffs and/or research fellows from the universities. This report summarizes the results of the advanced basic engineering research cooperation executed in the fiscal year, 1998. The total number of issues is 34 for the 29 themes; those are categorized in to two groups. The one is related to the fast breeder reactor technologies and the other is on the environmental technologies. The 12 issues are finished in the fiscal year, 1998, in which the 9 issues are for the fast breeder reactor technologies and the 3 issues are for the environmental technologies. The themes/the issues, the host group, host key persons, university side key persons, a form of cooperation are summarized in the tables. The summary reports of research activities by the all cooperators are presented under the particular format. Those describe the total schedule, a form of cooperation, the research objective, the outline of research contents, main facilities for using, research status, research results, future schedules and bibliographies relevant to the research cooperation. The 25 tables and 158 figures are included. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. Exploratory investigation of the need for and feasibility of a Lower Atmosphere Research Satellite (LARS) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The need for and feasibility of a research satellite program for the intensive study of the lower atmosphere (the troposphere and lower stratosphere) is discussed. The priorities for scientific investigation of the lower atmosphere during the next decade are examined. The findings of the study are concerned with identification of those broad research issues of highest priority and, in particular, with those that are most appropriate for investigation from space platforms.

  9. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion of activity-systems to denote a virtual frame of activity that requires mutually coordinated action. The underlying assumption is that such framings may support the informal learning and reflective practices of actors, and especially so, when they are provoking...... and challenging. It is suggested that the prevailing ‘traditions’ of collaborative learning and knowledge sharing need to be challenged and complemented, if we are to be able to support the variety and the diversity in the repertoires of virtual learning activities. In order to conceptualize such activity......-systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...

  10. Willingness to pay for basic research: a contingent valuation experiment on the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, Gelsomina; Giffoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of countries and institutions are investing in large-scale research infrastructures (RIs) and in basic research. Scientific discoveries, which are expected thanks to RIs, may have a non-use value, in analogy with environmental and cultural public goods. This paper provides, for the first time, an empirical estimation of the willingness to pay (WTP) for discoveries in basic research by the general public. We focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle accelerator worldwide, where in 2012 the Higgs boson was discovered. Nobody knows the practical value of such discovery, beyond knowledge per se. The findings of our study are based on a dichotomous choice contingent valuation (CV) survey carried out in line with the NOAA guidelines. The survey involved 1,022 undergraduate students enrolled in more than 30 different degrees (including the humanities) at five universities located in four countries (Italy, France, Spain, UK). We ask two main research questions: Which are the ...

  11. 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yongtao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th Meeting of the China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research was successfully held in Xiamen,China from May 21 to 24,2008.Through evaluation,the Joint Committee selected 37 bilateral cooperative projects to grant in FY 2008,including 12 joint seminars and 25 joint research projects.The Committee members also made in-depth discussions on the issues of strengthening future cooperation and selecting the topics for the Northeastern Asian Symposium.

  12. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  13. Designing Libraries for Research Collaboration in the Network World: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Corrall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advances in technology and changes in higher education and research are forcing libraries to rethink the services they offer to researchers and how they are presented. Librarians are moving into “higher end support” and adopting new service models based on “deep collaboration” with academic partners. The internal arrangements that form the design of an organization can determine whether it achieves its mission under particular conditions. The present study explores how libraries in 24 leading UK research universities are organizing resources and services to support the research enterprise. Qualitative data were collected from institutional websites and other public domain sources and were analysed using matrix techniques. The results show a trend away from integrated library and computing service organizations; variety in institutional reporting lines, but predominantly in large professional service groups; consistency in internal library groupings, but variation in portfolio and job titles; expansion of specialist positions, with new functional roles complementing traditional subject liaisons; and dedicated spaces, working groups, and integrated websites promoting boundary-spanning activities. The findings confirm and extend prior work and are being used to design a large scale international survey.

  14. Software Engineering Researchers' Attitudes on Case Studies and Experiments : an Exploratory Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tofan, Dan; Galster, Matthias; Avgeriou, Paris; Weyns, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Background: Case studies and experiments are research methods frequently applied in empirical software engineering. Experiments are well-­understood and their value as an empirical method is recognized. On the other hand, there seem to be different opinions on what constitutes a case study, and abou

  15. The Use of Electronic Journals by Dutch Researchers: A Descriptive and Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbij, Henk; Ongering, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    Dutch faculty was surveyed as to their use of electronic journals. It was concluded that electronic journals have become indispensable for scientists and social scientists, and have a profound effect on information behavior, varying from methods of becoming aware of relevant articles to benefits on research.

  16. Moving in Unexpected Directions: Texas Elementary Uses Exploratory Research to Map Out an Evaluation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue; Ortloff, Debora; Weaver, Laurie; Vesey, Winona; Anderson, Mary; Marquez, Michael; Sanchez, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the actions taken by the members of the school leadership team at McWhirter Elementary Professional Development Laboratory School in Webster, Texas, when the results of the state reading assessment in spring 2010, had taken a sudden and dramatic drop from the previous year. The team designed an action research study to…

  17. Exploratory Fieldwork on Latino Migrants and Indochinese Refugees. Refugees. RIIES Research Notes No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.; Couch, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book presents six papers on Latino migrant workers and recent Indochinese refugees in the United States, most of which focus on problems of fieldwork. The book's three sections, "Migrant Workers,""Indochinese Refugees" and "Research Summaries and Reports," each contains two papers and an introduction. (1)…

  18. An Exploratory Review of Bangladesh Gas Sector: Latest Evidence and Areas of Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Professor A K M A Quader; Professor Edmond Gomes

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and explores the latest evidence from the gas sector of Bangladesh and highlights areas that would benefit from further research. The study reported actual consumption of gas by different sectors; projection of demands by various studies and plan documents; estimates of gas reserves and potential by various studies; and operation of the International Oil Companies (IOCs) in Bangladesh.

  19. AN EXPLORATORY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOR DETERMINING SPIRITUAL VALUES: EXAMPLE OF SECURITY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Sani MERT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibly no branch of social sciences has the lack of more information than the field spiritual assessment. Spirituality is being with the ‘self’ (spirit inside the person, and mostly even the person himself can not clarify that ‘spirit’s status, needs and desires. This research has taken a spiritual journey with the members of securit sector in order to discover the spiritual values they had and how they integrate these values with their institution. Using the interpretative phenomenology and conversing with the participants within the spiritual assessment approach that Hodge (2001a exposed, the research has reached the consequence that the securit sector’s fundementals of spirituality has been gained by the members in their early family era, and the further spiritual values to be set over these fundementals.

  20. AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH REGARDING CUSTOMER ORIENTATION AND PERFORMANCE IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA DANA OLTEAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present the importance of the customer orientation from themanagerial perspective and to analyze the influence of customer orientation over the performance indicators in thehotels from Mures county (Romania . For achieving this objective, the data have been collected by means of 42surveys addressed to managers and owners who are active in the industry of hospitability, and the results indicated apartial confirmation of the tested hypotheses and the results from previous international research. The conclusions ofthe study present importance for the decisional authorities associated with hotel units which desire to achieve thesatisfaction of the customers, gaining the brand loyalty and implicitly the desired economic efficiency and add to theinternational literature aspects referring to the industry of hospitality from Romania.

  1. Measuring e-Commerce Technology Enabled Business Value: An Exploratory Research

    OpenAIRE

    M. Adam Mahmood; Leopoldo Gemoets; Laura L. Hall; López, Francisco J.; Ritesh Mariadas

    2008-01-01

    While a plethora of anecdotal evidence exists, there is little empirical evidence on the value-creating potential of e-commerce technologies. The present research investigates whether firms using e-commerce technologies are successful in generating business value and, if so, what e-commerce drivers determine success and how to best use these drivers. This work shows how diffusion theory can be used to analyze the wide-spread utilization of e-commerce technologies and how they create business ...

  2. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy.

  3. Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies: an open-access resource for instrument benchmarking and exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Gosselin, Nadia; Carrier, Julie; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-12-01

    Manual processing of sleep recordings is extremely time-consuming. Efforts to automate this process have shown promising results, but automatic systems are generally evaluated on private databases, not allowing accurate cross-validation with other systems. In lacking a common benchmark, the relative performances of different systems are not compared easily and advances are compromised. To address this fundamental methodological impediment to sleep study, we propose an open-access database of polysomnographic biosignals. To build this database, whole-night recordings from 200 participants [97 males (aged 42.9 ± 19.8 years) and 103 females (aged 38.3 ± 18.9 years); age range: 18-76 years] were pooled from eight different research protocols performed in three different hospital-based sleep laboratories. All recordings feature a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and an electroencephalography (EEG) montage of 4-20 channels plus standard electro-oculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory signals. Access to the database can be obtained through the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) website (http://www.ceams-carsm.ca/en/MASS), and requires only affiliation with a research institution and prior approval by the applicant's local ethical review board. Providing the research community with access to this free and open sleep database is expected to facilitate the development and cross-validation of sleep analysis automation systems. It is also expected that such a shared resource will be a catalyst for cross-centre collaborations on difficult topics such as improving inter-rater agreement on sleep stage scoring.

  4. Patterns of Control in the Romanian Executive Agencies: An Exploratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin HINŢEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the patterns of Romanian ministerial control over executive agencies, based on the data collected in 2010 using the COBRA survey. Seven research questions were constructed starting from the major theories existing in the field aimed at describing and understanding the control patterns. The paper’s main conclusion is that ministries still prefer ex ante types of control in exchange to those after-the-fact, although some rather incremental shifts toward ex post control can be noticed.  

  5. Attitudes and Causes of Cheating among Mexican College Students: An Exploratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo arturo ayala gaytán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study extends the current state of literature on academic dishonesty, modeling the likelihood to engage in this practice in a private university in Mexico. Ten in-depth interviews with professors and college students were applied as a qualitative phase of the research in order to understand habits, experiences and perceptions about academic dishonesty. A survey with two hundred college students indicate that the number of incidents of cheating is significantly higher than standard estimations in the United States; the quality of students’ social networks is the most important factor explaining cheating and honor codes, whose perceived enforcement does not deter cheating.

  6. Glycan Arrays: From Basic Biochemical Research to Bioanalytical and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissner, Andreas; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-06-01

    A major branch of glycobiology and glycan-focused biomedicine studies the interaction between carbohydrates and other biopolymers, most importantly, glycan-binding proteins. Today, this research into glycan-biopolymer interaction is unthinkable without glycan arrays, tools that enable high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate interaction partners. Glycan arrays offer many applications in basic biochemical research, for example, defining the specificity of glycosyltransferases and lectins such as immune receptors. Biomedical applications include the characterization and surveillance of influenza strains, identification of biomarkers for cancer and infection, and profiling of immune responses to vaccines. Here, we review major applications of glycan arrays both in basic and applied research. Given the dynamic nature of this rapidly developing field, we focus on recent findings.

  7. An exploratory research on the role of family in youth's drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Sobia; Us Sahar, Najam

    2014-01-01

    Most of the researches in Pakistan are concerned with the aetiological factors of drug addiction among the youth. However, few studies seek to explore the social aspects of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the role of family, the influence of parental involvement, and communication styles in youth's drug addiction in a qualitative manner. Twenty drug addicts (age range 18-28 years) were taken as a sample from drug rehabilitation centres in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. A structured interview guide was administered comprising questions related to the individual's habits, relationship with family and friends, and modes of communication within the family. Case profiles of the participants were also taken. The rehabilitation centres offered family therapy and the researcher, as a non-participant, observed these sessions as part of the analysis. The demographic information revealed that majority of the participants were poly-substance abusers (80%) and the significant reasons for starting drugs were the company of peers and curiosity. The thematic analysis revealed parental involvement and emotional expressiveness as two major components in family communication. It was found that parents were concerned about their children, but were not assertive in the implementation of family rules. It was also found that the major life decisions of the participants were taken by their parents, which is a characteristic of collectivist Pakistani society.

  8. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  9. An Exploratory Research on Deviant Behaviors of Problem Patrons in Taiwan’s Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patrons of public libraries are more diverse and complex than those of other types of libraries, implying potentially more unexpected and difficult situations. Negative emotions such as frustration and anxiety are generated among librarians when they must handle problem patrons, an effort that may influence the work efficiency of librarians and their physical and mental health. This study conducted a semi-structured in-depth interview, using public service librarians in Taiwan as subjects, to explore the categories of problem patrons and their behavioral characteristics. According to the results, the behavioral characteristics of problem patrons can be divided into 6 categories: interfering with others, violating library regulations, influencing library works, improperly using resources and facilities, breaking laws, and exhibiting a psychological disorder as well as violating social norms. On the basis of the research results, this study offers suggestions for future reference when public libraries must handle problem patrons.

  10. Pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells: From basic research to applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro; Otsu; Takashi; Nakayama; Nobuo; Inoue

    2014-01-01

    Basic research on pluripotent stem cells is designed to enhance understanding of embryogenesis, whereas applied research is designed to develop novel therapies and prevent diseases. Attainment of these goals has been enhanced by the establishment of embryonic stem cell lines, the technological development of genomic reprogramming to generate induced-pluripotent stem cells, and improvements in in vitro techniques to manipulate stem cells. This review summarizes the techniques required to generate neural cells from pluripotent stem cells. In particular, this review describes current research applications of a simple neural differentiation method, the neural stem sphere method, which we developed.

  11. Comparison Research of Statistical Method in Exploratory Factor Analysis%探索性因子分析中统计方法的比对研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜

    2014-01-01

    Taking the selection of statistical method in exploratory factor analysis as the target, and in view of the distortion of calculation result due to improper selection of statistical methods in many literature using exploratory factor analysis, comparison research is done to the 15 statistical methods and suggestions are presented.%本文以探索性因子分析中统计方法的选择为目标,针对在许多应用探索性因子分析的文献中存在的统计方法选择不当致使计算结果失真这一现象,对探索性因子分析中的15种统计方法进行了比对研究,并给出了建议。

  12. Performance of ACMG-AMP Variant-Interpretation Guidelines among Nine Laboratories in the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Laura M; Jarvik, Gail P; Leo, Michael C; McLaughlin, Heather M; Akkari, Yassmine; Amaral, Michelle D; Berg, Jonathan S; Biswas, Sawona; Bowling, Kevin M; Conlin, Laura K; Cooper, Greg M; Dorschner, Michael O; Dulik, Matthew C; Ghazani, Arezou A; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Green, Robert C; Hart, Ragan; Horton, Carrie; Johnston, Jennifer J; Lebo, Matthew S; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Ou, Jeffrey; Pak, Christine M; Patel, Ronak Y; Punj, Sumit; Richards, Carolyn Sue; Salama, Joseph; Strande, Natasha T; Yang, Yaping; Plon, Sharon E; Biesecker, Leslie G; Rehm, Heidi L

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating the pathogenicity of a variant is challenging given the plethora of types of genetic evidence that laboratories consider. Deciding how to weigh each type of evidence is difficult, and standards have been needed. In 2015, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) published guidelines for the assessment of variants in genes associated with Mendelian diseases. Nine molecular diagnostic laboratories involved in the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium piloted these guidelines on 99 variants spanning all categories (pathogenic, likely pathogenic, uncertain significance, likely benign, and benign). Nine variants were distributed to all laboratories, and the remaining 90 were evaluated by three laboratories. The laboratories classified each variant by using both the laboratory's own method and the ACMG-AMP criteria. The agreement between the two methods used within laboratories was high (K-alpha = 0.91) with 79% concordance. However, there was only 34% concordance for either classification system across laboratories. After consensus discussions and detailed review of the ACMG-AMP criteria, concordance increased to 71%. Causes of initial discordance in ACMG-AMP classifications were identified, and recommendations on clarification and increased specification of the ACMG-AMP criteria were made. In summary, although an initial pilot of the ACMG-AMP guidelines did not lead to increased concordance in variant interpretation, comparing variant interpretations to identify differences and having a common framework to facilitate resolution of those differences were beneficial for improving agreement, allowing iterative movement toward increased reporting consistency for variants in genes associated with monogenic disease.

  13. Exploratory Research on Simulation of CO2-Brine-Mineral Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhu; Shiao hung Chiang

    2005-11-01

    Application of many carbon sequestration strategies requires knowledge of thermodynamic properties for the extremely complex chemical system of CO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl-CaCl{sub 2}-MgCl{sub 2}. This University Coal Research Phase I program has been successful and highly productive in exploring an approach to develop an equation of state (EOS) to describe thermodynamic properties in the above chemical system. We have compiled available laboratory experimental data and thermodynamic models, and evaluated their appropriateness for the carbon sequestration process. Based on this literature review, we provided an improved CO{sub 2} solubility model for the CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl system, which incorporates newly available experimental measurements funded by DOE, and is valid in temperature range from 273 to 533 K, pressure from 0 to 2000 bar, and salinity from 0 to 4.5 molality of NaCl equivalent. The improved model also greatly improves the computational efficiency of CO{sub 2} solubility calculations and thus is better suited to be incorporated into large computer simulation models (e.g., reservoir simulation models). The literature review and model development provided insights of the data needs and directions for future work. Synergetic collaboration with DOE scientists has resulted in simulations of injected CO{sub 2} fate in sandstone aquifer with a one-dimensional numerical coupled reactive transport model. We evaluated over 100 references on CO{sub 2} solubility and submitted two manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals. One paper has been accepted for publication in ''Environmental Geosciences''.

  14. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH REGARDING ROMANIANS' PERCEPTION ABOUT THE REGIONAL BRAND “MARAMUREª”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drule Alexandra-Maria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the expansion of touristic activities confirmed the importance of marketing activities in touristic regions. In tourism as well, globalization implies an unlimited number of options, and the traditional elements regarding competition and differences related to price or quality are no longer sufficient in efficiently differentiating the touristic region. A key factor in this sense is represented by the notion of place branding or, to be more precise, regional branding. Theoretical studies on this subject are relatively recent, and fewer compared with studies on traditional brands, for example. A practical research regarding a touristic region can thus provide a series of utile information that marketers can use in elaborating marketing strategies and, specifically, in the branding process. The study's main objective aimed at shaping the regional brand “Maramureº” using mainly projective techniques, scarcely used in studies of this kind in Romania, based on a sample of more than 200 respondents. The information obtained focused on the respondents' perceptions regarding the region of Maramureº as a touristic brand, the associations made, the values attributed to the region in terms of touristic potential, of touristic infrastructure, of weak and strong points of the touristic brand Maramureº, but also elements of the regional image and identity (at this point were considered certain associations with visual elements but also with its personality. By highlighting respondents' subjective and diverse opinions, it was aimed to point out some directions that would eventually guide a new approach of the brand for this touristic region. Also, the results of this study could represent a starting point for a program of regional development, funded through various local or European funds. Furthermore, based on the information obtained from respondents, it has been proposed a new logo of the region, as a first step in running a

  15. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

  16. Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Mary Beth; Design, M; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between basic science research and product design/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition of a medical device is broad and varied. This paper is aimed towards those devices which interact with tissue and are rooted in the tenets of science. Both the scientific method and the design process are compared with similarities and opposites identified. The paper concludes identifying fundamental principles of medical device development and highlights the importance of both entities.

  17. Recent advances in experimental basic research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-06-01

    The present work is a review of the results achieved in the experimental basic research on following rapidly developing modern topics of nanoscience and nanotechnology related to graphene and graphene-based nanosystems: reduction of graphene oxide and investigation of physical properties of reduced graphene oxide; fabrication and investigation of graphene quantum dots; study of light emission from excited graphene; fabrication and investigation of graphene nanopores; preparation and investigation of graphene oxide-liquid crystals as well as aqueous graphene oxide dispersions. Besides presenting the scientific content of the above-mentioned five topics in detail, we briefly mention promising and interesting works, demonstrating that the area of basic research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures is still being enlarged.

  18. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors:the Basic Design and New Research Directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The basic design principles and parameters of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) are reviewed.Furthermore new research directions,devices and applications suited for QWIPs are discussed.These include monolithic integration of QWIPs with GaAs based electronic and optoelectronic devices,high frequency and high speed QWIPs and applications,multicolor and multispectral detectors,and p-type QWIPs.

  19. Integrating Basic Research with Prevention/Intervention to Reduce Risky Substance Use among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eDick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Too often basic research on etiological processes that contribute to substance use outcomes is disconnected from efforts to develop prevention and intervention programming. Substance use on college campuses is an area of concern where translational efforts that bring together basic scientists and prevention/intervention practitioners have potential for high impact. We describe an effort at a large, public, urban university in the United States to bring together researchers across the campus with expertise in college behavioral health with university administration and health/wellness practitioners to address college student substance use and mental health. The project Spit for Science examines how genetic and environmental influences contribute to behavioral health outcomes across the college years. We argue that findings coming out of basic research can be used to develop more tailored prevention and intervention programming that incorporates both biologically and psychosocially influenced risk factors. Examples of personalized programming suggest this may be a fruitful way to advance the field and reduce risky substance use.

  20. Fourth annual workshop on management in basic and applied research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.W. [ed.

    1993-11-01

    The struggle to develop quality management concepts that ``map`` onto the cultural and work practices found in basic and applied research environments has been (for better or for worse) an attempt to differentiate basic and applied research from the nuclear industry. In the first (1990) edition of this ``Music Book`` proceedings, almost every laboratory that participated had a quality program that was traceable to, based on, influenced by, or in reaction to the nuclear quality standard ASME-NQA-1. This 1993 edition of the ``Music Book`` is very different in that almost every laboratory has developed a quality program that is based on, traceable to, or heavily influenced by DOE 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) and the DOE Standard; Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92). In order to construct a context for what follows and properly introduce the contents of this book, we want to briefly recount some of the highlights of the events that brought about this change, from the perspective of one who participated in the process.

  1. Review of the use of high potencies in basic research on homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; van Wijk, Roeland; Albrecht, Henning

    2011-10-01

    The HomBRex database includes details of about 1500 basic research experiments in homeopathy. A general overview on the experiments listed in the HomBRex database is presented, focusing on high dilutions and the different settings in which those were used. Though often criticised, many experiments with remedies diluted beyond Avogadro's number demonstrate specific effects. A total of 830 experiments employing high potencies was found; in 745 experiments of these (90%), at least one positive result was reported. Animals represent the most often used model system (n=371), followed by plants (n=201), human material (n=92), bacteria and viruses (n=37) and fungi (n=32). Arsenicum album (Ars.) is the substance most often applied (n=101), followed by Sulphur (Sulph.) and Thuja (Thuj.) (n=65 and 48, respectively). Proving, prophylactic and therapeutic study designs have all been used and appear appropriate for homeopathy basic research using high dilutions. The basic research data set to support specific effects unique to high dilutions and opposite to those observed with low dilutions is, to date, insufficient.

  2. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  3. U.S. Army Research Institute Program in Basic Research FY 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    comparisons data from plebes (freshmen) at a federal military academy. In general, the plebes ranked lower than the high school seniors on the importance of...0. Neither MIL Only College College/MIL Plebe (2007) Academic Comparison Groups 4 3.5 S2.5 • .. :•:?••- 0.5o ® Neither MIL Only College College/ilL... Plebe (2007) Academic Comparison Groups Contributions to Basic Science This project contributes to our understanding of the attitudes and behaviors of

  4. Magnet Science and Technology for Basic Research at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渡辺和雄

    2007-01-01

    Since the first practical cryocooled superconducting magnet using a GM-cryocooler and high temperature superconducting current leads has been demonstrated successfully at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM), various kinds of cryocooled superconducting magnets in fields up to 15 T have been used to provide access for new research areas in fields of magneto-science. Recently, the HFLSM has succeeded in demonstrating a cryocooed 18 T high temperature superconducting magnet and a high field cryocooled 27.5 T hybrid magnet. Cryocooled magnet technology and basic research using high field magnets at the HFLSM are introduced.

  5. Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Researchers in a Basic Research Center the example of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The study aims to identify whether researchers' entrepreneurial behaviour changed after the introduction of a formal technology transfer policy (TTP) within CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, a centre for fundamental research in particle physics. The chosen unit of analysis is the individual researcher with limited duration contract. An analysis of the background literature on entrepreneurial behaviour and factors affecting it was performed and parameters for analysis identified. A total of 103 responses to a specifically developed questionnaire were obtained and statistical analysis carried out to assess presence or absence of entrepreneurial behaviour and the factors affecting it. The theoretical framework was developed taking into account recognition by peers, network, character, prior knowledge, field of research and incentives and researchers and engineers were assessed for positive and negative correlations. One can conclude, in general, that the personnel shows a good degree of entre...

  6. Exploratory coprocessing research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Tse, D.S.; Malhorta, R.; McMillen, D.F.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-04-01

    The objectives of this quarter's work were to conduct coprocessing experiments in our new microreactor system, where the reactors are agitated by an electric reciprocating saw. Since Wyodak coal was shown to be more susceptible to pretreatment in the larger, 300-mL autoclaves, we decided to begin with this coal. Coprocessing experiments were conducted using pretreatments at 250{degrees}C and at 350{degrees}C, where a ratio of 1 part coal and 2 parts Maya ATB and 1200 psig of hydrogen was heated at 425{degrees}C. In each case the pretreatment increased the conversions, in agreement with the experiments in the larger autoclave. Based on hexane insoluble material, coal conversions ranged from 40% for conversions with no pretreatment, to 60% conversion with pretreatment at 350{degrees}C. The 350{degrees}C pretreatment gave the greatest degree of conversion which is consistent with FIMS pyrolysis data described in the previous quarter. In future work, pretreatment by other methods will also be conducted, as well as a more thorough evaluation of the aqueous pretreatment. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Basic neuroscience research with nonhuman primates : a small but indispensable component of biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Treue, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to ens

  8. Overview of basic and applied research on battery systems at Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, M. V.

    1979-01-01

    The need for a basic understanding of the ion transport and related effects that are observed under the unique physical and electrochemical conditions occurring in high-temperature, high-performance batteries is pointed out. Such effects include those that are typical of transport in bulk materials such as liquid and solid electrolytes and the less well understood effects observed in migration in and across the interfacial zones existing around electrodes. The basic and applied studies at Argonne National Laboratory, centered in part around the development of a Li(alloy)/iron sulfide battery system for energy storage, are briefly described as an example of the way that such an understanding is being sought by coordinated interdisciplinary research. 3 figures.

  9. Analysis of Research in Physical Activities of Slovenian Basic School Children in Recent Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavdija Strniša

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, physical activity is an extremely important segment of a healthy lifestyle not only for children but also for adults. Technological advances allow us to reach our goals with much less physical effort than was required of the individual in the past. Additionally, the fast pace of life and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle also contribute to reduced physical activity among the population. Analysis of published scientific articles in the field of physical activity among basic school students includes 15 research studies. They were included regardless of the origin of the publication and citation frequency. It can be seen that the most common segment of research in children’s physical activity is the gender perspective. Researchers are further interested in the effects of age, educational success, BMI, place of residence, frequency and time spent in physical activity, education and physical activity of parents, as well as the level of organization (organized / unorganized activity. Therefore it can be concluded that children’s physical activities are influenced by external and internal factors. Analysis of published research has shown that physical activity depends upon many internal and external factors. A higher level of physical activity is often detected with boys and children in urban areas, compared to rural ones. Physically active parents have physically more active children. A higher proportion of interviewed basic school students was found to participate in organized forms of exercise in comparison to the unorganized ones.

  10. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K. [comps.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Low-cost USB interface for operant research using Arduino and Visual Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rogelio; Pérez-Herrera, Carlos A

    2015-03-01

    This note describes the design of a low-cost interface using Arduino microcontroller boards and Visual Basic programming for operant conditioning research. The board executes one program in Arduino programming language that polls the state of the inputs and generates outputs in an operant chamber. This program communicates through a USB port with another program written in Visual Basic 2010 Express Edition running on a laptop, desktop, netbook computer, or even a tablet equipped with Windows operating system. The Visual Basic program controls schedules of reinforcement and records real-time data. A single Arduino board can be used to control a total of 52 inputs/output lines, and multiple Arduino boards can be used to control multiple operant chambers. An external power supply and a series of micro relays are required to control 28-V DC devices commonly used in operant chambers. Instructions for downloading and using the programs to generate simple and concurrent schedules of reinforcement are provided. Testing suggests that the interface is reliable, accurate, and could serve as an inexpensive alternative to commercial equipment.

  12. [Between bench and bedside: examples of clinically oriented basic surgery research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, H G; Foitzik, T; Runkel, N; Buhr, H J

    1997-01-01

    Animal experimental studies are an effective modality for testing new therapeutic strategies, provided that the animal model and the study protocol simulate the clinical situation. This is exemplified by various animal experimental studies on the therapy of infectious complications in acute necrotizing pancreatitis that were performed preliminary or supplementary to clinical studies. The results show that basic surgical research with close clinical orientation can be usefully and fruitfully combined with clinical studies and enables the academically active young surgeon to overcome the dualism between laboratory work and clinical practice.

  13. Proceedings of the 109th basic science seminar on research for quantum radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In the field of radiation measurement in next century, one of the main themes for researchers will be to develop new radiation detection techniques based on quantum effects. Thus three research projects for development of new neutron detection method using He-Ne laser cells, radiation-resistant optical fibers, and superconducting tunnel junction radiation detectors have been started five years before in our research group for quantum radiation measurement of the advanced science research center (ASRC) of JAERI. The joint workshop `Research for Quantum Radiation Measurement` was held as one of basic science seminars in ASRC on 19-20th of January 1998 on the occasion of the ending of the projects. There were many presentations concerning the above three themes and the participants had a good opportunity to exchange relating research information. This proceedings includes 13 papers of the presentations. It is not only useful to know the present status of advanced study but also very suggestive to see the direction and evolution of `radiation detection techniques based on quantum effects` in the future. (J.P.N.)

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  15. Proving and therapeutic experiments in the HomBRex basic homeopathy research database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, R; Albrecht, H

    2007-10-01

    The HomBRex database of basic research experiments on homeopathy indexes studies on biological systems including animal, human, plant, fungi and microbial organisms. Its objective is to index proving and therapeutic experiments on the Similia Principle and the role of dilution and succussion of substances in experimental biologic systems. The database was analyzed when it contained more than 1100 experiments in more than 900 original articles. The database provides information on 732 experiments using healthy human, animal and plant systems. These experiments were divided into 'ideal' model proving (475) and prophylactic (257) categories. It also includes 397 therapeutic experiments, in which an effect of a substance was tested in a diseased or disturbed system. A large number of substances were used, including high and low dilutions and potencies-191 substances in proving, 130 in prophylactic and 112 in therapeutic experiments. In general, basic research in homeopathy does not directly investigate the Similia Principle. We conclude, that from the overwhelming variety in organisms, diseased states, and substances, only a limited number of biological systems and states should be selected to study the Similia Principle.

  16. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Basic Research to Potential Clinical Applications in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Souza Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are derived from a direct reprogramming of human somatic cells to a pluripotent stage through ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. These cells have two important properties, which are the self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. However, the hiPSCs technology has limitations including the potential for the development of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities leading to tumorigenicity. Nowadays, basic research in the hiPSCs field has made progress in the application of new strategies with the aim to enable an efficient production of high-quality of hiPSCs for safety and efficacy, necessary to the future application for clinical practice. In this review, we show the recent advances in hiPSCs’ basic research and some potential clinical applications focusing on cancer. We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies.

  17. [Use of the in vivo microdialysis technique in basic and clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvídková, J; Nedvídek, J; Koska, J; Ksinantová, L; Vigas, M; Kvetnanský, R; Pacák, K

    2003-01-01

    Microdialysis is in vivo technique that permits monitoring of local concentrations of metabolites and drugs at specific sites in the body that makes it an attractive tool for the basic and clinical research. Microdialysis entered the experimental studies of the brain, and later also of the peripheral tissues such as adipose and muscle tissues, kidney, lung, eye, skin, and blood. There are several critical factors in the experimental implementations of microdialysis: the probe, the perfusion solution, tissue integrity, and the sensitivity of microdialysate analysis method. When the experimental conditions are optimised to give valid results, microdialysis can provide numerous data from the relatively small number of individual subjects. It can bring about detailed clinical information reflecting free metabolite and drug concentrations in studied tissues and/or in plasma. With the progress of analytical methods, applications and importance of the microdialysis technique in clinical and pharmacokinetic research and diagnostics will increase.

  18. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Luca

    2014-06-01

    During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  19. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Comai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  20. Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluisio, James T.

    1980-01-01

    Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences…

  1. The sweetness and bitterness of childhood: Insights from basic research on taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Bobowski, Nuala K

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we review findings from basic, experimental research on children that suggest that the liking of sweet and the dislike of bitter tastes reflect children's basic biology. Children are born preferring sweet tastes, which attract them to mother's milk and even act as an analgesic. They prefer higher levels of sweet than do adults, with preferences declining to adult levels during middle to late adolescence, which coincides with the cessation of physical growth. The level of sweetness most preferred by children has remained heightened relative to adults for nearly a decade, despite reductions in sugar, both consumed and in the food environment. In spite of these reductions, however, children's intake of sugar remains higher than that recommended by health organizations worldwide. In contrast to sweet taste, children dislike and reject bitter taste, which protects them from ingesting poisons. Although variation in bitter taste receptor genes such as TAS2R38 accounts for people's marked differences in perceptions of the same bitter-tasting compounds, basic research revealed that these genotype-phenotype relationships are modified with age, with children of the same genotype being more bitter sensitive than adults and the changeover occurring during mid-adolescence. This heightened bitter sensitivity is also evident in the taste of the foods (green vegetables) or medicines (liquid formulations of drugs) they dislike and reject. While bitter taste can be masked or blocked to varying degrees by sugars and salts, their efficacy in modulating bitterness is not only based on the type of bitter ligand but on the person's age. Children's heightened preference for sweet and dislike of bitter, though often detrimental in the modern food environment, reflects their basic biology. Increasing knowledge of individual variation in taste due to both age and genetics will shed light on potential strategies to promote healthier eating since chronic diseases derive in

  2. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  3. Fundamentos, Orientaciones, Areas Basicas y Procedimientos para la Investigacion Educativa (Bases, Guidelines, Basic Areas, and Procedures for Educational Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This document establishes the bases, general guidelines, basic areas, and procedures for educational research conducted in Colombia. The philosophy underlying research objectives is explained. There is special interest in social research concerning the condition of man and of the social groups that will be the targets of education, and in research…

  4. The basic research on the CDA initiation phase for a metallic fuel FBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Go; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kawada, Ken-ichi; Niwa, Hazime

    1998-03-01

    A metallic fuel with novel design has received great deal of interest recently as an option of advanced fuel to be substituted MOX fuel, however, the behavior at the transient has not been studied in many aspects. Therefore, for the purpose to show the basic tendency of the behavior and released energy at CDA (core disruptive accident) for a metallic fuel FBR and to prepare the basic knowledge for consideration of the adoption of the advanced fuel, Tohoku University and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have made a joint research entitled. (1) Target and Results of analysis: The accident initiator considered is a LOF accident with ATWS. The LOF analysis was performed for a metallic fuel 600 MWe homogeneous two region core at the beginning of cycle, both for an ordinary metallic fuel core and for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins. It was necessary mainly to change the constants of input parameters to apply the code for the analysis of a metallic fueled reactor. These changes were made by assuming appropriate models. Basic LOF cases and all blackout case that assumed using electromagnetic pumps were analyzed. The results show that the basic LOF cases for a metallic fuel core and all the cases for a metallic fuel core with ZrH pins could be avoided to become prompt-critical, and mildly transfer to the transient phase. (2) Improvement of CDA initiation phase analysis code: At present, it is difficult for the code to adapt to the large material movement to in the core at the transient. Therefore, the nuclear calculation model in the code was improved by using the adiabatic space dependent kinetics. The results of a sample case, that is a metallic fueled core at the beginning of cycle, show this improvement is appropriate. (3) Conclusion: The behavior at CDA of a metallic fueled core of a fast reactor was analyzed using the CDA initiation phase analysis code and the knowledge of the important characteristics at the CDA initiation phase was obtained

  5. Basic Research of Vibration Energy Harvesting Micro Device using Vinylidene Fluoride / Trifluoroethylene Copolymer Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, T.; Sasaki, T.; Nakajima, T.; Yamaura, S.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shoji, S.

    2014-11-01

    Basic research of MEMS based micro devices for vibration energy harvesting using vinylidene fluoride / trifluoroethylene (VDF/TrFE) copolymer thin film was investigated. The VDF/TrFE copolymer thin film was formed by spin coating. Thickness of VDF/TrFE copolymer thin film was ranged from 375 nm to 2793 nm. Impedance of VDF/TrFE copolymer thin film was measured by LCR meter. Thin film in each thickness was fully poled by voltage based on C-V characteristics result. Generated power of the devices under applied vibration was observed by an oscilloscope. When the film thickness is 2793 nm, the generated power was about 0.815 μJ.

  6. Research and Education in Basic Space Science The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Naimiy, H M K; Chamcham, K; de Alwis, S P; De Carias, M C P; Haubold, H J; Boggino, A E T

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agencyis holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of theworldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countriesof Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean(Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt,Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits ofthe workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshopslead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia,Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, andUruguay. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to networkthese astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and educationprogrammes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has beendeveloped for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in anuniversity environment.

  7. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels: a basic research joint program in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, J.-L.; Badjeck, V.; Barguet, L.; Barouh, C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Colignon, Y.; Hatzoglou, C.; Loyer-Prost, M.; Rouffié, A. L.; Sallez, N.; Salmon-Legagneur, H.; Schuler, T.

    2014-12-01

    AREVA, CEA, CNRS, EDF and Mécachrome are funding a joint program of basic research on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (ODISSEE), in support to the development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9-14% Cr ferritic-martensitic steels for the fuel element cladding of future Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. The selected objectives and the results obtained so far will be presented concerning (i) physical-chemical characterisation of the nano-clusters as a function of ball-milling process, metallurgical conditions and irradiation, (ii) meso-scale understanding of failure mechanisms under dynamic loading and creep, and, (iii) kinetic modelling of nano-clusters nucleation and α/α‧ unmixing.

  8. A Beginner’s Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Gie Yong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses exploratory factor analysis and gives an overview of the statistical technique and how it is used in various research designs and applications. A basic outline of how the technique works and its criteria, including its main assumptions are discussed as well as when it should be used. Mathematical theories are explored to enlighten students on how exploratory factor analysis works, an example of how to run an exploratory factor analysis on SPSS is given, and finally a section on how to write up the results is provided. This will allow readers to develop a better understanding of when to employ factor analysis and how to interpret the tables and graphs in the output.

  9. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  10. Why Flies? Inexpensive Public Engagement Exercises to Explain the Value of Basic Biomedical Research on "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Stefan R.; Cognigni, Paola; Denholm, Barry; Fabre, Caroline; Gu, Wendy X. W.; Linneweber, Gerit; Prieto-Godino, Lucia; Urbancic, Vasja; Zwart, Maarten; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrate model organisms are powerful systems for uncovering conserved principles of animal biology. Despite widespread use in scientific communities, invertebrate research is often severely undervalued by laypeople. Here, we present a set of simple, inexpensive public outreach exercises aimed at explaining to the public why basic research on…

  11. The NUTRA-SNACKS project: basic research and biotechnological programs on nutraceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Lambreva, Maya; Margonelli, Andrea; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Nutra-Snacks project aims at creating novel high quality ready-to-eat foods with functional activity, useful for promoting public health. The team is composed of seven research institutes and three SMEs from different countries whose activities span from basic to applied research providing the right technological transfer to small and medium industries involved in the novel food production chain. Strategic objectives include the application of plant cell and in vitro culture systems to create very large amounts of high-value plant secondary metabolites with recognized anticancer, antilipidemic, anticholesterol, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties and to include them in specific food products. To this end, the screening of a vast number of working organisms capable of accumulating the desired compounds and the characterization of their expression profiles represent fundamental steps in the research program. The information allows the identification of plant species hyper-producing metabolites and selection of those metabolites capable of specifically counteracting the oxidative stress that underlies the development of important pathologies and diseases. In addition, devising safe metabolite extraction procedures is also crucial in order to provide nutraceutical-enriched extracts compatible with human health. New biotechnological approaches are also undertaken including the exploitation of photosynthetic algal strains in bio-farms to enhance the synthesis ofantioxidant compounds and the design of novel bioreactors for small and large scale biomass production. Further outstanding objectives include the development of (i) safety and quality control protocols (ii) biosensor techniques for the analysis of the emerging ready-to-eat food and (iii) a contribution to define a standard for new regulations on nutraceutics.

  12. Without continuous basic research technology will stagnate and economy will be in no growth. Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2008-01-01

    knowledge. You can't stumble over the recombinant DNA technology. Even if we have the basic scientific results about genetics and how knowledge can be reproduced as shown in the Crick-Watson double helix model from 1953 it took twenty years before the first gene-splicing was able to be done. So we can't go...... directly from basic-sceince into working technology. But without basic-science we can't do anything....

  13. The Emergence of Inclusive Exploratory Talk in Primary Students' Peer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Antti; Hilppo, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine a prominent type of classroom talk, exploratory talk, in primary school peer interactions. Exploratory talk has been shown to be productive in facilitating problem solving and fostering school achievement. However, within the growing body of research concerning exploratory talk, the relation between exploratory talk and…

  14. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  15. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells:from basic research to clinical translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yelei Guo; Weidong Han

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of basic researches and clinical studies related to cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells has confirmed their safety and feasibility in treating malignant diseases. This review summarizes the available published literature related to the biological characteristics and clinical applications of CIK cells in recent years. A number of clinical trials with CIK cells have been implemented during the progressive phases of cancer, presenting potential widespread applications of CIK cells for the future. Furthermore, this review briefly compares clinical applications of CIK cells with those of other adoptive immunotherapeutic cells. However, at present, there are no uniform criteria or large-scale preparations of CIK cells. The overall clinical response is difficult to evaluate because of the use of autologous CIK cells. Based on these observations, several suggestions regarding uniform criteria and universal sources for CIK cell preparations and the use of CIK cells either combined with chemotherapy or alone as a primary strategy are briefly proposed in this review. Large-scale, controlled, grouped, and multi-center clinical trials on CIK cell-based immunotherapy should be conducted under strict supervision. These interventions might help to improve future clinical applications and increase the clinical curative effects of CIK cells for a broad range of malignancies in the future.

  16. Observing ben wyckoff: from basic research to programmed instruction and social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rogelio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2011-01-01

    L. Benjamin Wyckoff's seminal contributions to both psychological theory and application are the subject of this review. Wyckoff started his academic career as a graduate student at Indiana University, where he developed the observing-response procedure under the guidance of B. F. Skinner and C. J. Burke. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wyckoff refined his mathematical theory of secondary reinforcement. This theory was the impetus for his creation of an electronic simulation of a rat running a T maze, one of the first "computer models" of learning. Wyckoff next went to Emory University, leaving there to help create two of the most successful companies dedicated to the advancement of programmed instruction and teaching machines: Teaching Machines, Inc. and the Human Development Institute. Wyckoff's involvement in these companies epitomizes the application of basic behavior-analytic principles in the development of technology to improve education and human relationships. The emergent picture of Wyckoff is that of a man who, through his research, professional work in educational applications of behavioral principles, and active involvement in the civil rights movement of the 1960s, was strongly committed to applying behavioral science to positively influence human behavior change.

  17. Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex disease in humans: translational research from basic mycobacteriology to clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases, including mycobacterial disease such as tuberculosis (TB) and diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), is a very important element of global health. The gold standard in diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases remains clinical examination, combined with direct microscopic examination of sputum and culture of bacteria. Culture of slowly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and NTM (such as M. avium complex: MAC), can take up to 4 to 6 weeks, and in 10-20% of cases the bacillus is not successfully cultivated. Diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is complicated and time-consuming (usually at least 1 month). I have characterized the nature of MAC antigens and immune responses from the aspect of basic mycobacteriology, and then translated to clinical science. My multicenter study in Japan has demonstrated the usefulness of a serodiagnostic test to determine serum IgA antibodies against mycobacterial glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antigen for diagnosing MAC-PD within a few hours. To validate in a larger number of patients, at diverse geographic locations, and among other races, the test was also assessed the usefulness internationally in the United States and Taiwan. In this review, I discuss development of serodiagnosis of MAC-PD by translational research and international collaboration study.

  18. Basic versus applied research: Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the experimental physiology of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The German biologist Julius Sachs was the first to introduce controlled, accurate, quantitative experimentation into the botanical sciences, and is regarded as the founder of modern plant physiology. His seminal monograph Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) was published 150 y ago (1865), when Sachs was employed as a lecturer at the Agricultural Academy in Poppelsdorf/Bonn (now part of the University). This book marks the beginning of a new era of basic and applied plant science. In this contribution, I summarize the achievements of Sachs and outline his lasting legacy. In addition, I show that Sachs was one of the first biologists who integrated bacteria, which he considered to be descendants of fungi, into the botanical sciences and discussed their interaction with land plants (degradation of wood etc.). This "plant-microbe-view" of green organisms was extended and elaborated by the laboratory botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer (1845-1920), so that the term "Sachs-Pfeffer-Principle of Experimental Plant Research" appears to be appropriate to characterize this novel way of performing scientific studies on green, photoautotrophic organisms (embryophytes, algae, cyanobacteria).

  19. Research on the Basic Computer Application Learning Strategies in Rural Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI xia

    2014-01-01

    Fewer scholars in China fixed on the basic computer application learning strategies for rural students,in this paper, I want to discuss them for those students, and give them some helpful strategies to promote basic computer application learning in rural areas of China.

  20. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  1. Progress of basic research in Parkinson's disease in China: data mini-review from the National Natural Science Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heqi; Chen, Gang; Dong, Erdan

    2013-08-30

    This review is to analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of basic research of Parkinson's disease from 1990 to 2012. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Parkinson's disease, as well as hotspots in western countries, papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. Over the past 23 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of basic research of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Active microorganisms as drivers of dynamic processes in soil: integration of basic teaching into research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally lecture courses, seminars and even practical training are disconnected from real experimental studies and from ongoing research projects. As a result students passively participate in lectures and are helpless when they come to the laboratory to prepare their BSc or MSc theses. We introduce a training course, which is developed for Bachelor students to integrate the basic knowledge on soil microbiology and modern microbiological methods in ecological studies. The training course is focused on the importance of active microbial biomass as biogeochemical driver of soil processes. According to our concept soil functioning is closely related to and depends on the microbial activities, and only active microorganisms drive all processes. Despite this importance of active microorganisms, the most of methods are focused on the estimation of the total microbial biomass and fail to evaluate its activity. Our course demonstrates how the active physiological state of soil microorganisms can be related to the activity indicators such as respiration, molecular biomarkers and viable cell compartments (ATP, PLFA, RNA) determined in situ in soil. Each lecture begins with the set of provocative questions "What is wrong?" which help students to activate their knowledge from previous lectures. Information on on-going soil incubation experiments is integrated in the lectures as a special block. The students are required not only to learn the existing methods but to compare them and to evaluate critically the applicability of these methods to explain the results of on-going experiments. The seminars foreseen within training course are focused on critical discussions of the protocols and their adaptations to current experimental tasks. During practical part of training courses the students are associated in small research groups with a certain ecological tasks. Each group uses soil sub-samples from ongoing experiments and thus, the experimental data obtaining during the

  3. The value of basic research insights into atrial fibrillation mechanisms as a guide to therapeutic innovation: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijman, Jordi; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Voigt, Niels; Melka, Jonathan; Wehrens, Xander H T; Dobrev, Dobromir; Nattel, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an extremely common clinical problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current antiarrhythmic options include pharmacological, ablation, and surgical therapies, and have significantly improved clinical outcomes. However, their efficacy remains suboptimal, and their use is limited by a variety of potentially serious adverse effects. There is a clear need for improved therapeutic options. Several decades of research have substantially expanded our understanding of the basic mechanisms of AF. Ectopic firing and re-entrant activity have been identified as the predominant mechanisms for arrhythmia initiation and maintenance. However, it has become clear that the clinical factors predisposing to AF and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are extremely complex. Moreover, all AF-promoting and maintaining mechanisms are dynamically regulated and subject to remodelling caused by both AF and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the initial presentation and clinical progression of AF patients are enormously heterogeneous. An understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms is widely assumed to be the basis of therapeutic innovation, but while this assumption seems self-evident, we are not aware of any papers that have critically examined the practical contributions of basic research into AF mechanisms to arrhythmia management. Here, we review recent insights into the basic mechanisms of AF, critically analyse the role of basic research insights in the development of presently used anti-AF therapeutic options and assess the potential value of contemporary experimental discoveries for future therapeutic innovation. Finally, we highlight some of the important challenges to the translation of basic science findings to clinical application.

  4. An Exploratory Comparison Study of Inventor-authors with Their Non-patenting Peers in Research Productivity and Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-chia Scarlett Lo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the possible link between industrial technology development and scientific research, with specific focus on the development of industrial technology influences the inventor-authors’ performance on scientific research. In this study, patenting activity was seen as representation of output of industrial technology; advised theses, funded research projects and journal articles were used as indicators of scientific research outcome. The author tried to examine the patents granted to and research output generated by members affiliated with Taiwanese Universities to reveal the productivity distribution and research performances of inventor-authors and non-patenting peers by taking bibliometrics approach. Patenting Activity Index and Academic Activity Index were used for presenting research output. Results showed that Inventor-authors performed above average both in technology development and research activities. However, it is worth a closer look at the impact of collaboration and research strategies for future researches.

  5. The 15th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research held in Busan%The 15th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research held in Busan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 15th Meeting of the China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research was successfullyheld in Busan, Korea on June 16, 2011. 33 bilateral cooperative projects were selected by the Committee forFY2011, including 21 joint research projects and 12 joint seminars. The Committee members made indepth discussions on the issues of strengthening future cooperation and topics for the Northeastern Asian Symposium.

  6. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  7. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Benjamin E; Goldenberg, Neil M; Fairn, Gregory D; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Explosive growth in our understanding of genomics and molecular biology have fueled calls for the pursuit of personalized medicine, the notion of harnessing biologic variability to provide patient-specific care. This vision will necessitate a deep understanding of the underlying pathophysiology in each patient. Medical journals play a pivotal role in the education of trainees and clinicians, yet we suspected that the amount of basic science in the top medical journals has been in decline. We conducted an automated search strategy in PubMed to identify basic science articles and calculated the proportion of articles dealing with basic science in the highest impact journals for 8 different medical specialties from 1994 to 2013. We observed a steep decline (40-60%) in such articles over time in almost all of the journals examined. This rapid decline in basic science from medical journals is likely to affect practitioners' understanding of and interest in the basic mechanisms of disease and therapy. In this Life Sciences Forum, we discuss why this decline may be occurring and what it means for the future of science and medicine.

  8. Facts, fallacies, and politics of comparative effectiveness research: Part I. Basic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2010-01-01

    While the United States leads the world in many measures of health care innovation, it has been suggested that it lags behind many developed nations in a variety of health outcomes. It has also been stated that the United States continues to outspend all other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries by a wide margin. Spending on health goods and services per person in the United States, in 2007, increased to $7,290 - almost 2(1/2) times the average of all OECD countries. Rising health care costs in the United States have been estimated to increase to 19.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) or $4.4 trillion by 2018. The increases are illustrated in both public and private sectors. Higher health care costs in the United States are implied from the variations in the medical care from area to area around the country, with almost 50% of medical care being not evidence-based, and finally as much as 30% of spending reflecting medical care of uncertain or questionable value. Thus, comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been touted by supporters with high expectations to resolve most ill effects of health care in the United States and provide high quality, less expensive, universal health care. CER is defined as the generation and synthesis of evidence that compares the benefits and harms of alternate methods to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor a clinical condition or to improve the delivery of care. The efforts of CER in the United States date back to the late 1970's even though it was officially born with the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) and has been rejuvenated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 with an allocation of $1.1 billion. CER has been the basis for health care decision-making in many other countries. According to the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessments (INAHTA), many industrialized countries have bodies that are charged with health technology assessments

  9. Summary Report for Personal Chemical Exposure Informatics: Visualization and Exploratory Research in Simulations and Systems (PerCEIVERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Research Pathfinder Innovation Projects (PIPs), an internal competition for Agency scientists, was launched in 2010 to solicit innovative research proposals that would help the Agency to advance science for sustainability. In 2011, of the 117 proposals received from almost 30...

  10. Methodological Synthesis in Quantitative L2 Research: A Review of Reviews and a Case Study of Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke; Gonulal, Talip

    2015-01-01

    Research synthesis and meta-analysis provide a pathway to bring together findings in a given domain with greater systematicity, objectivity, and transparency than traditional reviews. The same techniques and corresponding benefits can be and have been applied to examine methodological practices in second language (L2) research (e.g., Plonsky,…

  11. PhysioNet: physiologic signals, time series and related open source software for basic, clinical, and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, George B; Mark, Roger G; Goldberger, Ary L

    2011-01-01

    PhysioNet provides free web access to over 50 collections of recorded physiologic signals and time series, and related open-source software, in support of basic, clinical, and applied research in medicine, physiology, public health, biomedical engineering and computing, and medical instrument design and evaluation. Its three components (PhysioBank, the archive of signals; PhysioToolkit, the software library; and PhysioNetWorks, the virtual laboratory for collaborative development of future PhysioBank data collections and PhysioToolkit software components) connect researchers and students who need physiologic signals and relevant software with researchers who have data and software to share. PhysioNet's annual open engineering challenges stimulate rapid progress on unsolved or poorly solved questions of basic or clinical interest, by focusing attention on achievable solutions that can be evaluated and compared objectively using freely available reference data.

  12. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  13. The theoretical research of basic function method in incompressible viscous flow and its simulations in three-dimensional aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Basic function method is developed to treat the incompressible viscous flow. Artificial compressibility coefficient, the technique of flux splitting method and the combination of central and upwind schemes are applied to construct the basic function scheme of trigonometric function type for solving three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically. To prove the method, flows in finite-length-pipe are calculated, the velocity and pressure distribution of which solved by our method quite coincide with the exact solutions of Poiseuille flow except in the areas of entrance and exit. After the method is proved elementary, the hemodynamics in two-and three-dimensional aneurysms is researched numerically by using the basic function method of trigonometric function type and unstructured grids generation technique. The distributions of velocity, pressure and shear force in steady flow of aneurysms are calculated, and the influence of the shape of the aneurysms on the hemodynamics is studied.

  14. The theoretical research of basic function method in incompressible viscous flow and its simulations in three-dimensional aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Fang; WU WangYi

    2009-01-01

    Basic function method is developed to treat the incompressible viscous flow. Artificial compressibility coefficient, the technique of flux splitting method and the combination of central and upwind schemes are applied to construct the basic function scheme of trigonometric function type for solving three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically. To prove the method, flows in finite-length-pipe are calculated, the velocity and pressure distribution of which solved by our method quite coincide with the exact solutions of Poiseuille flow except in the areas of entrance and exit. After the method is proved elementary, the hemodynamics in two- and three-dimensional aneurysms is researched numerically by using the basic function method of trigonometric function type and unstructured grids generation technique. The distributions of velocity, pressure and shear force in steady flow of aneurysms are calculated, and the influence of the shape of the aneurysms on the hemodynamics is studied.

  15. DNA repair helicase: a component of BTF2 (TFIIH) basic transcription factor. (research article)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Schaeffer; R. Roy (Richard); S. Humbert; V. Moncollin; W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); P. Chambon; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe human BTF2 basic transcription factor (also called TFIIH), which is similar to the delta factor in rat and factor b in yeast, is required for class II gene transcription. A strand displacement assay was used to show that highly purified preparation of BTF2 had an adenosine triphospha

  16. Personality Characteristics and Learning Style Preferences of Adult Basic Education Students. Research Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others

    The study described in the report identifies personality characteristics and learning styles of adult basic education (ABE) students on the basis of three instruments: the Luscher Color Test, the Manzo Bestiary Inventory, and the Learning Preference Inventory. The volunteer sample consisted of 83 ABE students. Subsample comparison groups consisted…

  17. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  18. Centro de Biologia Molecular "Severo Ochoa": a center for basic research into Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jesus; Hernandez, Felix; Wandosell, Francisco; Lucas, Jose J; Esteban, Jose A; Ledesma, M Dolores; Bullido, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    One important aspect of studies carried out at the Center for Molecular Biology "Severo Ochoa" is focused on basic aspects of Alzheimer's disease, mainly the search for suitable therapeutic targets for this disorder. Several groups at the Center are involved in these studies, and, in this spotlight, the work they are carrying out will be described.

  19. Financing Basic Education in Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarrai, Samer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents education finance trends for Bangladesh since 2000. It shows that while government spending on education as a proportion of national income has stagnated, it has increased in real terms. Real increases in education spending have resulted in substantial increases in per student spending in basic education. At primary, enrolment…

  20. Differences in citation frequency of clinical and basic science papers in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a critical analysis is performed on differences in citation frequency of basic and clinical cardiovascular papers. It appears that the latter papers are cited at about 40% higher frequency. The differences between the largest number of citations of the most cited papers are even lar

  1. Faculty Motivations: An Exploratory Study of Motivational Factors of Faculty to Assist with Students’ Research Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Morrison

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the premise that collaboration with faculty is a core element for the success of an IL program, this study sought to investigate the intrinsic motivations of faculty to assist their students’ development of information literacy skills. Research into the relationship between faculty and the library and librarians has left many unanswered questions about why faculty value research skills yet appear to be resistant to opportunities to collaborate with a librarian. The question arises: does attitude sufficiently predict the behaviour of faculty? Motivation (the underlying energy and direction of behaviour may be a more likely predictor of behaviour. This article reports findings from qualitative study which sought to uncover the motivational factors of faculty to address the library research skills of students. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the fall semester 2004 with teaching faculty at the University of Guelph. Participants were asked to discuss their use of course-integrated library/research instruction. In its absence, faculty were asked how (if at all did they assist students to learn to do research. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Findings suggest that faculty are motivated by their desire to produce independent learners with transferable skills. Scholars look for potential students for the next generation of scholars – graduate students. They see a link between the development of research skills and readers –an audience for their work. Some participants who had not previously collaborated with a librarian described their own methods of integrating research skills development in the curriculum. Findings are encouraging and support librarians in their efforts to promote information literacy instruction as a critical skill in undergraduate education.

  2. Faculty Motivations: An Exploratory Study of Motivational Factors of Faculty to Assist with Students’ Research Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Morrison

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a qualitative study which sought to uncover the motivational factors of faculty to address the library research skills of students. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the fall semester of 2004 with teaching faculty, users and non-users of library instruction, at the University of Guelph. Participants were asked to discuss their use of course-integrated library/research instruction. In its absence, faculty were asked how (if at all did they assist students to learn to do research. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Findings may be useful to instructional librarians seeking to enhance collaboration with faculty. One finding is a suggestion that faculty are motivated by their desire to produce independent learners with transferable skills. Scholars look to potential students for the next generation of scholars – graduate students. They see a link between the development of research skills and readers – scholarly community, an audience for their work. Some participants who had not previously collaborated with a librarian described their own methods of integrating research skills development into the curriculum.

  3. Are We Validating More But Publishing Less? [The Impact of Governmental Regulation on Published Validation Research--An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Virginia R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined criterion-related validity studies published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology. The major changes are a decline in the volume of reported validation research, and a de-emphasis of aptitude tests as predictors. Changes are interpreted in terms of increasing governmental intervention in employment selection.…

  4. Researching of Coders Influence on Basic Measurement Signals Used in Optimal Test Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pocta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes processing basic measurement signals, which were used in test sequence with different coders. The determination of degradation degree of these signals and the elimination of these coders influences on these signals was the aim of this paper. At the end of this paper the test sequence is defined. We can use this sequence for intrusive measurement VTQoS in the networks, using the coders with lower transfer rate.

  5. Exploratory research for the development of a computer aided software design environment with the software technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Field studies were conducted by MCC to determine areas of research of mutual interest to MCC and JSC. NASA personnel from the Information Systems Directorate and research faculty from UHCL/RICIS visited MCC in Austin, Texas to examine tools and applications under development in the MCC Software Technology Program. MCC personnel presented workshops in hypermedia, design knowledge capture, and design recovery on site at JSC for ISD personnel. The following programs were installed on workstations in the Software Technology Lab, NASA/JSC: (1) GERM (Graphic Entity Relations Modeler); (2) gIBIS (Graphic Issues Based Information System); and (3) DESIRE (Design Recovery tool). These applications were made available to NASA for inspection and evaluation. Programs developed in the MCC Software Technology Program run on the SUN workstation. The programs do not require special configuration, but they will require larger than usual amounts of disk space and RAM to operate properly.

  6. Basic Research for Better Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primarily supports research that lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The Institute's research training programs help prepare the next generation of scientists. Each year, NIGMS-supported scientists increase our knowledge ...

  7. Initial phase of the Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research – A virtual centre at the interface of basic and applied weather and climate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weissmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research is a network of German universities, research institutes and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD. It has been established to trigger and intensify basic research and education on weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The performed research ranges from nowcasting and short-term weather forecasting to convective-scale data assimilation, the development of parameterizations for numerical weather prediction models, climate monitoring and the communication and use of forecast information. Scientific findings from the network contribute to better understanding of the life-cycle of shallow and deep convection, representation of uncertainty in ensemble systems, effects of unresolved variability, regional climate variability, perception of forecasts and vulnerability of society. Concrete developments within the research network include dual observation-microphysics composites, satellite forward operators, tools to estimate observation impact, cloud and precipitation system tracking algorithms, large-eddy-simulations, a regional reanalysis and a probabilistic forecast test product. Within three years, the network has triggered a number of activities that include the training and education of young scientists besides the centre's core objective of complementing DWD's internal research with relevant basic research at universities and research institutes. The long term goal is to develop a self-sustaining research network that continues the close collaboration with DWD and the national and international research community.

  8. How Asking a Very Basic Research Question Led Us to a Model for at Least Three Diseases | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Howard Young Editor’s note: This article is adapted from Dr. Young’s January 12, 2015, post to the I am Intramural Blog of the Intramural Research Program. When I started this project, it was not my objective to develop a model for any specific disease, nor did I even suspect that the ultimate result would be some insight into autoimmune disease. The basic research question I was asking was why there are sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA that are more highly conserved than in the coding region of the gene.

  9. Student science publishing: an exploratory study of undergraduate science research journals and popular science magazines in the US and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mico Tatalovic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Science magazines have an important role in disseminating scientific knowledge into the public sphere and in discussing the broader scope affected by scientific research such as technology, ethics and politics. Student-run science magazines afford opportunities for future scientists, communicators, politicians and others to practice communicating science. The ability to translate ‘scientese’ into a jargon-free discussion is rarely easy: it requires practice, and student magazines may provide good practice ground for undergraduate and graduate science students wishing to improve their communication skills.

  10. [Research on basic questions of intellectual property rights of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guo-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Han, Yan-Jing; Meng, Hong; Wang, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Along with the modernization and internationalization of acupuncture-moxibustion (acu-moxibustion), the issue of intellectual property rights has been becoming prominent and remarkable increasingly. In the present paper, the authors explain the basic issues of acu-moxibustion learning from the concept, scope, subject, object, contents and acquisition way of intellectual property rights. To make clear these questions will help us inherit and carry forward the existing civilization achievements of acu-moxibustion, and unceasingly bring forth new ideas and further improvement in clinical application, so as to serve the people's health in a better way.

  11. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  12. Research on the Architecture of a Basic Reconfigurable Information Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current information network cannot fundamentally meet some urgent requirements, such as providing ubiquitous information services and various types of heterogeneous network, supporting diverse and comprehensive network services, possessing high quality communication effects, ensuring the security and credibility of information interaction, and implementing effective supervisory control. This paper provides the theory system for the basic reconfigurable information communication network based on the analysis of present problems on the Internet and summarizes the root of these problems. It also provides an in-depth discussion about the related technologies and the prime components of the architecture.

  13. Team Exploratory Testing Sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Soili Saukkoriipi; Ilkka Tervonen

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory testing (ET) is popular, especially among agile development teams. In this paper, we study the team aspect in the ET context and explore how to use ET in team sessions to complement other testing activities. The goal was to define a team exploratory testing (TET) session approach and to provide evidence that the approach is worth using. A TET session approach is defined by means of parameters, roles, and process. Also, instructions for using the approach are given. The team is the...

  14. An economic and financial exploratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  15. Basic education and research in the classroom - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v35i2.20649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Stecanela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between the challenges of Basic Education, especially those related to contemporary school, and the research-linked educational challenges are investigated, based on theoretical reflections on the employment of research in the classroom as an educational principle. The arguments are foregrounded on the analysis of aspects associated to the genesis of education and school crises. Current paper focuses on the importance of the teachers’ reflective practice and on their constitution as researchers-teachers for the implementation of the language game provided by classroom research, taking into consideration Freire’s dialogue. It underlines the active teaching methodologies that try to bridge the communication gap between school cultures and children’s and young people’s cultures, linked to everyday life dilemmas and with experience-built knowledge.

  16. New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by NSFC,Prof.Wu Shuangqing from Huazhong Normal University conducted independent research on gravitation theory,discovered the exact solutions for the five-dimensional G(o)del charged rota-ting black hole in the universe,and made important headway in the characteristic research of black hole so-lutions.Part of the research results has been published in international top journal Physical Review Letters 100,121301 (2008).

  17. Periodontal research: Basics and beyond - Part II (ethical issues, sampling, outcome measures and bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Avula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A good research beginning refers to formulating a well-defined research question, developing a hypothesis and choosing an appropriate study design. The first part of the review series has discussed these issues in depth and this paper intends to throw light on other issues pertaining to the implementation of research. These include the various ethical norms and standards in human experimentation, the eligibility criteria for the participants, sampling methods and sample size calculation, various outcome measures that need to be defined and the biases that can be introduced in research.

  18. Thinking science with thinking machines: The multiple realities of basic and applied knowledge in a research border zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steve G

    2015-04-01

    Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course.

  19. Basics, common errors and essentials of statistical tools and techniques in anesthesiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    The statistical portion is a vital component of any research study. The research methodology and the application of statistical tools and techniques have evolved over the years and have significantly helped the research activities throughout the globe. The results and inferences are not accurately possible without proper validation with various statistical tools and tests. The evidencebased anesthesia research and practice has to incorporate statistical tools in the methodology right from the planning stage of the study itself. Though the medical fraternity is well acquainted with the significance of statistics in research, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge about the various statistical concepts and principles among majority of the researchers. The clinical impact and consequences can be serious as the incorrect analysis, conclusions, and false results may construct an artificial platform on which future research activities are replicated. The present tutorial is an attempt to make anesthesiologists aware of the various aspects of statistical methods used in evidence-based research and also to highlight the common areas where maximum number of statistical errors are committed so as to adopt better statistical practices.

  20. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Social Influence and Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses social influence and social cognition's effect on health and social well-being, and examines the efficacy of public health campaigns, the effects of negative stereotyping, and why some teenagers resist drug use and others do not as part of the social problems addressed by behavioral science research. Future directions for research on…

  1. Basics, common errors and essentials of statistical tools and techniques in anesthesiology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    The statistical portion is a vital component of any research study. The research methodology and the application of statistical tools and techniques have evolved over the years and have significantly helped the research activities throughout the globe. The results and inferences are not accurately possible without proper validation with various statistical tools and tests. The evidencebased anesthesia research and practice has to incorporate statistical tools in the methodology right from the planning stage of the study itself. Though the medical fraternity is well acquainted with the significance of statistics in research, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge about the various statistical concepts and principles among majority of the researchers. The clinical impact and consequences can be serious as the incorrect analysis, conclusions, and false results may construct an artificial platform on which future research activities are replicated. The present tutorial is an attempt to make anesthesiologists aware of the various aspects of statistical methods used in evidence-based research and also to highlight the common areas where maximum number of statistical errors are committed so as to adopt better statistical practices. PMID:26702217

  2. Basic research on intelligent robotic systems operating in hostile environments: new developments at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, J.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Oblow, E.M.; Saridis, G.N.; de Saussure, G.; Solomon, A.D.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    Robotics and Artificial Intelligence research carried out within the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is presented. Activities focus on the development and demonstration of a comprehensive metholological framework for intelligent machines operating in unstructured hostile environments. Areas currently being addressed include mathematical modeling of robot dynamics, real-time control, world modeling, machine perception and strategy planning.

  3. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  4. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nano-Optics : Principles Enabling Basic Research and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John; Silvestri, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of nano-optics, including basic theory, experiment and applications, particularly in nanofabrication and optical characterization. The contributions clearly demonstrate how advances in nano-optics and photonics have stimulated progress in nanoscience and -fabrication, and vice versa. Their expert authors address topics such as three-dimensional optical lithography and microscopy beyond the Abbe diffraction limit, optical diagnostics and sensing, optical data- and telecommunications, energy-efficient lighting, and efficient solar energy conversion. Nano-optics emerges as a key enabling technology of the 21st century. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physics through chemistry, to biology and engineering. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Erice, 4-19 July, 2015.

  6. Osteoarthritis year in review 2014: highlighting innovations in basic research and clinical applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, G J V M

    2014-12-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging area that will influence the treatment of joint diseases in the future. It involves the use of biomaterials, cell therapy, and bioactive factors such as growth factors, drugs and small molecules, to regenerate damaged tissues. This "year in review" highlights a personal selection of promising studies published between March 2013 and March 2014 that inform on the direction in which this field is moving. This multidisciplinary field has been very active, with rapid development of new technologies that emerge from basic sciences such as the possibility to generate pluripotent stem cells without genetic modification and genetic engineering of growth factors to enhance their capacity to induce tissue repair. The increasing knowledge of the interaction between all tissues in the joint, such as the effect of bone remodeling and synovial inflammation on cartilage repair, will eventually make tissue regeneration in a compromised joint environment possible.

  7. From basic to applied research to improve outcomes for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication: potential contributions of eye tracking research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve outcomes for individuals who require AAC, there is an urgent need for research across the full spectrum--from basic research to investigate fundamental language and communication processes, to applied clinical research to test applications of this new knowledge in the real world. To date, there has been a notable lack of basic research in the AAC field to investigate the underlying cognitive, sensory perceptual, linguistic, and motor processes of individuals with complex communication needs. Eye tracking research technology provides a promising method for researchers to investigate some of the visual cognitive processes that underlie interaction via AAC. The eye tracking research technology automatically records the latency, duration, and sequence of visual fixations, providing key information on what elements attract the individual's attention (and which ones do not), for how long, and in what sequence. As illustrated by the papers in this special issue, this information can be used to improve the design of AAC systems, assessments, and interventions to better meet the needs of individuals with developmental and acquired disabilities who require AAC (e.g., individuals with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, intellectual disabilities of unknown origin, aphasia).

  8. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jose Roberto P.; Bento, Jose Mauricio S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Garcia, Mauro S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil); Yamamoto, Pedro T. [Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura (Fundecitrus), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Vilela, Evaldo F. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Leal, Walter S. [University of California, Davis, CA (Brazil). Dept. of Entomology

    2004-12-15

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  9. Controlled research utilizing a basic all-metal detector in the search for buried firearms and miscellaneous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezos, Mary M; Schultz, John J; Murdock, Ronald A; Smith, Stephen A

    2010-02-25

    Incorporating geophysical technologies into forensic investigations has become a growing practice. Oftentimes, forensic professionals rely on basic metal detectors to assist their efforts during metallic weapons searches. This has created a need for controlled research in the area of weapons searches, specifically to formulate guidelines for geophysical methods that may be appropriate for locating weapons that have been discarded or buried by criminals attempting to conceal their involvement in a crime. Controlled research allows not only for testing of geophysical equipment, but also for updating search methodologies. This research project was designed to demonstrate the utility of an all-metal detector for locating a buried metallic weapon through detecting and identifying specific types of buried metal targets. Controlled testing of 32 buried targets which represented a variety of sizes and metallic compositions included 16 decommissioned street-level firearms, 6 pieces of assorted scrap metals, and 10 blunt or bladed weapons. While all forensic targets included in the project were detected with the basic all-metal detector, the size of the weapon and surface area were the two variables that affected maximum depth of detection, particularly with the firearm sample. For example, when using a High setting the largest firearms were detected at a maximum depth of 55 cm, but the majority of the remaining targets were only detected at a maximum depth of 40 cm or less. Overall, the all-metal detector proved to be a very good general purpose metal detector best suited for detecting metallic items at shallow depths.

  10. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  11. Impacts of Social-Emotional Curricula on Three-Year-Olds: Exploratory Findings from the Head Start CARES Demonstration. Research Snapshot. OPRE Report 2014-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Morris, Pamela; Mattera, Shira K.; Bangser, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This report presents exploratory impact findings for 3-year-olds from the Head Start CARES demonstration, a large-scale randomized controlled trial implemented in Head Start centers for one academic year across the country. The study was designed primarily to test the effects of the enhancements on 4-year-olds, but it also provides an opportunity…

  12. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  13. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    to become familiar with the particula rs of the research being done in different environments. This enables them to gain an understanding of the...performance, plasticity, brain-electronics interfaces 6. Nano -science and engineering: New structures, devices, manufacturing, and finding the nano -basis

  14. Making Department of Defense Basic Research Purple (Joint), but NOT the Department of Defense Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    outside of government, where they report to the chief executive officer (CEO) or to the CEO through a chief technology officer ( CTO ). The panel...Technology ASDR&E Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering CEO chief executive officer COE Center of Excellence CTO chief

  15. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  16. Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Orr, F. M.; Benson, S. M.; Celia, M.; Felmy, A.; Nagy, K. L.; Fogg, G. E.; Snieder, R.; Davis, J.; Pruess, K.; Friedmann, J.; Peters, M.; Woodward, N. B.; Dobson, P.; Talamini, K.; Saarni, M.

    2007-06-01

    To identify research areas in geosciences, such as behavior of multiphase fluid-solid systems on a variety of scales, chemical migration processes in geologic media, characterization of geologic systems, and modeling and simulation of geologic systems, needed for improved energy systems.

  17. Translating Basic Psychopathology Research to Preventive Interventions: A Tribute to John R. Z. Abela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…

  18. How Human Information Behaviour Researchers Use Each Other's Work: A Basic Citation Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Lynne E. F.; Goodall, George R.; Lajoie-Paquette, Darian; Julien, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if and how human information behaviour (HIB) research is used by others. Method: Using ISI Web of Knowledge, a citation analysis was conducted on 155 English-language HIB articles published from 1993 to 2000 in six prominent LIS journals. The bibliometric core of 12 papers was identified.…

  19. Organic solar cell exploratory research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalenty, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Principles governing the photovoltaic effect in organic materials on the molecular level are studied and applied to the design and fabrication of laboratory devices having a photovoltaic organic polymer film as their key element. Progress to date has been in three areas: (1) materials synthesis; (2) apparatus development; and (3) ultra-thin film fabrication.

  20. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  1. Primary Reconstruction of Completely Biologic Tissue Engineered Blood Vessel and Related Basic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionIt is a usual regiment to execute surgical treatments to vascular diseases, which need much more vessels than the acquirable natural ones. This requires necessary vessel substitutes of tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBV)~([1]). It is one of the present research focuses to reconstruct TEBV with decellularised vascular scaffolds~([2, 3]).Despite the fact~([1,2]) that some of the large-diameter (>5 mm internal diameter) TEBV have been successfully developed from polymers such as Dacron or expa...

  2. Improving Army Basic Research: Report of an Expert Panel on the Future of Army Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004. During the early 1990’s her studies with Dr. Richard Axel led to the discovery of a large gene family...dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates. 2004 Medicine : Linda Buck—odorant receptors...Research: An Uncertain Future for the Bell Legacy,” Prometheus , Vol. 21, No. 2, June 2003. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for

  3. Basic research of electro-rheological gel drum for novel linear actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, K; Yamaguchi, T; Oshima, T [Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama (Japan); Kakinuma, Y [Keio University, Kanagawa (Japan); Anzai, H; Sakurai, K [Fujikura Kasei, Tochigi (Japan)], E-mail: koyanagi@pu-toyama.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, robots that coexist with human are under active researches. Such robots need high safety, backdriveability, large generative force, high speed response, good controllability, and so on. We have put emphasis on the backdriveability and created a novel prototype linear actuator with an ER (Electro-Rheological) gel, a new functional material. It is an all-purpose actuator satisfying characteristics for human-coexistence welfare robot.

  4. Basic research in homeopathy and ultra-high dilutions: what progress is being made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Olioso, Debora; Marzotto, Marta; Bellavite, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    This report summarises the latest research developments in the field of high dilutions and homeopathy, as presented at the GIRI symposium of the leading international organisation of scientists in this field, in Florence, Italy in September 2012. The scientific community's early scepticism concerning the possible biological and pharmacological activity of highly diluted solutions, is giving way to a more open-minded attitude that no longer obstructs critical and experimental investigations in this emerging field of biomedicine.

  5. Compound facial expressions of emotion: from basic research to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Martinez, Aleix M

    2015-12-01

    Emotions are sometimes revealed through facial expressions. When these natural facial articulations involve the contraction of the same muscle groups in people of distinct cultural upbringings, this is taken as evidence of a biological origin of these emotions. While past research had identified facial expressions associated with a single internally felt category (eg, the facial expression of happiness when we feel joyful), we have recently studied facial expressions observed when people experience compound emotions (eg, the facial expression of happy surprise when we feel joyful in a surprised way, as, for example, at a surprise birthday party). Our research has identified 17 compound expressions consistently produced across cultures, suggesting that the number of facial expressions of emotion of biological origin is much larger than previously believed. The present paper provides an overview of these findings and shows evidence supporting the view that spontaneous expressions are produced using the same facial articulations previously identified in laboratory experiments. We also discuss the implications of our results in the study of psychopathologies, and consider several open research questions.

  6. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  7. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  8. Proceedings of the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) Toronto Think Tank: advancing basic and translational research and cooperation in DIPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ute; Hawkins, Cynthia; Vézina, Gilbert; Kun, Larry; Souweidane, Mark; Bouffet, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) nearly exclusively affects children. The prognosis of DIPGs has remained grim despite more than three decades of clinical research and numerous clinical trials. More than 90% of the children with DIPG will succumb within 2 years of diagnosis. The tumor's incidence is still undefined, but data suggest 100-150 affected children annually in the US. The single proven effective treatment modality in DIPG remains radiation therapy. For the majority of patients however this treatment is only of transient effectiveness. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the molecular biology of DIPG have raised new hope and opened new avenues for therapeutic options. The advancement of basic and translational research and cooperation was the objective of the Toronto Think Tank, as new approaches are urgently needed.

  9. Blastobotrys (Arxula) adeninivorans: a promising alternative yeast for biotechnology and basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Anna; Baronian, Kim; Kunze, Gotthard

    2016-10-01

    Blastobotrys adeninivorans (syn. Arxula adeninivorans) is a non-conventional, non-pathogenic, imperfect, haploid yeast, belonging to the subphylum Saccharomycotina, which has to date received comparatively little attention from researchers. It possesses unusual properties such as thermo- and osmotolerance, and a broad substrate spectrum. Depending on the cultivation temperature B. (A.) adeninivorans exhibits different morphological forms and various post-translational modifications and protein expression properties that are strongly correlated with the morphology. The genome has been completely sequenced and, in addition, there is a well-developed transformation/expression platform, which makes rapid, simple gene manipulations possible. This yeast species is a very good host for homologous and heterologous gene expression and is also a useful gene donor. Blastobotrys (A.) adeninivorans is able to use a very wide range of substrates as carbon and/or nitrogen sources and is an interesting organism owing to the presence of many metabolic pathways, for example degradation of n-butanol, purines and tannin. In addition, its unusual properties and robustness make it a useful bio-component for whole cell biosensors. There are currently a number of products on the market produced by B. (A.) adeninivorans and further investigation may contribute further innovative solutions for current challenges that exist in the biotechnology industry. Additionally it may become a useful alternative to existing commercial yeast strains and as a model organism in research. In this review we present information relevant to the exploitation of B. (A.) adeninivorans in research and industrial settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Asthma Update 2015--What Cell Biology in Basic Pulmonary Research Can Offer to the Pneumologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, M; Fehrenbach, H; Krauss-Etschmann, S

    2016-02-01

    Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases world-wide causing an enormous socio-economic burden especially in industrialized countries. Currently, asthma is increasingly considered to be a poly-symptomatic disease comprising a variety of different asthma phenotypes and endotypes. This heterogeneity of asthma explains why the standard treatment with corticosteroids and β-agonists cannot achieve full symptom control in all cases, especially not during acute exacerbations. Therefore, current asthma research focuses on primary prevention of asthma as well as on novel approaches towards a phenotype- and endotype-specific asthma therapy.

  11. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  12. Basic Research and Development Effort to Design a Micro Nuclear Power Plant for Brazilian Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimares, L. N. F.; Camillo, G. P.; Placco, G. M.; Barrios, G., A., Jr.; Do Nascimento, J. A.; Borges, E. M.; De Castro Lobo, P. D.

    For some years the Nuclear Energy Division of the Institute for Advanced Studies is conducting the TERRA (Portuguese abbreviation for advanced fast reactor technology) project. This project aims at research and development of the key issues related with nuclear energy applied to space technology. The purpose of this development is to allow future Brazilian space explorers the access of a good and reliable heat, power and/or propulsion system based on nuclear energy. Efforts are being made in fuel and nuclear core design, designing and building a closed Brayton cycle loop for energy conversion, heat pipe systems research for passive space heat rejection, developing computational programs for thermal loop safety analysis and other technology that may be used to improve efficiency and operation. Currently there is no specific mission that requires these technology development efforts; therefore, there is a certain degree of freedom in the organization and development efforts. This paper will present what has been achieved so far, what is the current development status, where efforts are heading and a proposed time table to meet development objectives.

  13. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, A; Sutter, G

    2017-01-01

    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology.

  14. Basic Principles of the Activity and Synergetic Approach as a Means of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolsunovskaya L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of interdisciplinarity as the main tendency of today’s science to unite the methodology and terminology and adapt them to any academic field in order to achieve more objective results in the study of complex phenomena. This article is a descriptive one and it deals with problems of terms’ interpretations and their adaptation to the anthropocentric research viewed by scientists of different academic schools. The main idea of the article is to find the most relevant and systemic definition of the given terms, which could be used as a tool in further linguistic analysis applied to the coming research of the authors. Special attention is paid to the description of the Activity Theory from different aspects of its interpretation: psychological, sociological, linguistic; to the explanation of the correlation between the epistemic structure of knowledge and an open non-linear synergetic bilateral (conceptual and lexical-semantic system influenced and motivated by processual factors to evolution in the modern discourse as the communicative activity of the interpreter and the constructor of discourse.

  15. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  16. Exploratory Practice and Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajino, Akira; Smith, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), a soft systems approach developed in management studies (see Checkland, 1981), can be usefully linked with Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research for language classrooms. Some compatible SSM and EP characteristics, in tandem, could enhance continual efforts to…

  17. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  18. Plasma facilities measuring equipment and high-voltage systems for basic research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W. [eds.] [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The report presents short description and the main technical data of various devices and systems designed and constructed at the Thermonuclear Research Dept. of the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) in Swierk n. Warsaw, Poland. Different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities of energy ranging from several kJ to 360 kJ, as well as the Ion Implosion Facilities of energy equal to 400 kJ, are shortly described. We present different cameras and analyzers used for studies of ions and X-rays. We also describe e.g. IONOTRONs used for material engineering. High-Voltage Pulse Generators developed for the voltage range from 40 kV to 2.4 MV, various Data Acquisition Systems, and special Vacuum Stands. Some selected technical units used in high-voltage systems are also presented. (author). 32 figs.

  19. Basic research needs and opportunities at the solid-gas interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, M. B.; Cathcart, J. V.; Hansen, R. S.; Kliewer, K. L.; Landman, U.; Park, R. L.; Shatynski, S. R.

    1982-04-01

    Solar energy conversion technologies which involve a solid-gas (S-G) interface in formation or operation and the means to study the related phenomena are reviewed, including thermoelectric and thermionic conversion. The analyses are considered as necessary for characterizing glasses, mirrors, heat mirrors, and transmitters using thermo- and photochromic modeling. Research is indicated on the glass-air interface, the air-solid interface encountered by antireflective coatings, the kinetics, and mechanisms of polymer degradation, and the development of new reflective materials. Absorber materials are explored, along with alternatives such as textured surfaces. Processes of formation, protection, and degradation of solar cells, particularly low cost thin-film devices, are explored, along with junction reaction and decomposition studies of thermoelectric devices and reactions of alkali metal vapors with thermionic devices.

  20. Global scientific research commons under the Nagoya Protocol: Towards a collaborative economy model for the sharing of basic research assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo; Broggiato, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to get a better understanding of the motivational and transaction cost features of building global scientific research commons, with a view to contributing to the debate on the design of appropriate policy measures under the recently adopted Nagoya Protocol. For this purpose, the paper analyses the results of a world-wide survey of managers and users of microbial culture collections, which focused on the role of social and internalized motivations, organizational networks and external incentives in promoting the public availability of upstream research assets. Overall, the study confirms the hypotheses of the social production model of information and shareable goods, but it also shows the need to complete this model. For the sharing of materials, the underlying collaborative economy in excess capacity plays a key role in addition to the social production, while for data, competitive pressures amongst scientists tend to play a bigger role.

  1. Research into the Application of ADO.NET in Visual Basic.NET%ADO.NET及在Visual Basic.NET窗体中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小玲

    2002-01-01

    ADO.NET是.NET框架中推出的一种基于XML的全新的数据访问技术.文章首先分析了ADO.NET的基本原理和DataSet的使用方法,然后探讨了Windows窗体中使用ADO.NET的技巧,最后给出了在Visual Basic .NET的Windows窗体中使用ADO.NET的一个完整示例.从而为在.NET框架中开发数据库应用系统提供参考.

  2. A Track Record on SHOX: From Basic Research to Complex Models and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Antonio; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    SHOX deficiency is the most frequent genetic growth disorder associated with isolated and syndromic forms of short stature. Caused by mutations in the homeobox gene SHOX, its varied clinical manifestations include isolated short stature, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and Langer mesomelic dysplasia. In addition, SHOX deficiency contributes to the skeletal features in Turner syndrome. Causative SHOX mutations have allowed downstream pathology to be linked to defined molecular lesions. Expression levels of SHOX are tightly regulated, and almost half of the pathogenic mutations have affected enhancers. Clinical severity of SHOX deficiency varies between genders and ranges from normal stature to profound mesomelic skeletal dysplasia. Treatment options for children with SHOX deficiency are available. Two decades of research support the concept of SHOX as a transcription factor that integrates diverse aspects of bone development, growth plate biology, and apoptosis. Due to its absence in mouse, the animal models of choice have become chicken and zebrafish. These models, therefore, together with micromass cultures and primary cell lines, have been used to address SHOX function. Pathway and network analyses have identified interactors, target genes, and regulators. Here, we summarize recent data and give insight into the critical molecular and cellular functions of SHOX in the etiopathogenesis of short stature and limb development. PMID:27355317

  3. Human engineered heart tissue as a versatile tool in basic research and preclinical toxicology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schaaf

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30-40% α-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5-10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz and strong (mean 100 µN contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research.

  4. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics, basic research, and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Joerg; Jansson, Volkmar; Maier, Markus; Delius, Michael

    2005-04-01

    The molecular events following shock wave treatment of bone are widely unknown. Nevertheless patients with osteonecrosis and non unions are already treated partly successful with shock waves. Concerning the first indication, the question of the permeation of the shock wave into the bone was addressed. Therefore shockwaves were applied to porcine femoral heads and the intraosseous pressure was measured. A linear correlation of the pressure to the intraosseous distance was found. Approximately 50% of the pressure are still measurable 10 mm inside the femoral head. These findings should encourage continued shock wave research on this indication. Concerning the second indication (non union), osteoblasts were subjected to 250 or 500 shock waves at 25 kV. After 24, 48, and 72 h the levels of the bone and vascular growth factors bFGF, TGFbeta1, and VEGF were examined. After 24 h there was a significant increase in bFGF levels (pshock wave treatment and may lead to a more specific application of shock waves in orthopedic surgery.

  5. A Track Record on SHOX: From Basic Research to Complex Models and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Antonio; Ogata, Tsutomu; Rappold, Gudrun A

    2016-08-01

    SHOX deficiency is the most frequent genetic growth disorder associated with isolated and syndromic forms of short stature. Caused by mutations in the homeobox gene SHOX, its varied clinical manifestations include isolated short stature, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and Langer mesomelic dysplasia. In addition, SHOX deficiency contributes to the skeletal features in Turner syndrome. Causative SHOX mutations have allowed downstream pathology to be linked to defined molecular lesions. Expression levels of SHOX are tightly regulated, and almost half of the pathogenic mutations have affected enhancers. Clinical severity of SHOX deficiency varies between genders and ranges from normal stature to profound mesomelic skeletal dysplasia. Treatment options for children with SHOX deficiency are available. Two decades of research support the concept of SHOX as a transcription factor that integrates diverse aspects of bone development, growth plate biology, and apoptosis. Due to its absence in mouse, the animal models of choice have become chicken and zebrafish. These models, therefore, together with micromass cultures and primary cell lines, have been used to address SHOX function. Pathway and network analyses have identified interactors, target genes, and regulators. Here, we summarize recent data and give insight into the critical molecular and cellular functions of SHOX in the etiopathogenesis of short stature and limb development.

  6. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication.

  7. 18 MArch 2008 - Director, Basic and Generic Research Division, Research Promotion Bureau, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Prof.Ohtake visiting ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    18 MArch 2008 - Director, Basic and Generic Research Division, Research Promotion Bureau, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Prof.Ohtake visiting ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  8. The Basic Research on Public Diplomacy%有关公共外交研究的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金正昆; 黄达

    2012-01-01

    As one of the new types of diplomacy,public diplomacy is being highly focused. The authors of this article stre- amline the existing fruits in the area of public diplomacy research and put forward his understanding of the definition,theo- retical sources, basic features and functions of the public diplomacy.%作为非传统外交的新形式之一,公共外交目前颇受关注。本文对近年来有关公共外交的研究成果做了较为系统的梳理,并着重对其提出与具体界定、理论来源、基本特征与主要功能进行了探讨。

  9. The Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Inflammatory Processes in Atherosclerosis: Evidence from Basic Research and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Montecucco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that the renin-angiotensin system is a crucial player in atherosclerotic processes. The regulation of arterial blood pressure was considered from its first description of the main mechanism involved. Vasoconstriction (mediated by angiotensin II and salt and water retention (mainly due to aldosterone were classically considered as pivotal proatherosclerotic activities. However, basic research and animal studies strongly support angiotensin II as a proinflammatory mediator, which directly induces atherosclerotic plaque development and heart remodeling. Furthermore, angiotensin II induces proatherosclerotic cytokine and chemokine secretion and increases endothelial dysfunction. Accordingly, the pharmacological inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system improves prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease even in settings of normal baseline blood pressure. In the present review, we focused on angiotensin-convertingenzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs, and renin inhibitors to update the direct activities of the renin-angiotensin system in inflammatory processes governing atherosclerosis.

  10. Research report of fiscal 1997. Basic research on the commercialization of innovative energy technologies; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kakushinteki energy gijutsu no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research result in fiscal 1997 from the basic research results on the commercialization of innovative energy technologies. The target of a photovoltaic power generation market includes isolated power sources (several kWp) for distant places or developing countries, and those (several tens kWp) for personal residences or public facilities. Although the former is mainly promoted in the West, while the latter over the world, their profitability is unsolved. Power plants over several hundreds kWp are in demonstration test. Solar heat power generation of several tens to hundreds MWp is most profitable, however, small-scale one is poor in feasibility. Australia takes an interest in distributed photovoltaic power generation directly connected with actual lives of residents, and has a dominant opinion that desert is useless as large-scale site. This country lays emphasis on protection and maintenance rather than positive use of desert based on a basic cognition that desert is easily changed and broken. The Australian government announced power company`s obligation to use renewable energy by 2%, and a strong organization is scheduled to be newly established. 59 figs., 57 tabs.

  11. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corr......This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...

  12. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 2:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of managers' and nonmanagers' responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that aerospace managers and nonmanagers have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices for three of the five assumptions tested. Although aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices, the evidence was neither conclusive nor compelling that the presumption of difference in practices could be attributed to the duties performed by aerospace managers and nonmanagers.

  13. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 3:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of profit managers' and nonprofit managers' responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community were found to have different technical communications practices for one of the five assumptions tested. It was, therefore, concluded that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community do not have different technical communications practices.

  14. Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article analyzes twenty cited or downloaded datasets and the repositories that house them, in order to produce insights that can be used by academic libraries to encourage discovery and reuse of research data in institutional repositories. Methods: Using Thomson Reuters’ Data Citation Index and repository download statistics, we identified twenty cited/downloaded datasets. We documented the characteristics of the cited/downloaded datasets and their corresponding repositories in a self-designed rubric. The rubric includes six major categories: basic information; funding agency and journal information; linking and sharing; factors to encourage reuse; repository characteristics; and data description. Results: Our small-scale study suggests that cited/downloaded datasets generally comply with basic recommendations for facilitating reuse: data are documented well; formatted for use with a variety of software; and shared in established, open access repositories. Three significant factors also appear to contribute to dataset discovery: publishing in discipline-specific repositories; indexing in more than one location on the web; and using persistent identifiers. The cited/downloaded datasets in our analysis came from a few specific disciplines, and tended to be funded by agencies with data publication mandates. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory research provide insights that can inform academic librarians as they work to encourage discovery and reuse of institutional datasets. Our analysis also suggests areas in which academic librarians can target open data advocacy in their communities in order to begin to build open data success stories that will fuel future advocacy efforts.

  15. Basic Research Needs for Electrical Energy Storage. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Electrical Energy Storage, April 2-4, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Abruna, H. D.; Buchanan, M. V.

    2007-04-04

    To identify research areas in geosciences, such as behavior of multiphase fluid-solid systems on a variety of scales, chemical migration processes in geologic media, characterization of geologic systems, and modeling and simulation of geologic systems, needed for improved energy systems.

  16. Research on the Basic Issue of Criminology%对犯罪学基本问题的再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向准

    2015-01-01

    As the pre-subject of Criminal Law, Criminology is based on the social needs to prevent and reduce crime.Its research point is the crime phenomenon, then uses it to analyze the crime causes and finds the effective crime prevention measures.Thus, Crim-inology is composed of the definition, causes and prevention measures of crime.Only by thinking of these basic issues can we realize the theory of Criminology and do the in-depth research.%犯罪学作为刑法学的前置学科,基于预防和减少犯罪的社会需要应运而生。其以犯罪现象的现实存在为研究基点,以剖析复杂多样的犯罪原因和寻求行之有效的防控对策为支撑共筑犯罪学的整体。因而,何为犯罪、为什么犯罪与怎样预防成为犯罪学理论的基本问题。只有对这几个基本问题加以思考和分析才能对犯罪学有所理解,从而进行更为深入的犯罪学研究。

  17. Conceiving "personality": Psychologist's challenges and basic fundamentals of the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-09-01

    Scientists exploring individuals, as such scientists are individuals themselves and thus not independent from their objects of research, encounter profound challenges; in particular, high risks for anthropo-, ethno- and ego-centric biases and various fallacies in reasoning. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) aims to tackle these challenges by exploring and making explicit the philosophical presuppositions that are being made and the metatheories and methodologies that are used in the field. This article introduces basic fundamentals of the TPS-Paradigm including the epistemological principle of complementarity and metatheoretical concepts for exploring individuals as living organisms. Centrally, the TPS-Paradigm considers three metatheoretical properties (spatial location in relation to individuals' bodies, temporal extension, and physicality versus "non-physicality") that can be conceived in different forms for various kinds of phenomena explored in individuals (morphology, physiology, behaviour, the psyche, semiotic representations, artificially modified outer appearances and contexts). These properties, as they determine the phenomena's accessibility in everyday life and research, are used to elaborate philosophy-of-science foundations and to derive general methodological implications for the elementary problem of phenomenon-methodology matching and for scientific quantification of the various kinds of phenomena studied. On the basis of these foundations, the article explores the metatheories and methodologies that are used or needed to empirically study each given kind of phenomenon in individuals in general. Building on these general implications, the article derives special implications for exploring individuals' "personality", which the TPS-Paradigm conceives of as individual-specificity in all of the various kinds of phenomena studied in individuals.

  18. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  19. Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

    2006-05-24

    The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

  20. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  1. Exploratory practice: A new perspective for college English teachers' research%探索型实践:高校英语教师研究新视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志恋

    2009-01-01

    英国著名语言学家Dick Allwright在行动研究的基础上提出了以理解语言课堂生活质量为宗旨的"探索型实践"(Exploratory Practice),其国内外影响正在逐步扩大.本文首先阐述它的内涵,然后从技术、知识和道德三个纬度分析它的演变过程,最后列举了三个教学事例,从不同侧面说明高校英语教师在日常教学中如何开展探索型实践活动.

  2. Issues in Basic Education. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 12. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    The back-to-basics movement in part has resulted from public alarm over the increase in functional illiteracy--students' inability to solve everyday problems requiring basic language and mathematics skills. Although not all its adherents are politically and educationally conservative, those who support fundamentalist schools certainly are. These…

  3. What can we do about exploratory analyses in clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyé, Lem

    2015-11-01

    The research community has alternatively embraced then repudiated exploratory analyses since the inception of clinical trials in the middle of the twentieth century. After a series of important but ultimately unreproducible findings, these non-prospectively declared evaluations were relegated to hypothesis generating. Since the majority of evaluations conducted in clinical trials with their rich data sets are exploratory, the absence of their persuasive power adds to the inefficiency of clinical trial analyses in an atmosphere of fiscal frugality. However, the principle argument against exploratory analyses is not based in statistical theory, but pragmatism and observation. The absence of any theoretical treatment of exploratory analyses postpones the day when their statistical weaknesses might be repaired. Here, we introduce examination of the characteristics of exploratory analyses from a probabilistic and statistical framework. Setting the obvious logistical concerns aside (i.e., the absence of planning produces poor precision), exploratory analyses do not appear to suffer from estimation theory weaknesses. The problem appears to be a difficulty in what is actually reported as the p-value. The use of Bayes Theorem provides p-values that are more in line with confirmatory analyses. This development may inaugurate a body of work that would lead to the readmission of exploratory analyses to a position of persuasive power in clinical trials.

  4. 英国基础研究方面的重大政策调整%Britain made a major adjustment in basic research policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻明

    2002-01-01

    @@ 一、引言 英国把基础研究划分为纯基出研究(Pure-Basic Research)和定向基础研究(Orientated-Basic Research).为了与国内使用的名词术语相统一,本文中使用战略基础研究这一名词代替定向基础研究,当无特殊说明时,本文中所指的基础研究就包含纯基础研究和战略基础研究两个部分.

  5. The Search Performance Evaluation and Prediction in Exploratory Search

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The exploratory search for complex search tasks requires an effective search behavior model to evaluate and predict user search performance. Few studies have investigated the relationship between user search behavior and search performance in exploratory search. This research adopts a mixed approach combining search system development, user search experiment, search query log analysis, and multivariate regression analysis to resolve the knowledge gap. Through this study, it is shown that expl...

  6. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in basic psychological processes, history of psychology, and other related topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoa, J M

    2001-11-01

    This article presents a review of research published by Spanish Faculty from the area of basic psychology in the decade 1989-1998. It provides information about research on basic psychological processes commonly studied under the labels of experimental and cognitive psychology, plus a number of topics from other research areas, including some applied psychology issues. The review analyzes the work of 241 faculty members from 27 different Spanish universities, as reflected in 1,882 published papers, book chapters, and books. The analyses carried out in this report include a description of the main research trends found in each area, with some representative references of the published materials, and statistics showing the distribution of this research work in various relevant publications (both Spanish and foreign), with figures that reveal the impact of this work both at a national and international scale.

  7. Mobile Technologies Adoption: An Exploratory Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Yan; HUANG Lihua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of task-technology fit and literature review of mobile technology acceptance, a research model is presented based on the features of mobile technologies and the actual usage of mobile applications in business environments, which identifies the characteristics of mobile applications and fitting tasks. An exploratory case is studied to understand how ABC Company, Hong Kong, utilizes mobile selling applications in their sales management process. This study gives some managerial suggestions for enterprises to successfully use mobile applications.

  8. Digital activism in Portugal: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Ricardo; Pereira,Inês; Simões, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have been fertile in new forms of collective mobilization and activism. In this context the digital media have been assuming a particularly important role. This article is based on an exploratory project, carried out between 2014 and 2015, which sought to study the use of digital media with the forms of activism and public participation of young people in Portugal. Methodologically this project took a qualitative approach, which sought to articulate a research online and off-line...

  9. Young Children's Haptic Exploratory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…

  10. R5T4 compounds - unique multifunctional intermetallics for basic research and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudryk, Yaroslav

    2016-10-01

    The unique properties of the rare-earth elements and their alloys have brought them from relative obscurity to high profile use in common high-tech applications. The broad technological impact of these remarkable materials may have never been known by the general public if not for the supply concerns that placed the rare-earth materials on the front page of newspapers and magazines. Neodymium and dysprosium, two essential components of Nd2Fe14B-based high-performance permanent magnets, have drawn much attention and have been deemed critical materials for many energy-related applications. Ironically, the notoriety of rare-earth elements and their alloys is the result of a global movement to reduce their use in industrial applications and, thus, ease concerns about their supply and ultimately to reduce their position in high-tech supply chains. Research into the applications of lanthanide alloys has been de-emphasized recently due to the perception that industry is moving away from the use of rare-earth elements in new products. While lanthanide supply challenges justify efforts to diversify the supply chain, a strategy to completely replace the materials overlooks the reasons rare earths became important in the first place -- their unique properties are too beneficial to ignore. Rare-earth alloys and compounds possess truly exciting potential for basic science exploration and application development such as solid-state caloric cooling. In this brief review, we touch upon several promising systems containing lanthanide elements that show important and interesting magnetism-related phenomena.

  11. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  12. The internal basic research and radical innovation in firm%企业的内部基础研究与突破性创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    眭纪刚; 连燕华; 曲婉

    2013-01-01

    突破性创新是后发企业跨越式发展的重要途径,基础研究能为企业突破性创新积累相应的创新能力.但是我国企业的基础研究普遍不足,导致企业的突破性创新能力薄弱.鼓励企业重视基础研究,必须突破基础研究只能在公立科研机构进行的思想束缚,通过改革科技计划和项目管理制度,建设企业国家重点实验室等方式,充分发挥财政税收政策的导向作用,引导和支持企业加强基础研究.%Radical innovation is very important for firm to leap development, and basic research can accumulate innovation capacity for firm' s radical innovation. But the basic research in Chinese firms is insufficient, which lead to the poor radical innovation capacity of firm. To encourage firm paying more attention to basic research, it should change the old idea that basic research can only do in public research organization, reform the management mechanism of S&T program, build national key lab in firm, and play the roles of finance and tax policy, to support firm strength basic research.

  13. 疼痛基础研究的困惑与挑战%The challenge of basic research in pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹君利

    2015-01-01

    Benefiting from the great achievements in Life Science, especially in the Neuroscience, Molecular Biology and Functional Brain Imaging, over the past 20 years, there has been substantial progress in revealing the genes, molecules, cells, and circuits that regulate physiologic and pathologic pain and in understanding neurobiological mechanisms of pain modulation.However, few of these advances have been translated into effective clinical therapeutic means or/and new and improved analgesics.Why, what factors resulted in the giant gap between the pain basic research and clinical diagnosis and treatment This paper reviews the history in pain theory development and the mechanisms of pain signal processing, and makes brief comments on the obstacles and challenges of translational research on pain.%自闸门控制学说提出以来,特别是近20年来,随着生命科学领域特别是神经科学、分子生物学以及脑功能成像的理论和技术研究的巨大进步,越来越多的参与生理性和病理性疼痛调控的基因、分子/信号通路和脑区/神经环路被发现,人们对疼痛调控机制的认识和探讨达到了前所未有的高度.但是,疼痛理论研究成果鲜有转化为有效的临床疼痛治疗方法和/或新的镇痛药物,是哪些因素导致了疼痛基础研究与临床诊疗之间的巨大鸿沟?就疼痛理论的发展历史和疼痛信号的处理过程予以梳理,对疼痛转化医学研究所处的困境进行分析.

  14. Un Modelo Basico de Instruccion Directa Para la Ensenanza de la Metodologia de la Investigacion (Using the Basic Direct Model of Instruction To Teach an Introductory Research Model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This study examined the application of the Basic Direct Instruction Model (BDIM), a methodology designed to maximize student interest in instrumental and methodological courses, to graduate level educational leadership students. The research used qualitative techniques and a participatory approach with a sample of 92 beginning level Masters…

  15. An exploratory study of services marketing in global markets: major areas of inquiry for the health care services industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S; Erdem, S A

    1996-01-01

    It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  17. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 105, but has well measured fluctuations, which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, an unknown “dark energy”, which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. “Big Bang” (BB) cosmology is a very successful “standard model” in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However, in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable, so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of “inflation” which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a “smoking gun” for

  18. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 105 but has well measured fluctuations which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, an unknown “dark energy” which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. “Big Bang” (BB) cosmology is a very successful “standard model” in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of “inflation” which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a “smoking gun” for

  19. Exploratory orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  20. The Progress in Clinical and Basic Research of the Effect ofAcupuncture in Treating Disorders of Gastrointestinal Motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Futu (ST32) and Liangqiu (ST34) and its bilateral control acupoints.(26) It was Zusanli and Weishu, but not Ximen, at which laser irradition could adjust amplitude of gastroelectricity.(34) Needling at Zusanli and Neiguan, but not Tiaokou (ST38) and Tianquan (PC2), could make disorder of GE in rabbit improve significantly.(30) It was demonstrated that there was a relative specificity of effects on GE among meridians and acupoints. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli could inhibit the gastroelectric excess induced by gastrin, but electroacupuncture at Heyang (BL55) could not. Needling at Zusanli in the patients with stomach and spleen diseases had more effect in influencing amplitude of GE than Yanglingquan and other acupoints belong to other meridians. So it is considered that there exists acupoint specificity in stomach meridian.  From the above, we can say there is certain effect of acupuncture in treating disorders of gastrointestinal motility, which was confirmed by a series of clinical and basic researches. Further studies in this field could do more to improve the curative effect and to elucidate the mechanism of acupuncture. In the future, research should focus on the perspective and double-blind controlled studies, and therapeutic effect should be estimated with standard criteria. Basic research should be performed at the cellular and molecular level. In brief, acupuncture is a safe, effective and economical method for treating disorders of gastrointestinal motility with a bright future.

  1. 我国幼儿基本体操研究的综述%Review of Research on Children's Basic Gymnastics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢开华

    2015-01-01

    Children's basic gymnastics to promote children's physical growth and development of children, improve body function, enhance the body's coordination, sensitivity etc. In this paper, using the method of literature, logical analysis, development and research status of children's basic gymnastics is discussed. Think the research actuality of China children's basic gymnastics, gymnastics power need development and inconsistent, puts forward the research of infant basic gymnastics empirical in the cross disciplinary theoretical knowledge guidance, to provide reference for improving children's constitution, and Gymnastics Reserve Talents and provide a theoretical basis.%幼儿基本体操能够促进幼儿身体生长发育,提高幼儿身体机能,增强身体的协调性、灵敏性等。采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法,论述幼儿基本体操的发展及科研现状。认为我国幼儿基本体操的科研现状,与体操强国发展需要不符,提出应在交叉学科理论知识的指导下进行幼儿基本体操实证研究,为改善幼儿体质提供参考,并为体操后备人才储备提供理论依据。

  2. 城市品牌关系资产构成因素的探索性研究%Exploratory Research on the Components of City Brand Relationship Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玉生

    2011-01-01

    The core issues of regional economic development are urban development and their establishments of competitive advantages, the competitions among cities have entered a new phase of brand competition. To explore the issue of building city brand from angle of city brand relationship is still in the exploratory stage. A new concept named city brand relationship equity is proposed in this paper, an exploratory research for the components of city brand relationship equity is made by using factor analysis methods and structural equation model, the dimensions and their measurement items of city brand relationship equity are obtained. The 4 dimensions include city unite, city promises, city faith and city familiarity.%城市的发展及其竞争优势的建立是区域经济建设的核心问题,城市竞争已开始进入品牌竞争的新阶段.从城市品牌关系的视角探讨城市品牌的建设问题目前还处于探索阶段.采用探索性与验证性因子分析方法对城市品牌关系资产的构成因素进行探索性研究,得出了构成城市品牌关系资产的维度及其测项,即城市品牌关系资产由城市联合、城市承诺、城市信任、城市熟悉四个因子构成.

  3. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  6. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  9. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  10. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  13. Research on the Countermeasures Based on TTPM Theory for the Improvement of the Basic Education Teachers Training Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huabai, Bu; Dengyu, Zhang; Xiuying, Shen; Hao, Tu

    2012-01-01

    Many elements of the basic education teachers' training performance are embedded in the training interaction and sharing, so the enhancement of the training performance needs a whole process management and control. Based on TTPM theory, this paper has put forward four measures that must be pay attention to during the management of the basic…

  14. Exploratory data analysis with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Wendy L; Solka, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of the bestselling first edition, many advances have been made in exploratory data analysis (EDA). Covering innovative approaches for dimensionality reduction, clustering, and visualization, Exploratory Data Analysis with MATLAB®, Second Edition uses numerous examples and applications to show how the methods are used in practice.New to the Second EditionDiscussions of nonnegative matrix factorization, linear discriminant analysis, curvilinear component analysis, independent component analysis, and smoothing splinesAn expanded set of methods for estimating the intrinsic di

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 15: Technical uncertainty and project complexity as correlates of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of an exploratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty and project complexity on information use by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists. The study utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list served as the study population. The adjusted response rate was 67 percent. The survey instrument is appendix C to this report. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and information use. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and the use of federally funded aerospace R&D. The results of this investigation are relevant to researchers investigating information-seeking behavior of aerospace engineers. They are also relevant to R&D managers and policy planners concerned with transferring the results of federally funded aerospace R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry.

  16. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  17. Class Evolution Tree: A Graphical Tool to Support Decisions on the Number of Classes in Exploratory Categorical Latent Variable Modeling for Rehabilitation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriston, Levente; Melchior, Hanne; Hergert, Anika; Bergelt, Corinna; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; von Wolff, Alessa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a graphical tool that can be used in addition to standard statistical criteria to support decisions on the number of classes in explorative categorical latent variable modeling for rehabilitation research. Data from two rehabilitation research projects were used. In the first study, a latent profile analysis was…

  18. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  19. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  1. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  2. The need for targeted implementation research to improve coverage of basic vaccines and introduction of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Narendra K; Lal, Altaf A; Hombach, Joachim M; Santos, Jose I; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Sow, Samba O; Greenwood, Brian

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Collaboration (DoVC) Research and Development (R&D) Working Group identified implementation research as an important step toward achieving high vaccine coverage and the uptake of desirable new vaccines. The R&D Working Group noted that implementation research is highly complex and requires participation of stakeholders from diverse backgrounds to ensure effective planning, execution, interpretation, and adoption of research outcomes. Unlike other scientific disciplines, implementation research is highly contextual and depends on social, cultural, geographic, and economic factors to make the findings useful for local, national, and regional applications. This paper presents the broad framework for implementation research in support of immunization and sets out a series of research questions developed through a Delphi process (during a DoVC-supported workshop in Sitges, Spain) and a literature review.

  3. 诺贝尔自然科学奖与基础研究%Nobel Natural Science Prize and Basic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其荣

    2013-01-01

    文章主要提出并探讨了三个具有内在关联的问题:一是基础研究的类型问题。基础研究是一个随着科学研究实践的发展而演进的范畴,通过对现代科学从“学院科学”向“后学院科学”转变的历史考析,得出基础研究的范畴已从只是“纯基础研究”的一种类型拓展为包括“纯基础研究”和“定向基础研究”两种类型的结论,结合诺贝尔自然科学奖获得者从事基础研究的实际案例,对这两种不同类型的基础研究范畴做出了新的阐释。二是诺贝尔自然科学奖获得者从事基础研究的比重究竟有多大。通过对诺贝尔自然科学奖获得者从事基础研究(分为“纯基础研究”与“定向基础研究”)与应用研究获奖工作的人数与比例的统计分析,发现高达90%左右的科学家是由于在基础科学领域取得重大原始性创新成果而被授予诺贝尔自然科学奖的,彰显了权威的诺贝尔自然科学奖对基础研究的“偏爱”,从而显示出基础研究的重要意义。三是诺贝尔自然科学奖获得者是如何从事基础研究的。依据真实、丰富而鲜活的思想资料,运用案例分析法,深入分析和揭示了他们作为科学精英在基础科学领域取得重大原始性创新成果的“奥秘”。%Three interrelated issues are explored in this paper.The first is about the category of basic re-search.The paper points out that the scope of basic research evolves with the progress of the practice of scien-tific research.Based on a close examination of the historical transformation of modern science from "academic science"to the "post-academic science",it argues that the scope of basic research has expanded.Besides "pure basic research",there appears the new category of"oriented basic research".These two categories are explained and interpreted in relation to the actual cases of basic research by Nobel Laureates for natural

  4. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team.

  5. Deliberative Democracy and Precautionary Public Reasoning : Exploratory Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fuji-Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Because public policy is legally binding and, perhaps more pointedly, can have pervasive social and environmental consequences for the autonomy of persons, it should be justifiable to those it could so affect. What is much more controversial, and what constitutes the basic intuitive claim of this exploratory paper, is that certain public policies should be morally justifiable to both existing and future persons. My concern is with policies in such areas as energy, climate change control, nuclear waste management, natural resources management, and genomics research and commercialization, which can no doubt improve our lives and our descendant’s lives, but which can also result in tremendous adverse effects for centuries to come. In this short paper, I suggest that the ideal of deliberative democracy provides a way of morally justifying such policies to both existing and future generations. If we take seriously the requirements of this ideal, we may have to modify our public reasoning so that it includes reasons that are generally acceptable among contemporaries as well as reasons that would be acceptable to posterity. The suggestion I make in this paper is thatintegral to the ideal of deliberative democracy in the transgenerational contextis a future-oriented and precautionary public reasoning.

  6. Report on the actual state of the basic, applied research and industrial applications of the radiation in Mexico; Informe sobre el estado actual de la investigacion basica, aplicada y aplicaciones industriales de la radiacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, H

    1991-07-15

    In this report the main works of basic, applied research and industrial applications that are carried out in Mexico, about radiations (radiation chemistry, technology, applications, use and isotope production, etc.): infrastructure, radiation sources, groups and research programs are presented. (Author)

  7. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  8. Swiss energy research program on energy economics basics for 2008-2011; Energieforschungsprogramm. Energiewirtschaftliche Grundlagen (EWG) fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, N. A.

    2009-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) introduces the energy research programme on energy economics basics for the years 2008 - 2011. The programme is very interdisciplinary and uses many theoretical and empirical methods from the areas of micro and macro-economy, political science and socio-psychology. The budget available for research in this area is discussed and the various institutions involved are noted. Both public and private funding is discussed. The main areas of research being targeted for the period 2008 - 2011 in the areas of energy policy and applied research are discussed. These include improvements in the methods used for energy perspectives and innovation as well as social and individual factors influencing the use of energy.

  9. 云计算环境下可视化探索式搜索引擎的研究%The Research on Visual Exploratory Search Engine in Cloud Computing Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉; 王珏; 周勇

    2015-01-01

    针对目前搜索引擎返回的信息量过大且缺乏语义关联等问题,提出了一种云计算环境下的可视化探索式搜索引擎模型。该模型通过对元搜索引擎返回的原始信息在云计算环境下语义相似度的计算和语义链的构建,采用探索式搜索方法为用户获取个性化的结果。与传统搜索引擎相比,其结果更加直观地表现了目标信息及其之间丰富的语义关系,该方法使用户能够更为自然而有效地在海量的信息中发现更符合其需求的目标。作为实验模型,还需要更多的元搜索引擎的支持,以及进一步计算优化语义相似度的算法,才能使该模型真正实用化。本研究为云计算环境下构建新一代个性化智能搜索引擎提供了理论和实践上的参考。%A visual exploratory search engine model based on cloud computing has been proposed for the enormous numbers information and lack of Semantics relationship of the traditional search engine. The model obtains personal-ized result for users using exploratory search method ,via semantic similarity computation and semantic link con-struction on the raw information returned from meta-search engine. Compared with the traditional search engine,the results are more intuitive on the represent of the target information and their rich semantic relations. Users can more naturally and efficiently found their target in line with their needs in the massive amount of information. As an ex-perimental model,in order to make this model practical,it needs more meta-search engine's support,and further op-timization of semantic similarity computation algorithm. The research of the model provides theoretical and practical reference for the construction of new generation of personalized intelligent search engine on the cloud computing en-vironment.

  10. Basic research needs in seven energy-related technologies, conservation, conversion, transmission and storage, environmental fission, fossil, geothermal, and solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This volume comprises seven studies performed by seven groups at seven national laboratories. The laboratories were selected because of their assigned lead roles in research pertaining to the respective technologies. Researches were requested to solicit views of other workers in the fields.

  11. Basic and clinical research on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components: a review with experience of one center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Kang, Liang; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics got protective effects on the intestinal barrier. Our present study is to review the basic and clinical progress on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components, combing the study of our center. Our study have isolated the active component of micro integral membrane protein (MIMP) within the media place of the integral membrane protein of Lactobacillus plantarum, which was verified about the protective effects against the intestinal epithelial dysfunction. On the other hand, we also found the effects of perioperative use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of postoperative intestinal barrier dysfunction, and reduction of the postoperative infective complications. In this review, we would like to report the founding of our center, involving in the basic and clinical research progress of regulation of intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein component MIMP. Furthermore, we may also promote our following studies about the MIMP and its clinical verification.

  12. 100 years of occupational safety research: From basic protections and work analysis to a multilevel view of workplace safety and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, David A; Burke, Michael J; Zohar, Dov

    2017-03-01

    Starting with initiatives dating back to the mid-1800s, we provide a high-level review of the key trends and developments in the application of applied psychology to the field of occupational safety. Factory laws, basic worker compensation, and research on accident proneness comprised much of the early work. Thus, early research and practice very much focused on the individual worker, the design of their work, and their basic protection. Gradually and over time, the focus began to navigate further into the organizational context. One of the early efforts to broaden beyond the individual worker was a significant focus on safety-related training during the middle of the 20th century. Toward the latter years of the 20th century and continuing the move from the individual worker to the broader organizational context, there was a significant increase in leadership and organizational climate (safety climate) research. Ultimately, this resulted in the development of a multilevel model of safety culture/climate. After discussing these trends, we identify key conclusions and opportunities for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. 基础和应用基础研究是创新药物研究与开发的源泉%The basic and applied basic researches are the foundation of research and development of new drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀伟; 张礼和

    2001-01-01

    From the soon-to-be-completed Human Genome Project to Combinatorial Chemistry and High-Throughput Screening combined with bioinformatic tools, scie n tific advances are poised to revolutionize drug discovery and even health care. The research directions in the State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Dr ugs of Peking University mainly focus on the study of interaction between biolog ical targets and active compounds with structural diversity including endogeno us and exogenous substances, especially the natural products that come from anim als, plants and inorganic medicines. The new lead compounds have been designed and s ynthesized based on the structure-activity relationship and computer modeling. T he research activities are involved in 76 national research projects. From 1996 -20 00, 310 papers have been published, 8 patents obtained an d 14 prizes of scientific achievements awarded by the Chinese government and min istries.

  14. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  15. Exploratory data analysis with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Wendy L; Solka, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) was conceived at a time when computers were not widely used, and thus computational ability was rather limited. As computational sophistication has increased, EDA has become an even more powerful process for visualizing and summarizing data before making model assumptions to generate hypotheses, encompassing larger and more complex data sets. There are many resources for those interested in the theory of EDA, but this is the first book to use MATLAB to illustrate the computational aspects of this discipline.Exploratory Data Analysis with MATLAB presents the meth

  16. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Student Earnings and Postsecondary Retention. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher; Patel, Darshak; Troske, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Policymakers are becoming increasingly concerned about the high percentage of students who attend postsecondary education without completing a degree. Researchers have studied numerous potential determinants of retention behavior for postsecondary students, such as financial aid, socioeconomic status, academic preparedness, academic and social…

  17. Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino Immigrant Workers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E.; Flynn, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Blustein mapped career decision making onto Maslow’s model of motivation and personality and concluded that most models of career development assume opportunities and decision-making latitude that do not exist for many individuals from low income or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, Blustein argued that these models may be of limited utility for such individuals. Blustein challenged researchers to reevaluate current career development approaches, particularly those assuming a static world of work, from a perspective allowing for changing circumstances and recognizing career choice can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers. This article represents an exploratory effort to determine if the theory of work adjustment (TWA) might meaningfully be used to describe the work experiences of Latino immigrant workers, a group living with severe constraints and having very limited employment opportunities. It is argued that there is significant conceptual convergence between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the work reinforcers of TWA. The results of an exploratory, qualitative study with a sample of 10 Latino immigrants are also presented. These immigrants participated in key informant interviews concerning their work experiences both in the United States and in their home countries. The findings support Blustein’s contention that such workers will be most focused on basic survival needs and suggest that TWA reinforcers are descriptive of important aspects of how Latino immigrant workers conceptualize their jobs. PMID:26345693

  18. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings.

  19. Adult Response to Children's Exploratory Behaviours: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Children's interest in exploration is the hallmark of their curiosity. As people who are significant in organising children's environment, how teachers and parents respond to children's exploratory behaviours may promote or hinder the child's desire for further investigation. With reference to Kurt Lewin's concept of "total situation",…

  20. Basic Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences, November 3-5, 2015, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Aurora [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Millis, Andy [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Gagliardi, Laura [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Thanos [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Siepmann, Ilja [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wolverton, Chris [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Vashishta, Priya [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Stevens, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Kent, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); va DAm, Kerstin Kleese [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Proffen, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diachin, Lori [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sethian, Jamie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Benali, Anouar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Jackie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Riley, Katherine [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, IL (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, TN (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Computers have revolutionized every aspect of our lives. Yet in science, the most tantalizing applications of computing lie just beyond our reach. The current quest to build an exascale computer with one thousand times the capability of today’s fastest machines (and more than a million times that of a laptop) will take researchers over the next horizon. The field of materials, chemical reactions, and compounds is inherently complex. Imagine millions of new materials with new functionalities waiting to be discovered — while researchers also seek to extend those materials that are known to a dizzying number of new forms. We could translate massive amounts of data from high precision experiments into new understanding through data mining and analysis. We could have at our disposal the ability to predict the properties of these materials, to follow their transformations during reactions on an atom-by-atom basis, and to discover completely new chemical pathways or physical states of matter. Extending these predictions from the nanoscale to the mesoscale, from the ultrafast world of reactions to long-time simulations to predict the lifetime performance of materials, and to the discovery of new materials and processes will have a profound impact on energy technology. In addition, discovery of new materials is vital to move computing beyond Moore’s law. To realize this vision, more than hardware is needed. New algorithms to take advantage of the increase in computing power, new programming paradigms, and new ways of mining massive data sets are needed as well. This report summarizes the opportunities and the requisite computing ecosystem needed to realize the potential before us. In addition to pursuing new and more complete physical models and theoretical frameworks, this review found that the following broadly grouped areas relevant to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) would directly affect the Basic Energy

  1. NETWORK CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF FUNCTIONS THEY PERFORM AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF SMEs IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES---exploratory research on Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerat Fatima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to classify the networks according to functions they performed, especially scrutinize their structures. The research concentrates on the influence of these functional networks on the internationalization process of small and medium sized companies (SME in developing countries. What are the different types of support being provided by network partners? What is the structure of the existing network? The research part is inductive, qualitative and based on case study. The study’s findings illustrate the subtleties of how various network partners interact with entrepreneurs to penetrate, integrate and extend their international markets. Networks can help entrepreneurs expose themselves to new opportunities, obtain knowledge, learn from experiences, and benefit from the synergistic effect of pooled resources. Another contribution of this paper is that it identifies structures of the functional networks, till date networks are classified on the basis of extent of support they provide, not on what support they provide, thus advancing the literature.

  2. An Exploratory Analysis of Job and Life Satisfaction among Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.; DeCarlo, James F.

    An exploratory study examined the job and life satisfaction of a sample of 32 female entrepreneurs residing in the tri-state area of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. To compare the entrepreneurs' concepts of life and job satisfaction to those of women in more traditional occupations, researchers also studied a sample of 32 female nursing…

  3. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  4. The role of exploratory drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in new drug research: case study-selection of a thrombin receptor antagonist for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yunsheng; Cheng, K-C; Wang, Yuguang; Chackalamannil, Samuel; Xia, Yan; Korfmacher, Walter A; White, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    The rising costs and time associated with bringing new medicines to the market have created a need for a new paradigm for reducing the attrition rates of drug candidates in both preclinical and clinical development stages. Early appraisal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) parameters is now possible due to several higher throughput in vitro and in vivo screens. This knowledge of DMPK properties should not only shorten the timelines for the selection of drug candidates but also enhance the probability of their success for development. The role of DMPK researchers in the drug research paradigm should not be limited to screening a large array of compounds during the lead optimization process but should include a strive for an understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and potential drug-related toxicities of a chemical series. As an example, in this article we present a specific DMPK research screening paradigm and describe a case study using the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist program. This screening paradigm followed by the extensive lead optimization process culminated in the selection of SCH 530348, a potent, selective and orally active thrombin receptor antagonist for the treatment of thrombosis.

  5. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery,...

  6. To Promote Basic Research with Media Resources%巧借媒体资源 推进基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建科

    2012-01-01

    This paper, taking People's Daily, a representative of print media, as an example, analyzes the role and position of the mass media playing in basic research, and puts forward some suggestions regarding how to promote the research by resorting to help from mass media, these suggestions are stated as follows, to set and determine different targets accordingly, to choose relevant media, to closely cooperate with media, to select appropriate reporting ways and channels, to invite journalists to make a coverage of some basic research ahead of time, and to actively provide some professional training and knowledge concerning science popularization to the media.%以平面媒体的代表——《人民日报》为例,分析了大众传媒在基础研究中的地位和作用,提出了如何借助媒体推进基础研究的建议,包括:要区分不同目标,选择相应媒体,紧密配合媒体,选择合适的报道方式和途径,邀请记者提前介入相关基础研究采访,主动对媒体进行专业培训和科普。

  7. Basic research program for innovated coal utilization in Japan. BRAIN-C program; Sekitan riyo kiban gijutsu kaihatsu. BRAIN-C program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, M. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper introduces the circumstances and purpose of establishing the Basic Research Associate for Innovated Coal Utilization (BRAIN-C) Program started in October 1995, and the summary of the results therefrom in fiscal 1995. Although development of coal utilization technologies has been implemented over a number of years, there are many problems still requiring solutions. Early realization has been urged on diversification of coal utilization, acceleration of technological development and diversification of coal types. In order to achieve these goals, the necessity was recognized afresh on not only the hardwares, but also on basic technologies in terms of software which can identify properties of coals, systematize different reactions, and estimate reactions, fluidity and heat transmission of coals. Therefore, receiving a subsidy from the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, a research and development program to be implemented jointly by industries, administrative agencies and academic societies had been started with a five-year plan for the time being. With the activities for the program such as collecting 50 to 100 types of coals and supplying them to researchers, the program had been accelerated in fiscal 1995 on a large number of themes and results therefrom, including fundamental properties and thermo-chemical reactions. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  9. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  10. User-Driven Innovation: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Tacer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the relatively robust promotion of user-driven innovation (UDI in practice, research on UDI remains in its early stages. Following a grounded theory analysis approach, this paper makes a contribution by conducting exploratory research of the field. Nine interviews yield an empirical basis for extracting categories connected with existing conceptual issues. The results reveal three key elements of the UDI (user involvement, searching for feedback, and design orientation. The results also indicate the interdisciplinary nature of UDI with branding, design, and company-user interaction as complementary fields in creating user experience. The analysis leads to four theoretical propositions for future studies. The article concludes with limitations and implications for future research.

  11. Basic research on the carbon dioxide fixation using seaweed. Kaisorui no tansan gas kotei ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M.; Ishihara, T. (The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-08-25

    Study was made for grasping the basic data of CO2 fixation technology by seaweed. The photosynthesis under the sea, which is different from that on the land, is judged to be made by taking in HCO3[sup -] and converting it into CO2 inside the plant. Porphyra yezoensis which is seaweed is cultivated as comestible. With a rise in CO2 content, the growth in length of leaves was observed to be accelerated through ventilating Porphyra yezoensis with the three test types of air which respectively contained 350ppm (atmospheric CO2 content), 1000ppm and 1600ppm CO2. As a result of measuring the photosynthesis speed by the generated quantity of O2, it was heightened with a rise in dissolved inorganic carbonic acid content of the sea water. Measurement was also made of daily fluctuation in calcification speed by Corallina officinalis capable of calcification by ventilating it with 350ppm and 1600ppm CO2. In case of 1600ppm, the sedimentation of CaCO3 was prevented. In case of 350ppm, the sedimentation was quantitatively larger during the bright period than that during the dark period. The growth of Gracilaria gigas which is an agar material was compared by changing the above CO2 levels. In case of 1600ppm, the weight grew to 2.3 times in 20 days. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. THE EWOM ON FACEBOOK: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF CONSUMER MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah do Espírito Santo Serra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the gratifications sought (manifest and latent motives and those obtained from Facebook users who engage in practices of electronic Word of mouth (eWOM presents and defends the relevance of an exploratory qualitative study as a first step of research based on the theory of uses and gratifications. The text provides a detailed account and justification of the research design and reports the overall results more relevant research.

  13. Academic plagiarism prevalence among Spanish undergraduate students: an exploratory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present research article is an exploratory study on academic plagiarism practices among Spanish university students. Materials and methods: To answer the main research questions, we based our work on a cross-sectional survey of the targeted population. The sample consisted of a total of 560 students and the procedure was non-probability sampling. Results and conclusions: The research findings show that the Internet has become the students’ main source for the plagiaris...

  14. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 1, part 2:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken that explored several aspects of technical communications in aeronautics. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered questionnaire, was sent to 2,000 randomly selected members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Six hundred and six usable questionnaires (30.3 percent) were received by the established cut off date. Part 2 of this study lists appendices to part 1, including survey instrument, aggregate totals, cross tabulations, and open-ended comments.

  15. Exploratory research on course teaching of architectural design based on ability cultivation of practice and innovation - Take course teaching of high-rise building design as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under current disciplinary development reform and the objective of strengthening ability cultivation of practice innovation, this thesis makes comprehensive analysis of the problems existing in “high-rise building design” teaching for undergraduates majoring in architecture; and proposes new philosophies of focusing on teaching process, opening up joint school management and research-oriented teaching in combination of construction transformation demands. Based on the above background, this thesis also proposes the teaching conception of establishing multi-platform frame. Moreover, it discusses corresponding platform establishment and teaching design in combination of educational reform practice.

  16. Clinical Trials Network / Building Infrastructure to Accelerate Transfer of Basic Research in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    all sites received research ethics board approval and training in study operations by the AOSpine Methods Core. Eligibility criteria Detailed... robotics and exoskeletons)1. 4b (upper extremity function)2. 3d (physical therapy)3. Descriptor 1 2a (Traumatic Injury) Descriptor 2 4h (Other-ASIA Motor

  17. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines the history and politics of educational reform in Ghana. Using data from interviews conducted with senior policy-makers, implementers and researchers, as well as documentary sources, to explore the drivers and inhibitors of change at the political, bureaucratic and grass-roots levels. The monograph explores the nature of…

  18. Subjective Perception of Disease and Community Health Services. An Exploratory Research at Hospice Casa Speranţei Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRINA ŞANDRU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a two-dimensional approach to a current topic in the sociology of health and disease: the relationship between illness and social services providing support to patients and their families. The two-dimensional approach refers to a micro-macro perspective: the subjective perception of disease and the needs felt by the patient (micro perspective as a starting point for medical and social services organization and for shaping healthcare policy (macro perspective. The article contains the results of a qualitative analysis of data obtained by conducting interviews with twelve patients of Brasov Hope House Hospice. This is the only institution dealing with palliative care in Brasov county. The analysis focused on two dimensions of research: 1. changes caused by the emergence and evolution of disease, in an attempt to reconstruct the dynamics of feelings and facts associated with the process of „disease living" and 2. aspects of formal social networks (services and informal support networks, including here the perception of the services offered by the palliative care institution that has been the beneficiary of this research.

  19. Report of the Defense Science Board Subcommittee on Department of Defense Research Policy. Part 1. Policy on Support of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-12-31

    f. .. AD-A955 482 Report of the Defen e Science Board Subcomtnittee on Depart•eat of Defense RESEARCH POLICY OTIC SELECTED NOV 2 91J88 0(/H...ACCESSION NO NA 11 TITLE (inc/ud* Stcunty Oassificat/on) Report of the Defense Science Board Subcomittee on Department of Defense Research Policy , Part...Defense Research Policy Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering Washington, D. C. 31 December 1963 OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify unknown ...

  1. Exploratory fuel-cell research: I. Direct-hydrocarbon polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. II. Mathematical modeling of fuel-cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Michael L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A strong need exists today for more efficient energy-conversion systems. Our reliance on limited fuel resources, such as petroleum for the majority of our energy needs makes it imperative that we utilize these resources as efficiently as possible. Higher-efficiency energy conversion also means less pollution, since less fuel is consumed and less exhaust created for the same energy output. Additionally, for many industrialized nations, such as the United States which must rely on petroleum imports, it is also imperative from a national-security standpoint to reduce the consumption of these precious resources. A substantial reduction of U.S. oil imports would result in a significant reduction of our trade deficit, as well as costly military spending to protect overseas petroleum resources. Therefore, energy-conversion devices which may utilize alternative fuels are also in strong demand. This paper describes research on fuel cells for transportation.

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Perception of Basic Emotions as a Possible Contributing Factor to Improve Sales Performance: A Theoretical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Polo Vargas, Jean David; Fundación Universidad del Norte; Zambrano Curcio, Milton Jose; Fundación Universidad del Norte; Muñoz Alvis, Andres; Politécnico Costa Atlántica; Velilla Guardela, Jorge Luis; Fundación Universidad del Norte

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is one of the concepts that have begun to transform the business world thanks to the advancements in emotional management and recognition. This is a field that allows the elaboration of strategies for the strengthening of organizational development processes. The present article of bibliographic research incorporates part of the scientific production about the concept of emotional intelligence and the possible application of this concept into the sales process. The obje...

  3. The Context of Military Environments: An Agenda for Basic Research on Social and Organizational Factors Relevant to Small Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    stereotypes and workplace bias. Research in Organizational Behavior, 32:113-135. Heilman, M.E., and T.G. Okimoto. (2007). Why are women penalized for...A. Galinsky. (2001). Battle of the sexes: Gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychol...is diverse in terms of demographic characteristics, such as gender and race, with a commitment of its leader- ship to ensure equal opportunities

  4. 国家基础研究数据资源中心建设规划研究%CONSTRUCTION PLANNING OF NATIONAL BASIC RESEARCH DATA RESOURCE CENTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 闫术卓; 邵正隆; 俞春; 宋树仁

    2013-01-01

    Basic research has become the strategic focus of science and technology development all around the world. It is the fundamental guarantee for a country to have great powers among the world. This project research is to build an integrated framework of national basic scientific data resource center. It can also establish a normative and efficient data resource management system and plan an open and shared data resource application service system that could offer an organising support for the basic demand of research innovation and basic scientific development.%基础研究已经成为当今世界各国科学技术发展的战略重点,利用当代科学技术,充分共享和分析基础研究管理数据,是推进基础研究的前沿性、国际化和持续发展的关键支撑.本文提出了拟建立国家基础研究数据资源中心的设想和总体框架,设计集成、整合的国家基础研究数据资源库,实现规范、高效的数据资源管理,规划开放、共享的数据资源应用服务平台,从而构建“布局合理、功能完善、体系健全、共享高效”的基础研究数据资源中心,为实现基础研究“科学技术人才发现与培养、基础学科研究与创新能力的提高以及国家科技整体发展提升”的战略目标提供体系化支撑.

  5. 经济逻辑研究的基本路径%Basic Path of Research on Economic Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉思伟

    2012-01-01

    Economic logic belongs to the research on economic philosophy and is interdisciplinary between economics and logic. At the same time, it is an important field in economic epistemology and methodology. It uses logic as the main research tool and reasoning in economic activity as the main object of study. Therefore, we can construct economic logic from deductive logic, inductive logic and dialectics based on contemporary logic research results.%经济逻辑从学科归属来讲,隶属于经济哲学研究,是经济学与逻辑学之间的交叉学科,也是经济学认识论和经济学方法论研究的重要领域;它以逻辑为主要研究工具,以经济活动中的推理为主要研究对象。因而,经济逻辑可以借鉴当代逻辑研究的成果,从演绎逻辑、9-2/纳逻辑和辩证法三个路径来进行理论的梳理和建构。

  6. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV): Basic research reveals unique features in phylogeny, evolution and the viral life cycle with new perspectives for epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected individuals as a continuously evolving quasispecies destined to escape host immune responses and applied antivirals. Despite the inability to culture patient viruses directly in the laboratory, efforts to define the infectious genome of HCV resulted in development of experimental recombinant in vivo and in vitro systems, including replicons and infectious cultures in human hepatoma cell lines. And HCV has become a model virus defining new paradigms in virology, immunology and biology. For example, HCV research discovered that a virus could be completely dependent on microRNA for its replication since microRNA-122 is critical for the HCV life cycle. A number of other host molecules critical for HCV entry and replication have been identified. Thus, basic HCV research revealed important molecules for development of host targeting agents (HTA). The identification and characterization of HCV encoded proteins and their functional units contributed to the development of highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA) against the NS3 protease, NS5A and the NS5B polymerase. In combination, these inhibitors have since 2014 permitted interferon-free therapy with cure rates above 90% among patients with chronic HCV infection; however, viral resistance represents a challenge. Worldwide control of HCV will most likely require the development of a prophylactic vaccine, and numerous candidates have been pursued. Research characterizing features critical for antibody-based virus neutralization and T cell based virus elimination from infected cells is essential for this effort. If the world community promotes an ambitious approach by applying current DAA broadly, continues to develop

  7. 膝关节骨关节炎的基础研究进展%Basic research progress of knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟云; 高根德; 徐守宇

    2012-01-01

    膝关节骨性关节炎(knee osteoarthritis,KOA)的确切病因和发病机制仍不太清楚,尚无法从根本上阻止和治疗骨性关节炎.随着治疗新方法、新技术的不断出现,有望在不久的将来可改变治疗膝关节骨关节炎的现状.而膝关节骨关节炎的基础研究将有助于发病机制的阐明和治疗方法的深入探索.本文广泛查阅近年来关于膝关节骨关节炎基础研究的文献,并对其进行总结与分析.%The exact etiology and pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) are still unknown and it is hard to treat the disease fundamentally. With new therapeutic methods and techniques appearing,the present situation of treating the disease will be changed in the near future. Basic research of knee osteoarthritis will contribute to clarifying the pathogenesis and exploring the therapeutic methods. This article makes a brief review on the up-to-date basic researches of knee osteoarthritis by reviewing literature concerned in recent years.

  8. "Exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickore, Jutta

    2016-02-01

    This essay utilizes the concept "exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science. The essay traces the emergence of the historiographical concept "exploratory experimentation" in the late 1990s. The reconstruction of the early discussions about exploratory experimentation shows that the introduction of the concept had unintended consequences: Initially designed to debunk philosophical ideas about theory testing, the concept "exploratory experimentation" quickly exposed the poverty of our conceptual tools for the analysis of experimental practice. Looking back at a number of detailed analyses of experimental research, we can now appreciate that the concept of exploratory experimentation is too vague and too elusive to fill the desideratum whose existence it revealed.

  9. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 1, part 1:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken that explored several aspects of technical communications in aeronautics. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered questionnaire, was sent to 2,000 randomly selected members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Six hundred and six usable questionnaires (30.3 percent) were received by the established cut off date. The study had five objectives. The first was to solicit the opinions of aeronautical engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine their use and production of technical communications; third, to seek their views on the content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine their use of libraries/technical information centers; and finally, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. The findings add considerable information to the knowledge of technical communications practices among aeronautical engineers and scientists and reinforce some of the conventional wisdom about technical communications and question other widely-held notions.

  10. Job-Oriented Basic Skills (JOBS) Curricula: An Overview of Four Research Studies to Improve Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    sls learning by lower aptitude students. UNCLASSIFIED U cUYY wAIPcAT op ThNs PAom of 3mom*g FOREWORD This research was conducted under contract with...identify instructional methods, techniques, strategies, or content areas that could be used to improve JOBS program effectiveness. The contracting ...differential Is accounted for In part by the fact that 3OBS students have mucL lower aptitude scores and lower post-"A"-school-attrition rates than

  11. Progress in the basic ophthalmological research of tree shrew%树鼩在眼科学的基础研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广龙; 朱勤; 李振宇; 陈玲霞; 尹博文; 胡敏; 孙晓梅

    2015-01-01

    Tree shrews have an excellent visual system, their cones accounted for 96%of the photorecepter cells, so that their color vision and stereo vision are well developed.With their rich resources and low cost, tree shrews have been considered as an ideal animal model in eye research in comparative medicine and genomics research.The ophthalmological research on tree shrew mainly focused on the establishment of myopia model, as well as the changes in myopic sclera and choroids, and the basic studies of their retina, optic and visual cortex.This paper reviewed the basic ophthalmological re-search of tree shrew.%树鼩具有发达的视觉系统,视锥细胞数量占感光细胞的96%,具有较好的色觉及立体视觉。我国的树鼩资源丰富,成本较低,比较医学和基因组学研究证实树鼩是理想的眼科实验动物模型。利用树鼩开展眼科研究主要集中在近视模型的建立、近视对巩膜和脉络膜造成的变化,以及树鼩视网膜、视神经、角膜及视皮质的基础研究。本文对树鼩在眼科学方面的基础研究结果进行综述。

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... setback at work, she lost interest in her job. She had problems getting to sleep and generally ... NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News Higher Death Rate Among Youth with Psychosis ... human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from one neuron to another. Share Science News Higher Death Rate Among Youth with Psychosis Delayed Walking ... NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify ...

  15. Basic and Clinical Research Against Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs): New Compounds to Tackle Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetic Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, Antonio; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Lusini, Mario; Ulianich, Luca; Chello, Massimo; Nappi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and recent advances in research indicate that a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of its effects is mandatory to reduce diabetes-related mortality and morbidity. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) play a central role in the genesis and progression of complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and have been found to be important even in non-diabetic patients as a marker of cardiovascular disease. AGEs have a profound impact on patient's prognosis regardless of the glycemic control, and therefore pharmacologic approaches against AGEs accumulation have been proposed over the years to treat cardiovascular diseases, parallel to a more detailed understanding of AGEs pathophysiology. Compounds with anti-AGEs effects are currently under investigation in both pre-clinical and clinical scenarios, and many of the drugs previously used to treat specific diseases have been found to have AGE-inhibitory effects. Some products are still in "bench evaluation", whereas others have been already investigated in clinical trials with conflicting evidences. This review aims at summarizing the mechanisms of AGEs formation and accumulation, and the most relevant issues in pre-clinical and clinical experiences in anti-AGEs treatment in cardiovascular research.

  16. An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.

  17. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  18. Defibrotide for Treatment of Severe Veno-Occlusive Disease in Pediatrics and Adults: An Exploratory Analysis Using Data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Christopher; Richardson, Paul; Prentice, Grant; Korman, Sandra; Hume, Robin; Nejadnik, Bijan; Horowitz, Mary M; Saber, Wael

    2016-07-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is an early and serious complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that is associated with inferior survival, particularly when it is complicated by multiorgan failure (severe VOD). We evaluated the efficacy of defibrotide in the treatment of severe VOD using observational data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). Eight thousand three hundred forty-one patients treated by HCT between 2008 and 2011 were identified from the CIBMTR clinical database; 3.2% met criteria for VOD and 1.2% met criteria for severe VOD. Patients with a diagnosis of VOD as reported to the CIBMTR by their transplanting centers, who had no prior history of cirrhosis, and who had a maximum total bilirubin level > 2.0 mg/dL by day +100 post-HCT were selected for study. Severe VOD was defined as VOD occurring in the setting of renal impairment requiring dialysis or any noninfectious pulmonary abnormality. Patients with severe VOD were divided into 2 groups for analysis: those treated with defibrotide (n = 41) and those not treated with defibrotide (n = 55). Patients in the nondefibrotide group were older, were more likely to be male, were more likely to have a history of previous fungal infection, and had a higher proportion of clinically significant pre-existing disease or organ impairment. Survival rate at day +100 was 39% (95% CI, 24.8% to 54.3%) in patients receiving defibrotide and 30.9% (95% CI, 19.5% to 43.6%) in those not receiving defibrotide. Resolution rate of VOD at day +100 was 51% in the defibrotide group and 29% in the nondefibrotide group (difference, 22.1%; 95% CI, 2.6% to 42%). The results of our study are consistent with previously reported experiences with defibrotide, confirm the poor outcome of this syndrome, and suggest defibrotide is effective in the treatment of severe VOD.

  19. An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of socioeconomic status, food insecurity, and fast food consumption: implications for dietary research to reduce children’s oral health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Dinh, Mai A.; da Fonseca, Marcio A.; Scott, JoAnna M.; Carle, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common childhood disease and disproportionately affects low-income children. The dietary risk factors associated with socioeconomic status (SES), such as food insecurity and fast food consumption, are poorly understood. Objective To better understand how upstream social factors are related to dietary behaviors by testing the hypothesis that food insecurity mediates the SES-fast food consumption relationship. Design A 36-item survey was administered to caregivers of children <18 years (n=212). The predictor variable was SES, measured by whether the child was insured by Medicaid (no/yes). Food insecurity, the potential dietary mediator, was measured using the six-item U.S. Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey (food secure/food insecure without hunger/food insecure with hunger). The outcome variable was whether the household reported eating at a fast food restaurant ≥2 times a week (no/yes). We used logistic structural equation and mediation models to test our hypothesis. Results About 63% of children were low SES. Thirty-percent of caregivers reported food insecurity (with or without hunger) and 18.6% of households consumed fast food ≥2 times per week. Lower SES was significantly associated with food insecurity (OR=3.03; 95% CI=1.51, 6.04; P=0.002), but SES was not related to fast food consumption (OR=1.94; 95% CI=0.86, 4.36; P=0.11). Food insecurity was not associated with fast food consumption (OR=1.76; 95% CI=0.86, 3.62; P=0.12). The mediation analyses suggest food insecurity does not mediate the relationship between SES and fast food consumption. However, there are important potential differences in fast food consumption by SES and food insecurity status. Conclusions Future dietary research focusing on tooth decay prevention in vulnerable children may need to account for the differential effects of SES on food insecurity and dietary behaviors like fast food consumption. Studies are needed to further

  20. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  1. Exploratory Experimentation and Computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-02-25

    We believe the mathematical research community is facing a great challenge to re-evaluate the role of proof in light of recent developments. On one hand, the growing power of current computer systems, of modern mathematical computing packages, and of the growing capacity to data-mine on the Internet, has provided marvelous resources to the research mathematician. On the other hand, the enormous complexity of many modern capstone results such as the Poincare conjecture, Fermat's last theorem, and the classification of finite simple groups has raised questions as to how we can better ensure the integrity of modern mathematics. Yet as the need and prospects for inductive mathematics blossom, the requirement to ensure the role of proof is properly founded remains undiminished.

  2. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selbig Joachim

    2008-05-01

    names generated by the system and barcode labels facilitate identification and management of the material. Web pages are provided as user interfaces to facilitate maintaining the system in an environment with many desktop computers and a rapidly changing user community. Web based search tools are the basis for joint use of the material by all researchers of the institute. Conclusion The Golm Plant Database system, which is based on a relational database, collects the genetic and environmental information on plant material during its production or experimental use at the Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology. It thus provides information according to the MIAME standard for the component 'Sample' in a highly standardised format. The Plant Database system thus facilitates collaborative work and allows efficient queries in data analysis for systems biology research.

  3. Sleep scoring made easy-Semi-automated sleep analysis software and manual rescoring tools for basic sleep research in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, M; Polta, S; Gapp, J; Schuler, C; Kochs, E F; Fenzl, T

    2015-01-01

    Studying sleep behavior in animal models demands clear separation of vigilance states. Pure manual scoring is time-consuming and commercial scoring software is costly. We present a LabVIEW-based, semi-automated scoring routine using recorded EEG and EMG signals. This scoring routine is •designed to reliably assign the vigilance/sleep states wakefulness (WAKE), non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) to defined EEG/EMG episodes.•straightforward to use even for beginners in the field of sleep research.•freely available upon request. Chronic recordings from mice were used to design and evaluate the scoring routine consisting of an artifact-removal, a scoring- and a rescoring routine. The scoring routine processes EMG and different EEG frequency bands. Amplitude-based thresholds for EEG and EMG parameters trigger a decision tree assigning each EEG episode to a defined vigilance/sleep state automatically. Using the rescoring routine individual episodes or particular state transitions can be re-evaluated manually. High agreements between auto-scored and manual sleep scoring could be shown for experienced scorers and for beginners quickly and reliably. With small modifications to the software, it can be easily adapted for sleep analysis in other animal models.

  4. Propensity scores as a basis for equating groups: basic principles and application in clinical treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G; Cham, Heining; Thoemmes, Felix; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Julian; Weiler, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A propensity score is the probability that a participant is assigned to the treatment group based on a set of baseline covariates. Propensity scores provide an excellent basis for equating treatment groups on a large set of covariates when randomization is not possible. This article provides a nontechnical introduction to propensity scores for clinical researchers. If all important covariates are measured, then methods that equate on propensity scores can achieve balance on a large set of covariates that mimics that achieved by a randomized experiment. We present an illustration of the steps in the construction and checking of propensity scores in a study of the effectiveness of a health coach versus treatment as usual on the well-being of seriously ill individuals. We then consider alternative methods of equating groups on propensity scores and estimating treatment effects including matching, stratification, weighting, and analysis of covariance. We illustrate a sensitivity analysis that can probe for the potential effects of omitted covariates on the estimate of the causal effect. Finally, we briefly consider several practical and theoretical issues in the use of propensity scores in applied settings. Propensity score methods have advantages over alternative approaches to equating groups particularly when the treatment and control groups do not fully overlap, and there are nonlinear relationships between covariates and the outcome.

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as mood, appetite, and sleep. Research shows that people with depression often have lower than normal levels of serotonin. ...

  7. Participation through Exploratory Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory Design Games (EDG) belong to a field of participatory design, where the direct involvement of users (the people who are supposed to use the design) is essential. Exploratory design games are a particular genre for formatting design dialogues that are engaging for all parties involved...... of this chapter is to describe four board game formats in order to identify issues that one should be aware of when using EDG for various purposes: A) The User Game creates stories about people as prospective users. B) In the Landscape Game the focus shifts from developing stories about a person to his or her...... interests and relations to involving the physical and social surroundings. C) In the Technology Game the aim is to develop technology or projects where the technology plays an important role in the activities and environment for the intended design. D) In the Enacted Scenarios Game the intention...

  8. Binding energy referencing for XPS in alkali metal-based battery materials research (I): Basic model investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, S., E-mail: s.oswald@ifw-dresden.de

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • We point to a not seriously solved conflict in energy scale referencing of Li metal samples in XPS. • Model experiments at Li-, Na-metal and Li-doped HOPG samples were used to classify the effects. • Binding energy shifts up to 3 eV are observed when the alkaline metal is present in metallic state. • A phenomenological explanation based on an electrostatic interaction is suggested. • Consequences for energy scale correction depending on the kind of surface species are followed. - Abstract: For the investigation of chemical changes in Li- and Na-ion battery electrode systems, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a well-accepted method. Charge compensation and referencing of the binding energy (BE) scale is necessary to account for the involved mostly non-conducting species. Motivated by a conflict in energy scale referencing of Li-metal samples discussed earlier by several authors, further clarifying experimental results on several Li containing reference materials are presented and extended by similar experiments for Na. When correlating the peak positions of characteristic chemical species in all the different prepared model sample states, there seems to be a systematic deviation in characteristic binding energies of several eV if lithium is present in its metallic state. Similar results were found for sodium. The observations are furthermore confirmed by the implementation of inert artificial energy reference material, such as implanted argon or deposited gold. The behavior is associated with the high reactivity of metallic lithium and a phenomenological explanation is proposed for the understanding of the observations. Consequences for data interpretation in Li-ion battery research will be discussed for various applications in part (II)

  9. 百合基本营养成分和活性物质研究进展%Research Progress on Basic Nutritional and Bioactive Substances of Lily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉帆; 明军; 王良桂; 袁素霞; 刘春; 王莹; 梁云; 冯慧颖; 徐雷锋

    2012-01-01

    Lily ( Lilium spp.) is an important edible, medicinal and ornamental plant. It contains rich basic nutrients and bioactive substances. This paper summarizes the progress on studying basic nutrients and bioactive substances of some domestic lily species, including polysaccharide, steroidal saponin, phenolic compound, flavonoid, alkaloid, etc. The paper also raised the existing problems in R & D of edible and medicinal lily, and prospects the orientation of future research.%百合是重要的食用、药用和观赏多用途植物,其营养成分丰富,并含有多种活性物质.本文综述了国内外百合基本营养成分及多糖、甾体皂苷、生物碱、酚类化合物、黄酮类化合物等活性物质的研究进展,提出食用和药用百合研发中存在的问题,并展望了未来的研究方向.

  10. Research on Mixed Programming with MATLAB and Visual Basic Based on. Net%基于.NET的MATLAB与VisualBasic混合编程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃钊

    2012-01-01

    VisualBasic是使用人数最多的高级编程语言之一,开发者能轻易快速建立一个应用软件。MATLAB具有强大的数值分析、矩阵运算和仿真等功能。.NET是微软公司发布用于取代.COM的新一代软件接口技术。本文以进行平面坐标转换四参数的计算为例,介绍在VisualBasic程序编写中如何通过.NET接口调用MATLAB函数进行混合编程,完成科学研究和工程计算。%Visual Basic which have the most users in the world is a high -level programming language,the develop- ers can builds a software easily and quickly by it. MATLAB has strong numerical analysis, matrix calculation and simula- tion etc. Functions . NET released by Microsoft is used to replace . COM of a new generation of software interface tech- nology. The paper will introduce by the example of calculating four parameters of Coordinate transformation how to com- plete scientific research and engineering calculation by programming a Visual Basic program which calls the functions of MATLAB based on . NET.

  11. Research on Basic Models for Battlefield Network War%战场网络战基本模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳萍; 叶锡庆; 张明安; 陈厚武

    2011-01-01

    战场网络战建立在网络系统和信息系统基础上,已成为国家安全战略的重要内容。分析网络中信息的流动、确定易受攻击节点、定位潜在的威胁以及评估受攻击的影响效能,这些是取得战场网络战主动权的关键。战场网络战建模与分析平台的构造为实现上述目标提供了一种有效可行的途径。根据建模需求,将战场网络模型分解为功能模型、物理模型以及信息模型,并提出了基于这些模型的战场网络战攻击效能评估方法。本研究成果为研制开发战场网络战网情分析工具及作战规划支撑平台系统奠定良好的理论基础。%Battlefield network war has become important content of country security strategy,which is based on network and information systems.Analyzing the information flow,identifying vulnerable nodes,locating latency threats and assessing attack effect are the keys to grasping the initiative of battlefield network war.Modeling and analyzing platform provide an effective and viable way to accomplish the above-mentioned objectives.According to the modeling requirements,the battlefield network model was decomposed into function model,physical model and information model,and modeling approach and function of each model were proposed,which provided theory base for the research of battlefield network war situation analyzing tool and battle planning support platform.

  12. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  13. "养" 与 "工" ——超龄农民工养老模式的探索性研究%Being Supported or Keep Working: An Exploratory Research of Overage Migrant Workers' Support Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆淑珍; 卢璐

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of increasingly aging , the research of overage migrant workers' support has important theoretical and practical significance for the solution of the rural age support system. the exploratory research of a field survey finds out that the majority of overage migrant workers are women at their 60-70s with lower educational backgrounds of elementary school. Family support is their first choice and most of them like to return their hometowns to settle down. With great consciousness changes in elderly support , they have increasingly awareness of self support and most of them can accept the social endowment mode. Although it is difficult to solve the practical issues , the family support mode is still the main way to support the overage migrant workers in quite a long period of time. The community endowment and social endowment support of the overage elderly have a long way to go , and the participation of employment is still a rational option to utilize the human resources of the overage migrants.%我国日益严峻的老龄化背景下, 针对超龄农民工养老问题的研究无疑具有重要的理论和现实意义, 并且也为农村养老问题寻找解决路径. 本文通过探索性研究, 采用实地问卷调查的数据分析,了解到超龄农民工以女性居多, 集中在 60-70 岁, 大部分人文化程度处于小学水平; 家庭养老仍是首选, 希望在家乡养老; 养老观念已发生改变, 自我养老意识增强, 接受社会养老; 自我养老水平低,并存在较大风险. 目前, 虽然家庭养老出现难以解决的实际问题, 但它在相当长一段时间内仍是超龄农民工主要养老方式. 虽然社区养老、 社会养老发展成为趋势, 但是制度机制仍有待于健全. 超龄农民工参与就业, 是一个可以合理开发利用的人力资源.

  14. The Growth Mechanism of Logistics Enterprise based on Logistics Service Supply Chain---Exploratory Research based on Multiple Cases Study%基于LSSC的物流企业成长机理--探索性多案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志军; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    文章基于“资源-能力-成长”的企业成长理论模型,对服务供应链、组织间网络和动态能力理论进行了梳理,报告了物流服务供应链(Logistics Service Supply Chain,LSSC)的网络属性对核心企业成长的影响的研究现状,并提出了文章的研究框架,通过采用探索性多案例的研究方法,对三个典型民营物流企业进行了调查,通过三个案例的一级编码、二级编码和三级编码,得出以下研究结论:物流服务供应链的网络结构和网络关系可以直接促进物流企业成长;物流服务供应链的网络结构和网络关系也可以通过动态能力的作用促进物流企业成长。研究表明:第三方物流企业的成长要通过网络化战略来实现,通过构建物流服务供应链模式,汲取组织间资源、提升企业动态能力并最终实现企业成长。%Based on the model of"Resources-Capability-Growth", the theories of service supply chain, inter-organization network and dynamics capability were combed, the review of the influence of LSSC's network attributes on the core enterprise was reported and the research framework was put forward. A survey of three typical private logistics enterprises was conducted by using the method of exploratory multiple case studies and such conclusions can be obtained, LSSC's network structure and relationship can directly promote the logistics enterprise growth, and also can indirectly promote the logistics enterprise through dynamics capability. The research shows that TPL growth can be achieved through network strategy, drawing inter-organizational resources, promoting the enterprise dynamics capability by constructing LSSC mode and finally business growth is achieved.

  15. 盆底功能障碍性疾病的基础研究现状%Basic research present situation of pelvic floor dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志红; 胡小玲

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a kind of common gynecological diseases because of the pelvic floor support structure damage,defect and dysfunction,which is the result of joint action of many factors.In this paper,the basic research present situation of pelvic floor dysfunction is elaborated.%盆底功能障碍性疾病是由盆底支持结构损伤、缺陷与功能障碍造成的一种常见妇科疾病,系多种因素共同作用的结果。本文对盆底功能障碍性疾病的基础研究现状进行阐述。

  16. 脑积水基础和临床研究进展%Recent advance in basic and clinical research of hydcephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昊; 雷霆

    2016-01-01

    脑积水是神经外科常见疾病,常常伴随或继发于多种神经外科疾病,是引起患者预后不良的重要因素.本文就近年来国内外脑积水研究的相关进展进行综述.%Hydrocephalus is a common medical condition in neurosurgical practice and often combined with many different kinds of neurological diseases.Recently,the clinical and basic researches of hydrocephalus have drawn greater attention in neurosurgeons.In this paper,we reviewed the recent advance of hydrocephalus all over the world.

  17. Octodon degus. A useful animal model for social-affective neuroscience research: basic description of separation distress, social attachments and play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnello, Valentina; Iacobucci, Paolo; Fuchs, Thomas; Newberry, Ruth C; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    A challenge for social-affective neuroscience programs is to identify simple and yet valid animal models for studying the expression of basic social emotions and their role during different developmental windows, from infancy to adulthood. For example, although laboratory rats are useful for studying juvenile social interactions, they are not ideal for studying infant attachment bonds. Here, we evaluate current understanding of the social behavior of Octodon degus, a diurnal precocial rodent, to elucidate the value of this species as a model for social-affective neuroscience research. After a synopsis of species-specific characteristics and brain susceptibility to changes of social environment, our behavioral findings on degu social proclivities are summarized. We then discuss why this pre-clinical model provides a valuable addition to the commonly available animal models for the study of human psychopathology.

  18. 大数据下网络稳定性测试基础研究%Network stability test of basic research under the big data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高加琼

    2015-01-01

    大数据环境下,需要对种类繁多、数量庞大的多样数据中快速进行信息获取,这就使得在大数据环境下对网络稳定性提出了更高的要求.本文将对大数据下网络稳定性测试基础研究.%Under the large data environment, need to get information in the variety, large number of diverse data, which makes in a big data environment put forward higher requirements on the stability of the network. This article wil network stability test of basic research under the big data.

  19. The Elusive Multiplying Factor for Sustainable Development: The Case for Integrating Scientific Research and Basic Education in the MAP Region, SW Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; de Los Rios, M.; Mendoza, E.; Reis, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    systems along the frontier develop new curricula that incorporates satellite imagery and landscape ecology, as well as discussions about two basic human rights linked to education and research: the right to information about sustainable development and the right to participate in collective decisions. Curriculum reform that includes insertion of research results and techniques into the basic education system has the potential of reaching tens of thousands of persons per decade in the MAP Region. As such, the collaboration of scientists and educators may provide a means to encounter the elusive multiplying factors necessary to promote a more sustainable future for the region.

  20. Design, Discovery and Growth of Novel Materials For Basic Research: An Urgent U.S. Need Report on the DOE/BES Workshop: “Future Directions of Design, Discovery and Growth of Single Crystals for Basic Research”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfield, Paul [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-10-10

    - leading leading capabilities in neutron and x-ray science, even as powerful new facilities come on line. This situatio n is exacerbated by the several decade- long decline of traditionally strong industrial expertise in crystal synthesis, by the relatively small number of synthesis scientists being trained in U.S. universities and national laboratories, and by increasing support for single crystal materials synthesis in Europe and Japan. The principal recommendation of the workshop is that the Department of Energy should act to close the gap in U.S. based design, discovery and growth of novel materials for basic research by growing and coordinating the nation’s existing crystal growth efforts, by adding qualitatively new capabilities, and by significantly enhancing Ph.D. and postdoctoral training opportunities in universities, national laboratories and industry. Specifically, the workshop recommendations are: 1) to broadly increase the level of funding for individual research activities in new materials and single crystal growth, 2) to establish a novel, national materials design, discovery and growth network with unprecedented interconnectivity, and 3) to create multi- investigator materials preparation facilities that feature specialized capabilities, provide samples on - a priority basis, and offer training in advanced techniques. We believe these recommendations will strengthen the U.S. base in materials synthesis at all levels, optimize the use of national resources, and integrate the materials synthesis community more effectively into the larger U.S. condensed matter science enterprise for maximum impact.

  1. The Two Faces of Collaboration: Impacts of University-Industry Relations on Public Research

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Perkmann; Kathryn Walsh

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of university-industry relationships on public research. Our inductive study of university-industry collaboration in engineering suggests that basic projects are more likely to yield academically valuable knowledge than applied projects. However, applied projects show higher degrees of partner interdependence and therefore enable exploratory learning by academics, leading to new ideas and projects. This result holds especially for research-oriented academics working in t...

  2. Basic Research in Electronics (JSEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    of Eu 3+-Polymer Complexes Containing P- Diketone Ligand ," J. Appl. Polymer Sci., 25, 2007 (1980). 3. Y. Avigal and E. Banks, "Conductivity of Reduced...existing materials (e.g., by forming solid solutions) or by attempting the synthesis of materials based on theories which attempt to explain the...Ueba, " Synthesis and Charac- terization of Rare Earth Metal-Containing Polymers. I. Fluorescence Properties of Ionomers," J. Appl. Polymer Sci., 25, 359

  3. Basic Research in Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    increasingly used in a variety of civilian and military systems including aircraft, ships, and omand , control and commnication centers. These displays have...IL Julian Hochberg (NAS), Columbia University David Lwargrebe, Purdue University David Neri, U.S. Navy Submarine Base, Groton, CT J.J. Rennilscn...Timothy A. Salthouse, Georgia Institute of Technology Harold L. Sheppard, University of South Florida David B.D. Smith, University of Southern California

  4. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  5. Basic Research in Electronics (JSEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    3150 (Sept. 1980). Refer also to the bibliography therein. 9. S. Nemoto and T. Makimoto , "Reflection and Transmission of Two-Dimensional Gaussian Beam...we will go beyond current descriptions which deal principally with electronic relaxation along the surface normal by including structural rearrange

  6. Microscope basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides information on how microscopes work and discusses some of the microscope issues to be considered in using a video camera on the microscope. There are two types of microscopes in use today for research in cell biology-the older finite tube-length (typically 160mm mechanical tube length) microscopes and the infinity optics microscopes that are now produced. The objective lens forms a magnified, real image of the specimen at a specific distance from the objective known as the intermediate image plane. All objectives are designed to be used with the specimen at a defined distance from the front lens element of the objective (the working distance) so that the image formed is located at a specific location in the microscope. Infinity optics microscopes differ from the finite tube-length microscopes in that the objectives are designed to project the image of the specimen to infinity and do not, on their own, form a real image of the specimen. Three types of objectives are in common use today-plan achromats, plan apochromats, and plan fluorite lenses. The concept of mounting video cameras on the microscope is also presented in the chapter.

  7. A preliminary study on exploratory search behavior of undergraduate students in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunqiu; ZHANG; Wenxiu; AN; Jia; FENG

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to investigate how a user’s search behavior changes in the exploratory search process in order to understand the characteristics of the user’s search behavior and build a behavioral model.Design/methodology/approach: Forty-two matriculated full-time senior college students with a female-to-male ratio of 1 to 1 who majored in medical science in Jilin University participated in our experiment. The task of the experiment was to search for information about "the influence of environmental pollution on daily life" in order to write a report about this topic. The research methods include concept map, query log analysis and questionnaire survey.Findings: The results indicate that exploratory search can significantly change the knowledge structure of searchers. As searchers were moving through different stages of the exploratory search process, they experienced cognitive changes, and their search behaviors were characterized by quick browsing, careful browsing and focused searching.Research limitations: The study used only one search topic, and there is no comparision or control group. Although we took search habits, personal thinking habits, personality characteristics and professional background into account, a more detailed study to analyze the effects of these factors on exploratory search behavior is needed in our further research.Practical implications: This study can serve as a reference for other researchers engaged in the same effort to construct the supporting system of exploratory search.Originality/value: Three methods are used to investigate the behavior characteristics during exploratory search.

  8. Research on cognition of basic methods of scientific research design in medical postgraduates of 2011%医学硕士研究生基本科研设计方法认知现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳芳; 马修强; 吴美京; 陆健; 孟虹; 郭晓晶; 许金芳; 贺佳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the current situation of postgraduates knowledge about medical research design and optimize the curriculum setting of research design.Methods An investigation was carried out in the postgraduates of 2011 using questionnaires in a medical university..The questionnaire ineluded basic information of participants and cognition of basic methods of research design.Results A total of 473 postgraduates participated in the investigation.Among them,311 systematically learned medical statistics before enrollment,and 275 ( 58.14% ) once participated in scientific researches.Most of them ( >80% ) knew about the 10 basic methods of research design listed in the questionnaire,but only a few of them were familiar with them,and some even didn't know about the methods.Conclusion We should pay attention to the culture of scientific research thought in statistical design,strengthen the practice of research design teaching,and the curriculum of research design should be led into undergraduate course.%目的 了解医学硕士研究生科研设计方法知识掌握情况,优化《科研设计》课程设置.方法 以某医学高校2011级硕士研究生为对象进行问卷调查,内容包括调查对象基本情况和基本科研设计方法认知情况.结果 共有473位硕士研究生参加调查,其中有311人(68.05%)入学前系统地学习过医学统计学课程,275人(58.14%)曾参加过科学研究.对于问卷中的10种常见科研设计方法,大多数研究生(>80%)只是了解,熟悉者很少,有的甚至不知道.结论 在教学中要注重学生统计设计方面的科研思维培养,加强科研设计实践教学训练,并建议将科研设计课程引入本科生教学中.

  9. Progress of the basic Research and Application Research of the Aloe Leaves%芦荟属植物叶基础与应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶胜明

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the research progress of aloe from the structure of aloe vera leaves,its chemical composition,function and application research.The main chemical components of aloe is anthraquinones and their derivatives,etc.Its main function is that it can make people more beautiful and healthier,inhibit bacterial breeding,reduce people's blood fat,and resist tumors.Now the products of aloe can be divided into three categories: health food,medicines and cosmetics.%从芦荟叶片的结构、化学成分、功效、应用性研空四个方面来阐述芦荟的研究进展。芦荟的主要活性成分为蒽醌类及其衍生物等,其主要的功效包括美容、保健、抑菌、降血脂、抗肿瘤等,目前芦荟开发出来的产品可分为三大类,分别是保健食品类、药品类和化妆品类。

  10. Circulating tumour cells: the evolving concept and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based methodology for basic and clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P K; Cummins, A G; Price, T J; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Hardingham, J E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are responsible for metastatic relapse and this has fuelled interest in their detection and quantification. Although numerous methods have been developed for the enrichment and detection of CTCs, none has yet reached the 'gold' standard. Since epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based enrichment of CTCs offers several advantages, it is one of the most commonly used and has been adapted for high-throughput technology. However, emerging evidence suggests that CTCs are highly heterogeneous: they consist of epithelial tumour cells, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells, hybrid (epithelial/EMT(+)) tumour cells, irreversible EMT(+) tumour cells, and circulating tumour stem cells (CTSCs). The EpCAM-based approach does not detect CTCs expressing low levels of EpCAM and non-epithelial phenotypes such as CTSCs and those that have undergone EMT and no longer express EpCAM. Thus, the approach may lead to underestimation of the significance of CTCs, in general, and CTSCs and EMT(+) tumour cells, in particular, in cancer dissemination. Here, we provide a critical review of research literature on the evolving concept of CTCs and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based technology for basic and clinical cancer research. The review also outlines future perspectives in the field.

  11. “基础”课教学游戏的开发研究%Research on the Development of "Basic"Course Teaching Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅

    2016-01-01

    In the face of challenges to "basic"course teaching work in the current situation,the introduction of teaching game as a new teaching method into the "basic"course teaching is a positive attempt for the teachers of Ideological and political edu-cation.Based on the stage results of the teaching game research for the domestic and foreign scholars,we can adapt the game -"red and black"into the game of "competition and cooperation"to solve a difficult problem in the teaching of "basic"couse teaching -a correct understanding and dealing with the relationship between competition and cooperation",make full use of the game features,urges the students to participate in interactive games,understand the relationship between the competition and cooperation to reach the organic integration of the game and teaching goals and realize the aim of improving teaching effect.%面对当前形势下“基础”课教学工作面临的挑战,把教学游戏作为新的教学方法引入“基础”课的教学是思政教师积极有益的尝试。在国内外学者教学游戏研究的阶段性成果的基础上,把博弈游戏———“红黑”游戏改编成为“竞争与合作”游戏,解决“基础”课教学中的一个难点问题———“正确认识和处理竞争与合作的关系”,充分利用游戏的特点,促使学生参与游戏互动,在游戏中理解竞争与合作的关系,达到游戏与教学目标的有机结合,实现提升教学效果的目的。

  12. Exploratory and multivariate data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jambu, Michel

    1991-01-01

    With a useful index of notations at the beginning, this book explains and illustrates the theory and application of data analysis methods from univariate to multidimensional and how to learn and use them efficiently. This book is well illustrated and is a useful and well-documented review of the most important data analysis techniques.Key Features* Describes, in detail, exploratory data analysis techniques from the univariate to the multivariate ones* Features a complete description of correspondence analysis and factor analysis techniques as multidimensional statistical data a

  13. 关于比较心理学五个基本问题的研究%The Research on the Five Basic Themes in Comparative Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆国; 贾林祥

    2011-01-01

    比较心理学是研究动物行为进化的基本理论和不同进化水平的动物其各种行为特点的心理学分支,它为科学心理学的发展发挥了提供佐证和实验证明的作用,也为后来的机能主义心理学、格式塔学派、行为主义心理学的兴起和发展奠定了不可动摇的实验基础。通过对比较心理学的历史渊源、研究内容、研究方法、研究意义、研究困境和转折发展这五个基本问题的探讨来进一步理清比较心理学走向科学化、客观化研究的过程,并指出其困境和转折发展的历程。%Comparative psychology is an branch of modem psychology , which researches the basically evolutionary theory of animal behaviors and the characters of different animals in different evolutionary stags. Comparative psychology provided the examples and experiments for scientific psychology. It also set a static foundation for the development of the Functional Psychology, the Gestalt Psychology and the Behavior Psychology. The authors tried to clarify the five basic themes in order to make it clear how the comparative psychology developed scientifically and objectively. In the end, they discussed the difficult situation of comparative psychology and its transformation.

  14. Exploratory Research on Strategic Introduction of Patents Based on "Combination of Law and Commerce"%基于“法商结合”视角的企业专利引进战略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娇; 孙忠群

    2012-01-01

    In the perspective of "combination of law and commerce" , the article researches the introduction of patents in aspects of both law and commercial factors based on the integration of relevant theories, and then builds the analytical procedure by SWOT model to supply companies with basic ideas of the strategic introduction of patents.%基于“法商结合”的视角,在整合相关理论的基础上,对待引进专利进行商业价值与法律风险组合分析,并借助SWOT模型构建企业专利引进方式的分析过程,进而明确企业专利引进战略的基本思路.

  15. 企业知识专门化与探索式创新绩效:研发网络知识整合的悖论%Knowledge Specification of Focal Firm and Exploratory Innovation Performance:A Paradox in the Knowledge Integration of Research and Development Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚萍

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge specification of focal firm has a paradoxical role in the integration of diversified knowledge within the research and development network, which affects the performance of its exploratory innovation. The article, on the basis of 54 samples between 2004 and 2009, applies a negative binomial random regression to analyze the relationships between knowledge specification of focal firm, network knowledge diversity, network density and exploratory innovation performance. The results indicate that knowledge specification of focal firm has a significantly negative effect on exploratory innovation performance, that network knowledge diversity does not significantly and positively moderate the relationship between knowledge specification of focal firm and exploratory innovation performance, and that network knowledge density significantly and negatively moderate the relationship between knowledge specification of focal firm and exploratory innovation performance.%在研发合作网络内,企业知识专门化在整合网络多样性知识中存在着矛盾作用,从而影响其探索式创新绩效。采用54家样本企业在2004-2009年间的面板数据,运用负二项式随机回归分析,围绕着如何有效降低企业知识专门化对其探索式创新的负面影响,探讨企业知识专门化、合作网络知识多样性、网络密度及探索式创新绩效间的内在联系,研究结果表明:企业知识专门化对其探索式创新绩效具有显著的负向作用;合作网络知识多样性并不显著地正向调节企业知识专门化与其探索式创新绩效的关系;网络密度显著地负向调节企业知识专门化与探索式创新绩效的关系。

  16. Correctional services and prison chaplaincy in Australia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lindsay B; Del Medico, Laura

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes an exploratory study undertaken to consider the work of Australian chaplaincy personnel ministering to prisoners within correctional facilities. This qualitative research was not concerned with specific correctional institutions per se, but predominantly about the perspectives of chaplains concerning their professional contribution and issues they experienced while trying to provide pastoral care to prisoners. Data from a single-focus group indicated that prison chaplains were striving to fulfill religious and spiritual duties according to national and international standards for the treatment of prisoners. Given various frustrations identified by participants, that either impeded or thwarted their professional role as chaplains, a number of improvements were subsequently identified in order to develop the efficiency and effectiveness of chaplaincy and thus maximize the benefits of pastoral care to prisoners. Implications of this exploratory study relate not only to prison chaplaincy but also to ecclesiastical organizations, correctional facilities, governments and the need of support for further research to be conducted.

  17. An Exploratory Study of E-Business Success Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jingting; HUANG Jinghua

    2004-01-01

    E-business success factors are important for traditional enterprises to implement e-business. This topic is attracting more and more researchers to study. This paper makes an exploratory study on the factors influencing e-business success. Firstly, based on the literature review, 52 factors are suggested. Secondly, two rounds of survey with Delphi method are conducted. Qualitative and quantitative analysis are used to identify 57factors. This is the foundation of empirical study.

  18. Cyber Café Usage in Malaysia: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shah Alam; Z aini Abdullah; Nilufar Ahsan

    2009-01-01

    Using empirical and new field data, t his exploratory study investigates the pattern of the use of cyber cafes in two cities in Malaysia. The research was based on the convenience sample survey of 284 respondents in total in the two cities, Melaka and Miri in Sarawak. It can be argued that cyb er café seeks to provide its customers with inexpensive Internet access in a comfortable environment. People of all ages and sex come to enjoy the unique, upscale, educational,...

  19. Research report of fiscal 1997. Basic research on joint implementation for preventing global climate changes; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kyodo jisshi kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research was made to promote Activities Implemented Jointly Japan Program. Joint Implementation (JI) is the methodology for preventing global climate changes by collaboration of countries. The countries take cooperative actions for reduction, absorption and fixation of greenhouse gases, and effectively distribute the reduction credits among relevant parties. This was decided in the first session of the Conference of Parties (COP) held in March, 1995. In COP3, Japan`s assigned reduction amount in 2008-2012 was determined as 6% of the emission level in 1990. The protocol defines JI between parties as dealings of emission reduction units, and JI between developing countries as clean development mechanism. The rules for a base line and credit distribution are necessary before full-scale implementation. Although JI is regarded as an important cost-effective project, it is important to decide where and how the JI projects should been promoted. The present state and issues of the primary approved project of Japan Program are arranged. In particular, various terms related to developing countries remain to be solved. 21 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Update of the exploratory report Acrolein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Bont PFH; Janus JA; Pronk MEJ; Ros JPM; ECO; PPCbv; ACT; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The report is an update of the exploratory report acrolein (Slooff et al., 1991) that served as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory meeting on acrolein in March 1992. The meeting supported the conclusion that priority should be given to the compartment air and to the risks to humans.