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Sample records for basic economic traits

  1. Is the spatial distribution of mankind's most basic economic traits determined by climate and soil alone?

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    Jan Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several authors, most prominently Jared Diamond (1997, Guns, Germs and Steel, have investigated biogeographic determinants of human history and civilization. The timing of the transition to an agricultural lifestyle, associated with steep population growth and consequent societal change, has been suggested to be affected by the availability of suitable organisms for domestication. These factors were shown to quantitatively explain some of the current global inequalities of economy and political power. Here, we advance this approach one step further by looking at climate and soil as sole determining factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a simplistic 'null model', we assume that only climate and soil conditions affect the suitability of four basic landuse types - agriculture, sedentary animal husbandry, nomadic pastoralism and hunting-and-gathering. Using ecological niche modelling (ENM, we derive spatial predictions of the suitability for these four landuse traits and apply these to the Old World and Australia. We explore two aspects of the properties of these predictions, conflict potential and population density. In a calculation of overlap of landuse suitability, we map regions of potential conflict between landuse types. Results are congruent with a number of real, present or historical, regions of conflict between ethnic groups associated with different landuse traditions. Furthermore, we found that our model of agricultural suitability explains a considerable portion of population density variability. We mapped residuals from this correlation, finding geographically highly structured deviations that invite further investigation. We also found that ENM of agricultural suitability correlates with a metric of local wealth generation (Gross Domestic Product, Purchasing Power Parity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From simplified assumptions on the links between climate, soil and landuse we are able to provide good predictions on

  2. Economic analysis: A basic primer

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    Doig G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical knowledge is advancing at an incredible rate. This rapid increase in the fundamental understanding of disease states has led to some important breakthroughs in care over the past ten years and will undoubtedly lead to untold more. At the same time that we are being presented with more options for diagnosis and treatment, governments around the world are fighting to reduce deficit spending and inflation. As a direct result of this combination of reduced spending and increased options for care, medical professionals are being asked to provide more effective care more efficiently. The randomized control trial may be the best way to determine the effectiveness of different options, however, only a full economic analysis can help decide which option is more efficient. This paper is intended to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the methods used to perform a full economic analysis.

  3. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  4. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

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    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures.

  5. The basic theory of industrial ecological economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a great difference between the new type industrialization road in China and the road of industrialization first,then informatization and at last ecologization in western developed countries.Industrlnl eco-economics is one of fhe critical branches of eco-economics.It is a subject of objective law of structural upgrading,functional optimization and highiv efficient running of industrial eco-economic system,which is combined with industrial economic system and eco-system under the condition of intellectual economy and circular economy combinations.Meanwhile,it is a relatively weak subject in the research field of eco-economics in China for the time being.Taking thepractice road of new type industrialization needs the guidance of industrial eco-economics. The modern industrial eco-economics in the 21st century must be adapted to the need of new type road of industrialization in Chind.The paper analyzes the status quo of research and the main contents of industrial eco-economics and tries to study some key theories of the branch subject.

  6. Inheritance of economic traits of Microcerasus tomentosa thunb. intervarietal hybrids

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    Buchenkov Igor Eduardovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid fund of Microcerasus tomentosa comprising 6 families with a total of 287 plants has been created. The features of the inheritance of important economic traits in hybrid offspring intervarietal hybrids Microcerasus tomentosa are defined. The hybrid family and cross combinations with high features of macrocarpa, small fruit size, dry berry separation, vitamin C, immunity and precocity are defined. During the study period of controlled hybrid offspring of crosses a number of elite seedlings was identified - Natali x Jubilejnaja, Natali x Smugljanka vostočnaja, and Natali x Rozovaja urožajnaja that combine high rates of fruit weight with other economic traits.

  7. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

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    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  8. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

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    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  9. A basic analysis of cogeneration economics

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    Collet, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The economics of small scale gas turbine based cogeneration systems are analyzed on the basis of avoided costs for an electric utility exploiting such systems. This concerns a theoretical study in which the cogeneration system as a means for electricity generation is assumed to supplant the building

  10. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT - BASIC REQUIREMENT OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

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    ADRIAN TĂNASE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that institutions play a key role in facilitating private investment and that institutional quality is the most important factor that explains why capital does not flow from developed countries, where it has a lower return, to developing countries where it has a higher returnThe importance of institutions is not restricted to the legal framework. Government attitudes toward markets and freedoms and the efficiency of its operations are also very important: excessive bureaucracy and red tape, overregulation, corruption, dishonesty in dealing with public contracts, lack of transparency and trustworthiness, or the political dependence of the judicial system impose significant economic costs to businesses and slow down the process of economic development.The paper approaches thus a topic of present utmost interest, rising the interest of specialists, media and, last but not least, the interest of entrepreneurs, irrespective of their domain of activity.

  11. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

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    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  12. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

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    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence.

  13. THE FOUNDATION OF ENGLISH BASIC TERM ECONOMICS AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

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    Khudinsha, E.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the peculiarities of the English basic economical term origin “economics”, the dynamics of this term development. The lexical unit “economics” was based by the borrowing from Greek and Latin languages and began to be used actively in the meaning of the management of the household and modified to the term “economics” (the main modern economical science component.

  14. The Basic Economics of CD-ROM Pricing.

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    Erkkila, John E.

    1991-01-01

    This explanation of how the basic economic model of pricing applies to the CD-ROM industry considers the supply and demand sides of the market and compares three distinct pricing strategies: (1) pricing to maximize profits; (2) average cost pricing; and (3) marginal cost pricing. (EAM)

  15. Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications

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    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in 's

  16. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

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    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were deri

  17. Methodology and basic algorithms of the Livermore Economic Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.B.

    1981-03-17

    The methodology and the basic pricing algorithms used in the Livermore Economic Modeling System (EMS) are described. The report explains the derivations of the EMS equations in detail; however, it could also serve as a general introduction to the modeling system. A brief but comprehensive explanation of what EMS is and does, and how it does it is presented. The second part examines the basic pricing algorithms currently implemented in EMS. Each algorithm's function is analyzed and a detailed derivation of the actual mathematical expressions used to implement the algorithm is presented. EMS is an evolving modeling system; improvements in existing algorithms are constantly under development and new submodels are being introduced. A snapshot of the standard version of EMS is provided and areas currently under study and development are considered briefly.

  18. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

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    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  19. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

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    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  20. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

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    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  1. Impact of production strategies and animal performance on economic values of dairy sheep traits.

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    Krupová, Z; Wolfová, M; Krupa, E; Oravcová, M; Daňo, J; Huba, J; Polák, P

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the impact of various production strategies and performance levels on the relative economic values (REVs) of traits in dairy sheep. A bio-economic model implemented in the program package ECOWEIGHT was used to simulate the profit function for a semi-extensive production system with the Slovak multi-purpose breed Improved Valachian and to calculate the REV of 14 production and functional traits. The following production strategies were analysed: differing proportions of milk processed to cheese, customary weaning and early weaning of lambs with immediate sale or sale after artificial rearing, seasonal lambing in winter and aseasonal lambing in autumn. Results of the sensitivity analysis are presented in detail for the four economically most important traits: 150 days milk yield, conception rate of ewes, litter size and ewe productive lifetime. Impacts of the differences in the mean value of each of these four traits on REVs of all other traits were also examined. Simulated changes in the production circumstances had a higher impact on the REV for milk yield than on REVs of the other traits investigated. The proportion of milk processed to cheese, weaning management strategy for lambs and level of milk yield were the main factors influencing the REV of milk yield. The REVs for conception rate of ewes were highly sensitive to the current mean level of the trait. The REV of ewe productive lifetime was most sensitive to variation in ewe conception rate, and the REV of litter size was most affected by weaning strategy for lambs. On the basis of the results of sensitivity analyses, it is recommended that economic values of traits for the overall breeding objective for dairy sheep be calculated as the weighted average of the economic values obtained for the most common production strategies of Slovak dairy sheep farms and that economic values be adjusted after substantial changes in performance levels

  2. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Soloviev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  3. What Should We Be Teaching in Basic Economics Courses?

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    Gwartney, James

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Placement economics leaves thousands of high school students with a misleading impression of modern economics. The courses fail to cover key sources of growth and prosperity, including private ownership, dynamic competition, and entrepreneurship. The tools of public choice economics are totally ignored. Government is modeled as a…

  4. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  5. On the Role of Personality Traits and Social Skills in Adult Economic Attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mueller

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe research reported on these pages analyzes the influence of personality traits and interpersonal skills in adult economic attainment, with particular focus on earnings. The purpose is to bring together ideas from economics, social-psychology, and related disciplines in order to contri

  6. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  7. Genetic Parameters of Some Economic Traits in Arabi Ewes

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    S F. Al-Dabbagh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data were analyzed of Arabi ewes flock (153 within productive years 1990-1999 to estimate the overall mean and genetic parameters which are heritability, repeatability, genetic and phenotypic correlations for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, milk and wool yield for this breed. The overall mean for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, daily milk yield and greasy fleece weight were 70.07%, 1.14, 50.24 kg, 4.52 kg, 0.59 kg and 1.67 kg respectively. Heritability estimates were low- moderate ranged (0.09-0.45. Repeatability estimates were low-high ranged (0.10-0.56. Genetic and phenotypic values of correlation between the traits were all highly significant (p≤ 0.01 except for the genetic and phenotypic correlation between birth weight and both daily milk yield, fertility, phenotypic correlation between greasy fleece weight and both fertility, litter size were non significant.

  8. Personality traits, national character stereotypes, and climate-economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Chan, Wayne

    2013-10-01

    Cross-cultural personality research suggests that individuals from wealthier countries tend to be more open-minded. This openness to values may support more democratic governments and the expansion of fundamental freedoms. The link between wealth and freedom is evident in cold-to-temperate climates, but not across wealthy nations in hot climates. Furthermore, temperature and economic conditions shape perceptions of national character stereotypes.

  9. Economic values for production and functional traits of Small East African goat using profit functions.

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    Mbuku, Samuel; Kosgey, Isaac; Okeyo, Mwai; Kahi, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, g; 12-month live weight, yLW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CM, %) and functional traits (mature doe live weight, DoLW, kg; mature buck live weight, LWb, kg; kidding frequency, KF; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR,%; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; and residual feed intake, RFI, kg) were estimated using profit functions for the Small East African goat. The scenario evaluated was a fixed flock size, and the resultant economic values (Kes per doe per year) were 34.46 (MY), 62.35 (yLW), 40.69 (CM), 0.15 (DoLW), 2.84 (LWb), 8.69 (KF), 17.38 (PrSR), 16.60 (PoSR), 16.69 (DoSR) and -3.00 (RFI). Similarly, the economic values decreased by -14.7 % (MY), -2.7 % (yLW), -23.9 % (CM), -6.6 % (DoLW), -98 % (LWb), -8.6 % (KF), -8.2 % (PrSR), -8.9 % (PoSR), -8.1 % (DoSR) and 0 % (RFI) when they were risk rated. The economic values for production and functional traits, except RFI, were positive, which implies that genetic improvement of these traits would have a positive effect on the profitability in the pastoral production systems. The application of an Arrow-Pratt coefficient of absolute risk aversion (λ) at the level of 0.02 resulted in a decrease on the estimated economic values, implying that livestock keepers who were risk averse were willing to accept lower expected returns. The results indicate that there would be improvement in traits of economic importance, and, therefore, easy-to-manage genetic improvement programmes should be established.

  10. A RELATIVE BENEFIT ALGORITHM FOR BASIC ECONOMIC LOT SIZE PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉民; 张子刚; 周少甫; 黄卫来

    2001-01-01

    The paper develops an algorithm that solves economic lot size problem in O(n2) time in the Wagner-Whitin case. The algorithm is based on the standard dynamic programming approach which requires the computation of the maximal relative benefit for some possible subplans of the production plan. In this algorithm the authors have studied the forward property and decomposition properties which can make computation easy. The proposed algorithm appears to perform quite reasonably for practical application.

  11. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

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    Hysen Bytyqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.

  12. Estimation of economic values for traits of dairy sheep: I. Model development.

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    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Krupová, Z; Kica, J

    2009-05-01

    A bioeconomic model was developed to estimate effects of change in production and functional traits on profit of dairy or dual-purpose milked sheep under alternative management systems. The flock structure was described in terms of animal categories and probabilities of transitions among them, and a Markov chain approach was used to calculate the stationary state of the resultant ewe flock. The model included both deterministic and stochastic components. Performance for most traits was simulated as the population average, but variation in several traits was taken into account. Management options included lambing intervals, mating system, and culling strategy for ewes, weaning and marketing strategy for progeny, and feeding system. The present value of profit computed as the difference between total revenues and total costs per ewe per year, both discounted to the birth date of the animals, was used as the criterion for economic efficiency of the production system in the stationary state. Economic values (change in system profit per unit change in the trait) of up to 35 milk production, growth, carcass, wool, and functional traits may be estimated.

  13. Ontogeny strongly and differentially alters leaf economic and other key traits in three diverse Helianthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; McGaughey, Sarah E; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes large cross-species variation in suites of leaf functional traits ranging from resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative strategies. Such strategies have been integral in explaining plant adaptation to diverse environments, and have been linked to numerous ecosystem processes. The LES has previously been found to be significantly modulated by climate, soil fertility, biogeography, growth form, and life history. One largely unexplored aspect of LES variation, whole-plant ontogeny, is investigated here using multiple populations of three very different species of sunflower: Helianthus annuus, Helianthus mollis, and Helianthus radula. Plants were grown under environmentally controlled conditions and assessed for LES and related traits at four key developmental stages, using recently matured leaves to standardize for leaf age. Nearly every trait exhibited a significant ontogenetic shift in one or more species, with trait patterns differing among populations and species. Photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration, and leaf mass per area exhibited surprisingly large changes, spanning over two-thirds of the original cross-species LES variation and shifting from resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative strategies as the plants matured. Other traits being investigated in relation to the LES, such as leaf water content, pH, and vein density, also showed large changes. The finding that ontogenetic variation in LES strategy can be substantial leads to a recommendation of standardization by developmental stage when assessing 'species values' of labile traits for comparative approaches. Additionally, the substantial ontogenetic trait shifts seen within single individuals provide an opportunity to uncover the contribution of gene regulatory changes to variation in LES traits.

  14. Should the space of basic personality traits be extended to include the disposition toward psychotic-like experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that there is a latent disposition toward psychotic-like experiences in the general population, labeled schizotypy. However, there is a dispute over the conceptual status of schizotypy: does it represent merely psychosis proneness, or is it a broad and general personality trait? If a disposition should be regarded even as a candidate for a personality trait, its scores would probably be distributed normally in the population and it must show irreducibility in regard to the previously discovered personality traits. In this research, these questions are addressed, using the construct of Disintegration as an operationalization of schizotypy. The results show that although some modalities of Disintegration have skewed distributions in the student sample (N=345, 65% female, the global Disintegration scores have a normal distribution. Furthermore, Disintegration modalities constitute a latent component which is distinct from the personality traits that form HEXACO model of basic personality structure. Nevertheless, Disintegration shares some variance with the HEXACO traits, especially with the negative poles of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. The results suggest that a conceptual view of a schizotypy as a personality trait is at least plausible and they can be used as guidelines for future empirical studies of this problem. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011

  15. Modulation of Leaf Economic Traits and Rates by Soil Properties, at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, V.; Wright, I. J.; Reich, P. B.; Batjes, N. H., Jr.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Bhaskar, R.; Santiago, L. S.; Ellsworth, D.; Niinemets, U.; Cornwell, W.

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis can be construed as an economic process that optimises the costs of acquisition, transport and utilisation of two substitutable photosynthetic resources: water and nitrogen. The influence of soil fertility on photosynthetic rates and leaf 'economic' traits related with H2O and N costs is poorly quantified in higher plants in comparison with the effects of climate. We set out to address this situation by quantifying the unique and shared contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of soil and climate properties on photosynthetic traits: light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Aarea), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), leaf N and P (Narea and Parea) and specific leaf area (SLA). We used mixed regression models, multivariate analyses and variance partitioning. Along a first dimension of soil fertility, soil pH covaried positively with measures of base status and climatic aridity, and negatively with soil organic C content. Along this dimension from low to high soil pH, Narea, Parea and Aarea increased and SLA decreased. Along an independent dimension of soil fertility, gs declined and Parea increased with soil available P (Pavail). Overall, soil variables were stronger predictors of leaf traits than were climate variables, except for SLA. Importantly, soils and climate were not redundant information to explain leaf trait variation but were not additive either. Shared effects of soil and climate dominated over their independent effects on Narea and Parea, while unique effects of soils dominated for Aarea and gs. Three environmental variables were key for explaining variation in leaf traits: soil pH and Pavail, and climatic aridity. Although the reliability of global soils datasets lags behind that of climate datasets our results nonetheless provide compelling evidence that both can

  16. The role of personal values and basic traits in perceptions of the consequences of immigration: a three-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gianvittorio; Schoen, Harald; Castro, Josè Luis Gonzàlez; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2012-08-01

    Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N= 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz's (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modelling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the five-factor model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals' traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.

  17. A plant economics spectrum in Mediterranean forests along environmental gradients: is there coordination among leaf, stem and root traits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la E.G.; Tosto, A.; Perez-Ramos, I.M.; Navarro-Fernandez, C.M.; Olmos, M.; Anten, N.P.R.; Maranon, T.; Villar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Questions: Is there any evidence of coordination among leaf, stem and root traits, and thereby of the existence of a plant economics spectrum at the species and community level in Mediterranean forests? Are these traits related to plant size and seedmass? Location: Mediterranean forests and shrublan

  18. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  19. Prosocial Personality Traits Differentially Predict Egalitarianism, Generosity, and Reciprocity in Economic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smillie, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the role of prosocial personality traits-agreeableness and honesty-humility-in egalitarian distributions of wealth in the dictator game. Expanding on these findings, we ran two studies to examine individual differences in two other forms of prosociality-generosity and reciprocity-with respect to two major models of personality, the Big Five and the HEXACO. Participants (combined N = 560) completed a series of economic games in which allocations in the dictator game were compared with those in the generosity game, a non-constant-sum wealth distribution task where proposers with fixed payoffs selected the size of their partner's payoff ("generosity"). We further examined positive and negative reciprocity by manipulating a partner's previous move ("reciprocity"). Results showed clear evidence of both generosity and positive reciprocity in social preferences, with allocations to a partner greater in the generosity game than in the dictator game, and greater still when a player had been previously assisted by their partner. There was also a consistent interaction with gender, whereby men were more generous when this was costless and women were more egalitarian overall. Furthermore, these distinct forms of prosociality were differentially predicted by personality traits, in line with the core features of these traits and the theoretical distinctions between them. HEXACO honesty-humility predicted dictator, but not generosity allocations, while traits capturing tendencies toward irritability and anger predicted lower generosity, but not dictator allocations. In contrast, the politeness-but not compassion-aspect of Big Five agreeableness was uniquely and broadly associated with prosociality across all games. These findings support the discriminant validity between related prosocial constructs, and have important implications for understanding the motives and mechanisms taking place within economic games.

  20. INSTITUTE OF SPEСIAL ECONOMIC ZONES: BASIC PROVISIONS AND THE WORLD PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Aleksandr Konstantinovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the operation of special economic zones ("SEZ" in the countries that feature different levels of economic development (including Ghana, China, Bulgaria, the USA and Russia, principal provisions and special entrepreneurial environment, as well as the variety of SEZ depending on the objectives of their setup. Problems of management of items of real estate within territories of SEZ are identified. The authors also analyze peculiarities of establishment and operation of SEZ in the Russian Federation and propose an economic mechanism to boost their competitiveness. The authors conclude that there is a pressing need for a qualitative reconsideration of approaches to the management of SEZ and their constituent elements that have to ensure a scalable and highly efficient application of SEZ as an instrument of innovative development in various fields and a solution to basic economic and social problems.

  1. The Application of Genomic Technologies to Investigate the Inheritance of Economically Important Traits in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Amills

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat genomics has evolved at a low pace because of a lack of molecular tools and sufficient investment. Whilst thousands and hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified in cattle and sheep, respectively, about nine genome scans have been performed in goats dealing with traits as conformation, growth, fiber quality, resistance to nematodes, and milk yield and composition. In contrast, a great effort has been devoted to the characterization of candidate genes and their association with milk, meat, and reproduction phenotypes. In this regard, causal mutations have been identified in the αS1-casein gene that has a strong effect on milk composition and the PIS locus that is linked to intersexuality and polledness. In recent times, the development of massive parallel sequencing technologies has allowed to build a reference genome for goats as well as to monitor the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs in a broad array of tissues and experimental conditions. Besides, the recent design of a 52K SNP chip is expected to have a broad impact in the analysis of the genetic architecture of traits of economic interest as well as in the study of the population structure of goats at a worldwide scale.

  2. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications.

  3. Effect of ecological environments on subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai XU; Wenfu CHEN; Hongguang LIU; Chunjie ZHU; Li YANG; Yanhua GUO; Jiayu WANG; Qianhua YANG; Zhengjin XU; Jiakui ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations, RILSA derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (indica) and "Toyonihiki" (japonica) rice cultivars, and RILSB derived from the cross between "Qishanzhan" (indica) and "Akihikari" (japonica) rice cultivars, were grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces, China to understand the effects of ecological environments on the subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica. The results showed that both the subspecies characteristics and economic traits changed significantly. The effects of ecological environments on Cheng's index and six subspecies characteristics were different on the basis of populations or characteristics. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSA was japonicalinous in Liaoning and Sichuan. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSB approached to normal distribution in Liaoning, but it wasjaponicalinous in Sichuan. As a whole, the two populations were more japonicalious in Sichuan than in Liaoning. The panicle number, seed setting rate and per-thousand-grain weight were decreased significantly in Sichuan. The grain number per panicle showed no significant change. A significant positive correlation was found between Cheng's index and the economic traits, including six subspe-cies traits. It suggested that the reason that the filial genera-tion of cross between indica and japonica in northern China showed japonieanous subspecies characteristics might be the artificial selection by breeders on the economic traits. In addition, indica-japonica differentiation and the relationship with ecological environments were discussed.

  4. Engagement, boredom, and burnout among students : Basic need satisfaction matters more than personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulea, Coralia; van Beek, Ilona; Sarbescu, Paul; Virga, Delia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the Five Factor PersonalityModel and Self-Determination Theory, the current study examines the relations between three different kinds of well-being - engagement, boredom, and burnout- and personality, and evaluates whether basic need satisfaction has an incremental contribution over pers

  5. An evaluation of alternative selection indexes for a non-linear profit trait approaching its economic optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Visser, B; Amer, P R

    2016-12-01

    This study used simulation to evaluate the performance of alternative selection index configurations in the context of a breeding programme where a trait with a non-linear economic value is approaching an economic optimum. The simulation used a simple population structure that approximately mimics selection in dual purpose sheep flocks in New Zealand (NZ). In the NZ dual purpose sheep population, number of lambs born is a genetic trait that is approaching an economic optimum, while genetically correlated growth traits have linear economic values and are not approaching any optimum. The predominant view among theoretical livestock geneticists is that the optimal approach to select for nonlinear profit traits is to use a linear selection index and to update it regularly. However, there are some nonlinear index approaches that have not been evaluated. This study assessed the efficiency of the following four alternative selection index approaches in terms of genetic progress relative to each other: (i) a linear index, (ii) a linear index updated regularly, (iii) a nonlinear (quadratic) index, and (iv) a NLF index (nonlinear index below the optimum and then flat). The NLF approach does not reward or penalize animals for additional genetic merit beyond the trait optimum. It was found to be at least comparable in efficiency to the approach of regularly updating the linear index with short (15 year) and long (30 year) time frames. The relative efficiency of this approach was slightly reduced when the current average value of the nonlinear trait was close to the optimum. Finally, practical issues of industry application of indexes are considered and some potential practical benefits of efficient deployment of a NLF index in highly heterogeneous industries (breeds, flocks and production environments) such as in the NZ dual purpose sheep population are discussed.

  6. Model descriptions of basic sides of psycho-physiological preparedness of specialists of economic type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phylypey L.P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of preparedness of graduating students of higher educational establishments is resulted in accordance with the queries of modern production. Descriptions of basic sides of the special psycho-physiological preparedness of specialists of economic type and its cross-correlation connections are selected with the level of professional trade. The bank of these indexes of the most meaningful for skilled economists basic psycho-physiological qualities is got. The criteria of estimation of psycho-physiological preparedness of economists are developed on the level of development of anchorwomen for them the special physical qualities.. It is set that the high level of adaptation and successful professional activity of specialists depends on basic physical and psycho-physiological qualities, abilities, skills. It is set that the high level of adaptation and successful professional activity of specialists is determined: static and general endurance of muscles of trunk and humeral belt, speed and co-ordination of motions of hands; ability is independent to optimize the psycho-physiological state; development of the system of muscles of visual analyzer.

  7. Personality and prosocial behavior: linking basic traits and social value orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality--though supported entirely by hypothetical behavior as criterion, so far. Thus, in 2 studies and a reanalysis, we investigated "actual behavior" in the form of individually and socially consequential distribution decisions. As expected, HEXACO Honesty-Humility consistently predicted prosocial behavior, including a theory-consistent pattern on the facet level. Importantly, this pattern might explain why five-factor Agreeableness has only sometimes been found to account for prosocial behavior. Indeed, further results indicate that five-factor Agreeableness comprises some aspects that are predictive of prosocial behavior--aspects well covered by HEXACO Honesty-Humility--but also others that play no role for this criterion. As such, the links between five-factor Agreeableness and prosocial behavior are well-covered by HEXACO Honesty-Humility, but not vice versa. Taken together, these findings hint that especially HEXACO Honesty-Humility (and certain aspects of five-factor Agreeableness) account for prosocial behavior--thus explaining previous inconsistencies and providing a more nuanced understanding of the links between basic personality and prosocial or cooperative behavior.

  8. THE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION OF BASIC SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS IN PARTICULAR: FORMAL-ETHIC AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Lobovikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to carry out historical-philosophical andlinguistic analysis of ethical and metaphysical doctrine of Aristotle on corruption in general; to discuss of formal-ethical view on the problem of corruption in basic scientific researches; to define the place and role of fundamental scientific researches in knowledge-based economy taken as a whole, and Boston Chart, in particular.Methods. The methods involve the historical-philosophical and logical-linguistic analysis of texts; creation and studying of the elementary discrete mathematical model of the researched moral phenomenon at the level of artificial language of two-digit algebra of the natural right and morals; use of such conceptual and figurative tool of the economic theory as Boston Chart.Results and scientific novelty. The definition of the concept «basic scientific research» is given for the first time; the concept includes time parameter and knowledge of utility (the practical importance of results of this research.Practical significance. The submitted definition (criterion gives a possibility to establish at any moment of time definite borderline between the basic and the applied scientific search (the line undergoes change in the flow of time. The effective criterion of basic scientific researches offered by the author, and also exact specifying of their place and role in lifecycle of knowledge as goods in market economy (at the conceptual level of the Boston Chart allow to designate an urgent problem of corruption of the scientific sphere in a new perspective. Along with some additional conditions, this new evidence could help to solve the problem.

  9. Basics of Swiss water levy politics - Economic considerations; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Oekonomische Ueberlegungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Staub, C. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Leimbacher, J. [Joerg Leimbacher, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic considerations involved in defining the basics for the handling of levies on water commodities. This levy is raised in Switzerland on the use of water and represents the payment made to a commune for the use of its water resources. The report first takes a look at the current situation, the reasons behind the Swiss water levy concept and the reasons why they have to be newly regulated. Changes in market factors are discussed, e.g. the liberalisation of the power market and past and future price developments. Also, the situation on the spot and futures markets for electricity is discussed. The actual production costs for hydropower are discussed and compared with other means of electricity generation. Proposals for readjusting the regulations concerning water levies are discussed.

  10. Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang, Jennifer J. Michal, Jie Chen, Tyler F. Daniels, Tanja Kunej, Matthew D. Garcia, Charles T. Gaskins, Jan R. Busboom, Leeson J. Alexander, Raymond W. Wright Jr., Michael D. MacNeil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F2 animals were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. A total of 2,280 single marker-trait association runs with 120 tagged mutations selected based on the HAPLOVIEW analysis revealed 144 significant associations (P < 0.05, but 50 of them were removed from the analysis due to the small number of animals (≤ 9 in one genotype group or absence of one genotype among three genotypes. The remaining 94 single-trait associations were then placed into three groups of quantitative trait modes (QTMs with additive, dominant and overdominant effects. All significant markers and their QTMs associated with each of these 19 traits were involved in a linear regression model analysis, which confirmed single-gene associations for 4 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 8 traits and three-gene networks for 5 traits. Such genetic networks involving both genotypes and QTMs resulted in high correlations between predicted and actual values of performance, thus providing evidence that the classical Mendelian principles of inheritance can be applied in understanding genetic complexity of complex phenotypes. Our present study also indicated that carcass, eating quality and fatty acid composition traits rarely share genetic networks. Therefore, marker-assisted selection for improvement of one category of these traits would not interfere with improvement of another.

  11. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2016-07-01

    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution.

  12. Psychological behavior and economics: the need for new theories and redefinition of basic concepts in Islamic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Agil, Syed Omar

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to posit the nexus between psychology and economics. However it is not the purpose of the paper to focus on all aspects of psychology and its various theories. It is also not the purpose of this paper to trace the historical development of economics, its various schools and the economic ideas that emerged. It discusses only those areas that are relevant to the development of economic thought particularly with regard to motivation and psychological behaviour. It traces the ...

  13. Testing models for the leaf economics spectrum with leaf and whole-plant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Vasseur, François; Violle, Cyrille; Shipley, Bill; Enquist, Brian J; Vile, Denis

    2015-05-08

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes strong relationships between multiple functional leaf traits that determine resource fluxes in vascular plants. Five models have been proposed to explain these patterns: two based on patterns of structural allocation, two on venation networks and one on resource allocation to cell walls and cell contents. Here we test these models using data for leaf and whole-plant functional traits. We use structural equation modelling applied to multiple ecotypes, recombinant inbred lines, near isogenic lines and vascular patterning mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that express LES trait variation. We show that a wide variation in multiple functional traits recapitulates the LES at the whole-plant scale. The Wright et al. (2004) model and the Blonder et al. (2013) venation network model cannot be rejected by data, while two simple models and the Shipley et al. (2006) allocation model are rejected. Venation networks remain a key hypothesis for the origin of the LES, but simpler explanations also cannot be ruled out.

  14. Economic Analysis: An Approach to Provide Basic Guidance for Conducting and Reviewing Economic Analysis within the Venezuelan Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    la Armada (EMGAR)-- Staff of the Navy ------------------------- 18 b. Direction de Presupuesto Programac ion Ecomica (DIPPE)-Direction of Budget and...Economic Programming -------------------- 18 c. Cornite De Programacion y Presupuesto (CPP)-- Programming and Budget Committee-----------18 3. Major...development. This analysis is included in the annual budget. b. Direction de Presupuesto Programaclon Ecomica (DIPPE)- Direction of Budget and Economic

  15. Teachers' Teaching Practice and Student Achievement in Basic Economics--A Comparison in Two Types of Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Termit Kaur Ranjit; Krishnan, Sashi Kala

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare teachers' teaching practice based on students' perception towards achievement in the subject of Basic Economics between two different types of secondary schools in Malaysia, the National Secondary Schools (SMK) and Chinese National Type Secondary Schools (SMJK) in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The…

  16. Home Economics--Food Services, Basic Cake Decorating. Kit No. 57. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevard, Eddie, Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on basic cake decorating are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of home economics (food services). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  17. Trait Anxiety and Economic Risk Avoidance Are Not Necessarily Associated: Evidence from the Framing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Runguo; Broster, Lucas S.; Jiang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Yang, Qiwei; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2017-01-01

    According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious people’s risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this hypothesis, a decision-making task that could elicit the framing effect was employed. The framing effect indicates that risk preference could be modulated by emotional messages contained in the description (i.e., frame) of options. The behavioral results have showed the classic framing effect. In addition, individual level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the framing effect size. However, trait anxiety was not correlated with risk-avoidance ratio in any condition. Finally, the relationship between anxiety and the framing effect remained significant after the level of depression was also taken into account. The theoretical significance and the major limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:28197116

  18. Trait Anxiety and Economic Risk Avoidance Are Not Necessarily Associated: Evidence from the Framing Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Runguo; Broster, Lucas S; Jiang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Yang, Qiwei; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2017-01-01

    According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious people's risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this hypothesis, a decision-making task that could elicit the framing effect was employed. The framing effect indicates that risk preference could be modulated by emotional messages contained in the description (i.e., frame) of options. The behavioral results have showed the classic framing effect. In addition, individual level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the framing effect size. However, trait anxiety was not correlated with risk-avoidance ratio in any condition. Finally, the relationship between anxiety and the framing effect remained significant after the level of depression was also taken into account. The theoretical significance and the major limitations of this study are discussed.

  19. Monitoring inbreeding trends and inbreeding depression for economically important traits of Holstein cattle in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokouei, M; Torshizi, R Vaez; Shahrbabak, M Moradi

    2010-01-01

    Pedigree information of 852,443 registered Holstein cows and bulls, collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran from 1971 to 2007, was used to calculate inbreeding coefficients and their effect on production, reproduction, somatic cell count, calving ease, and longevity traits. The average...... reproductive traits, the observed undesirable effect of inbreeding was not significant, except for the calving interval (0.53 d per 1% increase in inbreeding) in the third parity and age at first calving (0.45 d per 1% increase in inbreeding). Calving ease in heifers and cows was significantly influenced...

  20. The Study of Main and Interactive Effects of Attachment Dimension and Basic Personality Characteristics in Borderline Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are models of the development of personality disorders which include individual differences in attachment relationships as causal factors contributed in explanation of these phenomena. The dimensional view of personality disorders represents these conditions as extreme variants of normal personality continua. This study investigated main and interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in expo fact context. Randomly selected 603 participants (134 male  469 female from Tabriz Payam-e-Noor, Tarbait Moallem of Azarbaijan and Sarab Payam-e-Noor university students took part in this research. Participants answered to Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Short form (EPQ-RS and Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance method.Results: Results indicate main effects of attachment styles and personality traits, so, individual with ambivalent insecure attachment experience more intensity of borderline traits than individual with avoidant insecure and secure attachments. Individual with high psychoticim and neuroticism traits experience more intensity of borderline characteristics than individual with extraversion personality traits. Also, there are no interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Conclusion: These findings reiterate contribution of childhood risk factors in developing borderline personality disorder, especially in children with emotionally vulnerability.

  1. Mapping QTLs Affecting Economic Traits on BTA3 in Chinese Holstein with Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Chun-hua; CHU Qin; CHU Gui-yan; ZHANG Yi; ZHANG Qin; ZHANG Sheng-li; SUN Dong-xiao

    2014-01-01

    It had been demonstrated that the strong and highly signiifcantquantitative trait locus (QTL) can affect protein percentage on Bos Taurus Autosome 3 (BTA3) at the position 52 cM, near the microsatelliteDIK4353, with the 95% conifdence interval spanning from 25 to 57 cM in Chinese Holstein population using QTL-express, MQREML, and GRIDQTL softwares. This study herein focused on such region of ifne mapping QTLs for milk production and functional traits with 16 microsatellite markers with coverage of 33 cM between the markersBMS2904 andMB099 on BTA3 in a daughter-designed Chinese Holstein population. A total of 1298 Holstein cows and 7 sires were genotyped for 16 microsatellites with ABI 3700 DNA sequencer. The variance components QTL linkage analysis (LA) and linkage-disequilibrium (LD) analysis (LA/LD) was performed to map QTLs for 7 traits, i.e., 305-d milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, somatic cell score and persistency of milk yield. Four strong and highly signiifcant QTLs were detected for fat yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score at the position 40, 30, 27 and 26 cM, respectively. Two minor QTLs for milk yield and persistency of milk yield were identiifed at 42 and 46 cM, respectively. These ifndings provided a general idea for the ifne mapping of the causal mutation for milk production and functional traits on BTA3 in the future.

  2. Leaf economics traits predict litter decomposition of tropical plants and differ among land use types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.A.; Carreño Rocabado, G.; Poorter, L.

    2011-01-01

    1. Decomposition is a key ecosystem process that determines nutrient and carbon cycling. Individual leaf and litter characteristics are good predictors of decomposition rates within biomes worldwide, but knowledge of which traits are the best predictors for tropical species remains scarce. Also, the

  3. A stochastic model for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for production and functional traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne-Marie; Groen, A F; Østergaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    was -0.94 €/day per cow-year. Standard deviations of economic values expressing variation in realised profit of a farm before and after a genetic change were computed using a linear Taylor series expansion. Expressed as coefficient of variation, standard deviations of economic values based on 1000......The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production...... and health in a dairy herd. Because of indirect effects between traits, the phenotypic levels of (related) traits can change as a result of genetic changes. Economic values for milk production and body weight were 0.28 and -0.76 €/kg per cow-year respectively. For incidence of milk fever, mastitis, retained...

  4. Basic and Combined Economic needs Monitoring in the Industry Development Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silka Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of economic processes and phenomena occurs cyclically with occasional deceleration or acceleration. In general, this development is accompanied by all known phases of business activity. The article reveals a new evaluation mechanism of the achieved results of the business activity growth, based on the determination of the current economic organization structure generation, the criteria for economic needs and interests. This approach allows us to critically assess the growth limits, and to form the conditions for further progressive development.

  5. Association between G316A growth hormone polymorphism and economic traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Assis de Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between G316A growth hormone polymorphism and quantitative traits was investigated in an F2 population of pigs. Association analyses were performed using a statistical model that included genotype, sex, batch and sex by genotype interaction as fixed effects and sire as random effect. The polymorphism was associated with the number of right teats (p = 0.03, heart weight (p = 0.04, lung weight (p = 0.05, carcass length determined by the Brazilian carcass classification method (p = 0.04, picnic shoulder weight (p = 0.07, jowl weight (p = 0.01, pH 24 h after slaughtering (p = 0.03 and drip loss (p = 0.01. Interaction between genotype and sex was observed for six performance traits. The additive effect was significant (p < 0.10 for heart weight, jowl weight and pH 24 h after slaughtering. The effect of dominance was significant (p < 0.05 for number of right teats, heart weight, carcass length, picnic shoulder weight and pH 24 h after slaughtering. This study shows that the growth hormone gene is a potential candidate for investigating the phenotypic variation of quantitative traits in pigs, and suggests its possible application in breeding programs.

  6. Basic Social-Economic Factors Modelling Customer’s Psychological Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Krastev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some social and economic factors influencing on customer’s behaviour – such as social class, social-economic status,occupation, education, income, referent groups, family, gender roles and marketing. Some comparisons are made between some factorsinfluencing on customer’s behaviour in the U.S. and in Bulgaria.

  7. Optimizing Training Population Data and Validation of Genomic Selection for Economic Traits in Soft Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Hoffstetter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a breeding tool that estimates breeding values (GEBVs of individuals based solely on marker data by using a model built using phenotypic and marker data from a training population (TP. The effectiveness of GS increases as the correlation of GEBVs and phenotypes (accuracy increases. Using phenotypic and genotypic data from a TP of 470 soft winter wheat lines, we assessed the accuracy of GS for grain yield, Fusarium Head Blight (FHB resistance, softness equivalence (SE, and flour yield (FY. Four TP data sampling schemes were tested: (1 use all TP data, (2 use subsets of TP lines with low genotype-by-environment interaction, (3 use subsets of markers significantly associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL, and (4 a combination of 2 and 3. We also correlated the phenotypes of relatives of the TP to their GEBVs calculated from TP data. The GS accuracy within the TP using all TP data ranged from 0.35 (FHB to 0.62 (FY. On average, the accuracy of GS from using subsets of data increased by 54% relative to using all TP data. Using subsets of markers selected for significant association with the target trait had the greatest impact on GS accuracy. Between-environment prediction accuracy was also increased by using data subsets. The accuracy of GS when predicting the phenotypes of TP relatives ranged from 0.00 to 0.85. These results suggest that GS could be useful for these traits and GS accuracy can be greatly improved by using subsets of TP data.

  8. MODELING OF THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF ECONOMIC STABILITY (BY THE EXAMPLE OF JSC “BOGUCHAROVO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebriakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article describes the author's vision of the process of management of economic stability of the enterprise by means of simulation of the main parameters of its activity and justified the relevance of the theme of the study. Studied theoretical and methodical bases of economic stability of the enterprise in accordance with the Russian development of a market economy, as well as practical recommendations on modeling of the main parameters of the economic sustainability of the organization. Currently, management of economic stability is one of the most important factors of functioning and development of the enterprises in conditions of the global financial crisis. The relevance of this trend is increasing in line with the increasing complexity of economic ties, changing external environment. A comprehensive approach to the development of the most appropriate variants of the mechanism of management of economic sustainability taking into account the experience of developed countries, industry and sector of factors of external environment can become the basis for developing a common long-term economic development strategy of the enterprise. Problems of economic stability of enterprises caused by the fact that normally carried out in a changing environment operational measures allow for a short time to keep the state of the enterprise is stable, but not change the situation radically. That is, they are associated, on the one hand, with a lack of vision of development of the enterprises, with another - the narrowness of the approach applied to the diagnosis of the existing situation and forecasting of changes in external factors.

  9. Extent of Implementation of Post-Basic Economics Curriculum in Senior Secondary Schools in Edo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. E. O. Oleabhiele

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the extent of implementation of post-economics curriculum in senior secondary schools in Edo state. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research designed used for the study was the descriptive survey. The population for the study were one hundred and twenty-five (125 economics teachers. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of data for the study while the research questions were answered using the mean and standard deviation and the research hypotheses were tested using the t-test statistics at an alpha level of 0.05. The results of the study revealed that the curriculum content of economics are adequate and in line the objective of the nation on vision 20:2020. And that the instructional strategies employed by economics teachers to implement the curriculum content are appropriate as specified by the curriculum. Based on the findings, it is recommended that economics teachers should trained to select a use instructional strategies that are learners centred and that economics teachers should be encouraged to attend seminars, workshops in order to improve their teaching skills.

  10. Scanning of selection signature provides a glimpse into important economic traits in goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dailu; Luo, Nanjian; Tan, Xiaoshan; Zhao, Zhongquan; Huang, Yongfu; Na, Risu; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhao, Yongju

    2016-10-31

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest livestock domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair and skins over much of the world. Detection of selection footprints in genomic regions can provide potential insights for understanding the genetic mechanism of specific phenotypic traits and better guide in animal breeding. The study presented here has generated 192.747G raw data and identified more than 5.03 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 334,151 Indels (insertions and deletions). In addition, we identified 155 and 294 candidate regions harboring 86 and 97 genes based on allele frequency differences in Dazu black goats (DBG) and Inner Mongolia cashmere goats (IMCG), respectively. Populations differentiation reflected by Fst values detected 368 putative selective sweep regions including 164 genes. The top 1% regions of both low heterozygosity and high genetic differentiation contained 239 (135 genes) and 176 (106 genes) candidate regions in DBG and IMCG, respectively. These genes were related to reproductive and productive traits, such as "neurohypophyseal hormone activity" and "adipocytokine signaling pathway". These findings may be conducive to molecular breeding and the long-term preservation of the valuable genetic resources for this species.

  11. The Role of Interpersonal Traits in Social Decision Making: Exploring Sources of Behavioral Heterogeneity in Economic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-08-01

    Economic games are well-established experimental paradigms for modeling social decision making. A large body of literature has pointed to the heterogeneity of behavior within many of these games, which might be partly explained by broad interpersonal trait dispositions. Using the Big Five and HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience) personality frameworks, we review the role of personality in two main classes of economic games: social dilemmas and bargaining games. This reveals an emerging role for Big Five agreeableness in promoting cooperative, egalitarian, and altruistic behaviors across several games, consistent with its core characteristic of maintaining harmonious interpersonal relations. The role for extraversion is less clear, which may reflect the divergent effects of its underlying agentic and affiliative motivational components. In addition, HEXACO honesty-humility and agreeableness may capture distinct aspects of prosocial behavior outside the bounds of the Five-Factor Model. Important considerations and directions for future studies are discussed within the emerging personality-economics interface.

  12. Biological and Geographical Sources of Variation in Leaf Economic and Hydraulic Traits Throughout the Los Angeles Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, P.; Arps, S.; Shiflett, S. A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf functional traits act as driving forces on each other, as well as being driven by abiotic factors. Leaf Nitrogen Content (LNC), Specific Leaf Area (SLA) and maximum conductance to water vapor (gwmax) are well researched, yet their relationship to each other and the climate is still not fully understood. Urban setting provides a unique look into trait relationships because of the high plant biodiversity, distribution of plants outside their native climate conditions, well-watered conditions that remove a key abiotic factor and soil nutrient availability varies due to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We predict owing to these conditions, both LNC and gwmax will increase in across the climate gradient of the LA area. Ten tree species were sampled from green spaces across the L.A Megacity in three geographic areas of focus: coastal (Irvine), inland (Riverside) and desert (Palm Springs), exhibiting a gradient of increasing MAT, and nitrogen deposition peaking inland. Leaf samples were processed for N, and gwmax was quantified through stomatal characteristics. LNC increased between the coastal and inland region (mean diff. -0.324; p=0.007). For two case study species, gwmax in the genus' Jacaranda and Pyrus show a contrasting positive and negative correlation with LNC (Jacaranda: p=0.037, Pyrus: ptraits tradeoffs are dependent on the evolutionary characteristics of the species (Drought deciduous sub-tropical Jacaranda's large compound leaves, and average sampled SLA: 94.05; winter deciduous temperate Pyrus' simple leaf with average SLA: 61.78). The increase in N along one section of the gradient, but not the other, potentially shows the driving force of the N deposition may outweigh the forces of MAT. If the variation in driving forces behind economic and hydraulic traits can be identified, there will be a significant increase in the predictive power of how urban vegetation responds to climatic shifts.

  13. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  14. Energy economics basics - Emphasis programme 2004 - 2007; Schwerpunktprogramm EWG 2004 bis 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzwiller, L.

    2005-07-01

    This report from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the work done within the framework of the interdisciplinary energy economics programme on scenarios and instruments for energy policy-making and economics, as well as on social and environmental aspects. The report reviews the emphasis and goals of the next phase of the programme for the period 2004 - 2007. A research road map is discussed that is to identify promising technologies that will provide a substantial contribution to meeting the goal of creating the so-called '2000-Watt Society'. The road map is to also help identify technologies that provide socio-economic advantages and identify bottlenecks and restraints on the propagation of energy-efficient technologies in the building and transport areas.

  15. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  16. The concept of “network” in the system of basic concepts of regional economic geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “network” is traditionally used in sociological and economic sciences and serves as an in important object of research on the organisational forms of different phenomena and processes. This article examines the use of the “network” concept in socioeconomic geography through identifying the place of this concept in the system of traditional concepts of this branch of geography: spatial system, territorial production complex, and cluster. The interaction between networks on a certain territory at a certain stage of its development comprises the framework of a region as a complex socioeconomic territorial system. The author examines economic networks as organic systems characterised by resistance to external effects and comprised of interconnected economic agents from one or several related industries. A concentration of strong connections within such network constitutes its core or a cluster. Based on a retrospective analysis of studies into the spatial organisation of economy, it is concluded that there is a need to examine network forms from the perspective of regional socioeconomic geography in the context of managerial decision-making. The regional economic geographical approach to studying network forms of spatial organisation makes it possible to take into account not only the organisational features of the network itself, but also their connections to the related contextual conditions. It is an integrated approach, thus, it makes it possible to forecast the development of a certain network form in case of a change in the conditions or factors affecting it.

  17. E-GOVERNMENT AS A BASIC FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia ORLOVA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of information society in Ukraine and introduction of new information and communication technologies in areas of social life and activity of the government is defined by effective work of the e-government in the country. The article is devoted to finding the role of e-government in the socio-economic development. The aim of of this paper is to find the the main directions of e-government in the information society to improve the efficiency of government in Ukraine and the access to international information society. The article is analyzed the factors constraining introduction of electronic government in Ukraine, obstacles for users of e-governments system in the conditions of information society  also. It is proved that e-government is the foundation of a new model of governance in Ukraine. The article is analysed a rating of the European countries (separately Eastern Europe by efficiency of introduction of the electronic government. The methodological basis of  research is made by a logical and dialectic method of knowledge of economic events and state regulation machineries in modern world and national economies, the provision of fundamental works on the economic theory, international law and public administration.

  18. Breeding objectives and economic values for traits of low input family-based beef cattle production system in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Laske

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to define breeding objectives and derive economic weights for production traits in family-based beef cattle systems, assess the sensitivity of these weights to changes in market and husbandry indicators and estimate the expected genetic changes in the selection criteria proposed. Based on data from the production systems, farms revenues and expenses, obtained from interviews and meetings with producers, a bioeconomic model was derived, relating biological traits of animals with the financial result of the production system based on calf-crop, selling male calves and culling cows for finishing. Traits considered in the model as breeding goals were weaning rate, weaning weight and cow weight. The economic weights, obtained by the partial derivative of the bioeconomic model with respect to the trait in question, assessed on the average value of the remaining traits, were R$ 73.21% for weaning rate, R$ 17.07/kg for weaning weight and R$ 4.75/kg for cow weight. An index for joint selection of these three criteria would allocate 89.5% of importance to weaning rate, 6.9% for weaning weight and 3.6% for cow weight. In this way, for every R$ 100.00 of genetic gain in this index, there would be an increase of 1.4% in weaning rate, but with reduction of 0.004 kg in weaning weight and 0.665 kg in cow weight due to negative genetic association between these traits. The proposed index and the relative importance identified for the economic traits can guide the selection decisions of smallholders, both in the choice of their animals and in the acquisition of bulls, cumulatively increasing the productivity of their herds.

  19. THE FLEXIBLE BUDGET– BASIC TOOL OF THE MANAGEMENT CONTROL IN THE ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana RADU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the content of this article we emphasize the importance of flexible budgeting of expenses for an economic entity. We focused on indirect costs of production, since they include both variable costs and fixed costs, and the way of their budgeting is different. In the first part of the paper we illustrate how to prepare a flexible budget for more predictable levels of activity, and in the second part, we show how to recalculate budgeted expenses for the actual volume of activity. The budget recalculated for the actual volume of activity allows the comparison, in the correct way, of expenditure forecast to those actually incurred, expenses that relate to the same volume of activity.

  20. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context.Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items.Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability.Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited.Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  1. Effect of Environment and Genetic Recombination on Subspecies and Economic Trait Differentiation in the F2 and F3 Generations from indica-japonica Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG He-tong; XU Zheng-jin; JIN Feng; JIANG Yi-jun; LIN Qing-shan; XU Hai; CHENG Ling; XIA Ying-jun; LIU Chun-xiang; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    indica and japonica are the two most important subspecies of Asian cultivated rice. Identifying mechanisms responsible for population differentiation in these subspecies is important for indica-japonica hybridization breeding. In this study, subspecies and economic trait differentiation patterns were analyzed using morphological and molecular (InDel and Intron Length Polymorphism) data in F2 and F3 populations derived from indica-japonica hybridization. Populations were grown in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces, China, with F3 populations generated from F2 populations using bulk harvesting (BM) and single-seed descent methods (SSD). Segregation distortion was detected in F3-BM populations, but not in F3-SSD or in F2 populations. Superior performance was observed with respect to economic traits in Liaoning compared with that in Guangdong and 1 000-grain weight (KW), seed setting rate (SSR) and grain yield per plant (GYP) were signiifcantly correlated with indica and japonica subspecies types. Analysis of molecular and morphological data demonstrated that the environment is the main factor giving rise to population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization. In addition, we also found that KW, SSR and GYP are related to subspecies characteristics and kinship, which is possibly a signiifcant factor resulting in economic trait differentiation and determining environmental adaptability. Our study has provided new insights into the process of population differentiation in these subspecies to inform indica-japonica hybridization breeding.

  2. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: assessing moderators of basic social-cognitive phenomena including spontaneous trait inference, the fundamental attribution error, and moral blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Michael J; Andreychik, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ--will be

  3. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: Assessing Moderators of Basic Social-Cognitive Phenomena Including Spontaneous Trait Inference, the Fundamental Attribution Error, and Moral Blame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Michael J.; Andreychik, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions—social explanations—have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1–3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4–6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles—perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ—will be

  4. Reducing GHG emissions through genetic improvement for feed efficiency: effects on economically important traits and enteric methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A; Baron, V S; Ominski, K H; Guan, L L; Miller, S P; Crowley, J J

    2013-06-01

    Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFI fat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-animal repeatability of feed intake is moderate (0.29 to 0.49) with distinctive diurnal patterns associated with cattle type, diet and genotype, necessitating the recording of feed intake for at least 35 days. In addition, direct measurement of enteric CH4 production will likely be more variable and expensive than measuring feed intake and if conducted should be expressed as CH4 production (g/animal per day) adjusted for body size, growth, body composition and dry matter intake (DMI) or as residual CH4 production. A further disadvantage of a direct CH4 phenotype is that the relationships of enteric CH4 production on other economically important traits are largely unknown. Selection for low RFI fat (efficient, -RFI fat) will result in cattle that consume less dry matter (DMI) and have an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with high RFI fat cattle (inefficient; +RFI fat). Few antagonistic effects have been reported for the relationships of RFI fat on carcass and meat quality, fertility, cow lifetime productivity and adaptability to stress or extensive grazing conditions. Low RFI fat cattle also produce 15% to 25% less enteric CH4 than +RFI fat cattle, since DMI is positively related to enteric methane (CH4) production. In addition, lower DMI and feeding duration and frequency, and a different rumen bacterial profile that improves rumen fermentation in -RFI fat cattle may favor a 1% to 2% improvement in dry matter and CP digestibility compared with +RFI fat cattle. Rate

  5. Variation Laws of Anthocyanin Content in Roots and Their Relationships with Major Economic Traits in Purple-Fleshed Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variation laws of anthocyanin content in root during the development and among the varieties, and their relationships with major economic traits in purple-fleshed sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were studied in the present article. The dynamics of 20 economic traits in 13 purple-fleshed sweetpotato varieties at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 d after their transplanting were investigated, and these traits included anthocyanin content in root, length of the longest vine, number of base branches, root number, dry matter contents in stem, foliage and root, fresh/dry weight of root, fresh/dry weight of stem, fresh/dry weight of foliage, fresh/dry weight of stem and foliage, fresh/dry weight of whole plant, and rations of photosynthate to root, stem, and foliage. The correlations between the variations of anthocyanin content and the other 19 economic traits among varieties and during the whole developing stages, and the correlations of daily increase of anthocyanin content with other 10 kinds of yields were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) During the whole development, the anthocyanin content had three variation types, I.e. A slow-increase type, a fluctuating-change type, and a devious- rising type, and had different responses to the growth of length of the longest vine, number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, and photosynthate allotments. (2) The anthocyanin contents among 13 varieties began to have significant difference after 20 d, and showed completed differentiation during 40-100 d, which had significantly negative correlationships with the number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, photosynthate allotment ratio to root, and had significant positive correlationships with dry matter content of root, length of the longest vine, fresh/dry yield of stem, dry yield of whole plant and photosynthate allotment ratio to foliage. (3) Because of the significantly negative correlation between daily increase of anthocyanin content and dry matter

  6. Economic values for traits of meat sheep in medium to high production potential areas of the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Baker, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for meat sheep in smallholder production circumstances in the tropics. The traits considered were litter size, lambing frequency, pre-weaning, and post-weaning lamb survival to 12 months, ewe survival, lamb live weight at 12-month, mature ewe live weight, consumabl

  7. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a... Mill Products (JUL 1997) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Established price means a price...

  8. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  9. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS AND INTERIOR INDICATORS PIGS AT USE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS "SELENIUM VITA" AND "TOPINAMBUR"

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov V. H.; Gribtsova T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on pure-bred pigs CT and DM-1. An analysis of variance of economically useful signs and interior indicators pigs using dietary supplements "Vita selenium" and "Jerusalem artichoke"

  10. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  11. Fundamental species traits explain provisioning services of tropical American palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Faurby, Søren; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-01-01

    Human well-being around the globe rests on the provisioning services delivered by 15% of the Earth’s 350,000 plant species. Species’ traits influence the way in which plants are utilised1, yet it is not well understood which traits underpin different human needs2. Here, we focus on palms, one...... of the most economically important plant groups globally3, and show that provisioning services related to basic needs, such as food and medicine, show a strong link with different combinations of traits. We integrate data from 2,201 interviews on plant utilisation from three biodiversity hotspots in South...... we show that our findings hold even when accounting for phylogenetic clustering of traits and utility due to phylogenetic relatedness5. Beyond expanding our understanding of how local stakeholders perceive and explore biodiversity in mega-diverse forests, our trait- and phylogeny-based approach helps...

  12. 经济逻辑研究的基本路径%Basic Path of Research on Economic Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉思伟

    2012-01-01

    Economic logic belongs to the research on economic philosophy and is interdisciplinary between economics and logic. At the same time, it is an important field in economic epistemology and methodology. It uses logic as the main research tool and reasoning in economic activity as the main object of study. Therefore, we can construct economic logic from deductive logic, inductive logic and dialectics based on contemporary logic research results.%经济逻辑从学科归属来讲,隶属于经济哲学研究,是经济学与逻辑学之间的交叉学科,也是经济学认识论和经济学方法论研究的重要领域;它以逻辑为主要研究工具,以经济活动中的推理为主要研究对象。因而,经济逻辑可以借鉴当代逻辑研究的成果,从演绎逻辑、9-2/纳逻辑和辩证法三个路径来进行理论的梳理和建构。

  13. Education for Economic Growth or Human Development? the Capabilities Approach and the World Bank's Basic Education Project in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This paper…

  14. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  15. Personality Traits and Social Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    During many decades, sociologists have downplayed the role that personality traits play in shaping individual’s lives. However, recent studies, mostly in economics, have shown the influence of these traits on a several educational and occupational outcomes. This thesis is an attempt to shed more light on this topic. By using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, it first investigates how the Big Five personality traits affect two important labor market outcomes: unemployment...

  16. Swiss energy research program on energy economics basics for 2008-2011; Energieforschungsprogramm. Energiewirtschaftliche Grundlagen (EWG) fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, N. A.

    2009-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) introduces the energy research programme on energy economics basics for the years 2008 - 2011. The programme is very interdisciplinary and uses many theoretical and empirical methods from the areas of micro and macro-economy, political science and socio-psychology. The budget available for research in this area is discussed and the various institutions involved are noted. Both public and private funding is discussed. The main areas of research being targeted for the period 2008 - 2011 in the areas of energy policy and applied research are discussed. These include improvements in the methods used for energy perspectives and innovation as well as social and individual factors influencing the use of energy.

  17. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  18. 缺水条件下棉株有价值经济性状的研究%Study of Economically-valuable Traits of Cotton Plants Cultivated in Water-deficit Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. T. KAKHKHAROV; S. M. NABIEV; O. J. JALILOV; N. A. SAAKOVA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The reproductive, adaptive heterosis and economically-valuable traits of hybrids F1, F2and F3 obtained as a result intraspecific crossing G. hirsutum L. parents with ordinary type of leaves and imported Okra-leaves parents had been studied. Perspective of use of cotton forms with types okra-leaf was shown for selection of hybrids combining high reproductive heterosis with vegetation growth, high yield index, fiber quality and early maturity.

  19. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  20. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  1. Association of HSL gene E1-c.276C>T and E8-c.51C>T mutation with economical traits of Chinese Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X B; Zhang, L P; Yu, X Z; Li, J Y; Lu, C Y; Zhao, Z H; Yang, R J

    2014-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is responsible for the decomposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue to release free fatty acids, and it is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and decomposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine HSL gene and carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two novel SNPs were genotyped and the 47 traits of carcass and meat quality traits were measured in the population studied. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNPs of HSL gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The individuals with TT genotypes of E1-276C>T showed significant higher dressing percentage, net meat rate, hind legs circumference, fat coverage rate, mesenteric fat and kidney fat (p T (P17S) also showed a significant association with the pH of beef and fatty acids content in Chinese Simmental cattle (p HSL might be one of important genetic factors that influence carcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production.

  2. Economic Traits of Special Nut-Processed Cultivars of Ping'ou Hybrid Hazelnuts (Corylus heterophylla × C.avellana)%仁用加工型平欧杂种榛品种(系)的坚果经济性状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾吉尔·阿不拉; 马庆华; 王贵禧; 梁维坚; 梁丽松; 赵天田

    2013-01-01

    In order to select special nut-processed cultivars,we measured and analyzed a number of economic indexes of 43 cultivars and varieties of 5-6 years old Ping' ou hybrid hazelnuts (Corylus heterophylla × C.avellana) planted in the same orchard with identical management at Anqiu county,Shandong province.The processing traits of the nuts and kernels were measured and the traits were graded according to the forestry industry criteria and China Fruit' s Monograph.The results showed that nut weight varied from 1.45 g to 3.30 g,nut shape index varied from 0.67 to 1.08,kernel weight varied from 0.76 g to 1.44 g,shell thickness varied from 0.90 mm to 1.76 mm and kernel weight percentage varied from 35.06% to 56.00%.The processing traits,such as nut size,plumpness of the kernel,thickness of the shell and kernel percentage of most candidates reached to relative higher grades of the industry standards,indicating the high potential selectivity in the population.There were significant differences in the economic traits among the candidate cultivars and varieties and the variation coefficients (CV) were 5.30%-70.31%.There were to different degrees relationships between paired traits,which should be considered for the cultivar selection.However,there were small amount of round nut types in the population,which was a limiting factor in the selection of nut-processed cultivars.Based on this study,the main traits and criteria for selecting special nut-processed cultivars included in turn,nut weight ≥ 2.00 g,kernel weight percentage ≥ 40%,kernel plumpness 0.80-0.90,kernel weight ≥ 0.80 g,round nut (nut shape index 0.90-1.00).Four cultivars and varieties i.e.‘ Liaozhen No.2',‘ Ping' ou 30',‘ Ping' ou 90' and ‘ Ping' ou 28' were selected as the special nut-processed cultivars.

  3. Phenotypes, genome wide markers and structured genetic populations; a means to understand economically important traits in beta vulgaris and to inform the process of germplasm enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although hybrid seed systems in beet have been widely adopted due to profitability and productivity, the population remains the operational unit of beet improvement and thus characterizing populations in terms of markers and phenotypes is critical for novel trait discovery and eventual deployment of...

  4. Natural selection on female life-history traits in relation to socio-economic class in pre-industrial human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni E Pettay

    Full Text Available Life-history theory predicts that resource scarcity constrains individual optimal reproductive strategies and shapes the evolution of life-history traits. In species where the inherited structure of social class may lead to consistent resource differences among family lines, between-class variation in resource availability should select for divergence in optimal reproductive strategies. Evaluating this prediction requires information on the phenotypic selection and quantitative genetics of life-history trait variation in relation to individual lifetime access to resources. Here, we show using path analysis how resource availability, measured as the wealth class of the family, affected the opportunity and intensity of phenotypic selection on the key life-history traits of women living in pre-industrial Finland during the 1800s and 1900s. We found the highest opportunity for total selection and the strongest selection on earlier age at first reproduction in women of the poorest wealth class, whereas selection favoured older age at reproductive cessation in mothers of the wealthier classes. We also found clear differences in female life-history traits across wealth classes: the poorest women had the lowest age-specific survival throughout their lives, they started reproduction later, delivered fewer offspring during their lifetime, ceased reproduction younger, had poorer offspring survival to adulthood and, hence, had lower fitness compared to the wealthier women. Our results show that the amount of wealth affected the selection pressure on female life-history in a pre-industrial human population.

  5. The Relationship between Polymorphism of KAP Gene,FGF5 Gene and Economic Traits for Rex Rabbit%獭兔KAP和FGF5基因的多态性与经济性状的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宦霞娟; 陈玉林

    2009-01-01

    分析獭兔KAP基因和FGF5基因的多态性与经济性状的关系,为獭兔下一步的性状改良提供理论基础.利用PCR-SSCP技术对KAP基因的4个位点进行遗传变异检测,通过SPSS软件下的GLM程序分析150只獭兔KAP基因2个多态位点及FGF5基因2个多态位点不同基因型的最小二乘均值(LSM)、最小二乘效应值(LSE)及其遗传方差;通过标记位点与胴体性状和毛皮性状的遗传相关预测了选择反应.结果表明:獭兔KAP3.2位点可作为胴体深和被毛密度的标记位点,KAP6-1位点可作为獭兔体质量,胴体质量和被毛长度性状的标记基因型的标记位点,FGF5-1位点可作为体质量、胴体质量、皮质量和被毛密度的标记位点.%Rex rabbits genetic polymorphism of KAP and FGF5 gene was studied and the relationship between polymorphism loci and economic traits was analyzed in order to find molecular marker of MAS,providing theory basis for next molecular breeding. The polymorphism of genes was studied u-sing PCR-SSCP. The least square mean (LSM) , the least effect (LSE) and genetic variance of different genotype at 4 polymorphism loci were analyzed,using GLM procedure of SPSS software. The selection reaction was forecasted by genetic correlation between marker loci and genetic variance of economic traits. The results showed that; KAP3. 2-BB were the favorable marker genotypes for Rex rabbit thoracic deepth and wool density traits, FGF5-1-AA were the favorable marker genotypes for Rex rabbit body weight, carcass weight, tare weight and wool density trait. FGF5-3-AA could be used as the best marker genotypes for Rex rabbit body weight, carcass weight and the wool length trait.

  6. Economical Intensive Land Use is the Path to Sustained Economic Development-Discussion on the Basic Theoretical Issues of Economical Intensive Land Use%节约集约用地是经济持续发展的必经之路--节约集约用地基本理论问题探讨之二

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新奇

    2014-01-01

    社会经济发展是波动中持续增长的。在持续增长过程中,随着人口增加必然导致资源短缺,资源短缺导致价格上涨,价格上涨导致节约集约利用资源,这是人类社会发展演化的基本规律。这些变化是经济发展使资本积累到一定程度时才发生,并促使经济发展方式转变。分析国外经验,认为启动节约集约行动,推动发展方式转变的人均G N P的临界值是5000美元左右(约人民币三万多元),并进一步针对中国的情况,提出应该采用由东部到西部梯度推动节约集约用地工作,实行差别化节约集约用地策略。%Social and economic development is sustained growth with lfuctuations. In the process of continuous growth, population increase will inevitably lead to shortage of resources;the shortage of resources will probably drive prices up;and rising price will force people to use resources economically and intensively. This is the basic rule of evolution of human society development. The changes have taken place when the economic development to make capital accumulation to a certain extent, which promote the transformation of pattern of economic development. Through analysis of foreign experience, this paper argues that the marginal value of per-capita GNP for starting the economical and intensive operations and accelerating the transformation of economic development patterns is about$5000 (about RMB thirty thousand Yuan). Following from this, especially, to China, this paper suggests that we should choose the gradient advance mode to promote the economical and intensive land use from east to west, and implement differentiation economical and intensive land use strategy.

  7. Selection of Large-Sized Cunninghamia lanceolata Superior Trees and Variation Analysis on the Major Economic Traits%杉木大径材优树选择与主要经济性状变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑会全; 梁瑞友; 胡德活; 韦如萍; 王润辉; 晏姝

    2012-01-01

    以胸径为选择指标,对杉木初级种子园23年生子代林大径材优树(胸径≥26 cm)进行选择,共有38个优良单株入选,结果表明:优树胸径现实增益值均超过56%;树高、胸径、单株材积、树皮比率、木材基本密度和木材吸水性等主要经济性状在优树间变异较为广泛,变异系数在10%以上;树高、胸径、单株材积、木材吸水性间呈正相关关系,且达显著或极显著水平,而树皮比率与胸径及单株材积间、木材基本密度与各生长性状及木材吸水性间则为负相关关系,达显著或极显著水平.对大径材优树有效材积(去皮后单株材积)-木材基本密度类型作初步划分发现,共17株优树有效材积值大于优树群体均值,其中优树S14、S18 、S22、S25木材基本密度大于优树群体均值.%Taking DBH as selection index, 38 superior Cunninghamia lanceolata individuals ( DBH ≥ 26cm) were selected from 23yr old progeny plantation inside the primary seed orchard. The realized-gain of DBH of all the superior individuals was all over 56%. Further analysis revealed that the tested economic traits including height, DBH, standing volume, bark ratio ( BR) , wood basic density ( DEN) and wood hygroscopicity ( WH) varied greatly among the superior trees, and the variation coefficient was over 10%. It was also found that the height, DBH, volume, and WH were positively correlated to each other significantly or extremely significantly ( significance <0. 05 or 0. 01) among the superior trees, while there were significant or extremely significant negative correlations between BR and DBH, standing volume, between DEN and WH and each growth index. According to the classification results of the superior trees in VB (volume without bark) and DEN, 17 individuals were identified to have a higher level of VB than that of the mean value of the superior trees population (PM ) , and the DEN value of superior S14 , S18, S22, S25 trees displayed

  8. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  9. Association analysis of SNPs of GH Gene and Economic Traits of Chinese Simmental Populations%中国西门塔尔牛GH基因SNPs与经济性状的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 李姣; 田璐; 李俊雅; 黄萌; 许尚忠

    2011-01-01

    Based on the technologies of PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing, the polymorphism of GH-P3 position within growth hormone (bGH) gene among the individuals of Chinese Simental population was estimated, and associated with the economic traits of Simmental populations by using the least square meas (LSM) based general lineal model (GLM).The results showed that individuals with BB genotype possessed statistically heavier carcass weight than those with AA and AB genotype (P<0.01), the dressing percentage and meat percentage of BB genotype individuals were higher than AA and AB genotypes respectively (P<0.05), and the backfat thickness of AA genotype was lower than AB and BB genotypes (P<0.01).These results indicated that position of GH-P3 within bGH gene significanlty and very significanlty influences the economic traits including carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass weight, meat percentage and backfat thickness of Chinese Simmental population, which provided theoretical references for the molecular assisted selection (MAS) of key economic traits and germplasm enhancement of Chinese Simmental populations.%本试验采用PCR-RFLP和DNA测序等技术检测牛生长激素基因P3位点(growth hormone,GH-P3)在中国西门塔尔牛群体中的多态性,并利用最小二乘法拟合线性模型对该位点与牛经济性状进行关联分析.结果表明,BB基因型个体胴体重和净肉重极显著高于AA和AB基因型个体(P<0.01),屠宰率和净肉率显著高于AA和AB基因型(P<0.05),AA基因型背膘厚极显著低于AB、BB基因型(P<0.01).本研究结果显示,GH-P3位点对中国西门塔尔牛个体胴体重、屠宰率、净肉重、净肉率及背膘厚等经济性状有显著或极显著的影响,为中国西门塔尔牛重要经济性状的分子标记辅助选择(MAS)及品系培育提供理论依据.

  10. Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Frisian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Løvendahl, P;

    2009-01-01

    balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before...... adulthood. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variation in several metabolites and hormones in calves, and to determine their genetic relationships with fertility and production through sire predicted transmitting abilities (PTA; sires of calves sampled). Circulating concentrations...... of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age ± SD; 126 ± 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2...

  11. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  12. COMPONENTS OF THE STATE FINANCIAL POLICY ANALYSIS AS THE DIRECTIONS OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AND THE ADMINISTRATION: FROM THE SPECIFICATION OF THE BASIC CONCEPTS TO THE EFFICIENCY CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantseva E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have considered theories of the policy analysis based on the quantitative measurements of the efficiency (productivity of any economic policy direction. The question of the need of law formulation of the effective and ineffective management and bureaucracy is substantiated. We have given the components of the financial policy and stated the approaches to increasing their efficiency. The contradictions in the use of a conceptual framework of the analysis of the policies in the modern Russian legislation are revealed. The ratio of the terms of “politician” and “state regulation of the economy” is presented. It is also defined, that the discrepancy of the measures of the economic policy is a consequence of the lack of the united methodology of the macroeconomic regulation. The generalization of the world practice of the economy state regulation allows us to systematize the directions of the economic policy two components demanded in the practice – the formation of the common economic space and the solution of the narrower tasks within 6 main approaches: financial, branch, territorial, functional, typological and program and target. The integrated approach to the policy analysis focuses on the observance in the political activity in Russia of the requirements of the efficiency examination of the all making administrative cycles of the macroeconomic development from a goal-setting to an assessment of the received results, but not their selective analysis

  13. Education for Economic Growth or Human Development? the Capabilities Approach and the World Bank's Basic Education Project in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This…

  14. Effects of Agri-star Soil Conditioner on Growth and Economic Traits of Tobacco%Agri-star松土促根剂对烤烟生长发育及经济性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守刚; 毛家伟; 司贤宗; 刘春增; 张传忠

    2015-01-01

    采用大田对比试验,以中烟100为材料,研究了Agri-star松土促根剂对烤烟生长发育、主要病害及经济性状的影响。结果表明,与不施松土促根剂相比,施用Agri-star松土促根剂处理烟株的农艺性状均有提高,移栽后45 d,株高增加4.4 cm,茎围增加0.26 cm,叶片数增加0.8片,叶面积增加184.1 cm2,其中叶面积提高最明显;降低了烟草花叶病和气候斑点病的发病率,二者分别下降14.3、7.5个百分点,提高了烟株的抗病能力;增加了烟株根、茎、叶干物质质量和根系体积,促进了根系发育;使得烟叶的经济性状有了明显提高。%In this study, a specific Agri-star soil conditioner was tested to investigate its effect on the growth,main diseases and economic traits of tobacco using the variety Zhongyan 100 as tested material. The results indicated that, compared with the conventional fertilization, treatment with Agri-star soil conditioner improved the tobacco agronomic traits, which increased the plant height, stem girth, leaf number and leaf area by 4. 4 cm,0. 26 cm,0. 8 and 184. 4 cm2 at 45 d after transplanted,respectively, with the leaf area increase being the most obvious. The rate of tobacco mosaic and weather speck decreased 14. 3 percentage points and 7. 5 percentage points,respectively. Agri-star soil conditioner could enhance the growth of root, stem, leaf biomass of tobacco significantly, and also improved the economic traits.

  15. Objetivos de seleção para sistemas de produção de gado de corte em pasto: ponderadores econômicos Economic values for breeding goal traits for Brazilian beef cattle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.C. Bittencourt

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidos objetivos de seleção para gado de corte criado nas condições de produção típicas do Brasil Central. As características consideradas foram: número de bezerros desmamados por vaca/ano (NBD, peso da carcaça (PC, peso à desmama (PD e consumo de alimento. Foram adotados dois sistemas de produção, um que considerava somente a cria e outro, o ciclo completo (cria, recria e engorda. No primeiro, as receitas foram a venda de bezerros à desmama, novilhas excedentes e vacas de descarte. No segundo, a receita foi a venda das novilhas excedentes, vacas de descarte e novilhos para o abate. Em ambas as situações, o lucro (USD/vaca/ano foi estimado pela diferença entre receita e despesa. Os valores econômicos estimados foram expressos em dólar por unidade de mudança na característica, calculados na base vaca/ano. O valor econômico foi calculado avaliando-se a alteração ocorrida no lucro quando a característica era incrementada de uma unidade, permanecendo as demais inalteradas. A característica que apresentou maior valor bruto do ponderador econômico foi o NBD, seguida pelo consumo, PC e PD. Quando se considerou o valor econômico, em unidades de desvio-padrão genético-aditivo, a ordem de importância foi consumo, PC, NBD e PD.Breeding objectives were developed for beef cattle production under typical economic and environmental conditions of central Brazil. The traits considered were: calves weaned per cow/year (NCW, weaning weight (WW, carcass weight (CW and food intake. In the study, two systems were examined, a cow-calf system (surplus calves sold after weaning and a cow-calf enterprise (in which surplus calves are raised for slaughter. In the first, income is from the sale of male calves and surplus heifers after weaning and of culled cows. In the second, the income is from the sale of steers, surplus heifers and culled cows. For both situations, the profit (US$/cow/year was estimated by the difference

  16. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and economic analysis of feedlot of young bulls fed oilseeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG, carcass traits, meat tenderness and profitability of keeping cattle fed different oilseeds and vitamin E in feedlot. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls with initial average body weight of 339±15 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted 84 days and experimental diets presented soybeans or cottonseeds as lipid sources associated or not to daily supplementation of 2,500 UI vitamin E per animal. The concentrate:roughage ratio was 60:40. Diets had the same amount of nitrogen (13% CP and ether extract (6.5%. The data were analyzed by means of statistical software SAS 9.1. Neither vitamin supplementation nor lipid source affected ADG. There was no interaction between lipid source and vitamin supplementation for the variables studied. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the carcass yield. There was no effect of diets on hot and cold carcass weights or prime cuts. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the backfat thickness. No effect of experimental diets on the rib-eye area was observed. There was no effect of lipid source or vitamin supplementation on meat tenderness, which was affected, however, by ageing time. Diets with soybeans presented higher cost per animal. The utilization of soybean implied reduction of the gross margin (R$ 59.17 and R$ 60.51 for diets based on soy with and without supplemental vitamin, respectively, vs. R$ 176.42 and R$ 131.79 for diets based on cottonseed. The utilization of cottonseed enables improvement of profitability of feedlot fattening, in spite of negatively affecting some carcass characteristics.

  17. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  19. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  2. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  5. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  6. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  9. Lpin1基因多态性与黄牛经济性状的关联研究%Association between Polymorphism of Lpin1 Gene and Bovine Economic Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫利选; 常振华; 何诚; 郭本玲; 蓝贤勇; 陈宏; 雷初朝

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the polymorphism of Lpinl gene of 502 individuals of six cattle breeds and analyzed the association with economic traits in Qinchuan breed by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. The results showed that 3 SNPs with 31735A>G, 46137A>C and 65969OA mutations in bovine Lpinl gene were detected. The 3 SNPs belonged to the intron 1, exon 6 and in-tron 15 oiLpinl gene respectively, of which the 46137A>C was a missense mutation, which resulted in the 82nd amino acid change of bovine lipin protein from histidine to proline. Association analysis of polymorphism with economic traits in 119 Qinchuan cattle showed that the individuals with genotype GG were significantly higher than those with genotypes A A and AG at Heart depth, backfat thickness and heart girth at 31735A>G locus (PC locus (PA locus respectively. We concluded that the Lpinl gene may be closely associated with the meat quality traits, such as loin muscle area, back-fat thickness and marbling score, and it could be as a candidate molecular marker utilized in breedingstrategy for Qinchuan cattle.%以6个黄牛品种502个个体为材料,利用PCR-SSCP和DNA测序相结合的方法检测脂素1(Lpin1)基因的多态性,并分析该基因多态性与秦川牛经济性状的相关性.结果发现,黄牛Lpin1基因存在3个SNPs:31735A>G、46137A>C和65969G>A,分别位于内含子1、外显子6和内含子15,其中位于外显子6的突变导致脂素蛋白质第82位的组氨酸变为脯氨酸,为错义突变.3个SNP多态位点与秦川牛的体尺和肉质性状的关联分析表明,31735A>G位点GG基因型个体的胸深、胸围、背膘厚显著高于AA和AG基因型个体(P<0.05);46137A>C位点AC和CC基因型个体的背膘厚显著高于AA基因型个体(P<0.05),CC基因型个体的眼肌面积和大理石花纹评分等级显著高于AA基因型个体(P<0.05);65969G>A位点AA基因型个体的胸深、胸围、眼肌面积和背膘厚

  10. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  11. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  12. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  14. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  15. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... pass the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  16. A Research on the Basic Principles and Principle Innovation in Modern, Chinese Economics%现代中国经济学基本原理及学科形态创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵复斌

    2012-01-01

    近代至现代时期,国际国内已发生了两个“社会转型”的根本性变化。以此为新的社会背景和历史条件,现代中国经济学基础理论及学科形态开始面临两大课题:一是处于源头上的马克思经济学如何“坚持与创新”的前提问题,二是我们的学科模式怎样“改革与开放”的衔接问题。探索并解决此类基本问题,将会让我们获得某个“杠杆支点”或“开放出口”,这既利于满足现代社会主义的物化实践需要,又利于推动中国经济学走向世界的步伐。本文根据两个“社会转型”的客观实际,推导、论证《资本论》的商品两因素分析将发生重大变化并获得相应进展,由此深化马克思经济学的分析基本点。建筑其上的现代中国经济学及政治经济学的系列概念、原理、规律及学科形态也将发生微妙变化,它们涉及对价值、剩余价值、使用价值、交换价值、质量价值、数量价值等的重新定位,和对资本本原、本质、构成及过程的扩大化认识与论证。%From modern to contemporary eras, two fundamental " social transformations" have taken place in both international and domestic contexts. The basic theories and principle construction modes in modern Chinese economies are accordingly faced up with two fundamental problems, against these new social backgrounds and historical conditions. The first one is the premise that how Marxist economics, as the source theory, carries out "adherence and innovation". The second one is how to make our principle modes in conformity with the " Reform and Opening - up" policy. Explorations and solutions to these fundamental problems offer us a "lever support point" or an "open outlaying". This satisfies the physical practice needs of modern socialism, and pushes Chinese economics forward onto the world stage. Based on the objective situations of the two " social transformations" , this

  17. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  18. Gary Becker: Model Economic Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents Gary Becker’s approach to conducting creative, empirically fruitful economic research. It describes the traits and methodology that made him such a productive and influential scholar. PMID:26705367

  19. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  20. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  1. On the strategic economic transformation in the course of Jiangsu taking the lead to basically realize modernization%江苏率先基本实现现代化进程中的战略性经济转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴先满

    2012-01-01

    进入新世纪第二个十年,江苏开启基本实现现代化的新征程。在此进程中,江苏经济的主要目标任务是要紧抓区域协调发展,苏中苏北如期全面小康,苏南率先基本现代化;大力促进基本成形的社会主义市场经济体制体系向健全完善的社会主义市场经济体制体系转变;大力促进粗放型经济向集约型经济的深度转变;大力促进引进为主的自主创新经济向原始创新为主的自主创新经济转变;大力促进投资拉动型经济向消费拉动型经济的转变;大力促进传统工业主导经济向现代服务型经济转变;大力促进城乡分割二元经济向城乡一体化经济转变;大力促进省内"π"型开发战略向"#"型开发战略转变;大力促进全面小康向初级富裕的转变。%The second decade of the new century sees Jiangsu Province set on a new journey to basically realize modernization.In this process,Jiangsu economy will mainly target on achieving a comprehensive well-off society in central and northern Jiangsu as scheduled,and taking the lead role in realizing basic modernization in Southern Jiangsu.It will also aim at coordinated regional development,as well as such a series of great transformations as from a basically shaped to a completely fulfilled socialist market economic system,from extensive economy to intensive economy,from introduced to original independent innovative economy,from investment-driven to consuming-driven economy,from traditional industry-led to modern service-oriented economy,from split urban-rural dual economy to integrated economy,from a "π" model to a "#" model development strategy,and from a comprehensive well-off to primary wealthy society.

  2. Consumer preferences for apple quality traits

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the marginal values consumers place on apple quality traits as part of a larger SCRI project whose goal is to increase the long-term economic sustainability of Rosacea crops by increasing the U.S. per-capita consumption of fruits. Information on consumers’ preferences and the value they place on fruit quality is important and may help breeders better establish trait priorities and make the breeding process more efficient. We conducted sensory tasting tests and experime...

  3. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to soci

  4. 上位性及其对家养动物复杂经济性状形成的遗传学影响%Epistasis and its genetic influence on phenotype shaping of complex economic traits in domestic animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户国; 王守志; 李辉

    2012-01-01

    the concept, and type the research history of epistasis. The genetic influence of epistasis on the shaping of the complex economic traits in domestic animals was also included. We hope this information could provide reference for the researchers.

  5. Operator care and eco-concerned development of a fast, facile and economical assay for basic nitrogenous drugs based on simplified ion-pair mini-scale extraction using safer solvent combined with drop-based spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plianwong, Samarwadee; Sripattanaporn, Areerut; Waewsa-nga, Kwanrutai; Buacheen, Parin; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak

    2012-08-30

    A fast, facile, and economical assay for basic nitrogenous drugs has been developed based on the mini-scale extraction of the drug-dye ion pair complex combined with the use of safe-for-analyst and eco-friendlier organic extractant and drop-based micro-spectrophotometry. Instead of using large volume devices, the extraction was simply carried out in typical 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tubes along with the use of micropipettes for accurate transfer of liquids, vortex mixer for efficient partitioning of solutes and benchtop centrifuge for rapid phase separation. In the last step, back-extraction was performed by using the microvolume of acidic solution in order to concentrate the colored species into a confined aqueous microdrop and to keep the analyst away from unwanted contact and inhalation of organic solvents during the quantitation step which was achieved by using cuvetteless UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry without any prior dilutions. Using chlorpheniramine maleate as a representative analyte and n-butyl acetate as a less toxic and non-ozone depleting extractant, the miniaturized method was less laborious and much faster. It was accurate, precise and insensitive to the interferences from common excipients. Notably, it gave the assay results of drug in tablets and oral solution comparable to the large-scale pharmacopeial method while the consumption of organic solvents and the release of wastes were lowered by 200-400 folds.

  6. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  7. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  8. Training in Managerial Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hartley, Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Basic mathematical concepts of Managerial Economics, a way of quantitatively analyzing and structuring the making of a business decision, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of its use in business are discussed and several recent applications are given. (DT)

  9. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  10. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la

  11. Applied Economics in Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper explains some plain phenomena in teaching and class management with an economic view. Some basic economic principles mentioned therein are: everything has its opportunity cost; the marginal utility of consumption of any kind is diminishing; Game theory is everywhere. By applying the economic theories to teaching, it is of great help for teachers to understand the students' behavior and thus improve the teaching effectiveness and efficiency.

  12. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  13. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the social atom, stood central. In this second paper social structures and processes are focused upon.

  14. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the soci

  15. 高职经管类微积分基本概念蕴含的思想方法%On the Thinking Methods Embodied in the Basic Con-cepts of Calculus for Higher Vocational Economic Man-agement Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺金兰

    2015-01-01

    本文阐述高职经管类微积分中函数、极限、导数、定积分四个基本概念蕴含的思想方法。%This paper elaborates the thinking methods embodied in the four basic concepts of calculus for higher vocational eco-nomic management majors, including function, limit, derivative and definite integral.

  16. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to social atoms. The concepts that play a role in n-networks form the majority of the concepts added in this paper.

  17. 棉花种仁含油量与主要经济性状相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Seed Kernel Oil Content and Major Economic Traits in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝生; 刘素恩; 王凯辉; 耿香利; 张香云; 耿军义; 赵存鹏

    2013-01-01

    高油分棉花品种选育成为棉花育种一个新的研究方向,明确陆地棉棉子油分含量与其他主要经济性状的关系对高油品种选育具有重要指导意义.本研究利用DPS V3.01数据处理软件分析了108份不同种质的种仁油分含量与粗蛋白含量、皮棉产量、衣分、铃重、单株结铃数、纤维长度、比强度及马克隆值和枯萎病病情指数、黄萎病病情指数等主要农艺性状的相关性.研究发现棉花种仁油分含量与棉花的皮棉产量、单株成铃、铃重和衣分主要产量构成性状不存在显著相关;棉花种仁油分与纤维整齐度指数、伸长率呈显著正相关;与纤维上半部平均长度有一定的正相关,但是没有达到统计学意义上的显著水平;与纤维比强度和纤维细度间无相关性;棉花种仁油分与枯萎病抗性有微弱的负相关,与黄萎病抗性不存在相关性.但是棉花种仁蛋白含量与油分含量存在显著负相关.本研究表明育种中提高陆地棉油分含量不会影响其皮棉产量,对抗病性的影响也很微弱,并且对纤维品质的提高有一定的促进作用.因此,在保证棉花枯萎病和黄萎病抗性、皮棉产量和纤维品质的基础上,选育高油分含量的棉花新品种是切实可行的,但选育种仁油分和蛋白质含量均高的品种难度较大.%One of the new directions in cotton breeding is to develop varieties with high oil content.In this study,we analyzed the relationships between the oil content of cottonseed kemels and other selected major economic traits of cotton.We used the DPS V3.01 data processing system to calculate linear correlation coefficients using experimental data for cottonseed oil content and other agronomic characteristics obtained from 108 cotton lines.There were no significant correlations between oil content and lint yield,boll numbers per plant,boll weight,and lint percentage.There were significant positive

  18. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  19. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  20. Advances in the Research of Strategies and Methods for Analyzing Complex Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zai-xiang; XU Chen-wu

    2008-01-01

    Complex traits are the features whose properties are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Generally, complex traits include the classical quantitative traits with continuous distribution, the binary or categorical traits with discrete distribution controlled by polygene and other traits that cannot be measured exactly, such as behavior and psychology. Most human complex diseases and most economically important traits in plants and animals belong to the category. Understanding the molecular basis of complex traits plays a vital role in the genetic improvement of plant and animal breeding. In this article, the conception and research background of complex traits were summarized, and the strategies, methods and the great progress that had been made in dissecting genetic basis of complex traits were reviewed. The challenges and possible developments in future researches were also discussed.

  1. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  2. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  3. Heterotic parametrization for economically important traits in popcorn = Parametrização heterótica para características de importância econômica em milho pipoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Six popcorn varieties were crossed in a diallel mating scheme to obtain 15 F1 hybrids, with the purpose of analyzing the estimates of heterotic parametrization for agronomically important traits. The genitors and hybrids were evaluated in randomized block design with three replications in Viçosa and Visconde do Rio Branco, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in three growing seasons. Six traits were evaluated, including grain yield and popping expansion. There were highly significant effects for treatments, varieties and mean heterosis for plant and ear heights, and for the others traits the significance extended to all sources of variation. Amarela and Viçosa revealed superiority for grain yield in relation to performance per se, while Rosa Claro expressed the highest effect of varietal heterosis. The best combinations for grain yield were Roxa x Viçosa, Amarela x Rosa Claro, Rosa Claro x Beija-Flor and Branca x Beija-Flor. For popping expansion, there were positive and negative values for specific heterosis in all growing seasons evaluated, ratifying the influence of bidirectional dominance on this trait. Simultaneous genetic gains for grain yield and popping expansion may be obtained by using Viçosa in intrapopulational programs, while Amarela and Rosa Claro are recommended for using in interpopulational breeding.Seis variedades de milho pipoca foram cruzadas em esquema dialélico para obtenção de 15 híbridos F1, visando à análise das estimativas da parametrização heterótica para características de interesse agronômico. Os genitores e os híbridos foram avaliados em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em Viçosa e Visconde do Rio Branco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, em três épocas de plantio. Foram avaliadas seis características, incluindo rendimento de grãos e capacidade de expansão. Houve efeitos altamente significativos para tratamentos, variedades e heterose média para altura de plantas e de espigas

  4. Evaluating Callous-Unemotional Traits as a Personality Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the importance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits as a personality construct in isolation from other facets of psychopathy. Specifically, we review research suggesting that these traits are useful for designating a subgroup of youth with serious conduct problems who differ from other antisocial youth on important biological, emotional, cognitive, and social characteristics. In addition, the temperamental features related to CU traits are risk factors for impairments in conscience development in young children. Thus, these traits could advance theoretical models explaining the development of severe antisocial behavior and psychopathy. CU traits also have important clinical utility because they designate a particularly severe and impaired subgroup of antisocial youth, leading to their inclusion in the DSM-5. As a result of this inclusion in diagnostic classification, there has been an increased focus on how to best assess CU traits, and we discuss several key issues in their assessment, highlighting several limitations in existing measures. Finally, the increased use of CU traits, separately from other facets of psychopathy, makes it important to determine how these traits relate to other personality constructs. Thus, we examine how measures of CU traits relate to the broader construct of psychopathy and to other basic personality dimensions.

  5. 交通经济带的基础理论及其生命周期模式研究%The Basic Theory and Life-Circle Pattern of Taffic Economic Belt's Development and Evolvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩增林; 杨荫凯; 张文尝; 尤飞

    2000-01-01

    随着生产力的发展,区域经济系统的空间演化与交通运输线的联系日益密切,一种依托交通干线不断集散、融合人口、产业、城镇、物流、能流、信息流的线状空间地域综合体不断生长并迅速发展,我们将这种独特的空间地域综合体称为交通经济带(Traffic Economic Belt)。本文系统阐述了交通经济带的基本概念、基本类型、基本性质,并创建性地提出了交通经济带的生命周期理论。%Traffic economic belt (TEB) is a kind of belt-shaped regional economic organization system whichtakes the lineal bunch of infrastructure as its development axis. Under a special historical background of itself theTEB emerges, and relying on its laws the TEB forms, develops and evolves. In the course of development ofTEB, it is an effective developing way that forms the mechanism of coordinate development of transportation andregional economy, takes the main lines of transportation as main shaft, the cities on the lines as growth centers,and the rationalization and escalation of industrial structure as the purpose of TEB development. Firstly, the pa-per defines the TEB, which also can be classified into four types: coast-oriented, river oriented, road-orientedand integrated transport-corridor TEB. Based on it, the paper deeply discusses the essential feature of TEB.Secondly, the paper puts forward the life-circle theory of traffic economic belt. The authors think TEB is an es-pecial phase in the development of the regional economic system. Just like thetypical development process of allorganisms, the traffic economic belt also has germination, expansion, mature and decline phase and shows dif-ferent space-time pattern at every phase of traffic economic belt. The development of TEB can be classified intofour stages: 1. the period of rudiment: the ways of transportation in TEB are very simple and the structure ofindustry is still rude. The center of economy in the TEB is only

  6. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  7. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

    2015-02-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity.

  8. Personality traits, coping styles and psychosomatic tendencies in students

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in personality traits and coping styles between the students who are prone to psychosomatic conditions and those who are not, and it also examines if there is a connection between certain personality traits and coping styles among the two groups of students. The research was conducted in Niš on a sample of students of the Faculty of Law, Faculty of Economics, and Faculty of Philosophy (60 students were prone to psychosomatic conditions, and 60 comprised the con...

  9. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  10. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  11. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. Results The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p Conclusion A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species.

  12. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengsong Zhu; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Zhigang Guo

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits of biological interest and economic importance are seldom addressed. In this study, an attempt was made to map binary trait loci (BTL) in the F2:3 design. The fundamental idea was: the F2 plants were genotyped, all phenotypic values of each F2:3 progeny were measured for binary trait, and these binary trait values and the marker genotype informations were used to detect BTL under the penetrance and liability models. The proposed method was verified by a series of Monte–Carlo simulation experiments. These results showed that maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and liability models provide accurate estimates for the effects and the locations of BTL with high statistical power, even under of low heritability. Moreover, the penetrance model is as efficient as the liability model, and the F2:3 design is more efficient than classical F2 design, even though only a single progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. With the maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and the liability models developed in this study, we can map binary traits as we can do for quantitative trait in the F2:3 design.

  13. Quantum Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  14. Genome wide association studies and systems genetics investigations of daily feed intake and feeding behaviour traits in three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Mark, Thomas;

    Feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits are economically important traits in pig production. The objective of this study was to identify genetic variants and mechanisms affecting daily feed intake (DFI) and feeding behavior traits in Duroc (DD), Landrace (LL) and Yorkshire (YY) pig breeds, via...... Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and systems genetics methods...

  15. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  16. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  17. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  18. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  19. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  20. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity.

  1. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  2. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  3. The basic elements of economic infrastructure of rural areas in counties of the wielkopolskie voivodship Wyposażenie obszarów wiejskich powiatów województwa wielkopolskiego w podstawowe elementy infrastruktury gospodarczej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dolata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of studies presented in the paper allows to conclude that rural areas of Wielkopolskie voivodship are considerably differentiated as far as the distribution of economic infrastructure is concerned. Very high and high levels of infrastructure can be found in the counties in the central part of the voivodship around Poznań, its capital and two counties in the northern part of the voivodship. These counties have attained higher level of individually studied elements of infrastructure, as compared with the values calculated for rural areas in Poland in general. Counties of low and very low level of infrastructure occupy south-eastern part of the voivodship and vast areas located in its north-western part. In these areas not all inhabitants have access to gas-line system, sewage network and sewage treatment plants.

  4. Aggravated unbundling in German energy industry (part 1). Basics: EU acceleration directive and economic monopoly theory; Verschaerftes Unbundling in der deutschen Energiewirtschaft (Teil 1). Grundlagen: EG-Beschleunigungsnovellen und volkswirtschaftliche Monopoltheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedmann, K.P. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Langerfeldt, M. [Lueneburg Univ. (Germany)

    2004-03-15

    The main innovations of the so-called acceleration directive are clearly aggravated regulations for divestiture of vertically integrated enterprises. This difficulty commonly known as unbundling is the topic of this two-part article. Part 1 reviews the process of European legislation. The unbundling regulations of the current and future laws are then presented systematically against the economic background. A microeconomic assessment of the regulations will follow in part 2. [German] Zu den wichtigsten Neuerungen der sog. Beschleunigungsrichtlinien zaehlen deutlich verschaerfte Entflechtungsregelungen fuer vertikal integrierte Versorger. Die gemeinhin mit dem Stichwort 'Unbundling' bezeichnete Problematik ist Gegenstand des vorliegenden zweiteiligen Beitrags. Der 1. Teil blickt kurz zurueck auf das Verfahren der europaeischen Rechtsetzung. Anschliessend werden die Unbundling-Vorschriften des bestehenden und des zukuenftigen Rechts systematisch im Spiegel ihres volkswirtschaftlichen Hintergrunds vorgestellt. Eine betriebswirtschaftliche Bewertung der Neuerungen folgt in Teil 2. (orig.)

  5. Identification of quantitative trait transcripts for growth traits in the large scales of liver and muscle samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xinwei; Yang, Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-07-01

    Growth-related traits are economically important traits to the pig industry. Identification of causative gene and mutation responsible for growth-related QTL will facilitate the improvement of pig growth through marker-assisted selection. In this study, we applied whole genome gene expression and quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analyses in 497 liver and 586 longissimus dorsi muscle samples to identify candidate genes and dissect the genetic basis of pig growth in a white Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts in liver and 23,728 transcripts in muscle with expression values were used for association analysis between gene expression level and phenotypic value. At the significance threshold of P growth-related traits in liver and muscle, respectively. We also found that some QTTs were correlated to more than one trait. The QTTs identified here showed high tissue specificity. We did not identify any QTTs that were associated with one trait in both liver and muscle. Through an integrative genomic approach, we identified SDR16C5 as the important candidate gene in pig growth trait. These findings contribute to further identification of the causative genes for porcine growth traits and facilitate improvement of pig breeding.

  6. Play Dough Economics: Motivating Activities for Teaching Economics to Elementary and Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Harlan R.

    Economic literacy is important because economics is such an integral part of daily existence. Individuals who understand basic economic concepts will be better equipped to make the important decisions that effective citizenship requires. The 15 economics lessons in this booklet are designed for elementary and middle school students. Each lesson…

  7. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for growth traits on bovine chromosome 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in livestock allows the identification of genes that determine the genetic variation affecting traits of economic interest. We analyzed the birth weight and weight at 60 days QTL segregating on bovine chromosome BTA14 in a F2 resource population using genotypes produced from seven microsatellite markers. Phenotypes were derived from 346 F2 progeny produced from crossing Bos indicus Gyr x Holstein Bos taurus F1 parents. Interval analysis to detect QTL for birth weight revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 1 centimorgan (cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 1.210 ± 0.438 kg. Interval analysis for weight at 60 days revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 0 cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 2.122 ± 0.735 kg. The region to which the QTL were assigned is described in the literature as responsible for some growth traits, milk yield, milk composition, fat deposition and has also been related to reproductive traits such as daughter pregnancy rate and ovulation rate. The effects of the QTL described on other traits were not investigated.

  8. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  9. Economics of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, G.

    2015-08-01

    The following text is an introduction into the economic theory of electricity supply and demand. The basic approach of economics has to reflect the physical peculiarities of electric power that is based on the directed movement of electrons from the minus pole to the plus pole of a voltage source. The regular grid supply of electricity is characterized by a largely constant frequency and voltage. Thus, from a physical point of view electricity is a homogeneous product. But from an economic point of view, electricity is not homogeneous. Wholesale electricity prices show significant fluctuations over time and between regions, because this product is not storable (in relevant quantities) and there may be bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids. The associated non-homogeneity is the starting point of the economic analysis of electricity markets.

  10. 深圳经济特区基层医疗卫生机构监管面面观%Shenzhen Special Economic Zone on the Supervision and Control of the Basic Medical and Health Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小聪

    2016-01-01

    Shenzhen special economic zone is a densely populated city. In the economic development, we should pay attention to the primary health care service. However, there are some problems in the primary health care and supervision in the city, There are more medical and health institutions, Unlicensed medical personnel account for a large proportion,to a certain extent, it increases the incidence of medical disputes. The relevant regulatory authorities can not carry out regular supervision and inspection, increase the occurrence of medical accidents. Therefore, in order to protect people’s health, improve the quality of medical and health institutions, reduce medical malpractice and medical disputes, Government departments and health administrative departments to increase financial investment, strengthen the construction of law enforcement teams, with the necessary supervision and monitoring equipment, increase supervision and supervision and inspection frequency, As far as possible to the medical malpractice and medical disputes in the bud.%深圳经济特区作为一个人口密集的一线城市,在经济发展的同时应注重基层医疗卫生服务。然而该市的基层医疗卫生情况及监管均存在一定的问题,医疗卫生机构较多,且无证医疗人员占有较大的比例,这在一定程度上增加了医患纠纷的发生率。相关的监管部门不能及时开展正规的监督检查,增加了医疗事故的发生。因此,为保障百姓身体健康,提高医疗卫生机构服务质量,减少医疗事故和医患纠纷,政府部门和卫生行政主管部门要加大钱财物的投入,加强执法队伍的建设,配备必要的监督监测器材,加大监督力度和监督检查频次,尽量把医疗事故和医患纠纷消灭于萌芽状态中。

  11. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social scienc

  12. Reference Sources: Little Known to Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    RQ, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article lists seventy-eight reference sources, and is divided into the following four sections: (1) Useful But Little-Known Reference Tools by John Fetros, (2) The Statesman's Year-Book by James Becker, (3) Single Volume Scientific Encyclopedias by Jack Clarke and (4) Ten Basic Sources of Business and Economic Statistics by James Woy. (MF)

  13. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  14. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  15. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  16. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  17. The Basics of Basic Education: Reflections on the Review and Updating of Basic Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Coll

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This lecture presents a reflection on the fundamental content of the basic education curriculum. The arguments set forth within the Spanish educational context may be divided into three main categories. The first refers to the contradictions in the decision making processes regarding what should be taught and what should be learned in basic education, and in which the requirement to attend to the needs of new social, economic and technological scenarios call for the incorporation of new content in the curriculum, but the accumulation of curricular contents makes it practically impossible for them to be taught and learned. Secondly, the author ponders some aspects or dimensions that acquire a special relevance in the new perspective of the basic education curriculum and in which concepts of content such as “indispensable basic” and “desirable basic” are discussed as criteria for decision making. Finally, in the third category, a succinct diagram is presented as an example based on the concepts of literacy, competency and knowledge associated with the acquisition and development of the capacities that illustrate this new perspective.

  18. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  19. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  20. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  1. Public economics

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2005-01-01

    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  2. The outline on Ecological Marxism Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Sihua

    2006-01-01

    Ecological Marxism Economics is a new economics formation of Marxism. The article, for the first time, puts forward the scientific proposition of establishing Ecological Marxism Economics with distinct Chinese characteristics,and has primarily discussed its theoretic frame and basic contents. Realizing the historic task is the historic mission of contemporary Chinese Marxism economists.

  3. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  4. Thalassaemia trait and pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables, haematinic state, and placental function of more than 2000 pregnant women, heterozygous for either alpha- or beta-thalassaemia genes, were examined during pregnancy. Four features emerged. Firstly, it was possible by discriminant function analysis of haematological variables to distinguish in pregnant patients between the anaemia caused by thalassaemia trait and that caused by iron deficiency. Secondly, patients with thalassaemia become significantly more anaemic...

  5. Consequences of Selection for Yield Traits on Calving Ease Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de Maturana, E.; Ugarte, E.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the c

  6. Valores econômicos para as características de produção de leite de búfalas no Estado de São Paulo Economic values for milk production traits of dairy buffaloes in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Oliveira Seno

    2007-12-01

    during the dry season and concentrate throughout the year. Economic values were calculated from the marginal difference of annual profit resulting from the increase of one unity of the trait, keeping the others constant. Two different commercial systems were considered: 1 The milk production is sold to industry (MILK and 2 The milk is used to produce mozzarella cheese on the farm (MOZZARELLA. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the impact of changes in concentrate, milk and mozzarella prices on the economic values. The economic values of MY, FY and PY respectively in the MILK and in the MOZZARELLA system were R$ 0.71; R$ -0.74 and R$ -0.82 and R$ 3.05; R$ 18.66 and R$ 54.38. These results suggest that under the current payment policy it is not desirable to improve fat and protein yields when the revenues are based on selling the milk production. The production of mozzarella on the farm may be economically interesting to these systems but depends on availability of financial resources for that investment.

  7. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  8. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  9. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  10. Basic Path of Increasing Party Leadership in Economic Social Development in Perspective of Promoting Urban Transformation%从推动城市转型看提高党领导经济社会发展能力的基本路径——基于中共萍乡市委推动城市转型实践的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文侃

    2011-01-01

    城市转型是确证党领导经济社会发展能力不断提高的重要实践活动。中共萍乡市委推动城市转型的成功实践,昭示了新时期不断提高党领导经济社会发展能力的基本路径,即充分认识和明确把握其重大意义与基本要求是重要前提;不断解放思想、牢固树立科学的领导理念是根本保证;积极创建学习型党组织、不断健全和完善领导干部选用机制是有效途径。%Urban transformation is an important practice to ensure the ever increasing ability in Party Leadership in economic social development. The successful practice of promoting urban transformation by CPC Pingxiang Committee declares the basic path of the ever--increasing ability in Party leadership in economic social development, that is, the important premises of understanding completely and grasping explicitly the significance and requirement; the fundamental guarantee of consistent mind emancipation and firm establishment in scientific leadership idea; the effective paths of establishment of learning Party actively and perfection leaders recruitment scheme.

  11. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  12. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  13. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  14. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  15. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  16. Health Literacy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. 1 Health literacy is dependent on individual and systemic factors: Communication skills of lay persons and professionals Lay and professional ...

  17. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  18. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Live Measurement Traits in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-hu; XIONG Yuan-zhu; ZUO Bo; LEI Ming-gang; LI Feng-e; LI Jia-lian

    2007-01-01

    Live measurement growth traits are very important economic traits in pig production and breeding. In this research,quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 11 live estimated growth and carcass traits, including birth weight (BWT),average daily gain over testing periods (ADG3), live backfat thickness at last 3-4th lumbar (LBFT3), live loin eye area (LLEA), and so on, in 214 pig resource family population, including 180 F2 individual, by 39 microsatellite marker loci on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The results indicated that 4 chromosome significant level QTL and one suggestive QTL were detected for ADG3 (at position of 50 cM on SSC8), LBFT3 (at position of 147 cM on SSC4), LLEA (one highly significant at position of 48 cM on SSC7; another significant at position of 125 cM on SSC8) and BWT (suggestive significant at position of 0 cM, at marker sw489 on SSC4). The phenotypic variance of these QTL accounted for 0.95% to 16.91%. Most of them were mentioned in previous reports; except the QTL of LLEA at position of sw1953 on SSC8 which maybe a new QTL.

  19. Swinger Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio D'Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Swinging is a sexual behavior of increasing relevance but substantially ignored in theoretical economic investigation. This paper has two major goals. The first is to describe what swinging is, discuss its economic relevance and single out the main characteristics of swinger behavior. To this end, the Italian situation has been considered as a type of case study. The second goal is to use standard and less-standard tools from economic theory to propose some preliminary assessments of the caus...

  20. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  1. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, B.; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  2. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  3. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  4. Genetic mapping of quantitative phenotypic traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2012-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a favorite production organism in industrial biotechnology presenting new challenges to yeast engineers in terms of introducing advantageous traits such as stress tolerances. Exploring subspecies diversity of S. cerevisiae has identified strains that bear industrially relevant phenotypic traits. Provided that the genetic basis of such phenotypic traits can be identified inverse engineering allows the targeted modification of production strains. Most phenotypic traits of interest in S. cerevisiae strains are quantitative, meaning that they are controlled by multiple genetic loci referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). A straightforward approach to identify the genetic basis of quantitative traits is QTL mapping which aims at the allocation of the genetic determinants to regions in the genome. The application of high-density oligonucleotide arrays and whole-genome re-sequencing to detect genetic variations between strains has facilitated the detection of large numbers of molecular markers thus allowing high-resolution QTL mapping over the entire genome. This review focuses on the basic principle and state of the art of QTL mapping in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore we discuss several approaches developed during the last decade that allow down-scaling of the regions identified by QTL mapping to the gene level. We also emphasize the particular challenges of QTL mapping in nonlaboratory strains of S. cerevisiae.

  5. Geothermal district heating: basics to success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    A district heating system using geothermal energy is a viable and economic option in many locations. A successful system, however, is dependent upon a variety of factors, and it is the purpose of this presentation to accent those items that are proving to have significant impact upon the successful operation of geothermal district heating systems. (These lessons can also apply to other sources of energy.) The six major basics to success that are discussed in this paper are economic viability, an adequate geothermal resource, simplicity of design, a closed loop system, a local champion, and good public relations.

  6. Expeditionary Economics in Turbulent Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    The Other Path: The Economic Answer to Terrorism (New York: Basic Books, 1989), xx. 9 preceded and shaped the European Industrial Revolution...Fujimori’s platform was not as extreme as his challenger’s, Vargas Llosa. However, once in power, Fujimori immediately initiated an economic shock program...approximately 14 million, or 60 to 70 percent of the population). In June 1990, a relatively unknown politician, Alberto Fujimori , won the Peruvian

  7. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  8. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  9. Mutation breeding in Dianthus caryophyllus for economic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury and Jagatpati Tah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus caryophyllus is a commercial season based floricultural crop which grows well in temperate climate all over the worldand popular as cut-flowers for its variegated petal’s colour. So, it has terrific market demands in international trading. In thismodern era, an agronomic demand of high yielding cultivar of this crop was noticed. Development of cultivars with moredesirable floral characteristics and higher productivity are also very important in this crop. Keeping this view in our mind, weundertook the venture of mutation breeding programme by selecting chemical mutagens, viz. Colchicine (Col, Ethyl MethaneSulphonate (EMS, and Maleic Hydrazide (MH at different concentrations, which were applied on the seeds and leaves. The firstmutation generation (M1 seeds of the crop were harvested properly and kept in dessicator for its proper restoring. Thereafter, thesecond mutation generation (M2 seeds were grown in the next season for availing M2 populations. Various biometricalcharacters viz. number of tillering per plant, total number of flowers, length (cm of flowers, length (cm of petals and weight (gof 1000 seeds were studied and the obtained raw data were analyzed following the ANOVA model.

  10. QTL mapping of economically important traits in Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Cheng; LI Bin; ZHAO Aichun; XIANG Zhonghuai

    2004-01-01

    A backcrossed population(BC1)was derived from a cross between C1AFLP technique was employed for mapping the QTLs.The QTLs for the whole cocoon weight,cocoon shell weight,ratio of cocoon shell,weight of pupae etc.Were analyzed and 11 QTLs were detected based on the constructed linkage map.Two QTLs for whole cocoon weight were localized on linkage group 6 and 19; three QTLs for cocoon shell weight were localized on linkage group 3,14 and 19; three QTLs for ratio of cocoon shell were localized on the linkage group 2,11and 15,and three QTLs for the weight of pupae were localized on linkage 2,14 and 19.All these have laid an important base for the marker assisted breeding of the silkworm.

  11. Palm Functional Traits: which traits matter and how do we measure them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Barfod, Anders S.

    role of palms in tropical forest ecosystems. We review data availability for palms for four traits that are commonly used in functional plant ecology: specific leaf area (SLA), wood density, seed size, and maximum height. We suggest that palm functional ecology is impeded by some of the standard...... allow capturing leaf economics across large parts of the palm family with reasonable amounts of time and money....... functional traits being difficult to measure (e.g. SLA) or interpret (e.g. wood density). We show that an SLA measure can be easily obtained from dried specimens, and discuss the problems and opportunities of this approach compared to whole-leaf SLA measurements. Measuring SLA from herbarium samples may...

  12. Composite interval mapping of QTL for dynamic traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijiang; YANG Runqing

    2006-01-01

    Many economically important quantitative traits in animals and plants are measured repeatedly over time. These traits are called dynamic traits. Mapping QTL controlling the phenotypic profiles of dynamic traits has become an interesting topic for animal and plant breeders. However, statistical methods of QTL mapping for dynamic traits have not been well developed. We develop a composite interval mapping approach to detecting QTL for dynamic traits. We fit the profile of each QTL effect with Legendre polynomials. Parameter estimation and statistical test are performed on the regression coefficients of the polynomials under the maximum likelihood framework. Maximum likelihood estimates of QTL parameters are obtained via the EM algorithm. Results of simulation study showed that composite interval mapping can improve both the statistcial power of QTL detecting and the accuracy of parameter estimation relative to the simply interval mapping procedure where only one QTL is fit to each model. The method is developed in the context of an F2 mapping population, but extension to other types of mapping populations is straightforward.

  13. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with i...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific.......This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...

  14. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...... of science There is a “disconnection” between economics which focuses on structures and universal laws from those that are in contrast with the everyday of life of business activity, which are processual and dynamic. This discussion is the central issue in the paper, and is discussed from the perspective...

  15. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by a...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium......We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...

  16. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  17. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  18. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social sciences. The set of concepts found will be modeled in terms of automata, thus providing a way of unifying the five fields in a general mathematical setting.

  19. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  20. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  1. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  2. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  3. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  4. A Modern Framework for Measuring Poverty and Basic Economic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Fremstad

    2010-01-01

    This report details how the dominant framework for understanding and measuring poverty in the United States has become a conservative one. The current U.S. approach to measuring poverty views poverty only in terms of having an extremely low level of annual income, and utilizes poverty thresholds that are adjusted only for inflation rather than for changes in overall living standards. As a result, the official poverty measure has effectively defined deprivation down over the last four decades,...

  5. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  6. THE J STRUCTURE IN ECONOMIC EVOLVING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fukang; CHEN Qinghua

    2003-01-01

    The economic evolution exhibits complexity. Behind the variable and fiuctuant economic data there exists basic characters and rules. One basic structure in economic evolving process called as "J" structure is studied by us. This kind of structure exists in a wide area, such as economic growth, technology innovation, international trade, education, human capital, ecology and environment etc. From the view of economic evolution, J structure has the character that system should suffer the pressure of initial investment with profit decreasing but get larger return afterwards. It is a kind of adaptation in complex economic systems; it reflects the adaptive and reformative ability of the system under the surrounding change. We illustrate the J structure by discussing economic growth. Based on a two-dimension dynamic system the geometric character and mechanism of J structure are studied, also the phase graphs with its condition are given. Also some further works are discussed.

  7. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  8. Korean Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  9. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  10. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  11. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  12. Basic Library List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, William L., Jr.

    Reported is an initial attempt to define a minimal college mathematics library. Included is a list of some 300 books, from which approximately 170 are to be chosen to form a basic library in undergraduate mathematics. The areas provided for in this list include Algebra, Analysis, Applied Mathematics, Geometry, Topology, Logic, Foundations and Set…

  13. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  14. Basic Drafting: Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The second of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 12 topics in the following units: sketching techniques, geometric constructions, orthographic views, dimensioning procedures, basic tolerancing, auxiliary views, sectional views, inking tools and techniques, axonometrics, oblique, perspective, and computer-aided drafting.…

  15. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members at a lower cost. The four basic types of managed care plans are: HMO (Health Maintenance Organization). When you join an HMO, you choose a ... may have to pay more. EPO (Exclusive Provider Organization). An EPO is like a PPO, only ... Health Plan (CDHP) This type of plan is fairly new. It lets you ...

  16. Basic bioreactor design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't K.; Tramper, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a graduate course in biochemical engineering, provides the basic knowledge needed for the efficient design of bioreactors and the relevant principles and data for practical process engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. Includes exercises.

  17. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  18. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  19. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...

  20. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  1. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but avail

  2. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits with Molecular Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chen-wu; LI Tao; SUN Chang-sen; GU Shi-liang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the genetic models for triploid endosperm traits and on the methods for mapping diploid quantitative traits loci (QTLs), the genetic constitutions, components of means and genetic variances of QTL controlling endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes of different generations were presented. From these results, a multiple linear regression method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits in cereals was proposed, which used the means of endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes as a dependent variable, the coefficient of additive effect ( d ) and dominance effect ( h 1 and/or h2 ) of a putative QTL in a given interval as independent variables. This method can work at any position in a genome covered by markers and increase the estimation precision of QTL location and their effects by eliminating the interference of other relative QTLs. This method can also be easily used in other uneven data such as markers and quantitative traits detected or measured in plants and tissues different either in generations or at chromosomal ploidy levels, and in endosperm traits controlled by complicated genetic models considering the effects produced by genotypes of both maternal plants and seeds on them.

  3. Quantitative trait loci underlying udder morphology traits in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2008-09-01

    A genome scan was conducted on the basis of the daughter design to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing udder morphology traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep. A total of 739 ewes belonging to 11 half-sib families were genotyped for 182 microsatellite markers covering 3,248.2 cM (Kosambi) of the ovine autosomal genome. Phenotypic traits included scores for 5 linear udder traits: udder depth, udder attachment, teat placement, teat size, and udder shape. Quantitative measurements for the QTL analysis were calculated for each trait from evaluation scores using within-family yield deviations corrected for fixed environmental effects. Joint analysis of all families using Haley-Knott regression identified 5 regions that exceeded the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold on chromosomes 7, 14, 15, 20, and 26. Based on the across-family results, a within-family analysis was carried out to identify families segregated according to the QTL and to estimate the QTL effect. The allelic substitution effect for individual families ranged from 0.47 to 1.7 phenotypic standard deviation units for udder shape on chromosome 15 and udder depth on chromosome 14, respectively. These QTL regions provide a starting point for further research aimed at the characterization of genetic variability involved in udder traits in Churra sheep. This paper presents the first report of a sheep genome scan for udder-related traits in a dairy sheep outbred population.

  4. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  5. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  6. Genome resequencing in Populus: Revealing large-scale genome variation and implications on specialized-trait genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To date, Populus ranks among a few plant species with a complete genome sequence and other highly developed genomic resources. With the first genome sequence among all tree species, Populus has been adopted as a suitable model organism for genomic studies in trees. However, far from being just a model species, Populus is a key renewable economic resource that plays a significant role in providing raw materials for the biofuel and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, aside from leading frontiers of basic tree molecular biology and ecological research, Populus leads frontiers in addressing global economic challenges related to fuel and fiber production. The latter fact suggests that research aimed at improving quality and quantity of Populus as a raw material will likely drive the pursuit of more targeted and deeper research in order to unlock the economic potential tied in molecular biology processes that drive this tree species. Advances in genome sequence-driven technologies, such as resequencing individual genotypes, which in turn facilitates large scale SNP discovery and identification of large scale polymorphisms are key determinants of future success in these initiatives. In this treatise we discuss implications of genome sequence-enable technologies on Populus genomic and genetic studies of complex and specialized-traits.

  7. Economically Challenged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers must wrestle with how China can maintain stable GDP growth while overcoming inflation and natural disasters some economists believe that the country’s red-hot economic growth could slow down slightly this year. Yu Yongding,Director of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,forecasts that China’s gross domestic product(GDP) growth rate,which was 11.9 percent

  8. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  9. Back to BASICs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The world economy is in a state of flux. While most OECD countries struggle to minimize the damage of the global financial crisis, a few countries maintain positive economic growth rates and are thus changing global power configurations. Among the most important emerging economies for international...

  10. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  12. Genetic analysis of fruit shape traits at different maturation stages in sponge gourd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sheng; HU Jin; ZHANG Cai-fang; GUAN Ya-jing; ZHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The fruit shape is important quantitative trait closely related to the fruit quality. However, the genetic model of fruit shapes has not been proposed. Therefore, in the present study, analysis of genetic effects for fruit shape traits (fruit length and fruit perimeter) in sponge gourd was conducted by employing a developmental genetic model including fruit direct effects and maternal effects. Analysis approaches of unconditional and conditional variances were applied to evaluate the genetic behavior of fruit shape traits at economical and physiological maturation times. The results of variance analysis indicated that fruit length and fruit perimeter were simultaneously affected by fruit direct genetic effects and maternal effects. Fruit direct genetic effects were relatively more important for fruit shape traits at whole developmental period. The gene expression was most active at the economical maturation stage (1~12 d after flowering) for two shape traits, and the activation of gene was mostly due to direct dominance effects at physiological maturation stage (13~60 d after flowering). The coefficients due to different genetic effects, as well as the phenotypic correlation coefficients, varied significantly between fruit shape traits themselves at various maturation stages. The results showed that it was relatively easy to improve fruit shape traits for industrial purpose by carefully selecting the parents at economical maturation stage instead of that at physiological maturation stage.

  13. Economic crisis, world economy, economics and economic policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherstnev, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the current discussions on the the state of economics with special focus on the interreletionships between key ideas of economic theories and real actions of economic policy in the course of the global economic crisis.

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS` PERSONAL POTENTIAL AND VALUE JUDGEMENT OF FEASIBILITY OF BASIC VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Александровна Мартынова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to suppose that the peculiarities of perception of sociocultural circumstances of the town environment by boys and girls may be connected to the specific features, which are included into the structure of the personal potential. To reveal this connection psychological research of the student youth living in two Siberian cities (Tomsk and Lesosibirsk, which have quite a lot of differences in social and economic spheres has been done. The students of senior courses, Masters and postgraduates (163 people in general who are studying human sciences took part in the research. Subjective evaluation of city circumstances from the point of view of possibility for realization of basic values was received by the means of technique called «Subjective evaluation of basic values realization» (by S.A. Bogomaz. The received results show that the personal traits of modern young people studying human sciences in a large extent define the way they perceive and estimate sociocultural conditions of the city. There are common and specific characteristics of estimation in both Siberian cities. Thus, from the point of view of the student youth, both cities Tomsk and Lesosibirsk in a large extent may provide the realization of the need for a search of a life partner and making family. But the same conditions in a lesser degree may provide the realization of the value of «becoming famous and popular». At the same time human-oriented student youth from Tomsk is sure that their city allows to reach success in a chosen profession, but young people from Lesosibirsk do not consider their town to be the right environment for the realization of this opportunity. And what is more, those who show obstinate efforts in reaching the goals incline to the negative evaluation of the possibility of realization such basic values as «to be healthy» and «to feel safe» in Lesosibirsk.In our opinion, the received results show that the more human-oriented student youth

  15. CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS` PERSONAL POTENTIAL AND VALUE JUDGEMENT OF FEASIBILITY OF BASIC VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynova Marina Aleksandrovna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to suppose that the peculiarities of perception of sociocultural circumstances of the town environment by boys and girls may be connected to the specific features, which are included into the structure of the personal potential. To reveal this connection psychological research of the student youth living in two Siberian cities (Tomsk and Lesosibirsk, which have quite a lot of differences in social and economic spheres has been done. The students of senior courses, Masters and postgraduates (163 people in general who are studying human sciences took part in the research. Subjective evaluation of city circumstances from the point of view of possibility for realization of basic values was received by the means of technique called «Subjective evaluation of basic values realization» (by S.A. Bogomaz. The received results show that the personal traits of modern young people studying human sciences in a large extent define the way they perceive and estimate sociocultural conditions of the city. There are common and specific characteristics of estimation in both Siberian cities. Thus, from the point of view of the student youth, both cities Tomsk and Lesosibirsk in a large extent may provide the realization of the need for a search of a life partner and making family. But the same conditions in a lesser degree may provide the realization of the value of «becoming famous and popular». At the same time human-oriented student youth from Tomsk is sure that their city allows to reach success in a chosen profession, but young people from Lesosibirsk do not consider their town to be the right environment for the realization of this opportunity. And what is more, those who show obstinate efforts in reaching the goals incline to the negative evaluation of the possibility of realization such basic values as «to be healthy» and «to feel safe» in Lesosibirsk. In our opinion, the received results show that the more human-oriented student youth

  16. A trait-based approach to advance coral reef science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madin, Joshua S.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Connolly, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been...... a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems....

  17. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  18. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  19. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  20. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  1. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  2. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  3. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  4. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  5. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  6. Visual Basic educational programme

    OpenAIRE

    Pranaitis, Arūnas

    2005-01-01

    Visual basic educational programme Informational Technologies has become such a popular subject that they are applied in all works of life. However, Informational Technologies are still rarely used in the lessons at school. There are such reasons of the mentioned issue: · Insufficient base of computers, · The old software and its disadvantages, · The lack of computerized educational programmes. The aim of the work was to prove that it is actual to create computerized educat...

  7. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  8. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  9. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  10. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  11. Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification.

  12. Economic theory of distributism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurković Miša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available this paper, the economic theory of distributism has been analyzed. In the first place, the author explains that the distributism is a social thought which emerged in the Anglo-American world as the development of social teachings in the Roman Catholic Church. Although it has not received the status the main schools in modern economic thought have, distrubutism persists as a specific direction of socio-economic thinking. The paper particularly investigates the ideas of classical distibutism. The author focuses on two basic books by Gilbert Chesterton and two most important economic books by Hilaire Belloc. These authors have insisted on the problem of society moving towards the so-called servile state in which a small number of capitalists rule over mass of proletarians who are gradually coming under slavery status, which is sanctioned by the law. For the purpose of remedying this tendency and collectivism, they proposed a series of measures for a repeated broad distribution of ownership over the means of production. Finally, there is an overview of this idea and its development throughout the twentieth century, finishing with contemporary distributists like John Medaille and Alan Carlson. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179014

  13. Use of genetic data to infer population-specific ecological and phenotypic traits from mixed aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Moran

    Full Text Available Many applications in ecological genetics involve sampling individuals from a mixture of multiple biological populations and subsequently associating those individuals with the populations from which they arose. Analytical methods that assign individuals to their putative population of origin have utility in both basic and applied research, providing information about population-specific life history and habitat use, ecotoxins, pathogen and parasite loads, and many other non-genetic ecological, or phenotypic traits. Although the question is initially directed at the origin of individuals, in most cases the ultimate desire is to investigate the distribution of some trait among populations. Current practice is to assign individuals to a population of origin and study properties of the trait among individuals within population strata as if they constituted independent samples. It seemed that approach might bias population-specific trait inference. In this study we made trait inferences directly through modeling, bypassing individual assignment. We extended a Bayesian model for population mixture analysis to incorporate parameters for the phenotypic trait and compared its performance to that of individual assignment with a minimum probability threshold for assignment. The Bayesian mixture model outperformed individual assignment under some trait inference conditions. However, by discarding individuals whose origins are most uncertain, the individual assignment method provided a less complex analytical technique whose performance may be adequate for some common trait inference problems. Our results provide specific guidance for method selection under various genetic relationships among populations with different trait distributions.

  14. [Development of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale for late adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Sera

    2016-02-01

    This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1,368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the "Big Five," self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test-retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at Ieast in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure.

  15. Bridging Economic Theory Models and the Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2008-01-01

    Examples of simple economic theory models are analyzed as restrictions on the Cointegrated VAR (CVAR). This establishes a correspondence between basic economic concepts and the econometric concepts of the CVAR: The economic relations correspond to cointegrating vectors and exogeneity in the econo......Examples of simple economic theory models are analyzed as restrictions on the Cointegrated VAR (CVAR). This establishes a correspondence between basic economic concepts and the econometric concepts of the CVAR: The economic relations correspond to cointegrating vectors and exogeneity...... are related to expectations formation, market clearing, nominal rigidities, etc. Finally, the general-partial equilibrium distinction is analyzed....

  16. Bridging Economic Theory Models and the Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2008-01-01

    Examples of simple economic theory models are analyzed as restrictions on the Cointegrated VAR (CVAR). This establishes a correspondence between basic economic concepts and the econometric concepts of the CVAR: The economic relations correspond to cointegrating vectors and exogeneity in the econo......Examples of simple economic theory models are analyzed as restrictions on the Cointegrated VAR (CVAR). This establishes a correspondence between basic economic concepts and the econometric concepts of the CVAR: The economic relations correspond to cointegrating vectors and exogeneity...... parameters of the CVAR are shown to be interpretable in terms of expectations formation, market clearing, nominal rigidities, etc. The general-partial equilibrium distinction is also discussed....

  17. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.

  18. BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE REGION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshunetlev A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of the region sustainable economic development model, which can be used to gain new knowledge about economic processes, contribute to the stability of the regional development, as well as serve as an educational tool in the study of relevant disciplines

  19. Economic Efficiency of Beekeeping in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Barlović

    2009-03-01

    Since Croatia is most likely to become an EU member in the near future, it is important to recognize the economic parameters of beekeeping production within Croatian economy. Data on economic parameters of beekeeping production in Croatia is very scarce and fragmented. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to calculate basic economic parameters in Croatian beekeeping and to assess its economic strength. The primary assumption of this study was that the number of hives is the most important efficiency factor regarding productivity and profitability of beekeeping production. We further assumed that beekeepers with less than 50 hives cannot meet minimal conditions regarding these economic parameters.

  20. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  1. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  2. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  3. Populus trichocarpa cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure trait variation, genetic control and genetic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Lai, Ben S K; Geraldes, Armando; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2013-02-01

    The increasing ecological and economical importance of Populus species and hybrids has stimulated research into the investigation of the natural variation of the species and the estimation of the extent of genetic control over its wood quality traits for traditional forestry activities as well as the emerging bioenergy sector. A realized kinship matrix based on informative, high-density, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers was constructed to estimate trait variance components, heritabilities, and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Seventeen traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were examined in 334 9-yr-old Populus trichocarpa grown in a common-garden plot representing populations spanning the latitudinal range 44° to 58.6°. In these individuals, 9342 SNPs that conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were employed to assess the genomic pair-wise kinship to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations among traits. The range-wide phenotypic variation in all traits was substantial and several trait heritabilities were > 0.6. In total, 61 significant genetic and phenotypic correlations and a network of highly interrelated traits were identified. The high trait variation, the evidence for moderate to high heritabilities and the identification of advantageous trait combinations of industrially important characteristics should aid in providing the foundation for the enhancement of poplar tree breeding strategies for modern industrial use.

  4. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  5. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  6. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  7. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  8. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  9. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  10. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutations (galactosemia) also contribute to perturbations of the menstrual cycle. Although not perfect, mouse model have helped to identify and confirm additional components and pathways in menstrual cycle function and dysfunction in humans. PMID:18574203

  11. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  12. Estimating total economic merit for the Portuguese Holstein cattle population under new economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B.M. Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a total economic merit index that identifies more profitable animals using Portugal as a case study to illustrate the recent economic changes in milk production. Economic values were estimated following future global prices and EU policy, and taking into consideration the priorities of the Portuguese dairy sector. Economic values were derived using an objective system analysis with a positive approach, that involved the comparison of several alternatives, using real technical and economic data from national dairy farms. The estimated relative economic values revealed a high importance of production traits, low for morphological traits and a value of zero for somatic cell score. According to several future market expectations, three scenarios for milk production were defined: a realistic, a pessimistic and an optimistic setting, each with projected future economic values. Responses to selection and efficiency of selection of the indices were compared to a fourth scenario that represents the current selection situation in Portugal, based on individual estimated breeding values for milk yield. Although profit resulting from sale of milk per average lactation in the optimistic scenario was higher than in the realistic scenario, the volatility of future economic conditions and uncertainty about the future milk pricing system should be considered. Due to this market instability, genetic improvement programs require new definitions of profit functions for the near future. Effective genetic progress direction must be verified so that total economic merit formulae can be adjusted and selection criteria redirected to the newly defined target goals.

  13. Economic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At a hearing before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission on August 22,2006, James A. Dorn, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Cato Institute, offers his ideas on the impact of China's financial system and monetary policies on U.S. exchange rates, capital markets and interest rates. Excerpts follow.

  14. Economic Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China bounces back from several setbacks during the first half of this year to maintain its double-digit economic growth China’s economy withstood dis- ruptions to its agricultural sector caused by snow storms at the beginning of this year and the Sichuan earthquake in May and posted eco-

  15. Economic Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  16. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  18. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  19. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  20. Project Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice. A Third-grade Economics Project [and] A Bird's Eye View of an Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice Production in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Penny

    An economics project for third grade children is described and lessons for teaching basic economic concepts are provided. In the first semester, students studied basic economic concepts; in the second semester, they learned about the origin, production, and distribution of rice and poultry and how these products affect the local and state…

  1. Novel evidence for within-species leaf economics spectrum at multiple spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kun eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf economics spectrum (LES, characterizing covariation among a suite of leaf traits relevant to carbon and nutrient economics, has been examined largely among species but hardly within species. In addition, very little attempt has been made to examine whether the existence of LES depends on spatial scales. To address these questions, we quantified the variation and covariation of four leaf economic traits (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus contents in a cosmopolitan wetland species (Phragmites australis at three spatial (inter-regional, regional and site scales across most of the species range in China. The species expressed large intraspecific variation in the leaf economic traits at all of the three spatial scales. It also showed strong covariation among the four leaf economic traits across the species range. The coordination among leaf economic traits resulted in LES at all three scales and the environmental variables determining variation in leaf economic traits were different among the spatial scales. Our results provide novel evidence for within-species LES at multiple spatial scales, indicating that resource trade-off could also constrain intraspecific trait variation mainly driven by climatic and/or edaphic differences.

  2. Factor analysis for genetic evaluation of linear type traits in dual purpose breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Contiero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type traits have become a selection goal in many breeder association due to the economic value recognised to some measurements. In dairy cattle, relationships of type with production (Veerkamp and Brotherstone, 1997; Kadarmideen and Wegmann, 2003 and/or with longevity (Larroque and Ducrocq, 2001; Vukasinovic et al., 2002 have been widely investigated in order to use type traits as predictors of herd life.

  3. Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level......A QTL study was performed in large half-sib families to characterize the genetic background of variation in pork quality traits as well as to examine the possibilities of including QTL in a marker-assisted selection scheme. The quality traits included ultimate pH in LM and the semimembranosus, drip...... the same. In addition, a strong correlation of the estimated effects of these QTL was found between the 4 traits, indicating that the same genes control these traits. A similar pattern was seen on SSC15 for the QTL affecting ultimate pH in the 2 muscles and drip loss. The results from this study...

  4. Combined expression trait correlations and expression quantitative trait locus mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated regulation of gene expression levels across a series of experimental conditions provides valuable information about the functions of correlated transcripts. The consideration of gene expression correlation over a time or tissue dimension has proved valuable in predicting gene function. Here, we consider correlations over a genetic dimension. In addition to identifying coregulated genes, the genetic dimension also supplies us with information about the genomic locations of putative regulatory loci. We calculated correlations among approximately 45,000 expression traits derived from 60 individuals in an F2 sample segregating for obesity and diabetes. By combining the correlation results with linkage mapping information, we were able to identify regulatory networks, make functional predictions for uncharacterized genes, and characterize novel members of known pathways. We found evidence of coordinate regulation of 174 G protein-coupled receptor protein signaling pathway expression traits. Of the 174 traits, 50 had their major LOD peak within 10 cM of a locus on Chromosome 2, and 81 others had a secondary peak in this region. We also characterized a Riken cDNA clone that showed strong correlation with stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression. Experimental validation confirmed that this clone is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. We conclude that trait correlation combined with linkage mapping can reveal regulatory networks that would otherwise be missed if we studied only mRNA traits with statistically significant linkages in this small cross. The combined analysis is more sensitive compared with linkage mapping alone.

  5. Integrating economic parameters into genetic selection for Large White pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Bekezela; Mulugeta, Sendros D; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to integrate economic parameters into genetic selection for sow productivity, growth performance and carcass characteristics in South African Large White pigs. Simulation models for sow productivity and terminal production systems were performed based on a hypothetical 100-sow herd, to derive economic values for the economically relevant traits. The traits included in the study were number born alive (NBA), 21-day litter size (D21LS), 21-day litter weight (D21LWT), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), age at slaughter (AGES), dressing percentage (DRESS), lean content (LEAN) and backfat thickness (BFAT). Growth of a pig was described by the Gompertz growth function, while feed intake was derived from the nutrient requirements of pigs at the respective ages. Partial budgeting and partial differentiation of the profit function were used to derive economic values, which were defined as the change in profit per unit genetic change in a given trait. The respective economic values (ZAR) were: 61.26, 38.02, 210.15, 33.34, -21.81, -68.18, 5.78, 4.69 and -1.48. These economic values indicated the direction and emphases of selection, and were sensitive to changes in feed prices and marketing prices for carcasses and maiden gilts. Economic values for NBA, D21LS, DRESS and LEAN decreased with increasing feed prices, suggesting a point where genetic improvement would be a loss, if feed prices continued to increase. The economic values for DRESS and LEAN increased as the marketing prices for carcasses increased, while the economic value for BFAT was not sensitive to changes in all prices. Reductions in economic values can be counterbalanced by simultaneous increases in marketing prices of carcasses and maiden gilts. Economic values facilitate genetic improvement by translating it to proportionate profitability. Breeders should, however, continually recalculate economic values to place the most appropriate emphases on the respective

  6. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  7. Basics of plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuderi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to contemporary plasma physics that discusses the most relevant recent advances in the field and covers a careful choice of applications to various branches of astrophysics and space science. The purpose of the book is to allow the student to master the basic concepts of plasma physics and to bring him or her up to date in a number of relevant areas of current research. Topics covered include orbit theory, kinetic theory, fluid models, magnetohydrodynamics, MHD turbulence, instabilities, discontinuities, and magnetic reconnection. Some prior knowledge of classical physics is required, in particular fluid mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. The mathematical developments are self-contained and explicitly detailed in the text. A number of exercises are provided at the end of each chapter, together with suggestions and solutions.

  8. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  9. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  10. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  11. Economic Optimism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ever since January 14 when the Chinese Government unveiled plans to revamp the steel and automobile sectors, the country has embarked on an ambitious and comprehensive scheme of restructuring some of its key industries. This was done in an effort to keep the economy on track amid an adverse economic situation. Eight other sectors have been added into this revitalization package, ranging from electronics and information technologies to textiles, shipbuilding and petrochemicals,

  12. Seasonal succession in zooplankton feeding traits reveals trophic trait coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    The seasonal forcing of pelagic communities invokes a succession of the dominant phytoplankton and zooplankton species. Here, we characterize the seasonal succession of the plankton traits and their interactions using observations and model simulations of the plankton community in the western...... English Channel. We focus on activity traits that characterize the defensive and feeding abilities of zooplankton and distinguish between low risk, low return ambush feeders and high risk, high return feeding-current feeders. While the phytoplankton succession depends on traits related to nutrient...... non-motile cells flourishing in spring and motile community dominating during summer. The zooplankton community is dominated by active feeding-current feeders with peak biomass in the late spring declining during summer. The model reveals how zooplankton grazing reinforces protist plankton seasonal...

  13. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  14. Category breadth and hierarchical structure in personality: studies of asymmetries in judgments of trait implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, S E; John, O P; Goldberg, L R

    1986-07-01

    Trait breadth and hierarchical organization are central structural principles in personality theory and research. We assume that personality traits serve as categories of behavioral events, and we define the breadth of traits as the diversity of their behavioral manifestations. We show that trait breadth can be measured reliably both by ratings and by direct comparisons within trait pairs. We assess the hierarchical relations between traits differing in breadth, using a task in which subjects select the most meaningful of two statements, such as "To be talkative is a way of being extroverted" versus "To be extroverted is a way of being talkative." The extent of asymmetry in the choices of the subject sample provides an index of the degree of class inclusion. In four studies, we demonstrate that the size of the asymmetry effect is highly predictable from differences in trait breadth, even when the effects of social desirability, familiarity, and meaningfulness are controlled. Moreover, we replicate these findings in two cultural contexts, and even at the level of individual subjects. The availability of traits at different hierarchical levels requires personality psychologists to make an explicit choice about level of abstraction, especially when studying behavioral consistency. We discuss the prospect for identifying a generally preferred or "basic" level of personality description.

  15. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  16. Genetic Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab province were collected to estimate the genetic control and genetic correlations among performance traits. A repeatability animal model having herd-year-season and parity was used for this purpose. The repeatability estimates for 305-d milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were 0.40±0.015, 0.40±0.016, 0.33±0.013, 0.14±0.005, 0.15±0.004, and 0.14±0.005 respectively. The heritability estimates for these traits were 0.10±0.016, 0.09±0.016, 0.06±0.013, 0.14±0.009, 0.15±0.010, and 0.14±0.010, respectively. The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlation of 305-d milk yield with lactation length was 0.71, 0.48 and 0.70, respectively, with dry period was -0.31, -0.43 and -0.22, respectively while with calving interval and service period exhibited similar pattern (0.08, 0.25 and 0.08, respectively. The estimated breeding values ranged from -447 to 1254 kg, -442 to 1265 kg, -24 to 38, -78 to 116, -84 to 107 and -81 to 91, days for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period, respectively. No specific genetic trend was observed for performance traits during the period under study. Cows have not improved in their ability to perform in various economic traits. Accurate recording of pedigree and performance is necessary for improving the performance traits of Sahiwal. Due to high repeatability estimates of yield traits selection or culling may be practised from first few records.

  17. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  18. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  19. Alternative models for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth and carcass traits in pigs chromosomes 4, 5 and 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Gonçalves, de T.; Nunes de Oliveira, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Genome scans can be used to identify chromosomal regions and eventually genes that control quantitative traits (QTL) of economic importance. In an experimental cross between Meishan (male) and Dutch Large White and Landrace lines (female), 298 F1 and 831 F2 animals were evaluated for intramuscular f

  20. Basics of aerothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    This successful book gives an introduction to the basics of aerothermodynamics, as applied in particular to winged re-entry vehicles and airbreathing hypersonic cruise and acceleration vehicles. The book gives a review of the issues of transport of momentum, energy and mass, real-gas effects as well as inviscid and viscous flow phenomena. In this second, revised edition the chapters with the classical topics of aerothermodynamics more or less were left untouched. The access to some single topics of practical interest was improved. Auxiliary chapters were put into an appendix. The recent successful flights of the X-43A and the X-51A indicate that the dawn of sustained airbreathing hypersonic flight now has arrived. This proves that the original approach of the book to put emphasis on viscous effects and the aerothermodynamics of radiation-cooled vehicle surfaces was timely. This second, revised edition even more accentuates these topics. A new, additional chapter treats examples of viscous thermal surface eff...

  1. [Basic research in pulmonology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the articles dealing with basic science published in recent issues of Archivos de Bronconeumología. Of particular interest with regard to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were an article on extrapulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress and another on bronchial remodeling. The articles relating to asthma included a review on the use of drugs that block free immunoglobulin-E and an article about the contribution of experimental models to our knowledge of this disease. Two of the most interesting articles on the topic of lung cancer dealt with gene therapy and resistance to chemotherapy. Also notable were 2 studies that investigated ischemia-reperfusion injury. One evaluated tissue resistance to injury while the other analyzed the role played by interleukin-8 in this process. On the topic of pulmonary fibrosis, an article focused on potential biomarkers of progression and prognosis; others dealt with the contribution of experimental models to our understanding of this disorder and the fibrogenic role of transforming growth factor b. In the context of both sleep apnea syndrome and pulmonary infection, studies investigating the role of oxidative stress were published. Finally, 2 studies analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and other pulmonary infections.

  2. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  3. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  4. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  5. Basic Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of grounded theory is to generate a theory that accounts for a pattern of behavior that is relevant and problematic for those involved. The goal is not voluminous description, nor clever verification. As with all grounded theory, the generation of a basic social process (BSP theory occurs around a core category. While a core category is always present in a grounded research study, a BSP may not be.BSPs are ideally suited to generation by grounded theory from qualitative research because qualitative research can pick up process through fieldwork that continues over a period of time. BSPs are a delight to discover and formulate since they give so much movement and scope to the analyst’s perception of the data. BSPs such as cultivating, defaulting, centering, highlighting or becoming, give the feeling of process, change and movement over time. They also have clear, amazing general implications; so much so, that it is hard to contain them within the confines of a single substantive study. The tendency is to refer to them as a formal theory without the necessary comparative development of formal theory. They are labeled by a “gerund”(“ing” which both stimulates their generation and the tendency to over-generalize them.

  6. Basic science of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali; de Girolamo, Laura; Filardo, Giuseppe; Oliveira, J Miguel; Orth, Patrick; Pape, Dietrich; Reboul, Pascal

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent, disabling disorder of the joints that affects a large population worldwide and for which there is no definitive cure. This review provides critical insights into the basic knowledge on OA that may lead to innovative end efficient new therapeutic regimens. While degradation of the articular cartilage is the hallmark of OA, with altered interactions between chondrocytes and compounds of the extracellular matrix, the subchondral bone has been also described as a key component of the disease, involving specific pathomechanisms controlling its initiation and progression. The identification of such events (and thus of possible targets for therapy) has been made possible by the availability of a number of animal models that aim at reproducing the human pathology, in particular large models of high tibial osteotomy (HTO). From a therapeutic point of view, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising option for the treatment of OA and may be used concomitantly with functional substitutes integrating scaffolds and drugs/growth factors in tissue engineering setups. Altogether, these advances in the fundamental and experimental knowledge on OA may allow for the generation of improved, adapted therapeutic regimens to treat human OA.

  7. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  8. Modeling terrestrial carbon and water dynamics across climatic gradients: does plant trait diversity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christoforos; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait diversity in many vegetation models is crudely represented using a discrete classification of a handful of 'plant types' (named plant functional types; PFTs). The parameterization of PFTs reflects mean properties of observed plant traits over broad categories ignoring most of the inter- and intraspecific plant trait variability. Taking advantage of a multivariate leaf-trait distribution (leaf economics spectrum), as well as documented plant drought strategies, we generate an ensemble of hypothetical species with coordinated attributes, rather than using few PFTs. The behavior of these proxy species is tested using a mechanistic ecohydrological model that translates plant traits into plant performance. Simulations are carried out for a range of climates representative of different elevations and wetness conditions in the European Alps. Using this framework we investigate the sensitivity of ecosystem response to plant trait diversity and compare it with the sensitivity to climate variability. Plant trait diversity leads to highly divergent vegetation carbon dynamics (fluxes and pools) and to a lesser extent water fluxes (transpiration). Abiotic variables, such as soil water content and evaporation, are only marginally affected. These results highlight the need for revising the representation of plant attributes in vegetation models. Probabilistic approaches, based on observed multivariate whole-plant trait distributions, provide a viable alternative.

  9. Evidences of local adaptation in quantitative traits in Prosopis alba (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, C; Pometti, C; Ewens, M; Saidman, B O; Vilardi, J C

    2015-02-01

    Signals of selection on quantitative traits can be detected by the comparison between the genetic differentiation of molecular (neutral) markers and quantitative traits, by multivariate extensions of the same model and by the observation of the additive covariance among relatives. We studied, by three different tests, signals of occurrence of selection in Prosopis alba populations over 15 quantitative traits: three economically important life history traits: height, basal diameter and biomass, 11 leaf morphology traits that may be related with heat-tolerance and physiological responses and spine length that is very important from silvicultural purposes. We analyzed 172 G1-generation trees growing in a common garden belonging to 32 open pollinated families from eight sampling sites in Argentina. The multivariate phenotypes differ significantly among origins, and the highest differentiation corresponded to foliar traits. Molecular genetic markers (SSR) exhibited significant differentiation and allowed us to provide convincing evidence that natural selection is responsible for the patterns of morphological differentiation. The heterogeneous selection over phenotypic traits observed suggested different optima in each population and has important implications for gene resource management. The results suggest that the adaptive significance of traits should be considered together with population provenance in breeding program as a crucial point prior to any selecting program, especially in Prosopis where the first steps are under development.

  10. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  11. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-02-01

    Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ΦLS were less responsive to the environment than ρx. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf

  12. Economic Facelift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wu Jinglian, 74, is a respected Chinese economist. He has been a visiting professor at Yale University, MIT, Stanford University and Oxford University and is now a member of the Executive Committee (2005-08) of the International Economic Association. Wu's outspoken viewpoint in 2001 that China's stock markets are more ruthless than casinos created a big stir, but it also earned him widespread respect. At a recent forum held by the China Europe International Business School, Wu talked about why and how Ch...

  13. Effective Macro Control Eases Up The Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The outlook of the macro economic operation in 2007 cannot be separated from the comprehensive, accurate and scientific observation on the economic operation in 2006. We conclude three main issues to be illustrated on the basic characteristics of the national economic operation in 2006.

  14. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  15. A parallel process growth model of avoidant personality disorder symptoms and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, M. F., 2006, The longitudinal study of personality disorders: History, design considerations, and initial findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 645-670. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.645), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general.

  16. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Jerome; Coomes, David; Jansen, Steven; Lewis, Simon L; Swenson, Nathan G; Zanne, Amy E

    2009-04-01

    Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on the major wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical strength measures and anatomical features, as well as clade-specific features such as secondary chemistry. We then show how wood traits are related to one another, highlighting functional trade-offs, and to ecological and demographic plant features (growth form, growth rate, latitude, ecological setting). We suggest that, similar to the manifold that tree species leaf traits cluster around the 'leaf economics spectrum', a similar 'wood economics spectrum' may be defined. We then discuss the biogeography, evolution and biogeochemistry of the spectrum, and conclude by pointing out the major gaps in our current knowledge of wood functional traits.

  17. Energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Develi, Abdulkadir; Kaynak, Selahattin (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Energy resources, the basic input in every area of the economy, have a fundamental function for society's welfare. Traditional energy resources are, however, rapidly decreasing. Energy supply has been falling behind in meeting global demand, and is causing increased focus on efficiency and economy concepts in recent energy policies. Since the existing energy resources are not spread evenly among the countries, but instead are concentrated in certain regions and countries, a monopolistic situation arises. Equally, supply assurance is an issue, since the energy supply is held by certain regions and countries who have monopolistic pricing power. Both the EU and many other countries are studying how to marketize energy. This book focuses on the importance of energy and the problems posed by it. It will be useful for the academic community, related sectors and decision makers.

  18. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  19. Prices of Basic Chemicals Surge and Supply is in Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    @@ "The economic performance of China's petroleum and chemical industry continued its steady increase in November," said Feng Shiliang, secretary general of China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association (CPCIA), "growth in the production of some basic petrochemicals slowed down compared with the preceding month.

  20. Variational analysis and generalized differentiation I basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mordukhovich, Boris S

    2006-01-01

    Contains a study of the basic concepts and principles of variational analysis and generalized differentiation in both finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional spaces. This title presents many applications to problems in optimization, equilibria, stability and sensitivity, control theory, economics, mechanics, and more.

  1. Neuroscience and approach/avoidance personality traits: a two stage (valuation-motivation) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; McNaughton, Neil

    2012-11-01

    Many personality theories link specific traits to the sensitivities of the neural systems that control approach and avoidance. But there is no consensus on the nature of these systems. Here we combine recent advances in economics and neuroscience to provide a more solid foundation for a neuroscience of approach/avoidance personality. We propose a two-stage integration of valuation (loss/gain) sensitivities with motivational (approach/avoidance/conflict) sensitivities. Our key conclusions are: (1) that valuation of appetitive and aversive events (e.g. gain and loss as studied by behavioural economists) is an independent perceptual input stage--with the economic phenomenon of loss aversion resulting from greater negative valuation sensitivity compared to positive valuation sensitivity; (2) that valuation of an appetitive stimulus then interacts with a contingency of presentation or omission to generate a motivational 'attractor' or 'repulsor', respectively (vice versa for an aversive stimulus); (3) the resultant behavioural tendencies to approach or avoid have distinct sensitivities to those of the valuation systems; (4) while attractors and repulsors can reinforce new responses they also, more usually, elicit innate or previously conditioned responses and so the perception/valuation-motivation/action complex is best characterised as acting as a 'reinforcer' not a 'reinforcement'; and (5) approach-avoidance conflict must be viewed as activating a third motivation system that is distinct from the basic approach and avoidance systems. We provide examples of methods of assessing each of the constructs within approach-avoidance theories and of linking these constructs to personality measures. We sketch a preliminary five-element reinforcer sensitivity theory (RST-5) as a first step in the integration of existing specific approach-avoidance theories into a coherent neuroscience of personality.

  2. iTAG Barley: A grade 7-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the basic concepts in biology is that an organism’s physical traits are controlled by its DNA. In other words, one’s genotype for a particular trait controls the phenotype that is expressed. Yet, this connection between DNA and physical characteristic is not always made. The ‘Inheritance o...

  3. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  4. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented......, and the topic is related to actual business conditions. Each chapter is accompanied by questions and assignments designed to help students in their learning....

  5. Quantitative trait loci identification and meta-analysis for rice panicle-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yahui; Huang, Ming; Tao, Xingxing; Guo, Tao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Wuming

    2016-10-01

    Rice yield is a complex trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In the past three decades, thousands of QTLs for rice yield traits have been detected, but only a very small percentage has been cloned to date, as identifying the QTL genes requires a substantial investment of time and money. Meta-analysis provides a simple, reliable, and economical method for integrating information from multiple QTL studies across various environmental and genetic backgrounds, detecting consistent QTLs powerfully and estimating their genetic positions precisely. In this study, we aimed to locate consistent QTL regions associated with rice panicle traits by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. We first conducted a QTL analysis of 5 rice panicle traits using 172 plants in 2011 and 138 plants in 2012 from an F2 population derived from a cross between Nipponbare and H71D rice cultivators. A total of 54 QTLs were detected, and these were combined with 1085 QTLs collected from 82 previous studies to perform a meta-analysis using BioMercator v4.2. The integration of 82 maps resulted in a consensus map with 6970 markers and a total map length of 1823.1 centimorgan (cM), on which 837 QTLs were projected. These QTLs were then integrated into 87 meta-quantitative trait loci (MQTLs) by meta-analysis, and the 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of them were smaller than the mean value of the original QTLs. Also, 30 MQTLs covered 47 of the 54 QTLs detected from the cross between Nipponbare and H71D in this study. Among them, the two major and stable QTLs, spp10.1 and sd10.1, were found to be included in MQTL10.4. The three other major QTLs, pl3.1, sb2.1, and sb10.1, were included in MQTL3.3, MQTL2.2, and MQTL10.3, respectively. A total of 21 of the 87 MQTLs' phenotypic variation were >20 %. In total, 24 candidate genes were found in 15 MQTLs that spanned physical intervals <0.2 Mb, including genes that have been cloned previously, e.g., EP3, LP, MIP1, HTD1, DSH1, and Os

  6. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for the bolting trait in Brassica rapa under vernalizing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y G; Zhang, L; Ji, X H; Yan, J F; Liu, Y T; Lv, X X; Feng, H

    2014-05-23

    Premature bolting can occur occasionally during spring cultivation of heading Chinese cabbage in East Asia when the plants encounter low temperatures (vernalization), leading to economic loss. Breeding bolting-resistant cultivars is the best choice for solving this problem. We looked for QTLs responsible for varietal differences in the bolting trait in Brassica rapa under environmental conditions that promote vernalization. To achieve this goal, we constructed a linkage map with 107 simple sequence repeats and 54 insertion/deletion markers based on a segregating population of 186 F2 individuals. The resulting map consisted of 10 linkage groups and covered a total length of 947.1 cM, with an average genetic distance of 5.84 cM between adjacent markers. QTL analysis of the bolting trait was performed by two phenotypic evaluations (bolting index and flowering time) based on the scores in an F2 population in the spring of 2010, and scores in F2:3 families in autumn 2010 and spring 2011, respectively. Twenty-six QTLs that controlled bolting were detected, accounting for 2.6 to 31.2% of the phenotypic variance. The detected QTLs with large effects co-localized mainly on linkage groups A02, A06, and A07. These QTLs may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection in a breeding program for late bolting or bolting-resistant cultivars in B. rapa crops.

  7. Incorporating Risks in Economic Values for Pigs in Smallholder Production Systems in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthias, Jackson; Rewe, Thomas; Okeno, Tobias;

    This study derived economic values for production traits (dressing percentage, live weight for growers and sow) and functional traits (feed intake for growers and sow, preweaning, postweaning, and sow survival rates, total number of piglets born, and farrowing interval) in different smallholder pig...

  8. The role of habitat filtering in the leaf economics spectrum and plant susceptibility to pathogen infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Miranda E; Cronin, James P.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    1.The Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) describes global covariation in the traits of plant leaves. The LES is thought to arise from biophysical constraints and habitat filtering (ecological selection against unfit trait combinations along environmental gradients). However, the role of habitat filtering in generating the LES has not been tested experimentally.

  9. Estimation of effects of quantitative trait loci in large complex pedigrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Goddard, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    A method was derived to estimate effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using incomplete genotype information in large outbreeding populations with complex pedigrees. The method accounts for background genes by estimating polygenic effects. The basic equations used are very similar to the usual li

  10. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  11. Stability of personality traits in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Allemand, Mathias; Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    Stability represents a fundamental concept in developmental theory and research. In this article we give an overview of recent work on personality traits and their stability in adulthood. First, we define personality traits and stability. Second, we present empirical evidence supporting change and stability of personality traits across the adult years with respect to conceptually and statistically different forms of stability. Third, we describe mechanisms and processes that enable trait stab...

  12. GENETIC STUDIES ON REPRODUCTION TRAITS IN CROSSBRED JERSEY CATTLE IN WESTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Dhal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 412 crossbred (Jersey X Deshi cows sired by 24 bulls, maintained over the period from 2005 to 2014. The economic traits studied were age at first calving (AFC; months, calving interval (CI; days, dry period (DP; days and service period (SP; days. The averages for AFC, CI, DP and SP were 34.46±0.22 months, 505.95±3.24, 224.20±3.31 and 228.26±3.21 days, respectively. Effect of management system was significant for all the economic traits (AFC, CI and DP except SP. It may be inferred that rearing crossbred Jersey cows under intensive system of management may be advocated to utilize the maximum genetic potential of crossbred cattle for all the traits. Semi-intensive system may help moderate exploration of the traits. But exclusively pasture dependent management should be avoided for rearing crossbred Jersey cows. Heritability estimates for AFC, CI and DP were found to be 0.462 ±0.179; 0.062 ±0.088; 0.270 ±0.138, respectively. Genetic correlations of AFC with CI and SP were high and positive. For maximum genetic improvement and their correlated response, it is necessary to include all the economic traits with differential weightage for achieving accuracy in selection programs.

  13. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance.We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts...

  14. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  15. Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kim, J.S.; Shen, Shuxing; Pino del Carpio, D.; Song, Xiaofei; Jin, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Wang, Xiaowu; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in

  16. Motivational Basis of Personality Traits: A Meta-Analysis of Value-Personality Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Boer, Diana

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the relationships between personality traits and basic value dimensions. Furthermore, we developed novel country-level hypotheses predicting that contextual threat moderates value-personality trait relationships. We conducted a three-level v-known meta-analysis of correlations between Big Five traits and Schwartz's (1992) 10 values involving 9,935 participants from 14 countries. Variations in contextual threat (measured as resource threat, ecological threat, and restrictive social institutions) were used as country-level moderator variables. We found systematic relationships between Big Five traits and human values that varied across contexts. Overall, correlations between Openness traits and the Conservation value dimension and Agreeableness traits and the Transcendence value dimension were strongest across all samples. Correlations between values and all personality traits (except Extraversion) were weaker in contexts with greater financial, ecological, and social threats. In contrast, stronger personality-value links are typically found in contexts with low financial and ecological threats and more democratic institutions and permissive social context. These effects explained on average more than 10% of the variability in value-personality correlations. Our results provide strong support for systematic linkages between personality and broad value dimensions, but they also point out that these relations are shaped by contextual factors.

  17. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  18. INNOVATIVE SECURITY: THE BASIC CONCEPTS, ESSENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical and methodological aspects of a role and value of innovative security in system of national security of the state are considered. The basic concepts of innovative security, essence of innovative security in formation of innovative economy, economy of knowledge are analyzed. Questions of innovative security get the special importance because now innovative technologies and processes of their introduction have crucial value for improvement of quality of life, expansion of possibilities of development and maintenance of national security of all without an exception of the states. In the majority of economically developed states already long time researches devoted to problems of national and economic security are conducted. And, the innovative component in these researches is considered as a component economic or scientific and technical (technological security. The methodology of studying national and economic is in this time developed, security, there was a conceptual device and structure of categories «national security». Recognising importance of the spent workings out on a security problematics, it is necessary to notice that the system research devoted to studying of problems of maintenance of national security in the conditions of innovative development till now it was not spent. Especially it concerns processes of maintenance of interrelation of national security and innovative activity, formation of the concept of innovative security, its realisation in practice. Till now there is no unequivocal interpretation of essence of innovations, their influences on national and economic security. The analysis shows that at transition to an innovative way of development there are changes not only in economy and its making parts, but, and in world outlook, psychological, political, social and economic, scientifically-technological, educational and cultural spheres, institutional structures of the state and a society, in development

  19. Defining multiple-trait objectives for sustainable genetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J P; Wilton, J W

    1998-09-01

    Genetic improvement is inherently a long-term process in which progress in the future is built upon improvement in the past. Discounting of future returns is often used in deriving economic values of traits under selection, but this gives a short-term perspective that is in conflict with the long-term nature of genetic improvement. Changes in management, market environment, and genetic potential over time can negatively affect the attainment of breeding goals. Nonlinear optimization techniques can be used to find optimum economic weights each year over any time horizon. Nearly optimal solutions can be found by deriving economic weights for a single, specified future date. Uncertainty about future production and marketing environments creates risk that might be lessened by maintaining or selecting for diverse genetic stocks that could be used in the future. Such programs may need to be coordinated internationally because they may be too expensive for individual companies to undertake. Consideration of risk and careful analyses of future technical and environmental conditions are needed to define multiple trait objectives for long-term genetic change.

  20. SUSTAINABILITY OF THE DUBAI MODEL OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Al Shama, Nada

    2014-01-01

    Dubai’s rapid double-digit economic growth was severely challenged by the global financial crisis of 2007, which raised many concerns questioning the sustainability of the Dubai model of economic development and the viability of the emirate’s economic managerial practices. Although the economic landscape of Dubai has experienced a significant transformation over the last two decades, from a basic traditional economy of US $ 17.9 billion in 2001 to a diversified non-oil dependent economy of US...

  1. Strategy, Economic Organization, and the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    increasingly characterized by a schism between those who advocate 'knowledge' or 'capabilities-based' approaches in the strategy and organization fields and those who adopt more economics-influenced approaches, notably the economics of organization. This book is a sustained attempt to overcome this schism. Its......The rise of the knowledge economy has far-reaching implications for the nature of economic organization as well as firm strategy. Not surprisingly, thinking in management studies as well as in economics has been profoundly affected by these changes. Thus, management thinking in particular has been...... basic argument is that knowledge-based and organizational economics approaches are not substitutes but complements. In particular, organizational economics has much to contribute with respect to furthering the understanding of efficient organization and strategy in the emerging knowledge economy...

  2. Basic Learning Processes in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hayne W.

    This book is an introduction to the psychological study of basic learning processes in children. Written for students who are not majors in psychology and who do not have much familiarity with the technical vocabulary of psychology, it has two themes: even the most basic kinds of learning are included by cognitive processes or mental activities;…

  3. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) Basics for Safe Food Handling dishes in bowls of ice or use ... 9 months Do not freeze 2 Basics for Safe Food Handling Product Refrigerator Freezer (40 °F) (0 °F) ...

  4. Japanese Basic Course: Exercise Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This exercise book, prepared for use after Lesson 121 of the Defense Language Institute Basic Course in Japanese, provides for instruction in the use of Kanji dictionaries, familiarizes students with useful phrases and expressions that are not included in the Basic Course, and allows for greater variety in the classroom. The ten lessons, in the…

  5. Estimates of genetic variability and association studies in quantitative plant traits of Eruca spp. landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozokalfa Kadri Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing of economical importance of rocket plant limited information is available on genetic variability for the agronomic traits among Eruca spp. Hence, heritability and association studies of plant properties are necessities for a successful further rocket breeding programme. The objective of this study was to examine phenotypic and genotypic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance, genotypic and phenotypic correlation and mean for agronomic traits of rocket plant. The magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation values for all the traits were higher than the corresponding values and broad sense heritability estimates exceeded 65% for all traits. Phenotypic coefficients of variability (PCV ranged from 7.60 to 34.34% and genotypic coefficients of variability (GCV ranged between 5.58% for petiole thickness and 34.30% for plant weight. The results stated that plant weight, siliqua width, seed per siliqua and seed weight could be useful character for improved Eruca spp. breeding programme.

  6. The organizational and economic mechanism of economic safety management for international economic activity of machine-building enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Domashenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational-economic mechanism of economic safety management for foreign economic activity of machine-building enterprises, which includes management principles and stages of economic safety management for international economic activity of machine-building enterprises, is presented in the paper.The aim of the article. The aim of the article is formation of economic safety management for international economic activity of machine-building enterprises.The results of the analysis. It is noted by authors that management of economic safety of FEA of machine-building enterprise has to include development of principles of management, structure of the organizational and economic mechanism of management, functions, administrative decisions which together lead implementation of basic task maintenance of sufficient level of FEA economic safety.In the research it is noted that combination of principles of economic safety, economic activity in a uniform complex allows to influence the formation of the purposes of the company and to make reasonable administrative decisions. Operation of organizational and economic mechanism of management as economic safety of FEA of machine-building enterprise needs to be considered as the activity directed on achievement of the objectives of management, and to determine by criterion of a condition of such mechanism level of economic safety of FEA. In the paper stages of management are offered by economic safety of FEA and divided into two main components which are the analysis of economic safety of FEA at the enterprise and measures for its increase and supports. Thus, analysis of economic safety of FEA provides collecting and data processing on main aspects of economic safety, its quantitative and qualitative analysis, and actions on increases and maintenance of economic safety of FEA provide a choice and justification of maximum permissible level of economic safety of FEA a choice of instruments of increase and

  7. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics.

  8. FRIENDSHIP FUNCTIONS AND PERSONALITY TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pedovic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was exploration of the factor structure of the MFQ-FF inventory on a sample from Serbian population, and the relations of measures from this inventory (friendship functions with personality traits, as operationalized by the seven factor model proposed by Tellegen and Waller. For this purpose 154 University of Nis students completed the Serbian version of the MFQ-FF inventory and Lexi-70. The results show that factor structures of certain MFQ-FF scales devia-te somewhat from theoretical expectations. Confirmatory factor analysis produced relatively poor levels of fit, while exploratory factor analysis showed that loadings of five items differ substantially from theoretical expectations. As for correlations with personality traits, evaluative dimensions and negative emotionality were found to correlate with the MFQ-FF general factor, and correlations of specific functions with Openness to experience, Positive emotionality and Consciousness were also found. All obtained correlations were low.

  9. Using plant traits to explain plant-microbe relationships involved in nitrogen acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarel, Amélie A M; Pommier, Thomas; Desclos-Theveniau, Marie; Diquélou, Sylvain; Dumont, Maxime; Grassein, Fabrice; Kastl, Eva-Maria; Grigulis, Karl; Laîné, Philippe; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Personeni, Emmanuelle; Schloter, Michael; Poly, Franck

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that plant species and soil microorganisms. are tightly linked, but understanding how different species vary in their effects on soil is currently limited. In this study, we identified those. plant characteristics (identity, specific functional traits, or resource acquisition strategy) that were the best predictors of nitrification and denitrification processes. Ten plant populations representing eight species collected from three European grassland sites were chosen for their contrasting plant trait values and resource acquisition strategies. For each individual plant, leaf and root traits and the associated potential microbial activities (i.e., potential denitrification rate [DEA], maximal nitrification rate [NEA], and NH4+ affinity of the microbial community [NHScom]) were measured at two fertilization levels under controlled growth conditions. Plant traits were powerful predictors of plant-microbe interactions, but relevant plant traits differed in relation to the microbial function studied. Whereas denitrification was linked to the relative growth rate of plants, nitrification was strongly correlated to root trait characteristics (specific root length, root nitrogen concentration, and plant affinity for NH4+) linked to plant N cycling. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) that commonly serves as an indicator of resource acquisition strategies was not correlated to microbial activity. These results suggest that the LES alone is not a good predictor of microbial activity, whereas root traits appeared critical in understanding plant-microbe interactions.

  10. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood.

  11. Assessing the Suitability of Various Physiological Traits to Screen Wheat Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah E. El-Hendawy; Yuncai Hu; Urs Schmidhalter

    2007-01-01

    Success of improving the salt tolerance of genotypes requires effective and reliable screening traits in breeding programs.The objective was to assess the suitability of various physiological traits to screen wheat genotypes for salt tolerance.Thirteen wheat genotypes from Egypt, Germany, Australia and India were grown in soil with two salinity levels (control and 150 mmol/L NaCl) in a greenhouse. The physiological traits (ion contents in leaves and stems, i.e. Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+), the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ in the leaves and stems, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate,chlorophyll content (SPAD value), and leaf water relations, were measured at different growth stages. The physiological traits except for Na+ and Cl- in stems and the leaf transpiration rate at 150 mmol/L NaCl showed a significant genotypic variation, indicating that the traits that have a significant genotypic variation may be possibly used as screening criteria.According to the analysis of linear regression of the scores of the physiological traits against those of grain yield, however,the physiological traits of Ca2+ and Ca2+/Na+ at 45 d and final harvest with the greatest genotypic variation were ranked at the top. From a practical and economic point of view, SPAD value should be considered to be used as screening criteria and/or there is a need to develop a quick and practical approach to determine Ca2+ in plant tissues.

  12. The Economic Viability of Ethnicity: Economic Behavior as an Expression of Ethnic Identity among Serbian Immigrants in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The economic aspect of ethnicity represents a wide topic of research which still hasn’t been extensively studied in Serbian ethnology and anthropology. It encompasses numerous kinds of relationships between people who belong to the same ethnic group, as well as all kinds of economic discrimination or economic favorizing based on ethnic identity. In this paper I shall attempt to highlight some of the basic characteristics of this issue, and to point out the interconnectedness of economic behav...

  13. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimation of juvenile growth and bottom color traits in half-smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; WEI Zhanfei; SHAO Changwei; CHEN Songlin; YANG Yingming; LI Yangzhen; GUO Hua; DAI Huan; GAO Jin; ZHANG Yongzhen; MA Jialu; LIU Yang

    2016-01-01

    Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a commercially important fish species. There were no reports about accurate genetic parameters of growth traits in C. semilaevis, despite efforts aimed at the culture of this species. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to estimate the parameters for the early growth traits (total length, body depth and body weight) of C. semilaevis based on the data obtained from 80 families. The trait of fish with pure white bottom or not (named as the trait of bottom color) was also analyzed. All the heritabilities estimated for the traits were medium, which varied from 0.210 to 0.362. Genetic correlations among growth traits were highly positive, varying from 0.913 to 0.959, indicating that selection of one of the three traits would result in correlated increase in the others. Also, genetic correlations between bottom color and growth traits were positive and varying from 0.241 to 0.353, suggesting that selection for the bottom color can be utilized to enhance the selection of growth traits. In addition, fish from the top performing 16 full-sib families were selected as broodstock, based on the above analysis and the comparison of family breeding value. This research provides an important basic material to implement selective breeding in C. semilaevis.

  14. On the reality and relevance of traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, R

    1977-04-01

    A review of published research on traits of personality is focused on the controversy over situationism vs. trait theory. Extreme emphasis on situationism is interpreted as a return to the atomistic psychologies of Wundt, Titchener, Watson, and Weiss. Available data are interpreted to indicate that "trait" can be defined operationally, that existing measures are adequately reliable, and that stability over long periods of time contradicts the situationist thesis. Trait measures predict behavior in the laboratory, in education, and industry. The trait construct should be retained in the vocabulary of scientific psychology.

  15. Phishing, Personality Traits and Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phishing attacks have become an increasing threat to online users. Recent research has begun to focus on the factors that cause people to respond to them. Our study examines the correlation between the Big Five personality traits and email phishing response. We also examine how these factors affect users behavior on Facebook, including posting personal information and choosing Facebook privacy settings. Our research shows that when using a prize phishing email, we find a strong correlation be...

  16. Complex pedigree analysis to detect quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the quantitative gene

  17. A genome-wide association scan in pig identifies novel regions associated with feed efficiency trait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Kadlecová, Veronika; Hornshøj, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in pigs and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in pig production. In this study we used a high density SNP chip panel, Porcine SNP60 BeadChip, to identify association between FCR and SNP markers and to st...

  18. Health economics education in undergraduate medical training: introducing the health economics education (HEe) website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma

    2013-09-13

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.

  19. ECONOMIC MODELING PROCESSES USING MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria G. MACOVEI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To study economic phenomena and processes using mathem atical modeling, and to determine the approximatesolution to a problem we need to choose a method of calculation and a numerical computer program, namely thepackage of programs MatLab. Any economic process or phenomenon is a mathematical description of h is behavior,and thus draw up an economic and mathematical model that has the following stages: formulation of the problem, theanalysis process modeling, the production model and design verification, validation and implementation of the model.This article is presented an economic model and its modeling is using mathematical equations and software packageMatLab, which helps us approximation effective solution. As data entry is considered the net cost, the cost of direct andtotal cost and the link between them. I presented the basic formula for determining the total cost. Economic modelcalculations were made in MatLab software package and with graphic representation of its interpretation of the resultsachieved in terms of our specific problem.

  20. Impact of Rural Basic Human Capital Investment on Regional Development Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of human resources development and regional economic cooperation,this paper expounds the basic conditions for socio-economic transformation and development in underdeveloped rural areas,and the ways to acquire basic human capital.On the basis of this,this paper further analyses the regional competitiveness difference arising from human capital difference,and proposes that we should solve this problem through sufficient supply of rural compulsory education.

  1. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of ewe traits in Icelandic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, T; Jónmundsson, J V

    2008-12-01

    The prolificacy of the ewes was measured as the number of lambs born per ewe mated (NLB) when the ewes were 1-4 years of age. The ewe productivity related to the same age interval was measured by special ewe production indices (EPI). The genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by a series of bivariate REML analyses using animal models. The material used for the genetic analysis contained records on 193,213 ewes. The heritability estimates for NLB were h(2) = 0.17, 0.13, 0.11, 0.10 for the four respective age classes. Corresponding estimates for EPI were h(2) = 0.16, 0.17, 0.17, 0.15. The genetic correlations among NLB at different ages ranged from 0.63 to 0.98 and among EPI from 0.82 to 0.99. The genetic correlations between NLB and EPI were generally low. The material used for estimating the breeding values by the MT-BLUP Animal Model consisted of 1.5 million individuals in the pedigree file. In total 815,782 ewes had records for the NLB and 763,491 ewes had production index (at least 1 year). The records were registered in the years 1990-2006. All possible missing patterns were present in the data. In the iteration process expected values for missing traits were generated and solutions were obtained on canonical transformed scale. The genetic evaluations were run independently for NLB and EPI for computational convenience given the correlations between these traits were negligible.

  2. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  3. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  4. Genetic Algorithms: Basic Concept and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Amninder Kaur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are a part of evolutionary computing, which is a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence. Genetic algorithms have been applied to a wide range of practical problems often with valuable results. Genetic algorithms are often viewed as function optimizer, although the range of problems to which genetic algorithms have been applied are quite broad. This paper covers the basic concepts of genetic algorithms and their applications to a variety of fields. It also tries to give a solution to the problem of economic load dispatch using Genetic Algorithms. An attempt has been made to explain when and why GA should be used as an optimization tool. Finally, the paper points to future directions

  5. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  6. Basic properties of Fedosov supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B

    2004-01-01

    Basic properties of even (odd) supermanifolds endowed with a connection respecting a given symplectic structure are studied. Such supermanifolds can be considered as generalization of Fedosov manifolds to the supersymmetric case.

  7. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2016-11-14

    Background The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. Results We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. Conclusions The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established

  8. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology.

  9. Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    大津, 和子

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current development in the Complementary Basic Education program (COBET), which aims to contribute to the provision of alternative learning opportunities for out-of-school children, particularly girls in a non-formal setting. The Ministry of Education and Culture started the program as part of the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) in 1999. Unlike traditional primary schools, the COBET centers have no school fees, no uniforms, no corporal punishment and no child labou...

  10. Finding the economics in economic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Knolhoff, Lisa M

    2009-02-01

    To recommend new pest management tactics and strategies to farmers and policy makers, economic entomologists must evaluate the economics of biologically reasonable approaches. We collected data to determine how frequently these economic evaluations occur. We discovered from our survey of entomological journals representing the discipline of economic entomology that entomology is to ultimately determine the value of different kinds of tactics, the discipline may need to take steps to enhance the research that supports these evaluations.

  11. Economic Growth, Economic Freedom, and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...

  12. Study of Basic Farmland Protection in Huainan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyuan; LU; Zhongxiang; YU

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is the primary resource for food production,related to food security and people’s livelihood.The basic farmland is the essence of farmland,and it is necessary to improve the quality of farmland and strengthen the basic farmland protection in order to enhance comprehensive agricultural production capacity.Currently,the contradiction between urban development and farmland protection has been inevitable,and Huainan City is now in the period of rapid development of urbanization.How to better solve the contradiction between urbanization and farmland protection to promote sound and rapid economic development,is an important issue currently facing Huainan City.

  13. Economic Growth, Capitalism and Unknown Economic Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andzela Mialik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with failures of capitalism or free market and presents the results of economic analysis by applying a logistic capital growth model. The application of a logistic growth model for analysis of economic bubbles reveals the fundamental causes of bubble formation—economic paradoxes related with phenomena of saturated markets: the paradox of growing returnability and the paradoxes of debt and leverage trap. These paradoxes occur exclusively in the saturated markets and cause the majority of economic problems of recent days including overproduction, economic bubbles and cyclic economic development. Unfortunately, these paradoxes have not been taken into account when dealing with the current failures of capitalism. The aim of the paper is to apply logistic capital growth models for the analysis of economic paradoxes having direct impact on the capitalism failures such as economic bubbles, economic crisis and unstable economic growth. The analysis of economic paradoxes and their implication son failures of capitalism provided in the paper presents the new approach in developing policies aimed at increasing economic growth stability and overcoming failures of capitalism.

  14. The role of the waqf institution in achieving economic security

    OpenAIRE

    Alasrag, Hussien

    2010-01-01

    Economic security is composed of basic social security, defined by access to basic needs infrastructure pertaining to health, education, dwelling, information, and social protection, as well as work-related security. Waqf (endowment) is one of the most important institutions in the Islamic religion. Waqf has many dimensions, religious, social, economic, cultural and humanitarian. This institution embodies the tolerance , generosity , solidarity and interdependence among people. Furthermore, t...

  15. Thermodynamic Laws Applied to Economic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Villacís

    2009-01-01

    Economic activity in its different manifestations--production, exchange, consumption and, particularly, information on quantities and prices--generates and transfers energy. As a result, we can apply to it the basic laws of thermodynamics. These laws are applicable within a system, i.e., in a country or between systems and countries. To these…

  16. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  17. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences. PMID:28123646

  18. Examining Accumulated Emotional Traits in Suicide Blogs With an Emotion Topic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fuji; Kang, Xin; Quan, Changqin

    2016-09-01

    Suicide has been a major cause of death throughout the world. Recent studies have proved a reliable connection between the emotional traits and suicide. However, detection and prevention of suicide are mostly carried out in the clinical centers, which limit the effective treatments to a restricted group of people. To assist detecting suicide risks among the public, we propose a novel method by exploring the accumulated emotional information from people's daily writings (i.e., Blogs), and examining these emotional traits that are predictive of suicidal behaviors. A complex emotion topic model is employed to detect the underlying emotions and emotion-related topics in the Blog streams, based on eight basic emotion categories and five levels of emotion intensities. Since suicide is caused through an accumulative process, we propose three accumulative emotional traits, i.e., accumulation, covariance, and transition of the consecutive Blog emotions, and employ a generalized linear regression algorithm to examine the relationship between emotional traits and suicide risk. Our experiment results suggest that the emotion transition trait turns to be more discriminative of the suicide risk, and that the combination of three traits in linear regression would generate even more discriminative predictions. A classification of the suicide and nonsuicide Blog articles in our additional experiment verifies this result. Finally, we conduct a case study of the most commonly mentioned emotion-related topics in the suicidal Blogs, to further understand the association between emotions and thoughts for these authors.

  19. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  20. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  1. Why species tell more about traits than traits about species: predictive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Trait analysis aims to understand relationships between traits, species diversity, and the environment. Current methods could benefit from a model-based probabilistic framework that accommodates covariance between traits and quantifies contributions from inherent trait syndromes, species interactions, and responses to the environment. I develop a model-based approach that separates these effects on trait diversity. Application to USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data in the eastern United States demonstrates an apparent paradox, that the analysis of species better explains and predicts traits than does direct analysis of the traits themselves; trait data contain less, not more, information than species on environmental responses. Whereas variation in some traits is dominated by inherent syndromes (tendency for certain traits to be associated with others within an individual and species), others are strongly controlled by variation in species diversity. There is substantial variation in environmental control on trait patterns, between traits and regionally. In terms of environmental response traits do not aggregate into defined plant functional types, as would be desirable for models.

  2. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Xiao-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig, after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR test, 35 QTL with FDR FDR FDR Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs.

  3. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  4. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  5. Economic freedom and new economic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Are economic freedoms going to clear our way to prosperity? Is the growth of economic freedoms our path to prosperity? Is it in the base of the new understanding of development? If yes, what will necessarily have to be changed in the economic practice of every country and whole world in general? What will be changed in economic theory? What are potential consequences of an attempt to offer resistance to the new concept of development? These are just some of the questions discussed in this paper, whereas the starting point is the economy and economic development of Montenegro.

  6. Social personality trait and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

    2008-12-22

    Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. 'Asocial' and 'social' lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness.

  7. The economics of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  8. FINANCIAL STABILITY AS A FACTOR ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Endovitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article examines the linkages between financial stability and the level of its economic security. Considered the content of financial stability, represented by its own definition, we studied the basic conditions to achieve it. The logic diagram showing the location of financial stability and financial security to ensure the economic security of the business entity. A system of internal and external factors affecting the financial stability and endanger financial stability and financial security company. It has been established that it is the internal factors such as the availability of financial resources and financial position, capital structure, the company's ability to generate profits determine the level of economic security and its ability to withstand the negative impact of external and internal threats. The necessity of improving the financial sustainability in order to improve the economic security of the enterprise. On the basis of the research proposed matrix of risks affecting the financial stability and economic security, which allows to determine the probability of their occurrence and impact. It presents the economic, social, human, financial, organizational, economic, innovative and productive tools to increase the stability and financial security of an economic entity. List considered standard measures will make a plan of action to minimize the adverse impacts and enhance financial stability and security. Therefore, a prerequisite for the economic security of the enterprise is the attainment of financial stability.

  9. A trait database for marine copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Philipp; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance. We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level, but some phylogenetically conserved traits, such as myelination, were reported at higher taxonomic levels, allowing the entire diversity of around 10 800 recognized marine copepod species to be covered with a few records. Aside from myelination, data coverage was highest for spawning strategy and body size, while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.862968" target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.862968.

  10. Genetic analysis of fleece and post-weaning body weight traits in Makuie sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S; Hashemi, A

    2014-02-20

    Estimation of genetic parameters is the most important component of an organized selection program. With respect to economic traits, such as wool and mutton traits, production costs can be reduced through a suitable selection program focused on genetic improvement. This study aimed to evaluate genetic parameters of fleece and post-weaning growth traits in sheep. Greasy fleece weight at 6, 16, 28, 40, and 52 months of age (GFW1, GFW2, GFW3, GFW4, and GFW5) represented characteristics of wool quantity. Staple length at shoulder, side, and rump (SL1, SL2, and SL3), fiber diameter, and percentage of true wool (TW%) were used as characteristics of wool quality. Live body weight at 6, 9, and 12 months of age (BW6, BW9, and BW12) reflected post-weaning growth characteristics. These data were collected over 23 years, from 1989 to 2012, at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raising Station (MSBS). Estimations were calculated using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood (DFREML) model. Direct heritability estimates, based on single-trait analyses, ranged from 0.10 (GFW1) to 0.80 (TW%). Additive genetic correlations among the traits ranged from highly negative (-0.46) to highly positive (0.99). The log likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used for selection of the most appropriate model. Based on the LRT, direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were considered as the main sources of variation in the studied traits.

  11. Are Commonly Measured Functional Traits Involved in Tropical Tree Responses to Climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate models predict significant rainfall reduction in Amazonia, reducing water availability for trees. We present how functional traits modulate the tree growth response to climate. We used data from 3 years of bimestrial growth measurements for 204 trees of 53 species in the forest of Paracou, French Guiana. We integrated climate variables from an eddy covariance tower and functional trait values describing life history, leaf, and stem economics. Our results indicated that the measured functional traits are to some extent linked to the response of trees to climate but they are poor predictors of the tree climate-induced growth variation. Tree growth was affected by water availability for most of the species with different species growth strategies in drought conditions. These strategies were linked to some functional traits, especially maximum height and wood density. These results suggest that (i trees seem adapted to the dry season at Paracou but they show different growth responses to drought, (ii drought response is linked to growth strategy and is partly explained by functional traits, and (iii the limited part of the variation of tree growth explained by functional traits may be a strong limiting factor for the prediction of tree growth response to climate.

  12. Beware the angry leader: Trait anger and trait anxiety as predictors of petty tyranny

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Leo; SKOGSTAD, Anders; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Einarsen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the general aggression model and theories of victimization and temperamental goodness-of-fit, we investigated trait anger and trait anxiety as antecedents of petty tyranny: employing a multilevel design with data from 84 sea captains and 177 crew members. Leader trait anger predicted subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Subordinate trait anxiety was associated with subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Theassociation between leader traitanger and subordinate-reported pe...

  13. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  14. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  15. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Quantitative trait loci analysis of osteocondrosis traits in the elbow joint of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O F; Busch, M E; Gregersen, V R;

    2010-01-01

    Osteochondrosis is a growth disorder in the cartilage of young animals and is characterised by lesions found in the cartilage and bone. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with six osteochondrosis lesion traits in the elbow joint of finishing pigs. The traits were...

  17. Electronic imaging fundamentals: basic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, K N

    1983-01-01

    Introduction of the computer into the field of medical imaging, as typified by the extensive use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), created an important need for a basic understanding of the principles of digital imaging. This paper reviews these fundamental principles, starting with the definition of images and the interaction of these images with television display systems, then continuing with a detailed description of the way in which imaging systems are specified. This work defines the basic terms and concepts that will be used throughout the contents of this issue.

  18. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  19. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  20. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  1. Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  2. To the Question about the Quality of Economic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshaeva, Lyudmila

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the shortcomings of the methodology of neoclassical theory as a basic theory determining the content of contemporary economic theory course at Russian educational institutions namely unrealistic conditions of perfect competition, rationality of economic behavior of business entities, completeness and authenticity of…

  3. Oh, the Economics You'll Find in Dr. Seuss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ben; Watts, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The authors list economic concepts and issues covered in the children's books published by Theodor Geisel and discuss his treatment of concepts that appear most often and that are treated in greater depth. Some concepts are sophisticated and taught as formal concepts only in college-level economics courses. Others are basic and used in economics…

  4. Human-Property-Right-oriented Market Economic System with Chinese Characteristics:the Basic Theory Innovation---the Outline of Human Property Right Theory under the Socialist Political Economics with Chinese Characteristics%中国特色人本产权型市场经济体制:基础理论创新--中国特色社会主义政治经济学人本产权论纲要(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程言君; 段学慧; 程昊

    2016-01-01

    人本产权论是贯彻“更好保障人民当家作主”、“坚持以人民为中心”等全面深化改革精神,对马克思人类异化复归理论由哲学抽象向现代制度转化的创新研究。这一研究对人力产权范畴内涵及其异化复归规律理论的创新,尤其对微观和宏观人力产权自主实现制度体系有机构成的人本产权型市场经济体制的探讨,包括对物本产权论及其“人力资本”范畴等西方经济理论的解剖,为建立中国特色“更好保障人民当家作主”的人本产权型市场经济体制提供了新的更为深层到位的理论支持。%The human property right theory is to carry out the overall spirit of deepening reform, better ensuring the people's in power and adhering to people-centered concept,and the innovative research on Marx's human dissimilation return rule changing from philosophy abstraction to modern system. The research has proposed creation on human resource property right and dissimilation return rule, especially upon the discussion of human-property-right-oriented market economic system organized by independently realizing the organic constitution of human resource property right, in macro and micro level, including the analysis of property right theory, its category of "human capital" and other areas of the western economic theory, which all of the above is to establish the human-property-right-oriented market economic system and better ensure the people's in power with Chinese characteristics,also provides a new and more deep theoretical support in place.

  5. Genetic parameters for egg production traits in purebred and hybrid chicken in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsiri, S; Jeyaruban, M G; Van Der Werf, J H J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for 5 economically important egg production traits using records collected over 9 years in chickens reared under tropical conditions in Thailand. The data were from two purebred lines and two hybrid lines of layer parent stocks. The two purebred lines were Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Plymouth Rock (WPR) and the hybrid lines were formed by crossing a commercial brown egg laying strain to Rhode Island Red (RC) and White Plymouth Rock (WC), respectively. Five egg production traits were analysed, including age at first egg (AFE), body weight at first egg (BWT), egg weight at first egg (EWFE), number of eggs from the first 17 weeks of lay (EN) and average egg weight over the 17th week of lay (EW). Fixed effects of year and hatch within year were significant for all 5 traits and were included in the model. Maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects of the dam were not significant, except for EN and EW in RIR and BWT and EW in WPR. Estimated heritability of AFE, BWT, EWFE, EN and EW were 0.45, 0.50, 0.29, 0.19 and 0.43 in RIR; 0.44, 0.38, 0.33, 0.20 and 0.38 in WPR; 0.37, 0.41, 0.38, 0.18 and 0.36 in RC; and 0.46, 0.53, 0.36, 0.38 and 0.45 in WC lines, respectively. The EN was negatively correlated with other traits, except for BWT in RC and AFE and BWT in WC. It was concluded that selection for increased EN will reduce other egg production traits in purebred and hybrid chicken and therefore EN needs to be combined with other egg production traits in a multi-trait selection index to improve all traits optimally according to a defined breeding objective.

  6. Incorporating Risks in Economic Values for Pigs in Smallholder Production Systems in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthias, Jackson; Rewe, Thomas; Okeno, Tobias;

    production systems in Kenya. In addition to traditional bio-economic profit model, a risk-rated model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained......This study derived economic values for production traits (dressing percentage, live weight for growers and sow) and functional traits (feed intake for growers and sow, preweaning, postweaning, and sow survival rates, total number of piglets born, and farrowing interval) in different smallholder pig...... for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50%. Therefore both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used...

  7. The energetic and carbon economic origins of leaf thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; McDowell, Nate G; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2016-08-22

    Leaf thermoregulation has been documented in a handful of studies, but the generality and origins of this pattern are unclear. We suggest that leaf thermoregulation is widespread in both space and time, and originates from the optimization of leaf traits to maximize leaf carbon gain across and within variable environments. Here we use global data for leaf temperatures, traits and photosynthesis to evaluate predictions from a novel theory of thermoregulation that synthesizes energy budget and carbon economics theories. Our results reveal that variation in leaf temperatures and physiological performance are tightly linked to leaf traits and carbon economics. The theory, parameterized with global averaged leaf traits and microclimate, predicts a moderate level of leaf thermoregulation across a broad air temperature gradient. These predictions are supported by independent data for diverse taxa spanning a global air temperature range of ∼60 °C. Moreover, our theory predicts that net carbon assimilation can be maximized by means of a trade-off between leaf thermal stability and photosynthetic stability. This prediction is supported by globally distributed data for leaf thermal and photosynthetic traits. Our results demonstrate that the temperatures of plant tissues, and not just air, are vital to developing more accurate Earth system models.

  8. Seinfeld and Economics: How to Achieve the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy in an Introductory Economics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, John; Hegde, S. Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative teaching technique, the utilization of a popular sitcom to teach an introductory economics course. Using clips from the television show "Seinfeld," instructors can present the oft-perceived difficult, yet basic, economic concepts in an amenable manner, which also enables the achieving of higher levels of…

  9. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  10. Predicting Grades in Basic Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elise

    1994-01-01

    Data from (n=470) students at Owens Technical College in Fall 1991 showed that high school GPA was the best predictor of grades in Basic Algebra, followed by high school rank, college GPA, ACT natural sciences, ASSET numerical skills, and ASSET elementary algebra scores. (11 references) (SW)

  11. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to manage. The basic fact is healthy teeth and gums are essential for: n Preventing infections which may cause MS symptoms to increase n ... person clenches his or her jaws or “grinds” teeth, usually during the night n ... and periodontitis are infections, each of which can be made worse by ...

  12. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring...

  13. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  14. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Statistics Center . How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2015, ...

  15. Guarani Basic Course, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This volume of the basic course in Guarani (the indigenous language of Paraguay) contains the core stage, or class-instructional phase, of the ten units presented in Volume One. These units contain explanations, exercises, dialogues, various types of pattern drills, suggestions for games and communication activities, and various types of…

  16. Guarani Basic Course, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…

  17. The Measurement of Basic Stuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, James G., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven articles contain information about measurement and evaluation in physical education and sport and complement the "Basic Stuff" series. They focus on (1) student self-assessment for exercise physiology; (2) monitoring motor development; (3) biomechanical analysis; and (4) measurements of aesthetic qualities, psychosocial…

  18. Emergency medicine: beyond the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1997-07-01

    Medical emergencies can arise in the dental office. Preparedness for these emergencies is predicated on an ability to rapidly recognize a problem and to effectively institute prompt and proper management. In all emergency situations, management is based on implementation of basic life support, as needed. The author describes the appropriate management of two common emergency situations: allergy and chest pain.

  19. Basic research in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, E.; Rathmell, W.K.; Junker, K.; Brannon, A.R.; Pouliot, F.; Finley, D.S.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kirkali, Z.; Uemura, H.; Belldegrun, A.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

  20. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  1. Women in Adult Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)

  2. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  3. Basic Income on the Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Loek; Veen, van der Robert-Jan

    2000-01-01

    Persisting unemployment, poverty and social exclusion, labour market flexibility, job insecurity and higher wage inequality, changing patterns of work and family life are among the factors that exert pressure on welfare states in Europe. This book explores the potential of an unconditional basic inc

  4. Basic types of plant layout

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, Julio; Docente FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Basic formats plant layout shown, considering the criteria to be taken into account in each of the formats.  Se muestra los formatos básicos de la distribución de planta, considerando los criterios que se deben tomar en cuenta en cada uno de los formatos.

  5. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Soeter, M.

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows f

  6. Morbidity associated with sickle cell trait carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Seck

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: This work has allowed us to find that the symptoms presented by sickle cell trait patients are dominated by painful events. This morbidity associated with porting sickle cell trait was not secondary to inflammatory or metabolic disorders or physical activity.

  7. A Simple Analysis of an Inherited Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Stanley; Keller, Elhannan

    1977-01-01

    Described is a classroom activity for analyzing an inherited human trait, the ability to tast phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Formulas for analyzing gene frequency are given for classroom and neighborhood samples. Additional tables include statistics on the ability to taste PTC and other easily sampled human traits. (MA)

  8. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  9. Sickle Cell Trait and the Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Randy Eichner

    2007-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS ·Sickle cell trait is an inherited condition of the oxygencarrying protein,hemoglobin,in red blood cells.This genetic trait is generally benign,but during maximal exercise,the oxygen levels in muscles can decrease sufficiently to cause some of the red cells to change from the normal disk shape to a crescent or sickle shape.

  10. Methods for mapping QTLs underlying endosperm traits based on random hybridization design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yongxian; WU Weiren

    2006-01-01

    Several methods of interval mapping of QTLs underlying endosperm traits based on random hybridization designs and the triploid genetic model are proposed. The basic idea is: plants (or lines) from a population with known marker genotype information are randomly hybridized to generate a population of hybrid lines for endosperm QTL mapping; a mixture of seeds of each hybrid line is measured for the endosperm trait to get the mean of the line; then endosperm QTL mapping and effect estimation is performed using the endosperm trait means of hybrid lines and the marker genotype information of parental plants (or lines). The feasibility and efficiency of the methods are examined by computer simulations. Results show that the methods can precisely map endosperm QTLs and unbiasedly and efficiently estimate the three effects (additive effect, first dominant effect, second dominant effect) of endosperm QTLs.

  11. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  12. Basic contradiction of the international production cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinas V. Kashbraziyev

    2015-12-01

    context of innovative development and economic security of the country the basic contradiction of international industrial cooperation is formulated it is proved that the resolutionmitigation of the main contradiction is due to the development of the national innovation system. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the development of recommendations to reduce the level of contradictions in international cooperation and to weaken the dependence of the Russian industry from imports. nbsp

  13. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  14. Association between insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I microsatellite polymorphisms and important economic traits in pigs Associação entre polimorfismos no marcador microssatélite do gene do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina I (IGF-I com características de interesse econômico em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Assis de Faria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between IGF-I microsatellite marker in an F2 population (N=459 generated by mating of native boars to Brazilian commercial sows with performance, carcass cut, and meat quality traits. Association analyses were carried out using a statistical model that included genotype, sex, and group as fixed effects and sire as random effect. The IGF-I genotypes were significantly associated with different quantitative traits and these results corroborate with previous QTL analyses obtained for this chromosome region in swine. Additive and dominance effects, as well as a genotype-sex interaction, were estimated and discussed in the text. According to the results obtained, this marker is suitable for QTL search in the genotyped population.Investigou-se neste trabalho a associação entre o marcador microssatélite IGF-I em uma população F2 (N=459 gerada pelo acasalamento entre suínos nativos brasileiros e fêmeas comerciais com características de desempenho, cortes de carcaça e qualidade da carne. A análise de associação foi feita por meio de um modelo que incluiu genótipo, sexo e grupo como efeitos fixos e pais como efeito aleatório. Os genótipos do IGF-I apresentaram associação significativa com nove características quantitativas, resultados que corroboram análises prévias de QTL obtidas para essa região cromossômica em suínos. Efeitos aditivos de dominância, assim como a interação genótipo × sexo, foram estimados e estão descritos neste trabalho. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, este marcador será útil nas análises de QTL na população analisada.

  15. Towards an evolutionary ecology of sexual traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwallis, Charlie K; Uller, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    Empirical studies of sexual traits continue to generate conflicting results, leading to a growing awareness that the current understanding of this topic is limited. Here we argue that this is because studies of sexual traits fail to encompass three important features of evolution. First, sexual traits evolve via natural selection of which sexual selection is just one part. Second, selection on sexual traits fluctuates in strength, direction and form due to spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. Third, phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generates selection and responses to selection within and across generations. A move from purely gene-focused theories of sexual selection towards research that explicitly integrates development, ecology and evolution is necessary to break the stasis in research on sexual traits.

  16. Cultural traits as units of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L

    2010-12-12

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process.

  17. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... and ecosystem models is necessary to generate realistic predictions on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems but remains extremely challenging. We propose that the use of trait-based approaches is a promising way to reduce complexity while retaining realism in developing novel descriptions of zooplankton...... traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for general patterns...

  18. Utility Analysis on Supply of Rural Public Policies in North Bay Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzhen; LI; Dafeng; YE

    2013-01-01

    From analysis on internal and external motive forces of development in North Bay Economic Zone, it indicates that public policies, as basic methods of government intervening against social and economic activities, are fundamental public goods produced by government. Effective supply of public policies brings rural economic growth, environmental protection and sustainable development, which greatly stimulates rural consumption, expands domestic demand and spurs economic growth, showing significant "multiplier effect". In this situation, this paper studies conditions for rural economic development and social transformation of the North Bay Economic Zone. Results show that social and economic development of rural areas of the North Bay Economic Zone needs scientific, reasonable and effective "public policies".

  19. CONTINUOUS ECONOMIC EDUCATION AS THE FACTOR OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Lomakina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of continuous economic education of future professionals is caused by importance of forming correct understanding of the economic reality, of comprehension of economic basic laws, of understanding of global and national tendencies in economic development; the growing role of continuous economic education as a major factor of formation and development of a postindustrial society is shown; the reasons and circumstances of the active reference of the domestic pedagogical science and practice to problems of economic education are emphasized; the factors influencing development of continuous economic education are established in the article. Continuous economic education is considered as a part of continuous education promoting the formation of a competitive expert in conditions of market economy, demanded on labour market and directed on formation of economic competencies depending on the type of preparation (economic and not economic at different educational levels according to models of the graduate and the teacher and realized by means of economic training and economic education.

  20. Social Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  1. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  2. Capacidade combinatória e ação gênica na expressão de caracteres de importância econômica em pimentão Combining ability and gene action in the expression of economically important traits in sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildon Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2004-04-01

    hybrid combinations: (a 18 hybrids obtained via a North Carolina II scheme, representing hybrid combinations betwen two parental groups: group 1 - seed parents (L-005, PIM-013, PIM-014, Magda, PIX-021G_0818pl#01 e PIX-022E31pl#14 and group 2 - polen parents (L-004, L-006 e MYR-29; (b 5 additional experimental hybrids: F1(Hércules x L-004, F1(Itapetininga x L-004, F1(L-3509-Yellow Fruit x L-004, F1(PIX-021F0818 x L-006 e F1(PIX-023E39 x L-006; (c 3 hybrids among the testers in group 2 F1(L-006 x L-004, F1(MYR-29 x L-004 e F1(MYR-29 x L-006; (d 4 commercial hybrid checks (Magali R, Magali, Fortuna Super and Atenas. The hybrids were tested in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The following traits were evaluated: total yield, average fruit mass, early yield, fruit length, presence of cuticular stipples, penducle insertion depth, and plant height. Additive genetic effects predominated over non-additive effects for all traits studied, with the exception of total yield, a trait for wich non-additive effects were also important. Hybrid combinations F1(PIM-013 x MYR-29 e F1(PIX-022E31pl#14 x MYR-29 stood out for their favorable general and specific combining ability effects for both yield and fruit related traits.

  3. Characteristics and criticism of conventional eco- and environmental economics models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karajz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to introduce basic theories of environmental economics, dealing with environment factors, and to present critical view on them. The results of the analysis. The necessity to create a new economic paradigm or to elaborate a new approach to economics can most efficiently be justified by providing a critical analysis of conventional economic theories. Following this view, the material introduces basic theories of environmental economics belonging to the branch of economics dealing with environmental factors and based on conventional or neoclassical foundations (problems of public welfare, Pigouvian taxes, the Coase theorem, optimal utilisation of natural resources, the standard price theory and presents critical views related to these issues. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The conventional economics is based on fundamental assumption of neoclassical welfare economics according to which the primarily aim of economics is obviously to achieve Pareto optimal conditions. This optimum can be in two meanings: if Pareto optimum means Pareto norms, it reflects relevant conditions for economic policy. If Pareto optimum is linked with marginal analysis when a determined fictitious economic optimum is sought for in a perfect competition situation, it an instrument used for formal analytical analysis. According to this allocation of resources or the volume of production is optimal if there is a situation in which it is possible to make any individual better off without making someone else worse off.

  4. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology.

  5. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  6. Robust and Specific Personality Traits as Predictors of Adolescents' Final Grades and GPA at the End of Compulsory Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrtnik Vitulic, Helena; Zupancic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive value of robust and specific personality traits in adolescents (M[subscript age]?=?14.7 years), in explaining their academic achievement at the end of basic compulsory schooling. Personality data were obtained through self, maternal, and peer reports using the Inventory of Child/Adolescent Individual…

  7. The early history of modern ecological economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective for the discussion on ecological economics as a special field of research. By studying the historical background of ecological economics, the present discussions and tensions inside the field might become easier to understand and to relate to. The study...... is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from...... the field. The story opens with the emergence of the new environmental agenda in the 1960s, which was influenced by the scientific development in biology and ecology. Then it is outlined how the environmental challenge was met by economics in the 1960s. Around 1970 the basic ideas of ecological economics...

  8. Sex differences in personality traits and gender-related occupational preferences across 53 nations: testing evolutionary and social-environmental theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Using data from over 200,000 participants from 53 nations, I examined the cross-cultural consistency of sex differences for four traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and male-versus-female-typical occupational preferences. Across nations, men and women differed significantly on all four traits (mean ds = -.15, -.56, -.41, and 1.40, respectively, with negative values indicating women scoring higher). The strongest evidence for sex differences in SDs was for extraversion (women more variable) and for agreeableness (men more variable). United Nations indices of gender equality and economic development were associated with larger sex differences in agreeableness, but not with sex differences in other traits. Gender equality and economic development were negatively associated with mean national levels of neuroticism, suggesting that economic stress was associated with higher neuroticism. Regression analyses explored the power of sex, gender equality, and their interaction to predict men's and women's 106 national trait means for each of the four traits. Only sex predicted means for all four traits, and sex predicted trait means much more strongly than did gender equality or the interaction between sex and gender equality. These results suggest that biological factors may contribute to sex differences in personality and that culture plays a negligible to small role in moderating sex differences in personality.

  9. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...

  10. Essays in health economics and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and econom

  11. Elektronik Dergilerin Üniversite Kütüphanelerine Ekonomik Etkisi : İran Temel Bilimler İleri Araştırmalar Enstitüsü Kütüphanesi Örneği / The Economic Impact of the Electronic Journals on University Libraries : The Case of Iranian Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Afzali

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to answer the following conjecture: If Iranian Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS Library subscribed to the electronic versions of journals instead of their printed copies, its budget and space problems would be eased. To prove this hypothesis we compared various expenditures (subscriptions, mailing, control, binding and archiving of both printed and electronic versions of journals that IASBS Library subscribed to in 2002. We found that if IASBS Library had subscribed to the electronic versions of journals instead of their printed equivalents, the Library would have decreased the total expenditures in its overall material acquisition budget by 13%.

  12. Predictors of leadership: The usual suspects and the suspect traits

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakis, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, I review literature on traits (i.e., individual differences) and their links to leader outcomes. I present an integrated model, the ascription-actuality trait theory, to explain two routes to leader outcomes that stem from traits: the route that objectively matters and the route that appears to matter but objectively may not. I discuss the history of trait research and provide criteria by which we should judge the validity of trait models. Finally, I review trait models that ...

  13. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  14. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  15. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  16. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  18. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  19. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  20. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...